Blank, R.H., Gill, G.S.C., McKenna, C.E., & Stevens, P.S. 2000 Enumerative and binomial sampling plans for armored scale (Homoptera: Diaspididae) on kiwifruit leaves.. Journal of Economic Entomology 93(6): 1752-1759.

Notes: The spatial dispersion of armored scale insects; greedy scale, Hemiberlesia rapax (Comstock); and latania scale, Hemiberlesia lataniae (Signoret), was investigated on kiwifruit, Actinidia deliciosa leaves in New Zealand. A universal description using Taylor's power law, which encompassed a wide range of different orchards, blocks, block sizes, sampling times, scale control practices, regions and seasons. Scale density significantly altered dispersion, especially at the high densities found on unsprayed kiwifruit. Most commercially managed kiwifruit blocks had low densities of <0.5 scale per leaf and had a slightly aggregated scale dispersion. Wilson and Room's binomial model, which incorporates a clumping pattern as a function of density, gave a significant relationship between the proportion of infested leaves and scale density. The optimal leaf sample sizes were estimated for determined levels of sampling reliability. Where population estimates require a high degree of precision and enumerative sampling methods are used, 2,500 leaves should be sampled when scale densities are near the current spray threshold of 4% infested leaves and 500 leaves at 20% infested leaves. For management-decision sampling, where a lower level of precision was acceptable, enumerative sampling would require that 400 leaves be sampled at 4%; or 85 leaves at 20% infested leaves. With binomial sampling to achieve an equivalent level of precision an increased sample size of 6-11% is required.