Branco, M., Lettere, M., Franco, J.C., Binazzi, A.R., & Jactel, H. 2006 Kairomonal response of predators to three pine bast scale sex pheromones.. Journal of Chemical Ecology 32(7): 1577-1586.

Notes: The kairomonal activity of the sex pheromones of three pine bast scales, Matsucoccus feytaudi, M. josephi, and M. matsumurae, as well as a new analogue of the M. feytaudi sex pheromone, were investigated in pine forests of France, Portugal, and Italy. The response of the maritime pine bast scale predators, Elatophilus spp. and Hemerobius stigma, was used to test the influence of trapping methods, kairomone composition, and dose. Both predators showed significant attraction to all compounds except to the sex pheromone of M. josephi. Significant increase in captures was observed as a function of dose, and within the studied dose range, up to 2200 microg, no threshold saturation limits were observed for any of the attractive compounds. Trap design and size did not significantly influence predator captures, except for high population levels of Elatophilus crassicornis, when plate traps were more efficient than delta traps. Geographic variations were found in the kairomonal responses patterns of both predators, with the M. matsumurae sex pheromone being more attractive to the oriental populations from Corsica and Italy, whereas the western populations in Aquitaine and Portugal were more attracted to the M. feytaudi sex pheromone.