Azab, S.G., Sadek, M.M., & Khalil, Z.H. 2003 Light and scanning electron microscopic studies on the various stages of the scale insect Pulvenaria (Pulvinaria?) tenuivalvata (Hemiptera, Coccidae), attacking sugarcane.. Proceedings of the International Conference on 'Arab Region and Africa in the World Sugar Context', Aswan, Egypt, 9-12 March 2003. International Sugar Organization London unpaginated.

Notes: We examined the life cycle of the scale insect Pulvinaria tenuivalvata in the laboratory and investigated its morphology using light microscope and scanning electron microscope. The insect was reared in the laboratory on young sugarcane shoots. We found that during the period lasting from July to October, the insect completes its life cycle in about 45 days, whereas in the period from November to March the growth is much slower and the complete life cycle takes about 65 days. Each adult female produces about 250 eggs in average. The eggs are 150 micro m wide and 340 micro m long. They hatch parthenogenetically, giving rise to highly mobile nymphs. Promptly after hatching, the nymphs search a suitable place on the plant to settle and start feeding. Two stylet-like structures are present among the other components of the mouth parts of the feeding nymphs. Combined together, the two structures form a 165 micro m long proboscis. Antennae bear a considerable number of olfactory sensilla of the trichoid and basiconical types. As the nymph continues feeding, it grows in its place to adulthood. Adults measure an average of 5 mm in length, although some individuals may reach the length of 8 mm. The adult has a highly sclerotized convex dorsal surface, whereas the ventral surface is almost flat, fitting tightly to the substratum. Implications of these findings are discussed.