Arai, T. 1996 [Temperature-dependent development rate of the three mealybug species Pseudococcus citriculus Green, Planococcus citri (Risso), and Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on citrus.]. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology 40(1): 25-34.

Notes: Three mealybug species, Pseudococcus citriculus, Planococcus citri and Planococcus kraunhiae were reared on citrus leaves to determine the lower developmental thresholds and thermal constants for each nymphal stage and preovipositional period at five constant-temperature regimes. Since few mealybugs developed to oviposition at 30 degree C, their higher developmental thresholds are around this temperature. The lower developmental threshold temperatures (T-o) and thermal constants (K) in the entire nymphal stage were 11.7 degree C and 338 degree-days (DD) for P. citriculus, 7.7 degree C and 401 DD for P. citri, and 8.0 degree C and 519 DD for P. kraunhiae. Those in the preovipositional period were 10.0 degree C and 302 DD, 8.0 degree C and 378 DD, and 11.4 degree C and 320 DD, respectively. These results for P. citriculus were used to calculate the effective cumulative temperature for each developmental stage. The seasonal development of nymphs and adult females of P. citriculus predicted using temperatures at Okitsu Branch, Fruit Tree Research Station from 1993 to 1994 matched the actual seasonal occurrence of the mealybug in a citrus orchard in those years.