Branco, M., Franco, J.C., Ofer, D., Borges da Silva, E., Suma, P., Dunkelblum, E., Assael, F., Protasov, A., & Mendel, Z. 2005 A unique similarity of kairomonal attractiveness to the sex pheromone of Matsucoccus spp. of immature stages and adults among species of the predator guilds of Matsucoccus spp. (Abstract only).. Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies, held at Plant Protection Research Institute, Adana/ Turkey, 19-23 April 2004. Adana Zirai Muscadele Arastirma Enstitusu. Adana, Turkey 408 pp.
Notes: The kairomonal response of known and potential predators of pine bast scales Matsucoccus Cockerell was revealed by determining their attractiveness to the female sex pheromones of M. josephi Bodenheimer and Harpaz, M. feytaudi Ducasse and M. matsumurae Kuwana. In previous studies we found that two groups of predators are attracted by the pheromones: flower bugs (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) of the genus Elatophilus Reuter and brown lacewings (Neuroptera: Hemerobiidae) of the genera Hemerobius L. and Sympherobius Banks. In these studies we used sticky or funnel traps in which only adult predators, males and females (and the conspecific males of Matsucoccus) were trapped. Hence, we assumed that the kairomonal response was restricted to the adult stage. During the last three years, we studied the congregation of these predators on pine tree arena (an outer bark smoothed surface with dispenser impregnated with the pheromone placed in the center). The observations were conducted in Israel in Aleppo pine forests infested by M. josephi, in Portugal in Maritime pine forests infested by M. feytaudi and in Sicily in black pine stands infested by Matsucoccus pini Green. In each study site the sex pheromones of M. josephi, M. Jeytaudi and M. matsumurae were tested. In all three sites both adult and larva predators congregated around the pheromone source: Elatophilus hebraicus Pericart in Aleppo pine forests, E. nigricornis Zetterstedt, Hemerobius stigma Stephens and yet unidentified lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Black pine forests, and E. crassicornis Reuter, H. stigma and larvae of the coccinellid in the maritime pine forests. As expected the larvae, approaching the arena by walking along the stem, were outnumbered by the adults that arrived at the arena by flight. The larvae displayed a similar attractiveness pattern as the adults. Larvae of different stages of E. hebraicus were attracted to all three pheromones, whereas larvae of different stages of H. stigma and of E. nigricornis and E. crassicornis were lured only to the pheromones of M. feytaudi and M. matsumurae. These observations were repeated in the laboratory, in a Petri dish arena, with larvae of E. hebraicus and H. stigma. This is the first evidence that coccinellids are also attracted to Matsucoccus pheromone whose larvae display a similar response pattern to the pheromone of M. feytaudi as other members of their guild. We present further applications of Matsucoccus pheromone traps for better understanding the seasonal history of Matsucoccus predators and for the study of the population trends of a group of predators which are highly illusive in latent situations.