Family Xylococcidae


Jansenus Foldi

NOMENCLATURE:

Jansenus Foldi, 1997a: 186. Type species: Jansenus burgeri Foldi, by monotypy and original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by Foldi (1997a).

SYSTEMATICS: Main characteristics (adult female) of this genus are: elongate and flat body; derm fine and with few setae; antennae with one short article; short legs; one-segmented tarsus; tarsal claw with two denticles; dorsum with many cicatrices; eight pairs of abdominal segments; multilocular pores on dorsum and venter (Foldi, 1997a).

KEYS: Foldi 1997a: 192 (female) [Xylococcinae].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [Catalogue: 288]; Foldi1997a [taxonomy, description: 185-195]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 204]; GullanSj2001 [taxonomy: 257-278]; Koteja2008 [taxonomy: 31].



Jansenus burgeri Foldi

NOMENCLATURE:

Jansenus burgeri Foldi, 1997a: 186. Type data: THAILAND: on Tamarindus indica; collected 30.ii.1996. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female and first instar. Illust.



HOST: Fabaceae: Tamarindus indica [Foldi1997a].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Thailand [Foldi1997a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female, female first instar and second instar nymph by Foldi (1997a).

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 288]; Foldi1997a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 185-195]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 204].



Xylococculus Morrison

NOMENCLATURE:

Xylococculus Morrison, 1927: 101. Type species: Xylococcus betulae Pergande, by original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by Morrison (1928), Borchsenius (1960) (as Parakuwania and by Kosztarab (1996).

SYSTEMATICS: The adult female of Xylococculus differs from Xylococcus, in possessing well-developed, segmented antennae, and legs (Morrison, 1928.

KEYS: Foldi 1997a: 192 (female) [Xylococcinae]; Kosztarab 1996: 40 (female) [North America]; Gill 1993: 34-35 (female) [USA, California]; Morrison 1928: 40 (female) [Margarodidae].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, catalogue: 289]; Foldi1997a [taxonomy: 192]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 218]; Gill1993 [taxonomy, description: 35,]; GullanCo2007 [taxonomy: 413-425]; GullanSj2001 [taxonomy: 257-278]; HodgsoFo2006 [taxonomy: 101]; HodgsoFo2006 [taxonomy: 95]; Koszta1996 [taxonomy, description: 54]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 198]; Morris1927 [taxonomy, description: 101]; Morris1928 [taxonomy, description: 14, 40-48, 220]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 205].



Xylococculus betulae (Pergande in Hubbard & Pergande)

NOMENCLATURE:

Xylococcus betulae Pergande in Hubbard & Pergande, 1898: 19. Type data: U.S.A.: Michigan, Lake Superior, on birch [=Betula]. Syntypes, female, male and first instar. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female, male and first instar. Illust.

Xylococcus alni Florence, 1917: 148. Type data: U.S.A.: Washington State, Wenatchee, on alder [=Alnus sp.], collected by E.J. Newcomer. Syntypes, female, male and first instar. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female, male and first instar. Illust. Synonymy by Ferris, 1919b: 110.

Xylococculus betulae; Morrison, 1927: 101. Change of combination.

Xylococculus alni; Morrison, 1928: 222. Change of combination.

Parakuwania betulae; Borchsenius, 1960: 144. Change of combination.

COMMON NAMES: Birch Margarodid [Koszta1996]; birch margarodid [Gill1993, Koszta1996].



HOSTS: Aceraceae: Acer [Koszta1996]. Betulaceae: Alnus [Floren1917, Koszta1996], Betula [HubbarPe1898], Betula alba [Koszta1996, Foldi1997a], Betula lutea [Koszta1996, Foldi1997a], Betula occidentalis [Foldi1997a], Betula pendula [Foldi1997a], Betula pubescens [Foldi1997a]. Fagaceae: Fagus [Koszta1996]. Salicaceae: Salix [Koszta1996].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Canada (New Brunswick [Koszta1996], Nova Scotia [Koszta1996], Prince Edward Island [Koszta1996]); United States of America (California [Gill1993], Maine [Koszta1996], Michigan [Koszta1996], New Hampshire [Koszta1996], New York [Koszta1996], Ohio [Koszta1996], Virginia [Koszta1996], Washington [Floren1917], West Virginia [Koszta1996], Wisconsin [Koszta1996]).

BIOLOGY: Adult female found in the exuviae of the previous instar, which protects the eggs. Found under the bark, with long white, anal tube filaments extending out from under the bark (Kosztarab, 1996).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Hubbard & Pergande (1898), Ferris (1919b), Morrison (1928), Gill (1993) and by Kosztarab (1996). Description and illustration of adult female, adult male and nymphs by Florence (1917). Description and illustration of adult male by Hodgson & Folsi (2006).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: May kill young birch trees, but in older trees cause large welts and cracked areas in the bark. The injury on beech bark provides wounds for Nectria infestations (Kosztarab, 1996).

KEYS: Hodgson & Foldi 2006: 107 (male) [males of Xylococcidae].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue, economic importance: 290-291]; Borchs1960 [taxonomy: 144]; Cocker1902q [taxonomy, distribution: 259]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 32]; Ferris1919b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 110]; Floren1917 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 147-162]; Foldi1997a [taxonomy, host, life history: 193]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 218]; Gill1993 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 49,67]; GullanCo2007 [taxonomy: 413-425]; HodgsoFo2006 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 101-107]; HodgsoHa2013 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 796]; HodgsoHa2013 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 799]; HubbarPe1898 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 13-29]; Morris1927 [taxonomy: 101]; Morris1928 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 44-48,222]; Shigo1962 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 1-13]; Shigo1964 [economic importance: 263]; Shigo1972 [economic importance: 286].



Xylococculus macrocarpae (Coleman)

NOMENCLATURE:

Xylococcus macrocarpae Coleman, 1908: 198. Type data: USA: California, on Cupressus macrocarpa. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Xylococculus macrocarpae; Morrison, 1928: 45. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: incense cedar scale [Gill1993].



FOES: COLEOPTERA Trogositidae: Eronyxa expansus Van Dyke [TaitDaGi1990]. HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Deilio xylococculi (Beardsley & Gordh) [BeardsGo1988, TaitDaGi1990, Noyes2004]. Pteromalidae: Mesopolobus [Noyes2004].

HOSTS: Cupressaceae: Calocedrus decurrens [Foldi1997a], Cupressus macrocarpa [Colema1908, Foldi1997a], Cupressus sargentii [Gill1993], Juniperus scopularum [Gill1993, Foldi1997a], Libocedrus decurrens [Ferris1919a]. Fagaceae: Lithocarpus densiflorus [Foldi1997a], Quercus kelloggii [Foldi1997a]. Pinaceae: Abies concolor [Foldi1997a], Pinus lambertiana [Foldi1997a], Pinus ponderosa [Foldi1997a], Pseudotsuga menziesii [Foldi1997a].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (California [Colema1908, Ferris1919a, Gill1993], Utah [Gill1993]).

BIOLOGY: Develops one annual generation in USA, California; adult females most commonly collected in April-May (Gill, 1993).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female, adult male and nymphs given by Coleman (1908), Florence (1917) and by Gill (1993).

STRUCTURE: Colour photograph of adult female, male and cysts given by Gill (1993).

CITATIONS: BeardsGo1988 [host, distribution, biological control: 161-168]; BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 291]; Colema1908 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 198]; Ferris1919a [host, distribution: 13]; Floren1917 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 152-155]; Foldi1997a [taxonomy, host: 193]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 218]; Gill1993 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, economic importance, life history: 50,68-73]; GullanCo2007 [taxonomy: 413-425]; Morris1928 [taxonomy: 45,224]; Noyes2004 [biological control]; SchmutKlLu1957 [host, distribution, economic importance: 419]; TaitDaGi1990 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 1-19].



Xylococculus quercus (Ehrhorn)

NOMENCLATURE:

Xylococcus quercus Ehrhorn, 1900: 311. Type data: U.S.A.: California, Stevens Creek Canon, near Mountain View, on Quercus chrysolepis; collected May 1899. Syntypes, female, male and first instar. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female, male and first instar. Illust.

Xylococculus quercus; Morrison, 1928: 45. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: oak xylococcus scale [Gill1993].



HOSTS: Fagaceae: Castanea [Gill1993], Quercus chrysolepis [Ehrhor1900, Gill1993].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (California [Ehrhor1900, Gill1993]).

BIOLOGY: Apparently one annual generation in USA, California (Gill, 1993).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female, adult male and nymphs by Florence (1917). Description and illustration of adult female by Ehrhorn (1900) and by Gill (1993).

STRUCTURE: Colour photograph of adult female given by Gill (1993).

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 291-292]; Cocker1902q [taxonomy, distribution: 259]; Ehrhor1900 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 311-313]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 33]; Floren1917 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 148-149,155-158]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 218]; Gill1993 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 51,74]; Morris1928 [taxonomy: 45,226].



Xylococcus Lw

NOMENCLATURE:

Xylococcus Lw, 1882b: 274. Type species: Xylococcus filiferus Lw, by monotypy.

Parakuwania Borchsenius, 1960: 144. Type species: Xylococcus betulicola Borchsenius, 1955 (= Xylococcus japonicus Oguma, 1926), by monotypy and original designation. Synonymy by Tang & Hao, 1995: 90.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and definition by Morrison (1928), Borchsenius (1950b), Danzig (1980b) and by Kosztarab & Kozar (1988F).

SYSTEMATICS: The adult female of Jansenus and Xylococcus differ from other genera of the Xylococcinae, in the reduced, unsegmented antennae, and the reduced legs (Morrison, 1928; Foldi, 1997a).

KEYS: Koteja 2008: 24 (male) [Genera of Baltic amber archeococcoids]; Koteja 2008: 25 (male) [Species in Baltic amber inclusions]; Foldi 1997a: 192 (female) [Xylococcinae]; Kosztarab & Kozar 1988F: 47 (female) [central Europe]; Danzig 1980b: 86 (female) [Genera of Far East Russia]; Kosztarab & Kozar 1978: 16 (female) [Hungary]; Borchsenius 1950b: 32 (female) [Genera of USSR]; Morrison 1928: 40 (female) [Margarodidae].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, catalogue: 292]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy: 32-33]; Borchs1960 [taxonomy, description: 144]; Cocker1902q [taxonomy: 259]; Danzig1972a [taxonomy: 264-265]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description: 86, 89-90]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 32]; Floren1917 [taxonomy: 147-149]; Foldi1997a [taxonomy: 192]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 219]; HodgsoFo2006 [taxonomy: 95]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy: 90]; KosztaKo1978 [taxonomy, description: 21]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description: 47, 55]; Koteja2008 [taxonomy: 25, 31]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 198]; Low1882b [taxonomy, description: 274]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description: 86]; Morris1928 [taxonomy, description: 13-16,40-48,76,82,22]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 145, 206]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 90-91]; Zahrad1959a [taxonomy: 534].



Xylococcus filiferus Lw

NOMENCLATURE:

Xylococcus filiferus Lw, 1882b: 274. Type data: AUSTRIA: Baden, in pits in the axils of twigs of 'linden' [=Tilia]. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Depository of type material unknown.

COMMON NAMES: Linden pearl scale [KosztaKo1988F]; linden pearl scale [KosztaKo1988F].



HOSTS: Tiliaceae: Tilia [KosztaKo1978], Tilia cordata [KosztaKo1988F], Tilia europea [Foldi1997a], Tilia grandiflora [Foldi1997a], Tilia platyphyllos [KosztaKo1988F, Foldi1997a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Austria [Low1882b]; Czech Republic [KosztaKo1988F]; France [Foldi2001]; Germany [KosztaKo1988F]; Italy [BarbagBiBo1995]; Poland [KosztaKo1988F]; Spain [SoriaEsVi1998]; Sweden [KosztaKo1988F, Gertss2001].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Low (1882b), Morrison (1928), Borchsenius (1950b) and by Kosztarab & Kozar (1978). Description and illustration of second instar nymph by Kosztarab & Kozar (1988).

KEYS: Kosztarab & Kozar 1988F: 47 (female) [Central Europe]; Borchsenius 1950b: 34 (female) [Russia]; Morrison 1928: 44 (female, larva) [Species of Xylococcus.].

CITATIONS: BarbagBiBo1995 [distribution: 39]; BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 292-293]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 34]; Buchne1966 [life history, structure: 284-285]; Cocker1902q [taxonomy, distribution: 259]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 32]; Floren1917 [taxonomy: 147-149]; Foldi1997a [taxonomy, host: 193]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 440-441]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 304]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 219]; Gertss2001 [distribution: 123-130]; HubbarPe1898 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 17]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 44]; KosztaKo1978 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 21]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 56-57]; KotejaPyVo2003 [taxonomy, structure: 253]; Low1882b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 271-278]; Maskel1890b [taxonomy, host, distribution: 278-279]; Morris1928 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 41-44,223]; MorrisMo1923 [taxonomy: 44]; SchmutKlLu1957 [host, distribution, economic importance: 419]; Signor1882b [taxonomy, host, distribution: clxxxv]; SoriaEsVi1998 [host, distribution, taxonomy: 219-224]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 92]; Zahrad1959a [taxonomy: 534].



Xylococcus grabenhorsti Koteja

NOMENCLATURE:

Xylococcus grabenhorsti Koteja, 2008: 25. Type data: BALTIC AMBER: Holotype and one paratype. Holotype male. Type depository: Krakow: Institute of Systematic and Experimental Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland; type no. KOT0758. Described: male. Illust.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult males by Koteja (2008).

SYSTEMATICS: This species is known only from the male, which is an inclusion in Baltic amber (Koteja, 2008).

KEYS: Koteja 2008: 25 (male) [Baltic amber inclusions].

CITATIONS: HodgsoHa2013 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 799]; Koteja2008 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host: 25-26].



Xylococcus japonicus Oguma

NOMENCLATURE:

Xylococcus alni Oguma, 1919: 78. Type data: JAPAN: Hokkaido, Sapporo, on Alnus japonica; collected May 1913, by Y. Niishima and K. Miyabe. Syntypes, female, male and first instar. Type depository: Sapporo: Entomological Institute, Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Japan. Described: female, male and first instar. Illust. Homonym of Xylococcus alni Florence, 1917.

Xylococcus japonicus Oguma, 1926: 101. Replacement name for Xylococcus alni Florence.

Kuwania betulae Borchsenius, 1938: 132. Type data: RUSSIA: Primorye Kray, Vladivostok, Okeanskaya, on Betula manshurica, 20.vii.1949, N.S. Borchsenius. Syntypes, larva. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: larva. Synonymy by Danzig, 1972a: 265.

Ultracoelostoma japonica; Siraiwa, 1939: 64. Change of combination.

Xylococcus betulicola Borchsenius, 1955c: 224. Type data: RUSSIA: Primorye Kray, Okeanskaya, on Betula manshurica. Syntypes, larva. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: larva. Synonymy by Danzig, 1980b: 90.

Kuwanaia betulae; Lindinger, 1957: 549. Misspelling of genus name.

Xylococcus japonica; Hodgson & Hardy, 2013: 799. Misspelling of species name.



HOSTS: Betulaceae: Alnus hirsuta [Danzig1972a, Danzig1980b], Alnus japoinca [Oguma1919, Danzig1972a, Danzig1980b], Alnus maximowiczii [Siraiw1939, Danzig1972a, Danzig1980b], Betula ermanii [Danzig1972a, Danzig1980b], Betula mandshurica [Borchs1955c, Danzig1972a, Danzig1980b].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Japan (Hokkaido [Oguma1919, Danzig1980b, Kawai1980]); Russia (Primor'ye Kray [Borchs1955c, Danzig1972a, Danzig1980b], Sakhalin Oblast [Borchs1950b, Danzig1980b]).

BIOLOGY: Develops one generation in three years (Jashenko, 1999).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female, adult male and nymphs by Oguma (1919). Description and illustration of adult female and nymphs by Borchsenius (1950b, 1955c) and by Danzig (1972a, 1980b). Description and illustration of adult male by Hodgson & Foldi (2006),

STRUCTURE: Oguma (1919) presented a detailed description and illustration of the internal anatomy including body cavities, nervous system, respiratory system, digestive system and reproductive system. Colour photograph of the cysts given by Gill (1993).

KEYS: Hodgson & Foldi 2006: 107 (male) [males of Xylococcidae]; Danzig 1980b: 90 (female) [Far East Russia]; Borchsenius 1950b: 34 (female) [Russia]; Morrison 1928: 44 (female, larva) [Species of Xylococcus].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 293-294]; Borchs1938 [host, distribution: 132]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 34-35]; Borchs1955c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 224-225]; Danzig1972a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 265-268]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 90-93]; Foldi1997a [taxonomy, host: 193]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 441]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 219]; Goux1938c [taxonomy: 471]; HodgsoFo2006 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 96-101,107]; HodgsoHa2013 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 796]; HodgsoHa2013 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 799]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 44]; Kawai1972 [host, distribution: 3]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 90-91]; Koteja1996a [taxonomy, illustration, description: 69-71,74]; MorrisMo1922 [taxonomy: 13]; Oguma1919 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 77-109]; Oguma1926 [taxonomy: 101-102]; Siraiw1939 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 64]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 93-94].



Xylococcus kutscheri Koteja

NOMENCLATURE:

Xylococcus kutscheri Koteja, 2008: 26. Type data: BALTIC AMBER: Bitterfeld amber, alate male, no. KOT-0272. Holotype male. Type depository: Krakow: Institute of Systematic and Experimental Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland; type no. KOT0272. Described: male. Illust.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult male by Koteja (2008).

SYSTEMATICS: This species is known from the male only, which is an inclusion in Baltic amber (Koteja, 2008).

KEYS: Koteja 2008: 25 (male) [Baltic amber].

CITATIONS: HodgsoHa2013 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 799]; Koteja2008 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 26-27].



Xylococcus quercicola Danzig

NOMENCLATURE:

Xylococcus napiformis; Danzig, 1972a: 268. Misidentification; discovered by Danzig, 1980a: 594.

Xylococcus quercicola Danzig, 1980a: 594. Type data: RUSSIA: Primorye Oblast, Vladivostok, female third-instar-nymph, on Quercus mongolica, 20.vii.1962, collected E. Danzig. Holotype female and first instar. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: immature. Illust.

Xylococcus napiformis; Danzig, 1980b: 93. Misidentification; discovered by Danzig, 1980a: 594.



HOST: Fagaceae: Quercus mongolica [Danzig1980a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Russia (Primor'ye Kray [Danzig1980a]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of nymph by Danzig (1972a, 1980a).

SYSTEMATICS: Danzig (1980a) first named this species, while clearly connecting it with the description and illustration of a female third-instar nymph, under the name Xylococcus napiformis Kuwana, 1914, The description and illustration of a female third-instar nymph, under the name Xylococcus napiformis Kuwana, 1914, by Danzig (1972a: 268, Fig. 4) and by Danzig (1980b: 93, Fig. 31), were misidentifications of Xylococcus quercicola Danzig, 1980a, which is a species in the family Margarodidae; see Danzig (1980a). Beesonia napiformis was correctly included by Kozr & Drozdjk (1998b) in the Beesoniidae, while Foldi (1998 and 2001a) erroneously listed it in the Margarodidae.

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 294-295]; Danzig1972a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 268-269]; Danzig1980a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 594]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 93-94]; Foldi1997a [taxonomy, host: 193]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 441]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 219].