Bento, J.M.S., de Moraes, G.J., Bellotti, A.C., Castillo, J.A., Warumby, J.F., & Lapointe, S.L. 1999 Introduction of parasitoids for the control of the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus herreni (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in northeastern Brazil.. Bulletin of Entomological Research 89(5): 403-410.
Notes: The mealybug Phenacoccus herreni Cox & Williams causes considerable damage to cassava Manihot esculenta Crantz. Field surveys conducted between 1988 and 1994 indicated the mealybug was present in 57 municipalities in six States in northeastern Brazil, in some places reaching high levels of infestation. Several native natural enemy species were found associated with the pest in Brazil. Exotic encyrtid parasitoids were imported and released in fields in the States of Bahia and Pernambuco. Apoanagyrus diversicornis (Howard) was introduced from Colombia, and Acerophagus coccois Smith, and Aenasius vexans (Kerrich) were introduced from Venezuela. By the end of 1996, a total of 35,930 parasitoids had been released. In Bahia, Apoanagyrus diversicornis was recovered 130, 234, 304 and 550 km from its release site after 6, 14, 21 and 33 months, respectively. Acerophagus coccois was recovered at 80 km from its release site nine months after release. Aenasius vexans, however, did not disperse at all despite being consistently recovered at its release site. In Pernambuco, 9010 parasitoids were released from October, 1995 onwards. Acerophagus coccois and Aenasius vexans were recovered up to 40 km from the release sites after three and five months of their initial releases, respectively. The establishment and dispersal of these parasitoids are discussed.