Bugila, A.A.A., Franco, J.C., Borges da Silva, E., & Branco, M. Defense Response of Native and Alien Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Against the Solitary Parasitoid Anagyrus sp. nr. pseudococci (Girault) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Journal of Insect Behavior 20114 27(4): 439–453


  • behavior
  • biological control
  • evolution
  • Notes: The host behavioral and immune (encapsulation) defenses against the parasitoid Anagyrus different phylogenetic relationships and geographical origins: i) a Mediterranean native mealybug species, Planococcus ficus, with a long co-evolutionary history with the parasitoid; ii) three alien mealybugs species, Planococcus citri, Pseudococcus calceolariae and Pseudococcus viburni, with a more recent co-evolutionary history; and iii) a fourth alien mealybug species, Phenacoccus peruvianus, with no previous common history with the parasitoid.