Ahmed, M.Z., Ma, J., Qiu, Q., He, R., Wu, M.T., Liang, F., Zhao, J.-P., Lin, L., Hu, X.-N., Lv, L.-H., Greinholt, J.W., & Lu, Y.-Y. 2015 Genetic Record for a Recent Invasion of Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Asia. Environmental Entomology 44(3):907-918
Notes: In this study, the authors performed field surveys from 2010 to 2012 and obtained mtCOI sequences from specimens across China and Pakistan, then compared them with already available mtCOI sequences from additional Asian and North American countries. Our genetic analysis provides evidence that Phenacoccus solenopsis should be classified into two groups, one of which is found only in the United States, and the other found only in Asia. The Asian group contains nine unique haplotypes, two of which have invaded and spread across China, Pakistan, India, and Vietnam. Our genetic analysis also indicates that P. solenopsis has a close relationship with the parasitoid wasp Aenasius bambawalei Hayat, providing preliminary evidence of a congruent spread of this mealybug and its parasitoids across China.