Binazzi, A.R., Pennacchio, F., & Francardi, V. 2002 The use of sex pheromones of Matsucoccus species (Homoptera Margarodidae) for monitoring and mass trapping of M. feytaudi Ducasse and for kairomonal attraction of its natural enemies in Italy.. Redia 85: 155-171.

Notes: In 1998, the EU Project "PHOCUS" was started in order to control the most important pernicious scales in the Mediterranean area by using a new ecological pest management. In the control of the maritime pine bast scale Matsucoccus feytaudi, three Research Centres were involved including those in France, Portugal and Italy. In Italy, the cited project was carried out by the Forest Entomology Section of ISZA of Florence. Maritime pine stands infested by M. feytaudi were chosen in eastern Liguria near Sestri Levante (Genoa). Three experiments, i.e., monitoring, mass trapping and kairomonal attraction, using the sex pheromone-kairomones, gave good results in the discovery of early infested stands before pines start to decay, as well in the catching of high numbers of males, and the attraction and aggregation of a high numbers of native insect predators in the infested areas. In the investigated areas, these experiments strongly reduced the bast scale population level in the following years but this was also due to the decay of the infested pine stands. Nevertheless, good perspectives are advanced by using these methods for controlling bast scale before the infestations become too heavy.