Bernardo, U., & Viggiani, G. 2002 Effects of Oikos (a. i. Azadirachtin A) on the vedalia ladybeetle Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).. Bulletin OILB/SROP (Sect. Reg. Ouest Palearctique) 25(11): 81-88.

Notes: [Conference: IOBC/WPRS Working Group 'Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms'. Proceedings of the meeting at San Michele All'Adige, Vogt, H. & Heimbach, U. (Eds.), Trento, Italy, 3-6 October, 2001. Publisher: International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (OIBC/OILB), West Palaearctic Regional Section (WPRS/SROP), Dijon, France.] The effects of Oikos (a.i. Azadirachtin A) on the vedalia ladybeetle Rodolia cardinalis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were studied. Laboratory trials were carried out on larvae and adults of the predator fed with Oikos- and water-treated egg masses of the cottony cushion scale Icerya purchasi (Homoptera: Margarodidae). Oikos was tested at the recommended rate per ha (1500 ml) x 0.4, which corresponds to the predicted environmental concentration. The ingestion effect was evaluated on the larvae taking into account mortality, presence or absence of deformations and duration of pre-imaginal development. In addition, longevity, egg fertility and progeny were studied on the latter. The ingestion effect was evaluated on adults of R. cardinalis not derived from treated young stages, considering longevity, egg deposition and egg hatchability. In the field trial conducted in Portici, Italy, 5 plants of Pittosporum tobira, naturally infested with Icerya purchasi and with presence of R. cardinalis, were treated with Oikos at 150 ml/hl in water at pH 5.5 until dripping off and other 5 plants in the same conditions were treated with water at pH 5.5. Before the treatment, the larvae of R. cardinalis were counted and pupae and adults removed. At 3-day intervals, the newly formed pupae were collected and the number of derived adults and their state were recorded. Adults obtained from the larvae fed on Oikos-treated plants were paired; in the absence of functional males, individuals obtained from the control were used. Both laboratory and field trials have shown detrimental effects of Oikos on pupal mortality, adult deformation, egg deposition and egg hatchability.