Blank, R.H., Olson, M.H., & Gill, G.S.C. 1992 Armoured scale, Hemiberlesia lataniae and H. rapax (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), infestation of kiwifruit rejected for export at two packhouses from 1987 to 1991.. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Hort Sci 20: 397-405.

Notes: Abstract: First and second instar were the most common stages, except for the last 3 years at Kerikeri, when mature third instar predominated; mortality of all scale stages generally ranged from 60 to 91%; 56% of infested fruit had a single scale, 15% had no scale, and the remainder had multiple infestations; prevention needed before establishment of first generation scales after fruit set, and second generation scales before harvest.