Agounké, D., Agricola, U., & Bokonon-Ganta, A.H. 1988 Rastrococcus invadens Williams (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), a serious exotic pest of fruit trees and other plants in West Africa.. Bulletin of Entomological Research 78: 695-702.
Notes: R. invadens has been the most polyphagous pest of horticultural crops since 1982 in some West African countries. It originated in southeast Asia and was probably introduced on infested plant material. The pest has been reported up to 150 km north of the coast of Benin and 500 km north from the coast in Togo. Although the species is polyphagous, mango, citrus, breadfruit, banana, frangipani (Plumeria alba) and species of Ficus are among the most attacked hosts. Several indigenous natural enemies were identified, but their ability to regulate the populations of R. invadens is very low. The most important among the predators were the coccinellids Chilocorus nigrita, Exochomus and E. troberti and the lycaenids Spalgis spp. In Togo, an indigenous parasitoid, Anagyrus sp. ?nr aurantifrons, has become adapted to the pest.