Family Pseudococcidae


Subfamily Phenacoccinae


Annulococcus James

NOMENCLATURE:

Annulococcus James, 1936: 209. Type species: Annulococcus ugandensis James, by monotypy and original designation.

Annulicoccus; Morrison, 1945: 40. Misspelling of genus name.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good definition and characters given by James (1936), Morrison (1945) and by Foldi & Cox (1989).

KEYS: Kaydan 2011: 50 (female) [Key to adult females of the Heterococcus group]; Millar 2002: 189-195 (female) [Pseudococcidae genera of South Africa]; Tang 1992: 570 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Foldi & Cox 1989: 1120 (female) [Heterococcus and associated genera]; Morrison 1945: 41 (female) [species World]; Morrison 1945: 40 (female) [Heterococcus and associated genera].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 36]; FoldiCo1989 [taxonomy, description: 1129]; James1936 [taxonomy, description: 209]; Kaydan2011 [taxonomy: 50]; Millar2002 [taxonomy: 189-195]; Morris1945 [taxonomy, description: 40-41]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 10].



Annulococcus flagrans (Brain)

NOMENCLATURE:

Pseudococcus flagrans Brain, 1915: 140. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Pretoria, on grass. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female. Illust.

Annulococcus flagrans; Morrison, 1945: 41. Change of combination.



HOST: Poaceae [Brain1915, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [Brain1915].

BIOLOGY: Living in association with ants on roots of the plants (Brain, 1915).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by De Lotto (1958a). Good illustration of the adult female given by Morrison (1945).

KEYS: Morrison 1945: 41 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 36]; Brain1915 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 141-144]; DeLott1958a [taxonomy, description, illustration, distribution: 94-96]; Morris1945 [taxonomy: 41].



Annulococcus ugandaensis James

NOMENCLATURE:

Annulococcus ugandaensis James, 1936: 209. Type data: UGANDA: Jinja-Tororo Road, on grass. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Annulococcus ugandensis; Morrison, 1945: 41. Misspelling of species name.



HOST: Poaceae [James1936, DeLott1957b, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Uganda [James1936, DeLott1957b, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Living on the roots of grass (James, 1936).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by De Lotto (1957b).

KEYS: Morrison 1945: 41 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 36]; DeLott1957b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 186-188]; James1936 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 209, 210].



Antoninella Kiritchenko

NOMENCLATURE:

Antoninella Kiritchenko, 1938: 233. Type species: Antoninella inaudita Kiritchenko, by monotypy.

Antoniella; Neave, 1950: 18. Misspelling of genus name.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good definition and characters given by Kiritchenko (1938), Borchsenius (1949), Tereznikova (1975), Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F) and by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Tereznikova 1975: 159 (female) [Ukraine & Palaearctic region]; Borchsenius 1949: 87 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 43]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description: 173]; Kiritc1938 [taxonomy, description: 233]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description: 67]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 12]; Tang1992 [taxonomy: 417-418]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy: 162].



Antoninella parkeri (Balachowsky)

NOMENCLATURE:

Ripersia parkeri Balachowsky, 1936d: 215. Type data: FRANCE: Mont Fenouillet, Hyeres, in nest of ants of the genus Messor. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

Antoninella inaudita Kiritchenko, 1938: 233. Type data: UKRAINE: Odessa Oblast, Odessa, on Festuca ovina. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Synonymy by Matile-Ferrero & Pellizari, 2003: 350.

Rhodania parkeri; Kozár & Walter, 1985: 72. Change of combination.

Antoninella parkeri; Matile-Ferrero & Pellizari, 2002: 350. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: fescue mealybug [KosztaKo1988F].



HOSTS: Poaceae: Festuca [MatilePe2002], Festuca ovina [Kiritc1938, Goux1945, Borchs1949, Terezn1975, KosztaKo1978, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994], Koeleria [MatilePe2002], Koeleria gracilis [MatilePe2002].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: France [Balach1936d, BenDov1994, Foldi2001] [Goux1945, Borchs1949, Terezn1975, KosztaKo1978, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994]; Germany [Schmut1956b, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994]; Italy [LongoMaPe1995]; Ukraine [Danzig1964, BenDov1994] (Krym (=Crimea) Oblast [Borchs1949, Terezn1975, KosztaKo1978, KosztaKo1988F], Odessa Oblast [Kiritc1938, Goux1945, Terezn1975, KosztaKo1978, KosztaKo1988F]).

BIOLOGY: Living on the roots of the host plant. Life history discussed by Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Tereznikova (1975) and by Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F). Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949) and by Tang (1992). Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Balachowsky (1936d).

CITATIONS: Balach1936d [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 215-218]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 43,473]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 173-174]; Danzig1964 [host, distribution: 627]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Goux1945 [host, distribution: 37]; Kiritc1938 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 233-236]; KosztaKo1978 [host, distribution: 32]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 67-70]; KozarWa1985 [taxonomy: 72]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 117]; MatilePe2002 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 350]; Schmut1956b [host, distribution: 66]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, distribution: 118]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 162-163].



Archanginella Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin

NOMENCLATURE:

Archanginella Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin, 2013a: 563. Type species: Archanginella kyzylkumina Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration in Danzig & Gavrilov, 2013a,

STRUCTURE: Legs normally developed; claw without denticle. Ostioles, 1 pair (posterior). Anal apparatus simplified, consisting of sclerotized ring with several pores and 6 shortened setae; 2 posterior ducts small, with deep collar. Cerarii and conical setae absent. Both sides of body with short flagellate setae. pairs of setae of anal ring situated closely to each other. Multilocular and trilocular pores absent. Quinquelocular pores abundant, similar in size to those in various genera of subfamily Phenacoccinae; their diameter subequal to length of tubular ducts. Tubular ducts small, with deep collar. Cerarii and conical setae absent. Both sides of body with short flagellate setae. (Danzig & Gavrilov, 2013a)

SYSTEMATICS: The genus Archanginella differs from all the other mealybugs except Kalaginella with reduced cerarii and anal apparatus in the presence of quinquelocular pores instead of multilocular and trilocular ones. However, these quinquelocular pores and tubular ducts in Archanginella and Kalaginella differ fundamentally. Tubular ducts simple, without collar. Quinquelocular pores large, corresponding in size to usual multilocular pores of mealybugs in Kalaginella Tubular ducts with deep and wide collar almost totally closing the duct. Quinquelocular pores small, corresponding in size to usual quinquelocular pores of mealybugs in Archanginella.

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin 2013a: 215-216 (female) [Key to Pseudococcidae from Russia and Neighboring Countries].

CITATIONS: DanzigGa2013a [description, distribution,, illustration, taxonomy: 563].



Archanginella kyzylkumińa Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin

NOMENCLATURE:

Archanginella kyzylkumińa Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2013a: 563-566. Type data: UZBEKISTAN.:Kyzyl Kum Desert, Aktau mountains, ON 5/8/1965, by E. Danzig. Holotype female (examined). Described: female. Illust.

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Uzbekistan [DanzigGa2013a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration in Danzig & Gavrilov, 2013a.

STRUCTURE: Female. Body oblong-oval, about 4 mm long. Quinquelocular pores numerous over whole body, but denser along margin of body and forming wide stripe there. Tubular ducts forming rows on 3 posterior abdominal tergites, loose groups on dorsal surface of cephalothorax, rows on 4 posterior abdominal sternites, and stripe along ventral margin of body. Sparse flagellate setae situated on both sides of body. (Danzig & Gavrilov, 2013a)

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin 2013a: 556 (female).

CITATIONS: DanzigGa2013a [description, distribution, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 563-566].



Bessenayla Goux

NOMENCLATURE:

Bessenayla Goux, 1988: 6. Type species: Bessenayla balachowskyi Goux, by original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good definition and characters given by Goux (1988).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 61]; Goux1988 [taxonomy, description: 6].

No species found.



Boreococcus Danzig

NOMENCLATURE:

Boreococcus Danzig, 1960: 172. Type species: Boreococcus ingricus Danzig, by original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good definition and characters given by Danzig (1960), Tereznikova (1975), Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F) and by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Kaydan 2011: 50 (female) [Key to adult females of the Heterococcus group]; Tang 1992: 570 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Tereznikova 1975: 160 (female) [Ukraine & Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 62]; Danzig1960 [taxonomy, description: 117]; Kaydan2011 [taxonomy: 50]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description: 76]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 25]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description: 571].



Boreococcus ingricus Danzig

NOMENCLATURE:

Boreococcus ingricus Danzig, 1960: 173. Type data: RUSSIA: St. Peterburg [= Leningrad] Oblast, Pukhtola Mountain near Zelenogorsk, on Carex sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

COMMON NAME: sedge mealybug [KosztaKo1988F].



HOSTS: Cyperaceae: Carex [Danzig1960, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994], Carex pilosa [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Hungary [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994]; Poland [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994]; Russia (St. Petersburg (=Leningrad) Oblast [Danzig1960, BenDov1994]); Ukraine [Terezn1975, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Occurring at the base of leaf sheaths of the host-plant. Life history discussed by Kosztarab & Kozár (1988).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Danzig (1960), Tereznikova (1975) and by Kosztarab & Kozár (1988).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 62, 63]; Danzig1960 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 173, 174]; Danzig1964 [host, distribution: 630]; KosztaKo1978 [host, distribution: 35]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 76, 77]; Koteja1986b [host, distribution: 218]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 571, 572]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 166, 167].



Bouhelia Balachowsky

NOMENCLATURE:

Bouhelia Balachowsky, 1938: 37. Type species: Bouhelia maroccana Balachowsky, by monotypy and original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good definition and characters given by Balachowsky (1938).

CITATIONS: Balach1938 [taxonomy, description: 37]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 63]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 25].



Bouhelia maroccana Balachowsky

NOMENCLATURE:

Bouhelia maroccana Balachowsky, 1938: 37. Type data: MOROCCO: Oued Zem, on bulbs of Liliaceae, probably onion. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Liliaceae [Balach1938, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Morocco [Balach1938, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustrtion of the adult female given by Balachowsky (1938).

CITATIONS: Balach1938 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 37-40]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 63].



Brevennia Goux

NOMENCLATURE:

Ripersia (Brevennia) Goux, 1940: 58. Type species: Ripersia (Brevennia) tetrapora Goux, by original designation.

Asphodelococcus Morrison, 1945: 41. Type species: Ripersia asphodeli Bodenheimer, by monotypy and original designation. Synonymy by Miller, 1975: 47-49.

Brevennia; Borchsenius, 1948a: 953. Change of status.

Asphodeloripersia; Bodenheimer, 1953a: 164. Misspelling of genus name.

Pseudorhodania Borchsenius, 1962a: 242. Type species: Pseudorhodania marginata Borchsenius, by original designation. Synonymy by Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin, 2012a: 786.

Brevennia (Brevennia); Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin, 2012a: 786-788. Change of status.



Brevennia (Brevennia) Goux

NOMENCLATURE:

Ripersia (Brevennia) Goux, 1940: 58. Type species: Ripersia (Brevennia) tetrapora Goux, by original designation.

Asphodelococcus Morrison, 1945: 41. Type species: Ripersia asphodeli Bodenheimer, by monotypy and original designation. Synonymy by Miller, 1975: 47-49.

Brevennia; Borchsenius, 1948a: 953. Change of status.

Asphodeloripersia; Bodenheimer, 1953a: 164. Misspelling of genus name.

Pseudorhodania Borchsenius, 1962a: 242. Type species: Pseudorhodania marginata Borchsenius, by original designation. Synonymy by Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin, 2012a: 786.

Brevennia (Brevennia); Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin, 2012a: 786-788. Change of status.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good definition and characters given by Morrison (1945), Tranfaglia & Marotta (1987) and by Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero (1989).

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin 2013: 464 (female) [A Key to the Species of the Genus Brevennia (Including Four Palaearctic Species Not Known from Russia and Adjacent Countries)]; Kaydan 2011: 50 (female) [as Brevennia; Key to adult females of the Heterococcus group]; Kaydan 2011: 50 (female) [as Pseudorhodania; Key to adult females of the Heterococcus group]; Granara de Willink & Szumik 2007: 38 (female) [as Brevennia; Phenacoccinae genera of South America]; Williams 2004a: 42 (female) [as Brevennia; southern Asia]; Millar 2002: 189-195 (female) [as Brevennia; Pseudococcidae genera of South Africa]; Tang 1992: 571 (female) [as Brevennia; Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Tang 1992: 570 (female) [as Pseudorhodania; Palaearctic & Oriental regions ]; Tang 1992: 576 (female) [as Brevennia; species Palaearctic and Oriental regions]; Tang 1992: 570 (female) [as Brevennia; Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Foldi & Cox 1989: 1121 (female) [as Pseudorhodania; Heterococcus and associated genera]; Foldi & Cox 1989: 1121 (female) [as Brevennia; Heterococcus and associated genera]; Kosztarab & Kozár 1988F: 78 (female) [as Brevennia; species Central Europe]; Williams & Watson 1988a: 19 (female) [as Brevennia; Tropical South Pacific Region]; Avasthi & Shafee 1987: 2 (female) [as Brevennia; India]; Tranfaglia & Marotta 1987: 162 (female) [Related genera]; Tranfaglia & Marotta 1987: 162 (female) [as Brevennia; Related genera]; Wang 1982TC: 21 (female) [as Pseudorhodania; China]; Bazarov & Nurmamatov 1975: 63 (female) [as Brevennia; species East Pamir]; Borchsenius 1949: 89 (female) [as Brevennia; Palaearctic region]; Borchsenius 1949: 264 (female) [as Brevennia; species Palaearctic region]; Morrison 1945: 40 (female) [Heterococcus and associated genera].

CITATIONS: BazaroNu1975 [taxonomy, description: 63]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 45,63-64,190,416]; BenDovMa1989 [taxonomy, description: 171,173-174]; Bodenh1953a [taxonomy, description: 124-125, 164]; Borchs1948a [taxonomy, description: 953]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description: 264]; Borchs1962 [taxonomy, description: 242-243]; DanzigGa2012a [description, taxonomy: 781-799]; DanzigGa2013 [description, distribution, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 459-474]; Goux1940 [taxonomy: 58]; GranarSz2007 [taxonomy: 38]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description: 78]; KwonDaPa2003 [taxonomy: 105]; Millar2002 [taxonomy: 185-233]; Miller1975DR [taxonomy, description: 47-49]; MillerMc1970 [taxonomy, description: 438-439]; Moghad2013 [distribution, taxonomy: 8, 13]; Morris1945 [taxonomy, description: 41-42]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 16, 25, 92, 167]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description: 572,575-576]; Tao1999 [taxonomy: 10, 26]; TranfaMa1985 [taxonomy, description: 161-165]; Willia1985 [taxonomy, description: 37, 65]; Willia2004a [taxonomy, description: 96]; WilliaGr1992 [taxonomy: 42, 67]; WilliaWa1988a [taxonomy, description: 24].



Brevennia (Brevennia) asphodeli (Bodenheimer)

NOMENCLATURE:

Ripersia asphodeli Bodenheimer, 1927a: 178. Type data: ISRAEL: Rehovot, on Asphodelus microcarpus. Neotype female, by subsequent designation Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero, 1989a: 174. Type depository: Bet Dagan: Department of Entomology, The Volcani Center, Israel. Described: female.

Asphodelococcus asphodeli; Morrison, 1945: 42. Change of combination.

Heterococcus asphodeli; Miller & McKenzie, 1970: 442. Change of combination.

Brevennia asphodeli; Miller, 1975: 49. Change of combination.

Asphodelococcus meoconcitae Tranfaglia & Marotta, 1985: 162. Type data: ITALY: Sicily, Taormina (Messina), on Asphodelus ramosum. Holotype female. Type depository: Portici: Dipartimento de Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria di Portici, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Italy. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero, 1989a: 174.

Brevennia (Brevennia) asphodeli; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2012a: 787. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Liliaceae [Tang1992], Asphodelus [BenDovMa1989], Asphodelus macrocarpus [BenDov2012], Asphodelus microcarpus [Bodenh1927a, Carmin1928, Carmin1932, Bodenh1953a, BenDovMa1989, BenDov1994], Asphodelus ramosus [TranfaMa1985, Marott1987a, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Corsica [BenDovMa1989, Foldi2003]; Cyprus [BenDovMa1989, BenDov1994]; France [BenDovMa1989, BenDov1994, Foldi2000, Foldi2001, Foldi2001]; Israel [Bodenh1927a, Carmin1928, Morris1945, BenDovMa1989, BenDov1994]; Sicily [Marott1987a, TranfaMa1985, BenDov1994, LongoMaPe1995, RussoMa1997]; Turkey [Bodenh1953a, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Develops one annual generation. Larval instars feed, from February - March to November - December, on rhizomes and tuberous roots, the adult females occur, during December - January, on leaf sheaths (Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero, 1989a).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Morrison (1945) and by Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero (1989a). Good description of the adult female given by Miller & McKenzie (1970), Tang (1992), and by Marotta & Russo & Matile-Ferrero (1997).

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin 2013: 464 (female) [A Key to the Species of the Genus Brevennia (Including Four Palaearctic Species Not Known from Russia and Adjacent Countries)]; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin 2012a: 787, 789 (female) [Species of Brevennia]; Tang 1992: 572 (female) [as Asphodelococcus asphodeli; Palaearctic & Oriental regions].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 46]; BenDov2012 [catalogue, distribution, host: 34, 42]; BenDovMa1989 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 174-177]; Bodenh1927 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 178, 179]; Bodenh1937 [host, distribution: 219]; Bodenh1953a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 124, 125]; Carmin1928 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history: 73-76]; Carmin1932 [taxonomy, descripion, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 30-34]; CebeciAr2006 [host, distribution: 136]; DanzigGa2012a [taxonomy: 787]; Foldi2000 [host, distribution: 78]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Foldi2003 [host, distribution: 148]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 117]; Marott1987a [host, distribution: 108]; MarottRuMa1997 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 436]; Miller1975DR [taxonomy: 49]; MillerMc1970 [taxonomy, description, host: 442]; Morris1945 [taxonomy, description, illustration, distribution: 42, 43]; RussoMa1997 [distribution: 49]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host: 573]; TranfaMa1985 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 161-165]; ZchoriBePo2005 [endosymbionts, Cardinium: 211-221].



Brevennia (Brevennia) cicatricosa (Danzig)

NOMENCLATURE:

Heterococcus cicatricosus Danzig, 1985: 112. Type data: RUSSIA: Karachay-Cherkessia AR, Teberda, Little Khatipara, on Tragopogon brevirostris. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Brevennia (Brevennia) cicatricosus; Foldi & Cox, 1989: 1129. Change of combination.

Heterococcopsis cicatricosus; Tang, 1992: 576. Change of combination.

Brevennia (Brevennia) cicatricosa; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin, 2012a: 793. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Tragopogon brevirostris [Danzig1985, BenDov1994], Tragopogon brevirostris [Danzig1985].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Russia (Karachay-Cherkessia AR [Danzig1985, BenDov1994]).

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin 2013: 464 (female) [A Key to the Species of the Genus Brevennia (Including Four Palaearctic Species Not Known from Russia and Adjacent Countries)]; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin 2012a: 787,789 (female) [as Brevennia cicatricosa; Species of Brevennia]; Tang 1992: 576 (female) [Palaearctic and Oriental regions].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 64, 192]; Danzig1985 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 112, 113]; DanzigGa2012a [illustration, taxonomy: 787,793,794]; DanzigGa2013 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 464,471-472]; FoldiCo1989 [taxonomy: 1129]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 576].



Brevennia (Brevennia) dasiphorae (Danzig)

NOMENCLATURE:

Heterococcus dasiphorae Danzig, 1977a: 197. Type data: MONGOLIA: Khangay, on Dasiphora fruticosa. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Brevennia (Brevennia) dasiphorae; Foldi & Cox, 1989: 1129. Change of combination.

Heterococcopsis dasiphorae; Tang, 1992: 577. Change of combination.

Brevennia (Brevennia) dasiphorae; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin, 2012a: 793. Change of combination.



HOST: Rosaceae: Dasiphora fruticosa [Danzig1977a, Tang1992, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Mongolia [Danzig1977a, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Danzig (1977a). Good description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin 2013: 464 (female) [A Key to the Species of the Genus Brevennia (Including Four Palaearctic Species Not Known from Russia and Adjacent Countries)]; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin 2012a: 787, 789 (female) [Species of Brevennia ]; Tang 1992: 576 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 64]; Danzig1977a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 197-199]; DanzigGa2012a [illustration, taxonomy: 787,793,795]; FoldiCo1989 [taxonomy: 1129]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 577]; TangHaTa1992 [host, distribution: 9].



Brevennia (Brevennia) filicta (De Lotto)

NOMENCLATURE:

Heterococcus filictus De Lotto, 1967: 4. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Transvaal, Nelspruit, on Sorghum halepense. Holotype female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female. Illust.

Brevennia (Brevennia) filictus; Miller, 1975: 49. Change of combination.

Brevennia (Brevennia) filicta; Pellizzari & Williams, 2013: 411. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.



HOSTS: Poaceae [MillerMc1970], Sorghum halepense [DeLott1967, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [DeLott1967, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Living on the roots of its host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by De Lotto (1967). Good description of the adult female given by Miller & McKenzie (1970).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 64]; DeLott1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 4]; Millar2002 [illustration: 226]; Miller1975DR [taxonomy: 49]; MillerMc1970 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 443].



Brevennia (Brevennia) lonicerae (Borchsenius)

NOMENCLATURE:

Heterococcopsis lonicerae Borchsenius, 1948a: 955. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: Alma-Ata, on Lonicera tatarica. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Notes: Lectotype adult female designated by Kaydan (2011) + 2 paralectotype adult females (on 1 slide): Kazakhstan, Alma-Ata, Lonicera tatarica (Caprifoliaceae), Saygurov, 02.vi.36 (ZIAS: 80/37).

Heterococcopsis loncerae; Tang, 1992: 576. Misspelling of species name.

Brevennia (Brevennia) lonicerae; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin, 2012a: 787. Change of combination.



HOST: Caprifoliaceae: Lonicera tatarica [Borchs1948a, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kazakhstan [Borchs1948a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949) and by Tang (1992). Illustration in Kaydan (2011).

STRUCTURE: Living adult female body oval.

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin 2013: 464 (female) [A Key to the Species of the Genus Brevennia (Including Four Palaearctic Species Not Known from Russia and Adjacent Countries)]; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin 2012a: 787,789 (female) [Species of Brevennia]; Tang 1992: 576 (female) [as Heterococcopsis lonicerae; Palaearctic and Oriental regions]; Bazarov & Nurmamatov 1975: 63 (female) [as Heterococcopsis lonicerae; East Pamir]; Borchsenius 1949: 264 (female) [as Heterococcopsis lonicerae; Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 190]; Borchs1948a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 955]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 264-265]; DanzigGa2012a [illustration, taxonomy: 787, 789, 791-792]; DanzigGa2013 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 464,468-469]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 578, 589].



Brevennia (Brevennia) oryzae (Tang)

NOMENCLATURE:

Pseudorhodania oryzae Tang, 1992: 599. Type data: CHINA: Fujian Province, on roots of Oryza sativa. Holotype female. Type depository: Shanxi: Entomological Institute, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, China. Described: female. Illust.

Brevennia (Brevennia) oryzae; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin, 2012a: 786. Change of combination.



HOST: Poaceae: Oryza sativa [Tang1992, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China [Tang1992, TangHaTa1992, BenDov1994].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 416]; DanzigGa2012a [taxonomy: 786]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 599-600, 748]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 26].



Brevennia (Brevennia) pulveraria (Newstead)

NOMENCLATURE:

Ripersia pulveraria Newstead, 1892: 145. Type data: ENGLAND: Cheshire, Sandiway, on Agrostis tenuis. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Dactylopius pulverarius; Newstead, 1903: 174. Change of combination.

Trionymus pulverarius; Goux, 1933a: 236. Change of combination.

Erium pulverarium; Lindinger, 1935a: 122. Change of combination.

Ripersia tetrapora Goux, 1940: 58. Type data: FRANCE: Bessenay, Rhone, on Agrostis. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2012a: 789.

Brevennia (Brevennia) tetrapora; Borchsenius, 1949: 270. Change of combination.

Ripersia (Brevennia) tetrapoda; Borchsenius, 1949: 270. Misspelling of species name.

Brevennia krishtali Tereznikova, 1962: 122. Type data: UKRAINE: Zakarpatian Region, on grass. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Tereznikova, 1975: 193.

Heterococcus pulverarius; Boratynski & Williams, 1964. Misidentification.

Heterococcus tetraporus; Miller & McKenzie, 1970: 447. Change of combination.

Brevennia pulverarius; Miller, 1975: 49. Change of combination.

Brevennia (Brevennia) pulveraria; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2012a: 789. Change of combination.

COMMON NAMES: bluegrass mealybug [KosztaKo1988F]; Goux's mealybug [KosztaKo1988F].



HOSTS: Poaceae: Agropyron [KosztaKo1988F], Agrostis [Goux1940, BenDovMa1989, Tang1992, BenDov1994], Agrostis capillaris [KozarWa1986], Agrostis stolonifera [Ossian1959], Agrostis tenuis [Newste1892], Agrostis vulgaris [KosztaKo1988F], Dactylis [KosztaKo1988F], Eragrostis cynosuroides [Varshn1992], Festuca pratensis [Ossian1959], Phalaris arundinacea [Ossian1959], Poa angustifolia [Ossian1959].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Pakistan [Varshn1992]; Sri Lanka [Varshn1992]; Taiwan [ChenWoWu2012]. Palaearctic: France [Goux1933, Goux1940, BenDov1994, Foldi2001]; Hungary [KozarWa1986, KosztaKo1988F, KozarKiSa2004]; Poland [KosztaKo1988F, Lagows1996]; South Korea [KwonDaPa2003]; Sweden [Ossian1959]; Ukraine [Terezn1962, Terezn1975]; United Kingdom (England [Newste1892, MalumpBa2012]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring between the stems and leaf sheaths of grasses. Natural enemies discussed by Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F) and by Trjapitzin (1989).Living in the leaf sheaths of the host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Tereznikova (1962, 1975). Good description of the adult female given by Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F) and by Tang (1992).Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Goux (1940) and by Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero (1989). Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949), Miller & McKenzie (1970), Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F) and by Tang (1992).

SYSTEMATICS: Williams (1961a) erroneously synonymized Phenacoccus nudus Green (now in Heterococcus) with Ripersia pulveraria. Heterococcus graminicola Morrison and Heterococcus variabilis Schmutterer were erroneously synonymized with R. pulveraria by Williams (1963). The redescriptions and illustrations under the name Heterococcus pulverarius by Williams (1961a), McKenzie (1967) and Ter-Grigorian (1973) refer to H. nudus Green.The record of B. pulverarius from Brazil, (as T. pulverarius) by LePage (1938) is very likely a misidentification.The record of this species from Poland by Zak-Ogaza & Koteja (1964) was a misidentification of Heterococcus pulverarius (Newstead) (Koteja et al., 1978). Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin (2013) synonymized B. pulveraria with B. tetrapora based on comparison of the figure and description published by Miller and McKenzie (1970), who examined the types of B. pulveraria, with the figure from the paper by Ben-Dov and Matile-Ferrero (1989), who examined the types of B. tetrapora.

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin 2013: 464 (female) [A Key to the Species of the Genus Brevennia (Including Four Palaearctic Species Not Known from Russia and Adjacent Countries)]; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin 2012a: 787,789 (female) [Species of Brevennia]; Tang 1992: 573 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Kosztarab & Kozar 1988F: 78 (female) [Central Europe].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 64,65,66]; BenDovMa1989 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 171-173]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, distribution: 270]; ChenWoWu2012 [catalogue, distribution, taxonomy: 299]; DanzigGa2012a [illustration, taxonomy: 787-790]; DanzigGa2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 464-465]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Gertss2001 [distribution: 123-130]; GolanLaJa2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 229-249]; Goux1933a [host, distribution: 236]; Goux1940 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 58-61]; Goux1941a [taxonomy, description: 31, 32]; KosztaKo1978 [taxonomy: 44]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 78-79]; Koteja2000a [distribution: 172]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 56]; KozarWa1986 [host, distribution: 115]; KwonDaPa2003 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 105-106]; Lagows1996 [host, distribution: 31]; Lindin1935a [taxonomy: 122]; Lindin1939 [host, distribution: 37]; MalumpBa2012 [distribution: 18-19]; Miller1975DR [taxonomy: 49]; MillerMc1970 [taxonomy, description, distribution: 447]; Newste1892 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 145-146]; Newste1903 [p. 174]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 574, 575]; Terezn1962 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 122, 123]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 192-193]; Trjapi1989 [biological control: 119]; Varshn1992 [host, distribution: 39]; WilliaMa2012 [distribution: 83,86].



Brevennia (Brevennia) rehi (Borchsenius)

NOMENCLATURE:

Ripersia sacchari; Maxwell-Lefroy, 1908: 128. Misidentification.

Ripersia sacchari niger Fletcher, 1916: 62. Nomen nudum; discovered by Williams, 1985: 65.

Ripersia sacchari oryzae Fletcher, 1917: 177. Type data: INDIA: Tirhut and Bihar, on rice. Syntypes, unknown. Described: female. Homonym of Ripersia oryzae Kuwana, 1907; discovered by Lindinger, 1943c: 265. Notes: Type material probably lost.

Ripersia oryzae Green, 1931b: 557. Type data: INDIA: Tanjore District, Aduthurai, on Oryza sativa. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Williams, 1985: 65. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Homonym of Ripersia oryzae Kuwana, 1907.

Ripersia oryzae Green, 1931c: 65. Homonym of Ripersia oryzae(Kuwana, 1907); discovered by Ben-Dov, 1994: 65.

Rhizoecus cynodontis Bodenheimer, 1943: 16. Type data: IRAQ: Basra, on Cynodon dactylon. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Ben-Dov, 1991: 6. Type depository: Bet Dagan: Department of Entomology, The Volcani Center, Israel. Described: female. Synonymy by Ben-Dov, 2008: 85.

Ripersia rehi Lindinger, 1943a: 152. Replacement name for Ripersia oryzae Green.

Tychea rehi; Lindinger, 1943b: 265. Change of combination.

Brevennia (Brevennia) femoralis Borchsenius, 1949: 270. Type data: USSR: Tadzhikistan, Stalinvada, collected ix and xi, 1944, Borchsenius; Azerbaijan, Lenkoransk region, on Cynodon dactylon, collected vi.1947, Borchsenius. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Synonymy by Ben-Dov, 2008: 85. Notes: Lectotype designated in Danzig & Gavrilov, 2011: female, "Peliococcus femoralis Borchs., Azerbaijan, vicinity of Lenkoran, on steams of Cynodon dactylon, 22.VI.1947, No. 525"

Pseudorhodania marginata Borchsenius, 1962a: 244. Type data: CHINA: Yunnan Province, Chindung, on grass. Holotype female. Type depository: Beijing: Institute of Entomology, Academy of Sciences, China. Described: female. Illust.

Heterococcus rehi; Williams, 1970: 141. Change of combination.

Heterococcus femoralis; Miller & McKenzie, 1970: 443. Change of combination.

Heterococcus tuttlei Miller & McKenzie, 1970: 447. Type data: U.S.A.: California, Imperial County, Bard, on Cynodon dactylon. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Miller, 1973a: 372.

Brevennia rehi; Miller, 1973a: 372. Change of combination.

Brevennia cynodontis Ben-Dov, 1991: 6. Synonymy by Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2013: 466.

Brevennia marginata Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin, 2012a: 786. Synonymy by Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2013: 466-467.

Brevennia (Brevennia) rehi; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2012a: 791. Change of combination.

COMMON NAMES: rice mealybug [Willia1970DJ, WilliaRaBr1981]; tuttle mealybug [MillerMc1970].



FOES: HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Apoleptomastix bicoloricornis Girault [Stocks2012], Rhopus nigriclavatus (Girault) [AbdRab2001d].

HOSTS: Arecaceae: Ptychosperma sp. [Stocks2012]. Cyperaceae: Cyperus [Ramakr1930, Willia1970DJ, Ali1973a, Willia2004a], Cyperus pygmateus [Varshn1992], Cyperus rotundus [Green1931b, Willia1970DJ, Miller1975DR, Varshn1992, BenDov1994, Willia2004a]. Juncaceae: Juncellus pygmaeus [Green1931b, Willia1970DJ, BenDov1994, Willia2004a]. Poaceae [MillerMc1970], [Borchs1962, BenDov1994], Andropogon annulatus [Ali1973a, Willia1970DJ, Varshn1992, BenDov1994, Willia2004a], Anthistiria imberbis [Ali1973a], Apluda [Ali1973a], Apluda varia [Willia1970DJ, Varshn1992, BenDov1994, Willia2004a], Brachiaria [Stocks2012], Cenchrus calyculatus [ChenKoLi1997], Chloris barbata [Ramakr1930, Willia1970DJ, Ali1973a, BenDov1994], Cymbopogon caesius [Ramakr1930, Willia1970DJ, BenDov1994], Cynodon [WilliaGr1992], Cynodon dactylon [Bodenh1943, Willia1970DJ, MillerMc1970, Miller1973a, Miller1975DR, Willia1985, Varshn1992], Cyperus serotinus [ChenKoLi1997], Dactyloctenium aegyptium [Willia1970DJ, Miller1975DR, ChenKoLi1997, Stocks2012], Dactyloctenium australe [BenDov2008], Digitaria abscendens [ChenKoLi1997], Digitaria henryi [ChenKoLi1997], Digitaria sanguinalis [Ramakr1930, BenDov1994, Willia1970DJ], Echinchloa crus-galli oryzicola [ChenKoLi1997], Echinochloa crus-galli formosensis [ChenKoLi1997], Eleusine aegyptica [Ali1973a], Eleusine coracana [Willia1970DJ, Ali1973a, Varshn1992, BenDov1994, Willia2004a], Eleusine indica [ChenKoLi1997, Stocks2012], Eragrostis interrupta [Willia1970DJ, Ali1973a, Varshn1992, BenDov1994, Willia2004a], Eriochloa polystachya [Willia2004a], Fimbristylis argentea [Green1931b, Willia1970DJ, Ali1973a, Varshn1992, BenDov1994, Willia2004a], Fimbristylis miliacea [Willia1970DJ, Ali1973a, Varshn1992, BenDov1994, Willia2004a], Fimbristylis tenera [Ramakr1930, Willia1970DJ, Ali1973a, BenDov1994, Willia2004a], Heterachne abortiva [GrimshDo2007], Imperata arundinacea [Willia1970DJ, Ali1973a, Varshn1992, BenDov1994, Willia2004a], Isachne australis [Ramakr1930, Willia1970DJ, Ali1973a, BenDov1994], Ischaemum ciliare [Ramakr1930, Willia1970DJ, Ali1973a, Varshn1992, BenDov1994, Willia2004a], Iseilema laxum [Ramakr1930, Willia1970DJ, BenDov1994], Leptochloa chinensis [Ramakr1930, Willia1970DJ, ChenKoLi1997, BenDov1994], Leptochloa polystachya [Willia1970DJ, Ali1973a, Varshn1992, BenDov1994, Willia2004a], Oryza sativa [Maxwel1908, VanHeu1923, Willia1970DJ, LiuTa1988, BenDov1994, ChenKoLi1997, Willia2004a], Panicum colonum [Willia1970DJ, Ali1973a, Varshn1992, BenDov1994, Willia2004a], Panicum javanicum [Willia1970DJ, Varshn1992, BenDov1994, Willia2004a], Panicum maximum [ChenKoLi1997], Panicum prostatum [Ramakr1930, Willia1970DJ, Ali1973a, BenDov1994], Panicum repens [Willia1970DJ, Ali1973a, Varshn1992, BenDov1994, ChenKoLi1997, Willia2004a], Paspalum dilatatum [ChenKoLi1997], Paspalum distichum [ChenKoLi1997], Paspalum scrobiculatum [Ramakr1930, Willia1970DJ, Ali1973a, BenDov1994], Saccharum officinarum [Willia2004a], Saccharum spontaneum [Ramakr1930, Willia1970DJ, Ali1973a, BenDov1994], Setaria glauca [Ramakr1930, Willia1970DJ, Ali1973a, BenDov1994, Willia2004a], Sorghum [Borchs1949, BenDov1994, MyartsKaPo1995], Sorghum vulgare [Varshn1992, MillerMc1970, Willia1970DJ, Miller1975DR, BenDov1994, Willia2004a], Zoa mays rugosa [ChenKoLi1997], Zoysia sp. [Stocks2012]

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Northern Territory [WilliaRaBr1981, Willia1985, BenDov1994], Queensland [GrimshDo2007]); Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii [Beards1979, BenDov1994]). Australasian: Indonesia (Java [VanHeu1923, Willia1970DJ]). Australasian: New Britain [WilliaRaBr1981, WilliaWa1988a, BenDov1994]; Papua New Guinea [WilliaWa1988a]. Nearctic: United States of America (Arizona [MillerMc1970, Miller1975DR, BenDov1994], California [MillerMc1970, Miller1975DR, BenDov1994], Florida [Miller1973a, Miller1975DR, BenDov1994, Stocks2012], Texas [CABI1979a, BenDov1994]). Neotropical: Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul [new]); Puerto Rico & Vieques Island (Puerto Rico [CABI1979a, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]); U.S. Virgin Islands [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]. Oriental: Bangladesh [Willia1970DJ, AlamKa1981, Varshn1992, BenDov1994, Willia2004a]; Burma (=Myanmar) [Shroff1920, Ghosh1940, Willia1970DJ, Crowe1985, Varshn1992, BenDov1994]; India [Maxwel1908, Ramakr1930, Willia1970DJ, Varshn1992, BenDov1994] (Andhra Pradesh [Varshn1992, Willia2004a], Bihar [Varshn1992, Willia2004a], Goa [Willia2004a], Karnataka [Varshn1992, Willia2004a], Kerala [Varshn1992], Madhya Pradesh [Varshn1992, Willia2004a], Maharashtra [Varshn1992], Odisha [Varshn1992, Willia2004a], Tamil Nadu [Varshn1992, Willia2004a], West Bengal [Varshn1992, Willia2004a]); Nepal [Willia1970DJ, Varshn1992, BenDov1994, Willia2004a]; Pakistan [Willia1970DJ, Miller1975DR, Varshn1992, BenDov1994, Willia2004a]; Philippines [Willia2004a]; Sri Lanka [SiriseMaWa2013]; Taiwan [LiuTa1988, BenDov1994, ChenKoLi1997]; Thailand [CABI1979a, BenDov1994]. Palaearctic: Afghanistan [KozarFoZa1996]; Azerbaijan [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]; China [Borchs1962a, Tang1992, TangHaTa1992, BenDov1994] (Xizang (=Tibet) [HuYaLi1986]); Egypt [AbdRab2001d]; Iran [KozarFoZa1996, Moghad2009]; Iraq [Bodenh1943, BenDov1994, BenDov2008]; Israel [BenDov2008]; Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Borchs1949, BenDov1991, BenDov1994]; Turkmenistan [MyartsKaPo1995].

BIOLOGY: Occurring beneath the leaf sheaths at the bases of the host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Miller & McKenzie (1970), Williams (1970DJ), Miller (1975), Williams (1985), Liu & Tao (1988), Williams & Watson (1988a), Williams & Granara de Willink (1992) and by Williams (2004a). Description and illustration of the adult male given by Miller (1975). Description and illustration of the first-instar nymph given by Miller (1975). Description and illustration of adult female by Bodenheimer (1943). Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949), Miller & McKenzie (1970) and by Ben-Dov (1991).

STRUCTURE: Body of adult female elongate oval to broadly oval. Legs short and slender with numerous translucent pores on each hind femur and tibia. Antenna short, 6 segments. Ostioles represented by Posterior pair only. Cerarri numbering six or seven pair, on the abdomen. Multilocular disc pores present on the dorsum of the abdomen and head margin, and across the abdomen and around the entire margin on the venter. Quinquelocular pores fairly abundant over the entire body. (Siriseni, et al., 2013)

SYSTEMATICS: Brevennia femoralis Borchsenius, 1949 was first synonymized with Rhizoecus cynodontis Bodenheimer, 1943, and later Ben-Dov (2008) synonymized both with Brevennia rehi.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: This species first came to attention to agriculturists and entomologists in the United States in the late 1960s when it was discovered infesting bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) seed production crops in Arizona to such an extent that the sticky exudates produced by the mealybugs fouled the harvesting equipment (Miller and McKenzie, 1970). Reported to damage lawn grasses of Dactyloctenium australe in Israel (Ben-Dov, 2008).

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin 2013: 464 (female) [A Key to the Species of the Genus Brevennia (Including Four Palaearctic Species Not Known from Russia and Adjacent Countries)]; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin 2012a: 787,789 (female) [Species of Brevennia]; Tang 1992: 573 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Williams D. J. 1970: 114 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: AbdRab2001d [distribution, biological control: 1356]; AlamAlKa1979 [host, distribution, economic importance: 20-21]; AlamBh1965 [host, distribution, life history: 121-122]; AlamKa1981 [host, distribution, economic importance: 17-26]; Ali1958 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 179-181]; Ali1962 [description, host, distribution: 72]; Ali1967 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 217]; Ali1967a [host, distribution: 33-34]; Ali1973a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 53-55]; BackiaSu1996 [life history, ecology: 250-252]; BeheraSaRa2001 [Wolbachia, , symbiont: 1299-1300]; BenDov1991 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 6]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 64,65,66,416]; BenDov2008 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 85-88]; BenDov2012 [catalogue, distribution, host: 34,]; Bodenh1943 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 16]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 270-271]; Borchs1962a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 243-244]; CABI1979a [distribution: 1]; ChenKoLi1997 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history: 49-54]; Crowe1985 [distribution]; DanzigGa2011 [taxonomy: 271]; DanzigGa2012a [illustration, taxonomy: 786, 787, 790-791]; DanzigGa2013 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 464-469]; Fletch1916 [taxonomy: 62]; Fletch1917a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 177]; GopalaRaBa1987 [biological control, life history: 18]; Green1931b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 557]; GrimshDo2007 [host, distribution, economic importance: 96-98]; HodgsoHa2013 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 797]; HuYaLi1986 [host, distribution: 10-12]; Jahn2004 [host, life history, ecology: 115-122]; JeyaraSrSa2000 [host, chemistry: 14-15]; KozarFoZa1996 [host, distribution: 64]; LakshmMaMo1988 [economic importance: 356-357]; Lindin1943a [taxonomy: 152]; Lindin1943b [taxonomy: 265]; LiuTa1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 61, 62]; Maxwel1908 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 128, 129]; Miller1973a [host, distribution: 372]; Miller1975DR [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 49-56]; MillerMc1970 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 443,447-449,451,457]; Moghad2009 [host, distribution: 18]; Moghad2013 [description, distribution, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 13-15, 99]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 63]; MohammGh2008 [distribution: 154]; MyartsKaPo1995 [host, distribution: 223-225]; Prakas1988 [distribution, control: 87-97]; Ramakr1930 [host, distribution: 63]; Ramakr1941 [host, distribution: 107-113]; SiriseMaWa2013 [description, distribution, economic importance, host: 35-36]; Stocks2012 [description, distribution, economic importance, host, illustration: 1-3]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 586]; TangHaTa1992 [host, distribution: 9]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 10]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 26]; VanHeu1923 [host, distribution, economic importance: 42-43]; Varshn1992 [host, distribution: 39, 40]; Willia1970DJ [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 141-145]; Willia1985 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 65, 66]; Willia2004a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 96-99]; WilliaGr1992 [taxonomy, illustration, host, distribution: 68, 69]; WilliaRaBr1981 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 46]; WilliaWa1988a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 23-24, 26]; Yang1982 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 42-44].



Ceroputo Šulc

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroputo Šulc, 1898: 1. Type species: Ceroputo pilosellae Šulc.

Leococcus Kanda, 1959: 239. Type species: Leococcus erigeroneus Kanda. Synonymy by Tang, 1992: 388.

Australiputo Williams, 1985: 60. Type species: Pseudococcus casuarinae Maskell, by original designation. Synonymy by Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 169.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good definition and characters for Ceroputo given by Williams (1985). Detailed decription and analysis of Autraliputo in Williams, et al., 2011,

STRUCTURE: Adult female: eye height as great as or greater than length of first antennal segment (usually very much smaller in typical Phenacoccus, except Ph. solenopsis); antennae with 8-9 segments; 0-2 (usually 0) antennal intersegmental sensilla present between each of segments III-IV, IV-V and VI-VII; 2 campaniform sensilla on each surface of each trochanter; claw lacking basal spurs; claw digitules capitate but tarsal digitules either capitate or not; more than 17 pairs of cerarii on sclerotised plates; long tubular ducts present or absent on frons (anterior to mouthparts); trilocular pores on venter usually smaller than those on dorsum, and pores in cerarii at most only slightly larger than those on rest of dorsum; quinquelocular pores sometimes present. First-instar nymph: 6-segmented antennae; multilocular pores with >5 loculi absent. Adult male of C. pilosellae (adult males unknown in other species): head with one pair of dorsal and one pair of ventral simple eyes plus a pair of lateral ocelli; with 2 pairs of lateral filaments on posterior abdominal segments (each filament from glandular pouch on each side of abdominal segments VII and VIII); penial sheath 1-segmented, apex of aedeagus simple (Afifi, 1968). (Williams, et al., 2011)

SYSTEMATICS: Ceroputo was synonymised with Puto by Ferris (1918), but treated as a valid genus by Tang (1992). Hardy et al. (2008) treated Ceroputo as a genus of the mealybug subfamily Phenacoccinae, which they redefined. The molecular phylogenetic studies by M. Bora Kaydan (pers. comm.) also have confirmed the placement of C. pilosellae in the Pseudococcidae near some species of Phenacoccus. (Williams, et al., 2011). Gavrilov-Zimin & Danzig (2012) and Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin (2014) provide evidence that Ceroputo should be included in the Pseudococcidae and should be treated as a subgenus of Puto. In Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014, Leococcus was also treated as a junior synomym of Puto rather than of Ceraputo as determined by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Williams 1985: 61 (female) [as Austrailputo; species Australia]; Williams 1985: 36 (female) [as Austrailputo; Australia].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 54]; DanzigGa2014 [taxonomy: 138]; GavrilDa2012 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 97-111]; Willia1985 [taxonomy, description: 35, 60-61].



Ceroputo casuarinae (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Pseudococcus casuarinae Maskell, 1893b: 235. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Victoria, on Casuarina sp. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Williams, 1985: 61. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.

Phenacoccus casuarinae; Cockerell, 1893ee: 318. Change of combination.

Australiputo casuarinae; Williams, 1985: 61. Change of combination.

Ceroputo casuarinae; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 169. Change of combination.



HOST: Casuarinaceae: Casuarina [Maskel1893b, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia [Cocker1893ee] (New South Wales [Willia1985, BenDov1994], Victoria [Maskel1893b, BenDov1994]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Williams (1985).

KEYS: Williams 1985: 61 (female) [Australia].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 55]; Cocker1893ee [distribution: 318]; DeitzTo1980 [taxonomy: 53]; Maskel1893b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 235]; Willia1985 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 61-63].



Ceroputo eucalypti (Williams)

NOMENCLATURE:

Australiputo eucalypti Williams, 1985: 63. Type data: AUSTRALIA: South Australia, Tintinara, under bark of Eucalyptus sp. Holotype female. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia. Described: female. Illust.

Ceroputo eucalypti; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 169. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus [Willia1985], Eucalyptus camaldulensis [Willia1985, BenDov1994], Eucalyptus cephalocarpa [Willia1985, BenDov1994], Eucalyptus grandis [Willia1985, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Willia1985, BenDov1994], Queensland [Willia1985, BenDov1994], South Australia [Willia1985, BenDov1994], Victoria [Willia1985, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Found under the bark of its host plants.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Williams (1985).

KEYS: Williams 1985: 61 (female) [Australia].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 55]; Willia1985 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 63-65].



Ceroputo graminis (Danzig)

NOMENCLATURE:

Puto graminis Danzig, 1972b: 335. Type data: RUSSIA: Sakhalin Oblast, on Calamagrostis langsdorfii. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Ceroputo graminis; Williams et al., 2011. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Cyperaceae: Carex [Danzig1972b, BenDov1994]. Poaceae: Agropyron [Danzig1978a, BenDov1994, Danzig1999], Aneurolepidium [Danzig1999], Calamagrostis [Danzig1999], Calamagrostis langsdorfii [Danzig1972b, BenDov1994], Elymus [Danzig1999], Elymus chinensis [Danzig1974, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kyrgyzstan (=Kirgizia) [Danzig1972b, BenDov1994]; Mongolia [Danzig1972b, BenDov1994]; Russia (Buryatia (=Buryat) Aut. Oblast [Danzig1999], Irkutsk Oblast [Danzig1972b, BenDov1994, Danzig1999], Khabarovsk Kray [Danzig1999], Primor'ye Kray [Danzig1999], Sakhalin Oblast [Danzig1972b, BenDov1994], Yakutia-Sakha (=Yakut) AR [Danzig1972b, BenDov1994, Danzig1999]); Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Danzig1972b, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description in Danzig, 1972b. Redescription in Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014.

STRUCTURE: Adult females: eyes approximately the same height as the length of the first antennal segment. There are two campaniform sensilla on each surface of each trochanter except on the surface of one trochanter which apparently has three. There is a very small denticle and no basal spurs on the claws. The trilocular pores occur in two sizes: the dorsal pores are larger than those on venter. Danzig (1980, 1999) reports that the adult female lacks both quinquelocular and multilocular pores. (Williams, et al., 2011)

SYSTEMATICS: This species to best fits into Ceroputo based on the two sensilla on each trochanter surface, lack of basal spurs, and lack of multilocular pores (a character state shared with C. nulliporus). (Williams, et al., 2011).

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin 2014: 141-142 (female) [Key to species of Puto(Ceraputo)]; Danzig 1999: 80 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Danzig 1988: 698 (female) [Far East of the USSR]; Danzig 1978b: 125 (female) [Far East of the USSR].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [taxonomy: 423]; Danzig1972b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 335-337]; Danzig1974 [host, distribution: 69]; Danzig1978a [host, distribution: 75]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 113-114]; Danzig1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 88]; DanzigGa2014 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 169-171]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 407]; WilliaGuMi2011 [description, structure, taxonomy: 15].



Ceroputo mimicus (McKenzie)

NOMENCLATURE:

Puto mimicus McKenzie, 1967: 352. Type data: U.S.A.: California, Imperial County, near Truckhaven, on Encelia frutescens. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Ceroputo mimicus; Williams et al., 2011: 15. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: mimic mealybug [McKenz1967].



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Encelia frutescens [McKenz1967, BenDov1994], Hymenoclea salsola [WilliaGuMi2011]. Loasaceae: Petalonyx thurberi [McKenz1967, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (California [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the foliage and stems of its host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by McKenzie (1967).

SYSTEMATICS: Williams and Granara de Willink (1992) commented on this species and decided that it might not belong to the genus Puto. Character states that seem to exclude this species from Puto are: the campaniform sensilla on the trochanters are always two in number on each surface, the antennal intersegmental sensilla are tiny and present only between segments VI and VII, the tubular ducts on the frons are absent, and quinquelocular pores are present on the venter. Character states that it shares with species of Puto are the possession of a pair of minute basal spurs on each claw. Despite some conflicting evidence, Williams, et al., 2011 transfered it to Ceroputo.

KEYS: McKenzie 1967: 327 (female) [U.S.A., California].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 426]; McKenz1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 352-354]; WilliaGuMi2011 [distribution, host, structure, taxonomy: 15].



Ceroputo nulliporus (McKenzie)

NOMENCLATURE:

Puto nulliporus McKenzie, 1960: 733. Type data: U.S.A.: California, Imperial County, Palo Verde, on Bebbia juncea var. aspera. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Ceroputo nulliporus; Williams et al., 2011: 15. Change of combination.

COMMON NAMES: composite puto [McKenz1960]; nulliporus mealybug [McKenz1967].



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Bebbia juncea aspera [McKenz1960, BenDov1994], Encelia farinosa [WilliaGuMi2011].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (California [McKenz1960, BenDov1994]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by McKenzie (1960, 1967).

SYSTEMATICS: The placement of this species in the genus Puto was regarded as doubtful by Williams and Granara de Willink (1992). Character states that exclude this species from Puto are the campaniform sensilla on the trochanters are always two in number on each surface, the antennal intersegmental sensilla are tiny and present only between segments VI and VII, there are no multilocular pores, and the trilocular pores in the cerarii are the same size as those on the rest of the derm. Character states that it shares with species of Puto are the possession of basal spurs on the claw, although the spurs on C. nulliporus are thin and very poorly developed. Despite some conflicting evidence, Williams, et al. transfered it to Ceroputo.

KEYS: McKenzie 1967: 327 (female) [U.S.A., California]; McKenzie 1961: 32 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1960: 730 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 426]; McKenz1960 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution : 733-735]; McKenz1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 354-355]; WilliaGuMi2011 [taxonomy: 15-16].



Ceroputo pilosellae Šulc

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroputo pilosellae Šulc, 1898: 2. Type data: CZECH REPUBLIC: Dvur Kralove and Hodkovicky, on Hieracium pilosella. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Brno: K. Sulc Collection, Moravian Museum, Czech Republic. Described: female.

Ceroputo elvirae castneri Schumacher, 1917: 429. Nomen nudum; discovered by Lindinger, 1935a: 131.

Phenacoccus tomlini Green, 1930a: 320. Type data: ITALY: Italian Tyrol, Solda, on Leontodon hispidus. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Marotta & Tranfaglia, 1993: 191. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Synonymy by Marotta & Tranfaglia, 1993: 188.

Phenacoccus asteri Takahashi, 1932: 43. Type data: TAIWAN: Taihoku, on Aster lauruleanus. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Taichung: Entomology Collection, Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, Wu-feng, Taichung, Taiwan. Described: female.

Erium tomlini; Lindinger, 1935a: 122. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus ferrisi Kiritshenko, 1936a: 140. Type data: TURKMENISTAN: from unidentified wild plant. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 1999: 89. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Synonymy by Danzig, 1999: 89.

Phenacoccus euphorbiaefolius Bodenheimer, 1943: 17. Type data: IRAQ: at the road from Sulaimaniye to Chuarta, on Euphorbia sp. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Ben-Dov & Kaydan, 2008: 286. Type depository: Bet Dagan: Department of Entomology, The Volcani Center, Israel. Described: female. Synonymy by Ben-Dov & Kaydan, 2008: 285.

Phenacoccus poterii Bodenheimer, 1943: 32. Type data: ISRAEL: Jerusalem, Mt. Scopus, on Poterium spinosum. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation BenDov & Kaydan, 2008: 286. Type depository: Bet Dagan: Department of Entomology, The Volcani Center, Israel. Described: female. Synonymy by Ben-Dov & Kaydan, 2008: 285.

Ceroputo ferrisi; Borchsenius, 1949: 287. Change of combination.

Ceroputo pannosus Borchsenius, 1949: 288. Type data: UKRAINE: Krym, Kokkoz, on cork oak. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 1999: 89. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Synonymy by Tereznikova, 1975a: 32.

Ceroputo clematidis Matesova, 1957: 165. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: near Yusek, on Clematis songorica. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Synonymy by Danzig, 1999: 89.

Leococcus erigeroneus Kanda, 1959a: 240. Type data: JAPAN: Honshu, Yokohama, Matsugaoka, on Erigeron canadensis. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Yokohama: S. Kanda Collection, Asano Senior High School, Kanagawa-ku, Japan. Described: female.

Puto pilosellae; Tereznikova, 1975: 243. Change of combination.

Puto erigeroneus; Kawai, 1980: 96. Change of combination.

Puto clematidis; Kozár & Walter, 1985: 72. Change of combination.

Puto euphorbiaefolius; Kozár & Walter, 1985: 72. Change of combination.

Puto ferrisi; Kozár & Walter, 1985: 72. Change of combination.

Puto poterii; Kozár & Walter, 1985: 72. Change of combination.

Puto asteri; Tang, 1992: 405. Change of combination.

Puto jarudensis Tang, 1992: 600. Type data: CHINA: Inner Mongolia, on Kalimeria [= Kalimeris] integrifolia. Holotype female. Type depository: Shanxi: Entomological Institute, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, China. Described: female. Illust.

Phenacoccus asteri; Ben-Dov, 1994: 309. Revived combination.

Ceroputo pilosellae; Williams et al., 2011: 16. Revived combination.

COMMON NAMES: hairy mealybug [KosztaKo1988F]; hairy Puto mealybug [BenDovKa2008].



FOES: COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Nephus redtenbacheri Mulsant [Panis2007a]. HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Ericydnus ventralis (Dalman) [Trjapi1989], Leptomastidea rubra Tachikawa [Trjapi1989], Leptomastix maculipes Trjapitzin [Trjapi1989], Moraviella inexpectata Hoffer [KosztaKo1988F, Trjapi1989].

HOSTS: Asteraceae: Achillea millefolium [Terezn1975, BenDov1994], Antennaria dioica [Danzig1959, BenDov1994], Aster lauruleanus [Takaha1932, BenDov1994], Centaurea [Terezn1975, BenDov1994], Echinops ritro [MoghadTa2010], Erigeron canadensis [Kanda1959a, BenDov1994], Helianthemum [MarottTr1993, BenDov1994], Hieracium [BenDovKa2008], Hieracium pilosella [Sulc1898, BenDov1994], Kalimeris integrifolia [Tang1992, BenDov1994], Karelinia caspia [Borchs1949, BenDov1994], Leontodon autumnalis [KotejaZa1983, BenDov1994], Leontodon hispidus [Green1930a, BenDov1994], Picris hieracioides spinulosa [Panis2007a], Taraxacum officinale [ZakOgaKo1964, BenDov1994]. Boraginaceae: Heliotropium europium [BenDovKa2008]. Carpinaceae: Carpinus betulus [Kiritc1931, BenDov1994]. Cyperaceae: Carex [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994, Danzig1999]. Ericaceae: Arctostaphylos uvae-ursi [Danzig1959, BenDov1994], Calluna vulgaris [Danzig1959, BenDov1994], Oxycoccus quadripetalus [Danzig1959, BenDov1994], Vaccinium oxycoccus [MalumpOsPy2010]. Euphorbiaceae [BenDovKa2008], Euphorbia [Bodenh1943, BenDov1994, MoghadTa2010], Euphorbia sequieriana [BenDovKa2008]. Fabaceae: Vicia [KotejaZa1966, BenDov1994]. Fagaceae: Quercus [Danzig1999], Quercus suber [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]. Geraniaceae: Geranium [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994]. Lamiaceae: Betonica officinalis [Terezn1975, BenDov1994], Salvia [KaydanUlZe2004], Salvia lavandulifolia [BenDovKa2008], Thymus [KozarGuBa1994], Thymus marschallianus [MarottTr1993, BenDov1994, KozarOrKo1977], Thymus pannonicum [Kozar1983a, BenDov1994], Thymus praecox [MarottTr1993, BenDov1994, Kohler2008a], Thymus pulegioides [KozarTzVi1979, BenDov1994], Thymus serpillum [KozarTzVi1979, MarottTr1993, BenDov1994, Gertss2005a]. Plantaginaceae: Plantago media [ZakOgaKo1964, BenDov1994]. Poaceae: Dactylis glomerata [Mateso1968, BenDov1994, Danzig1999], Festuca [TerGri1973, BenDov1994]. Ranunculaceae: Clematis [Danzig1999], Clematis songorica [Mateso1957, BenDov1994]. Rosaceae: Fragaria [BenDovKa2008], Fragaria vesca [Afifi1968, KotejaZa1983, BenDov1994], Poterium spinosum [Bodenh1943, BenDov1994, BenDovKa2008], Sanguisorba minor [KaydanKiKo2005, BenDovKa2008], Sanguisorba spinosa [BenDovKa2008]. Rubiaceae: Galium [Terezn1975, BenDov1994]. Scrophulariaceae: Verbascum [KozarOs1987, BenDov1994], Verbascum austriacum [Kozar1999a], Veronica [Bazaro1971c, BenDov1994], Veronica officinalis [Danzig1959, BenDov1994]. Umbelliferae: Daucus carota [Goux1933, MarottTr1993, BenDov1994, MarottTr1995a, Foldi2000], Ligusticum hultenii [Danzig1978a, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Taiwan [Takaha1932, BenDov1994]. Palaearctic: Afghanistan [KozarFoZa1996]; Armenia [TerGri1973, BenDov1994]; Bulgaria [KozarTzVi1979, BenDov1994, Danzig1999]; China [Tang1984, Tang1992, TangHaTa1992, BenDov1994] (Nei Monggol (=Inner Mongolia) [Tang1992, TangHaTa1992, BenDov1994]); Cyprus [BenDovKa2008]; Czech Republic [Sulc1898, BenDov1994]; France [Goux1933, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994, Foldi2000, Foldi2001]; Georgia (Georgia [Kiritc1931, BenDov1994]); Germany [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994, Danzig1999, Kohler2008a]; Hungary [KozarOrKo1977, BenDov1994, Danzig1999, Kozar1999a, KozarKiSa2004, BenDovKa2008]; Iran [KozarFoZa1996, Moghad2009]; Iraq [Bodenh1943, BenDov1994, BenDovKa2008]; Israel [Bodenh1943, BenDov1994, BenDovKa2008]; Italy [Green1930a, Pelliz1989, MarottTr1993, BenDov1994, MarottTr1995a, LongoMaPe1995]; Japan [Kanda1959a, BenDov1994]; Kazakhstan [Mateso1957, Danzig1980, BenDov1994]; Kyrgyzstan (=Kirgizia) [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]; Latvia [Rasina1955]; Lebanon [BenDovKa2008]; Lithuania [MalumpOsPy2010]; Moldova [KozarOs1987]; Mongolia [Danzig1974, Danzig1980, Danzig1999]; North Korea [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994, Danzig1999]; Poland [KotejaZa1966, ZakOgaKo1964, Koteja1974b, Lagows1996, Danzig1999, GolanLaJa2001]; Russia (Primor'ye Kray [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994], Sakhalin Oblast [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994], St. Petersburg (=Leningrad) Oblast [Danzig1959, BenDov1994], Yakutia-Sakha (=Yakut) AR [Danzig1978a, BenDov1994]); Slovenia [BenDovKa2008, Seljak2010]; South Korea [KwonDaPa2003]; Sweden [Gertss2001, Gertss2005a]; Switzerland [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994, KozarGuBa1994, Danzig1994]; Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Borchs1949, Danzig1980b, BenDov1994]; Turkey [KaydanUlZe2004, KaydanKiKo2005, KaydanUlEr2007, BenDovKa2008]; Turkmenistan [Kiritc1936a, BenDov1994]; Ukraine (Krym (=Crimea) Oblast [Kiritc1931, Borchs1949, BenDov1994, Danzig1999]); Uzbekistan [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]; Yugoslavia [Afifi1968, Kozar1983a, BenDov1994, Danzig1999] (Serbia) [Masten2007].

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the underside of the leaves of the host plant. Life history and natural enemies discussed by Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F). Parasites in the Palaearctic region discussed by Trjapitzin (1989).The insect occurs on leaves of the host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Matesova (1957), Ter-Grigorian (1973), Tereznikova (1975), Danzig (1980b), Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F), Tang (1992) and by Marotta & Tranfaglia (1993). Description of adult female by Bodenheimer (1943), Borchsenius (1949) and by Tang (1992). Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Takahashi (1932). Good description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Tang (1992).Description and illustration of adult female by Kanda (1959a) and by Kwon et al. (2003). Description of adult female by Kawai (1980).

STRUCTURE: In this species, the eyes are about the same height as the length of first antennal segment. Specimens have 8- and 9-segmented antennae. The intersegmental sensilla are variable and often obscure and difficult to see. It appears that they are variably present between segments III-IV, IV-V and VI-VII. One specimen appears to have sensilla between the above mentioned segments as well as V-VI and VIII-X. The legs are shorter than those in Puto and possess fewer setae; campaniform sensilla on the trochanters always number two on each surface; the claws are thick and short and lack basal spurs, and the digitules are clubbed. Tubular ducts are present on the frons. Trilocular pores on the venter are smaller than those on the dorsum, and pores in the cerarii are only slightly larger than those on the rest of the dorsum. First-instar nymphs collected in Hungary (Budapest, Sashegy, 18.x.1996, in caricetum habitat by B. Kiss) and examined by Ferenc Kozár, and embryos collected in Turkey (Hakkari-Beyköy, on Euphorbia sequeriana (Euphorbiaceae), 1832 m) and examined by M. Bora Kaydan, all possess 6 antennal segments. (Williams, et al., 2011)

SYSTEMATICS: Williams, et al, 2011, concluded that this species should be retained in the genus Ceroputo in the family Pseudococcidae. Kanda (1959) described Leococcus erigeroneus, collected from Erigeron canadensis (Asteraceae) in Japan, as the type species of his genus Leococcus. Kawai (1980) transferred the species to Puto, thus treating Leococcus as a junior synonym of Puto. Danzig (1980) suggested that L. erigeroneus was probably a synonym of P. pilosellae but did not formally list it as such. Tang (1992) appears to have been the first to formally cite L. erigeroneus as a junior synonym of C. pilosellae. Williams, et al., 2011 concluded that the species is identical to C. pilosellae. Takahashi (1932) described Phenacoccus asteri for specimens collected on Aster lauruleanus (Asteraceae) in Taiwan. It was transferred to Puto by Tang (1992), but the original combination was revived by Ben-Dov (1994). Williams, et al., 2011 regarded the species to be identical to C. pilosellae, and synonymised it. The description and illustration of Puto jarudensis given by Tang (1992), leave little doubt that the species is identical to C. pilosellae. Tang (1992) points out that P. jarudensis has two sizes of tubular ducts, with larger ones mainly in the ventral median areas of the head and thorax, and smaller ones on the ventral abdomen. The specimens of C. pilosellae from Europe that we have examined have larger tubular ducts on the head and thorax than those on the abdomen, in agreement with Tang’s description of P. jarudensis and it was synonymized in Williams, et al., 2011..

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Has been recorded as being a pest of strawberries (Kosztarab & Kozár, 1988F).

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin 2014: 141-142 (female) [Key to species of Puto(Ceraputo)]; Danzig 1999: 80 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Tang 1992: 389 (female) [China]; Danzig 1988: 698 (female) [Far East of the USSR]; Kosztarab & Kozar 1988: 137 (female) [Central Europe]; Danzig 1978b: 124 (female) [as Puto pilosellae; Far East of the USSR]; Borchsenius 1949: 286 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: Afifi1968 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 155-159]; Bazaro1971c [host, distribution: 89]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 422-423]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 424]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 309,421-423,428-429]; BenDov2012 [catalogue, distribution, host: 35, 43]; BenDovKa2008 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 285-286]; Bodenh1943 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 17-18, 31-32]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 286-288, 288-289]; CebeciAr2006 [host, distribution: 143]; Danzig1959 [host, distribution: 445]; Danzig1974 [host, distribution: 69]; Danzig1978a [host, distribution: 76]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 111-113]; Danzig1994 [host, distribution: 46]; Danzig1999 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history: 88-89]; DanzigGa2014 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 171-174]; Foldi2000 [host, distribution: 80]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Gertss2001 [distribution: 123-130]; Gertss2005a [host, distribution: 37]; GolanLaJa2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 229-249]; Goux1933a [host, distribution: 235]; Green1930a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 320-322]; Hodgso2012 [taxonomy: 62]; HodgsoHa2013 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 797]; Kanda1959a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 240-241]; Kaussa1957 [host, distribution: 2]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 96]; Kaweck1948 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 3-4]; Kaydan2015 [distribution, host, molecular data: 205]; KaydanKiKo2005 [host, distribution: 92]; KaydanKo2010a [distribution, host: 33]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 102]; KaydanUlZe2004 [host, distribution: 222]; Kiritc1936a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 140-141]; Kohler2008a [host, distribution: 23-36]; Kohler2009a [host, distribution: 24]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 137-139]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy, distribution: 72]; KotejaZa1966 [host, distribution: 317]; KotejaZa1983 [host, distribution: 472]; Kozar1983a [host, distribution: 142]; Kozar1999a [host, distribution: 138]; KozarFoZa1996 [host, distribution: 64]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 58]; KozarOrKo1977 [host, distribution: 71]; KozarOs1987 [host, distribution: 91-95]; KozarTzVi1979 [host, distribution: 130]; KozarWa1985 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 72]; KwonDaPa2003 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 119-120]; KwonDaPa2003 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 120]; Lagows1996 [host, distribution: 31]; Lindin1935 [taxonomy: 131]; Lindin1935a [taxonomy: 122]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 120]; MalumpOsPy2010 [host, distribution: 255]; MarottTr1993 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 188-191]; MarottTr1995a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 67-73]; Masten2007 [host, distribution, taxonomy: 1-242]; Mateso1957 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 165-166]; Mateso1968 [host, distribution: 112]; Moghad2009 [host, distribution: 28-29]; Moghad2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 6, 15, 16, 99]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 63]; MoghadTa2010 [host, distribution: 40]; Panis2007a [host, distribution, biological control: 12-13]; Pelliz1989 [host, distribution: 569-570]; Rasina1955 [host, distribution: 69]; Schuma1918c [taxonomy: 429]; Seljak2010 [host, distribution: 102]; SimonKa2011 [distribution: 236]; Sulc1898 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 428]; Takaha1932 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 43-45]; Tang1984b [host, distribution: 125]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 600,749]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 389-392,405-406,703]; Tang2001 [distribution: 3]; TangHaTa1992 [host, distribution: 7]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 11,26]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 26]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 243-246]; Terezn1975a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 32]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 214-215]; Trjapi1989 [biological control: 113, 118, 126, 145]; WilliaGuMi2011 [taxonomy: 16-17]; WilliaMa2012 [distribution: 81]; Zahrad1974 [host, distribution: 142]; ZakOgaKo1964 [host, distribution: 424].



Ceroputo pini (Danzig)

NOMENCLATURE:

Puto pini Danzig, 1972a: 270. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: on Pinus sylvestris. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Ceroputo pini; Tang, 1992: 392. Change of combination.

Puto pini; Ben-Dov, 1994: 429. Revived combination.

Ceroputo pini; Williams et al., 2011: 17. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Pinaceae: Pinus koraiensis [Danzig1972a, BenDov1994, Danzig1999], Pinus sylvestris [Danzig1972a, BenDov1994, Danzig1999].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kazakhstan [Danzig1972a, BenDov1994, Danzig1999]; Russia (Primor'ye Kray [Danzig1972a, BenDov1994], Yakutia-Sakha (=Yakut) AR [Danzig1978a, BenDov1994]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Danzig (1972a, 1980b). Good description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

STRUCTURE: Williams, et al., 2011, found only one antennal intersegmental sensillum between segments IV and V in one antenna. However, the antennal segments were mounted in such a way that the intersegmental membranes were not visible. Eye height is greater than the length of the first antennal segment. The legs always possess only two campaniform sensilla on each surface of each trochanter, basal spurs are absent from the claws, each claw has a well-developed denticle, and the claw and tarsal digitules are only slightly clubbed. The 18 main cerarii are on well-sclerotised plates, whereas the sclerotisation of the supplementary cerarii varies among cerarii and specimens. The cerarian setae are more slender than those in C. pilosellae. There are tubular ducts on the dorsum and there are two sizes of trilocular pores on the derm, with the dorsal pores larger than the ventral pores. Dorsal oral collar tubular ducts are present, each slightly larger than those on the venter. As shown by Danzig (1980), this species possesses ventral multilocular disc pores on the posterior abdominal segments and there are a few quinquelocular pores near the labium. (Williams, et al., 2011)

SYSTEMATICS: Williams, et al., 2011 concluded that the species does not belong to Puto but to Ceroputo to which Tang (1992) transferred it.

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin 2014: 141-142 (female) [Key to species of Puto(Ceraputo)]; Danzig 1999: 80 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Tang 1992: 388 (female) [China]; Danzig 1988: 698 (female) [Far East of the USSR]; Danzig 1978b: 124 (female) [Far East of the USSR].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 429]; Danzig1972a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 270-271]; Danzig1978a [host, distribution: 76]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 115-116]; Danzig1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 88]; DanzigGa2014 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 174-176]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 392]; WilliaGuMi2011 [structure, taxonomy: 17].



Ceroputo vaccinii (Danzig)

NOMENCLATURE:

Puto vaccinii Danzig, 1978b: 125. Type data: RUSSIA: Yakutia-Sakha (= Yakut) AR, Khaptagai, on Vaccinium vitis-idaea. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Ceroputo vaccinii; Tang, 1992: 393. Change of combination.

Puto vaccinii; Ben-Dov, 1994: 432. Revived combination.

Ceroputo vaccinii; Williams et al., 2011: 17. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Ericaceae: Vaccinium [PolavaDaMi2000], Vaccinium vitis-idaea [Danzig1978b, BenDov1994, Danzig1999].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Russia (Irkutsk Oblast [Danzig1999], Kamchatka Oblast [Danzig1999], Yakutia-Sakha (=Yakut) AR [Danzig1978b, BenDov1994, Danzig1999]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Danzig (1978b). Good description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

STRUCTURE: On the antennae examined, there was only a single intersegmental sensillum between segments III and IV on one antenna. Between segments IV-V there is also a single sensillum on one antenna. Between segments VI and VII there are no sensilla on two antennae, one sensillum on six antennae and two sensilla on one antenna. The eyes are slightly smaller than the length of the first antennal segment. There are two campaniform sensilla on each surface of each trochanter and basal spurs are absent from all claws. The cerarii are on sclerotised plates with each of the anal lobe cerarii possessing 6-8 lanceolate setae. Other cerarii each have 4-6 setae but occasionally one or two cerarii may have only two setae. Tubular ducts are present on the frons but not in a group as in Puto. Disc pores, each with 5-8 loculi, are present on the venter but are absent from the head and thorax; pores with 5 loculi are located only around the vulva. There are two sizes of trilocular pores, with dorsal pores larger than ventral pores. (Williams, et al., 2011)

SYSTEMATICS: This species is similar to C. pilosellae but differs mainly in lacking disc pores on the head and thorax. We agree with Tang (1992) that its correct placement is in Ceroputo. Ben-Dov (1994) listed this species under Puto, although he was aware of the recombination by Tang (1992), presumably because he had doubt as to its generic placement. (Williams, et al., 2011)

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin 2014: 141-142 (female) [Key to species of Puto(Ceraputo)]; Danzig 1999: 80 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Danzig 1988: 699 (female) [Far East of the USSR]; Danzig 1978b: 124 (female) [Far East of the USSR].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 432]; Danzig1978b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 125-126]; Danzig1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 89-90]; DanzigGa2014 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 176-178]; PolavaDaMi2000 [host, distribution: 558]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 393-394]; WilliaGuMi2011 [structure, taxonomy: 17].



Coccidohystrix Lindinger

NOMENCLATURE:

Echinococcus Balachowsky, 1936c: 157. Type species: Echinococcus echinatus Balachowsky, by original designation. Homonym of Echinococcus Rudolphi, 1801, in Vermes.

Coccidohystrix Lindinger, 1943b: 219. Replacement name for Echinococcus Balachowsky, 1936c.

Centrococcus Borchsenius, 1948a: 953. Unjustified replacement name for Echinococcus Rudolphi, 1801; discovered by Morrison & Morrison, 1966: 31. Notes: Synonymy by community of type species.

Artemicoccus Balachowsky, 1953o: 147. Type species: Centrococcus bispinus Borchsenius, by original designation.

BIOLOGY: Palaearctic genus associated with Artemisia species.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good definition and characters given by Balachowsky (1953o) and by Tang (1992).

STRUCTURE: Adult female body oval, yellowih, covered by a felt white ovisac.

SYSTEMATICS: The genus Artemicoccus was split out of the genus centrococcus Borchsenius, 1948 (=Coccidohistrix Lindinger, 1943). (Danzig, et al., 2012) The type species of these genera, C. echinata (Balachowsky, and A. bispinus (Borchsenius, 1949) differ from each other rather clearly in the presence of dorsal elevated tubercles with large conical setae (mamelons) and 8-9-segmented antennae in the first species and in the absence of mamelons in a combination with the presence of cylindrical dorsal setae and 7-segmented antennae in the second species.1936). However, Gavrilov-Zimin & Matile-Ferrero, 2015 found that the other, non-type species demonstrate different intermediate combinations of the generic characters and the border between the genera disappears. They considered Artemicoccus a junior synonym of Coccidohystrix. Coccidohystrix differs from all other Palaearctic genera of mealybugs in the combination of the following characters: absence of ostioles and normally developed cerarii, which are replaced by groups of large conicalsetae without associated trilocular or quinquelocular pores, by tubular ducts of characteristic bottle-shaped form and presence of more or less cylindrical setae on the dorsum. (Gavrilov-Zimin & Matile-Ferrero, 2015)

KEYS: Kaydan 2015: 209 (female) [Key to the genera of the Peliococcus species-group]; Williams 2004a: 42 (female) [genera southern Asia]; Williams 2004a: 116 (female) [Coccidohystrix species southern Asia]; Millar 2002: 189-195 (female) [Pseudococcidae genera of South Africa]; Tang 1992: 384 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental region]; Tang 1992: 385 (female) [species Palaearctic & Oriental region]; Tang 1992: 384 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental region]; Tang 1992: 395 (female) [species Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Williams & Watson 1988a: 17 (female) [Tropical South Pacific Region]; Avasthi & Shafee 1987: 2 (female) [India]; Wang 1982TC: 20 (female) [China]; Tereznikova 1975: 160 (female) [Ukraine & Palaearctic region]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 39 (female) [Armenia]; Borchsenius 1949: 89 (female) [Palaearctic region ].

CITATIONS: Afifi1968 [taxonomy: 159]; Balach1936c [taxonomy, description: 157]; Balach1953o [taxonomy, description: 145-147]; Balach1953o [taxonomy: 145-147]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 44]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 95]; Borchs1948a [taxonomy: 953]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description: 308-309]; DanzigKaGa2012 [taxonomy: 237]; DanzigKaGa2012 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 237,238,241-242]; DeLott1964 [taxonomy: 345]; DeLott1969 [taxonomy: 2]; Goux1946 [taxonomy, description: 339-340]; Kaydan2014 [taxonomy: 209]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description: 89]; KozarKo1997 [taxonomy: 251]; KozarKo1997 [taxonomy: 251-255]; Lindin1943b [taxonomy: 219]; Millar2002 [taxonomy: 185-233]; Moghad2013 [distribution, taxonomy: 8, 18]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 15]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 13, 40, 65]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description: 384-385]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description: 394-395]; Tao1999 [taxonomy: 11]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy: 166, 168]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description: 224-225]; Willia2004a [taxonomy, description: 115-116]; WilliaWa1988a [taxonomy, description: 33, 35].



Coccidohystrix artemisiae (Kiritchenko)

NOMENCLATURE:

Echinococcus artemisiae Kiritchenko, 1937: 395. Type data: UKRAINE: Odessa Oblast, Odessa, on Artemisia austriaca. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female.

Centrococcus artemisiae; Borchsenius, 1949: 308. Change of combination.

Coccidohystrix artemisiae; Kosztarab & Kozár, 1978: 40. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: wormwood mealybug [KosztaKo1988F].



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Artemisia [KosztaKo1988F, KaydanKiKo2005], Artemisia austriaca [Kiritc1937, Borchs1949, Terezn1975, KosztaKo1978, BenDov1994], Artemisia commutata [Mateso1968, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [BenDov1994]; Cyprus [SismanUl2010]; Georgia [DanzigKaGa2012]; Kazakhstan [Mateso1968, KosztaKo1978, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994]; Kyrgyzstan (=Kirgizia) [DanzigKaGa2012]; Russia (Volgograd Oblast [DanzigKaGa2012]); Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [BenDov1994]; Turkey [KaydanKiKo2005, KaydanUlEr2007]; Ukraine [Koteja1974b] (Odessa Oblast [Kiritc1937, Terezn1975, KosztaKo1978, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994]); Uzbekistan [BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the leaves of the host plant. Living on leave, stems and roots of Artemisia species. (Danzig, et al., 2012)

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Kiritchenko (1937), Tereznikova (1975) and by Kosztarab & Kozár (1988). Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949) and by Tang (1992).

SYSTEMATICS: Coccidohystrix artemisiae is similar to C. echinota, but difers in the presence of tubular ducts. (Danzig et al., 2012)

KEYS: Gavrilov-Zimin & Matile-Ferrero 2014: 97-98 (female) [Key to Palaearctic species of Coccidohystrix]; Kozar & Konczne 1997: 254 (female) [Palearctic]; Tang 1992: 395 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Borchsenius 1949: 308 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: Balach1953o [taxonomy: 145-147]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 95]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 308-309]; Danzig1964 [taxonomy: 631]; DanzigKaGa2012 [description, distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 238,241-242]; Gavril2004 [host, distribution: 526]; GavrilMa2014 [taxonomy: 98]; KaydanKiKo2005 [host, distribution: 87]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 99]; Kiritc1937 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 395]; KosztaKo1978 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 39, 40]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution : 90-91]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy, distribution: 73]; KozarKo1997 [taxonomy: 254]; Mateso1968 [host, distribution: 113]; SismanUl2010 [host, distribution: 219-224]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 396]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 168, 169].



Coccidohystrix bispina (Borchsenius)

NOMENCLATURE:

Centrococcus bispinus Borchsenius, 1949: 309. Type data: TURKMENISTAN: Firuz, on Artemisia sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female.

Centrococcus unispinus Borchsenius, 1949: 310. Type data: ARMENIA: Erevan, on Artemisia sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female.

Artemicoccus bispinus; Balachowsky, 1953o: 146. Change of combination.

Artemicoccus unispinus; Balachowsky, 1953o: 146. Change of combination.

Coccidohystrix bispina; Kozár & Walter, 1985: 68. Change of combination.

Coccidohystrix unispina; Kozár & Walter, 1985: 68. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Artemisia [Borchs1949, Balach1953o, KozarWa1985, Tang1992], Artemisia [Bazaro1971c, TerGri1969, TerGri1973, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [Borchs1949, TerGri1969, TerGri1973, BenDov1994]; Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Bazaro1971c, TerGri1973, BenDov1994]; Turkey [DanzigKaGa2012]; Turkmenistan [Borchs1949, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949) and by Tang (1992).Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Ter-Grigorian (1973). Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949) and by Tang (1992).

STRUCTURE: Adult female body oval, yellowish, covered by a felt white ovisac. Dorsal tubular ducts numerous. Ventral trilocular pores distributed along body margin and near spiracles.

SYSTEMATICS: Artemicoccus unispinus is considered a junior synomym after a review of the type series of both species. (Danzig, et al., 2012)

KEYS: Gavrilov-Zimin & Matile-Ferrero 2014: 97-98 (female) [Key to Palaearctic species of Coccidohystrix]; Danzig et al. 2012: 237-238 (female) [Key to species of the genera Artemicoccus and Coccidohistrix]; Tang 1992: 385 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Tang 1992: 385 (female) [as Artemicoccus unispinus; Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 225 (female) [as (Artemicoccus unispinus
; Armenia]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 225 (female) [Armenia]; Borchsenius 1949: 308 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Borchsenius 1949: 308 (female) [as Artemicoccus unispinus; Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: Balach1953o [taxonomy: 146, 147]; Bazaro1971c [host, distribution: 89]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 44,45]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 309-311]; DanzigKaGa2012 [description, distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 237-238]; GavrilMa2014 [taxonomy: 97]; KozarWa1985 [taxonomy: 68]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 385, 386]; TerGri1969 [host, distribution: 52]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 225-226].



Coccidohystrix burumandi Moghaddam {in}: Moghaddam & Alikhani

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccidohystrix burumandi Moghaddam {in}: Moghaddam & Alikhani, 2009: 176. Type data: IRAN: Markazi Province, Arak, on leaves of Euphorbia sp.; collected M. Alikhani, 25.v.2009. Holotype female. Type depository: IRIP. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Euphorbiaceae: Euphorbia [MoghadAl2009].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Iran [MoghadAl2009].

BIOLOGY: Found on upper surface of leaves (Moghaddam & Alikhani , 2009).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Moghaddam & Alikhani (2009).

KEYS: Gavrilov-Zimin & Matile-Ferrero 2014: 97-98 (female) [Key to Palaearctic species of Coccidohystrix].

CITATIONS: GavrilMa2014 [taxonomy: 98]; Moghad2013 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 18-19, 99]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 64]; MoghadAl2009 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 175-179].



Coccidohystrix echinata (Balachowsky)

NOMENCLATURE:

Ripersia echinata Balachowsky, 1930a: 181. Type data: FRANCE: Alpes Maritimes, near Biot, on Fumana spachii. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Notes: Lectotype (designated in Gavrilov-Zimin & Matile-Ferrero, 2015): adult female, France, Alpes-Maritimes, Cap d’Antibes, on Fumana spachii, A. Balachowsky, 10.VII.1929, MNHN 5247-2;

Amonostherium echinatum; Balachowsky, 1932d: lxii. Change of combination.

Anomostherium echinatum; Balachowsky, 1932d: lxii. Misspelling of genus name.

Coccidohystrix echinata; Gavrilov-Zimin & Matile-Ferrero, 2014: 97. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Cistaceae: Fumana spachii [Balach1930a], Helianthemum [Balach1932d].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: France [Balach1930a, Balach1932d, Foldi2001].

BIOLOGY: Lives on roots of the host plant at sea dunes (Balachowsky, 1936c).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration given by Balachowsky (1936c).Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Balachowsky (1930a).

STRUCTURE: Adult female. Body broadly oval, about 2 mm long. Antennae 7-segmented. Legs well developed, slender, without translucent pores. Claw with slight denticle. Anal apparatus complete, with inner row of pores, one (partly doubling) outer row of spinulae and 6 long setae. Multilocular pores few, forming transverse rows on V-VIII abdominal sternites. Quinquelocular pores forming transverse rows on abdominal sternites and sparsely scattered on sternites of cephalothorax. Trilocular pores scattered on all body surface and forming groups near spiracles. Simple tubular ducts slightly vary in size (they are similar in size or slightly shorter than large conical setae) scattered on all body surface. (Gavrilov-Zimin & Matile-Ferrero, 2015)

SYSTEMATICS: Gavrilov-Zimin & Matile-Ferrero, 2015 indicated that this species is not related to the type species and other American species of the genus Amonostherium and they transferred it to Coccidohystrix, in view of the presence of groups of large dorsal conical setae, peculiar cylindrical setae, characteristic "bottle-shaped" simple tubular ducts as well as an absence of ostioles and real cerarii (with trilocular or quinquelocular pores).

KEYS: Gavrilov-Zimin & Matile-Ferrero 2014: 97-98 (female) [Key to Palaearctic species of Coccidohystrix].

CITATIONS: Balach1930a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 181-184]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; GavrilMa2014 [distribution, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 97-99].



Coccidohystrix eleusines Williams

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccidohystrix eleusines Williams, 2004a: 116. Type data: PAKISTAN: Muzzafarabad, on Eleusine indica; collected 23.vii.1970. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae: Eleusine indica [Willia2004a].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Pakistan [Willia2004a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Williams (2004a).

KEYS: Williams 2004a: 116 (female) [Coccidohystrix species southern Asia].

CITATIONS: Willia2004a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 116-118].



Coccidohystrix insolita (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus nivalis; Grandpré & Charmoy, 1899: 42. Misidentification; discovered by Mamet, 1949: 11.

Phenacoccus insolitus Green, 1908a: 26. Type data: INDIA: Bengal, Pusa, on Sida cordifolia. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Williams & Watson, 1988a: 235. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Tylococcus insolitus; Brain, 1915: 95. Change of combination.

Centrococcus insolitus; Ferris, 1954a: 54. Change of combination.

Coccidohystrix insolita; De Lotto, 1969: 2. Change of combination.

Coccidohystrix insulata; Hodgson & Hardy, 2013: 797. Misspelling of species name.

COMMON NAME: eggplant mealybug [LitCa1994a, LitCaCa1998].



ASSOCIATES: HYMENOPTERA Formicidae: Anoplolepis gracilipes [MooreWaBa2014], Dolichoderus bituberculatus [MooreWaBa2014], Solenopsis geminata [MooreWaBa2014].

FOES: Fungi: Metarhizium anisopliae [LitCaCa1998]. COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Anegleis cardoni (Weise) [Afroze2000], Hyperaspis maindronia [LitCaCa1998], Nephus regularis [LitCaCa1998]. FUNGI Clavicipitaceae: Metarhizium anisopliae [MooreWaBa2014]. HYMENOPTERA : Aprostocetus annulicornis [MooreWaBa2014]. Apheleinidae: Coccophagus pseudococci [MooreWaBa2014]. Encyrtidae: Adektitopus longipennis [MooreWaBa2014], Anagyrus gracilis [MooreWaBa2014], Apoleptomastix bicoloricornis [MooreWaBa2014], Blepyrus insularis [MooreWaBa2014], Gyranusoidea signata [MooreWaBa2014], Homalotylus albiclavatus [MooreWaBa2014], Homalotylus hemipterinus [MooreWaBa2014], Homalotylus indicus [MooreWaBa2014], Homalotylus turkmenicus [MooreWaBa2014], Leptomastix nigrocincta [MooreWaBa2014], Leptomastix nigrocoxalis [LitCaCa1998], Neocharitopus orientalis [MooreWaBa2014], Paranathrix tachikawai [MooreWaBa2014], Prochiloneurus albifuniculus [MooreWaBa2014], Prochiloneurus pulchellus [MooreWaBa2014]. Eulophidae: Aprostocetus ajmerensis [MooreWaBa2014], Aprostocetus jaipurensis [MooreWaBa2014]. Pteromalidae: Catolaccus crassiceps [MooreWaBa2014]. Signiphoridae: Chartocerus hyalipennis [MooreWaBa2014], Chartocerus kerrichi [MooreWaBa2014], Chartocerus kurdjumovi [MooreWaBa2014]. LEPIDOPTERA Lycaenidae: Spalgis epeus [LitCaCa1998].

HOSTS: Acanthaceae [Matile1984c], Adhatoda vascica [Ali1970a, Varshn1992], Anisotes trisolcus [Matile1988, BenDov1994], Barleria cristata [Varshn1992], Barleria cristata [Willia2004a], Erianthemum [Willia2004a], Justicia adhatoda [Willia2004a]. Amaranthaceae: Achyranthes [Ramakr1930, Ali1970a, Varshn1992], Achyranthes aspera [Ali1970a, AvasthSh1987, Varshn1992, BenDov1994, Lit1997a], Alternanthera sp. [MooreWaBa2014], Alternathera eriandra [Willia2004a], Gomphrena celosioides [LitCaCa1998], Gomphrena globosa [LitCaCa1998]. Apocynaceae: Tabernaemontana [Newste1911a, Willia1958, BenDov1994]. Araceae: Schismatoglottis [Willia2004a]. Arecaceae: Cocos nucifera [WilliaWa1988a, BenDov1994]. Aristolochiaceae: Aristolochia indica [Varshn1992, Willia2004a]. Asteraceae: Mikania [Lit1997a], Psiadia [Mamet1951], Psiadia altissima [Mamet1951, BenDov1994]. Chenopodiaceae: Chenopodium album [Varshn1992]. Cucurbitaceae: Momordica dioica [Varshn1992]. Euphorbiaceae: Acalypha [Willia2004a], Croton sparsiflorus [Ali1970a], Croton sparsiflorus [Varshn1992], Euphorbia pulcherrima [AvasthSh1987, Varshn1992, BenDov1994]. Fabaceae: Cajanus [Ferris1954a, Tang1992], Cajanus cajan [LitCaCa1998, Willia2004a], Cajanus indicus [Green1922, Green1937, Afifi1968, Ali1970a, Varshn1992, BenDov1994], Crotalaria fulva [Mamet1950, BenDov1994], Dalbergia sissoo [Varshn1992], Strongylodon [Willia2004a], Tephrosia purpurea [Willia2004a]. Malvaceae: Abutilon [Ramakr1930, Ali1970a, Varshn1992, Willia2004a], Abutilon indicum [AvasthSh1987, Varshn1992, BenDov1994, Willia2004a], Hibiscus [Brain1915, MunroFo1936, Mamet1954, Willia1958, Willia2004a], Hibiscus rosa-sinensis [DeLott1969, Varshn1992, BenDov1994, Willia2004a], Malachra capitata [Ali1970a, Varshn1992], Malvastrum coromandelianum [LitCaCa1998]. Menispermaceae: Cyclea [Ferris1954a, Tang1992, Willia2004a], Cyclea burmanni [Green1922, Green1937, Ali1970a, Varshn1992, BenDov1994]. Moraceae: Ficus [Varshn1992], Morus alba [Varshn1992]. Poaceae: Oryza sativa [Willia2004a]. Rhamnaceae: Ziziphus jujuba [Willia2004a]. Rubiaceae: Coffea robusta [Willia2004a]. Solanaceae: Brunfelsia nicotiana [Willia2005], Cyphomandra betaceae [Willia2004a], Datura [Ali1970a, Varshn1992], Datura alba [LitCaCa1998], Datura fastuosa [Ali1970a, Varshn1992, BenDov1994], Datura metel [Varshn1992, LitCaCa1998], Datura stramonium [LitCaCa1998], Lycopersicon esculentum [WilliaMa2005a], Nicotiana tabacum [LitCaCa1998], Physalis maxima [Ali1968, Varshn1992], Physalis peruviana [Green1937, Mamet1949, DeLott1964, BenDov1994, WilliaMa2005a], Sida [Ramakr1930, Ali1970a, Lit1997a], Sida cordifolia [Green1908a, Green1922, Green1937, Mamet1949, Ferris1954a, Willia1958, Varshn1992, BenDov1994], Sida cordifolia [Ali1968, Willia2004a], Sida rhombifolia [James1934a, Willia1958, BenDov1994, LitCaCa1998, Willia2004a], Solanum [GrandpCh1899, Ferris1954a, DeLott1969, Tang1992, Lit1997a, LitCaCa1998], Solanum auriculatum [Mamet1949, BenDov1994], Solanum biflorum [LitCaCa1998], Solanum giganteum [DeLott1964, BenDov1994], Solanum hispidum [AvasthSh1987, Varshn1992, BenDov1994], Solanum incanum [DeLott1964, BenDov1994], Solanum indicum [Mamet1949, Mamet1954, BenDov1994], Solanum melongena [Green1922, Green1937, Mamet1949, Ali1970a, AvasthSh1987, Varshn1992, BenDov1994, Lit1997a], Solanum nicotianum [Willia2004a], Solanum tuberosum [Mamet1949, BenDov1994, Willia2004a], Solanum xanthocarpus [Willia2005], Withania somnifera [Ali1970a, Varshn1992, Willia2004a]. Sterculiaceae: Dombeya [Mamet1954, BenDov1994]. Tiliaceae: Triumfetta [Ramakr1930, Ali1970a, Varshn1992]. Zygophyllaceae: Tribulas [Ramakr1930, Ali1970a, Varshn1992, Willia2004a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Kenya [Newste1911a, James1934a, DeLott1964, BenDov1994]; Madagascar [Mamet1950, Mamet1951, Mamet1954, BenDov1994]; Rodriques Island [GrandpCh1899, Mamet1949, BenDov1994]; South Africa [Brain1915, MunroFo1936, DeLott1969, BenDov1994]; Tanzania [DeLott1964, BenDov1994]; Zanzibar [WilliaMa2005a]. Australasian: Guam [MooreWaBa2014]; Western Samoa [WilliaWa1988a, BenDov1994]. Oriental: Bangladesh [Varshn1992, BenDov1994, Willia2004a]; Burma (=Myanmar) [Willia2004a]; India [Green1908a, Ferris1954a, Ali1970a, NurBrBe1987, GhoshGh1988AB, Varshn1992, BenDov1994] (Andhra Pradesh [Willia2004a], Bihar [Ali1970a, AvasthSh1987, Varshn1992, BenDov1994, Willia2004a], Goa [Ali1970a, Varshn1992], Gujarat [Willia2004a], Haryana [Varshn1992], Karnataka [Willia2004a, Willia2005], Kerala [Ali1970a, Varshn1992], Madhya Pradesh [Willia2004a], Maharashtra [Willia2004a], Odisha [Varshn1992, Willia2004a], Punjab [Ali1970a], Rajasthan [Willia2004a], Tamil Nadu [AvasthSh1987, Varshn1992, Willia2004a, SureshCh2008], Uttar Pradesh [AvasthSh1987, Varshn1992, Willia2004a], West Bengal [Ali1970a, Varshn1992, Willia2004a]); Laos [Willia2004a]; Pakistan [Varshn1992, BenDov1994, Willia2004a]; Philippines (Luzon [LitCa1994a, Lit1997a, LitCaCa1998, Willia2004a], Mindanao [Lit1997a]); Singapore [MooreWaBa2014]; Sri Lanka [Green1922, Green1937, Ali1970a, Varshn1992, BenDov1994, Willia2004a]; Thailand [Willia2004a, Willia2005]; Vietnam [Willia2004a]. Palaearctic: China [Ferris1954a, Ali1970a, Tang1992, TangHaTa1992, BenDov1994]; Saudi Arabia [Matile1984c, Matile1988, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Living on the leaves and stems of its host plant. Associated with Dolichoderus bituberculatus, Solenopsis geminata, Anaplolepis longipes.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ferris (1954a), De Lotto (1964), Avasthi & Shafee (1987), Ghosh, A. B. & Ghose (1988), Williams & Watson (1988a), Lit et al. (1998) and by Williams (2004a). Good description and illustration of the adult male given by Afifi (1968).

STRUCTURE: Colour photograph given by Lit et al. (1998) and Moore, et al., 2014. 9-segmented; posterior ostioles present, anterior ostioles absent; cerarii on margins numbering 17 pairs, numerous dorsal cerarii present also, each cerarius consisting of 1-15 large conical setae situated on a sclerotized prominence, without any associated trilocular pores; legs well developed, each claw with a denticle present on plantar surface; circulus absent; anal lobes well developed, each with a sclerotized ventral bar; quinquelocular pores numerous on venter; multilocular disc pores numerous on venter of abdominal segments III-IX, a few also present on the venter of segments I and II and on the dorsum of segment VII; ventral oral collar ducts present on submargins of abdominal segments V-VIII; oral rim ducts absent entirely. (Moore, et al., 2014)

KEYS: Gavrilov-Zimin & Matile-Ferrero 2014: 97-98 (female) [Key to Palaearctic species of Coccidohystrix]; Danzig et al. 2012: 237-238 (female) [Key to species of the genera Artemicoccus and Coccidohistrix]; Williams & Matile-Ferrero 2009a: 97-101 (female) [Pseudococcidae species from Mauritius]; Williams 2004a: 116 (female) [Coccidohystrix species southern Asia]; Lit et al. 1998: 32 (female) [Philippines]; Tang 1992: 395 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions].

CITATIONS: Afifi1968 [taxonomy, male, description, illustration, host, distribution: 159-163]; Afroze2000 [host, distribution, biological control: 55-62]; Ali1970a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 91]; AvasthSh1987 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 11-14]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 95, 96]; BoradBh1996 [host, distribution, life history, ecology, biological control: 41-49]; BoradBh1996a [ecology, economic importance, biological control: 125-128]; BoradBh1997c [chemical control: 78-87]; Brain1915 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 96-98]; BrainKe1917 [distribution: 182]; ChenWoWu2012 [catalogue, distribution, taxonomy: 299]; DanzigKaGa2012 [taxonomy: 238]; DeLott1964 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 345]; DeLott1969 [taxonomy: 2]; Ferris1922b [taxonomy: 247]; Ferris1954a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 54]; GavrilMa2014 [taxonomy: 98]; GhoshGh1988AB [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 817-824]; GrandpCh1899 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 42, 43]; Green1908a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 26, 27]; Green1922 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 390, 391]; Green1937 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 290]; HaqueGh2007 [biological control, chemical control: 209-211]; Hodgso2012 [taxonomy: 62]; HodgsoHa2013 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 797]; James1934a [host, distribution: 272]; Lit1997a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 35]; LitCa1994a [host, distribution: 389]; LitCaCa1998 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, biological control, economic importance: 32-38]; Mamet1949 [host, distribution: 11]; Mamet1950 [host, distribution: 21]; Mamet1951 [host, distribution: 223]; Mamet1954 [host, distribution: 10]; Matile1984c [host, distribution: 223]; Matile1988 [host, distribution: 35]; Millar2002 [illustration: 212]; Mohara1990 [taxonomy: 47]; MooreWaBa2014 [description, distribution, economic importance, host, illustration, life history, taxonomy: 1-7]; MunroFo1936 [host, distribution: 96]; Newste1911a [illustration, host, distribution: 164]; NurBrBe1987 [taxonomy, distribution: 54]; ParidaMo1982 [taxonomy: 19]; PuttarCh1953a [biological control: 87-95]; Ramakr1919 [host, distribution: 626-627]; Ramakr1921a [host, distribution: 344]; Ramakr1930 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 61]; Ramakr1941 [host, distribution: 107-113]; SureshCh2008 [host, distribution, economic importance: 285-291]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 395]; TangHaTa1992 [host, distribution: 7]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 11]; UsmanPu1955 [host, distribution: 47]; Varshn1992 [host, distribution: 40, 41]; Willia1958 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 224, 225]; Willia2004a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 118-121]; Willia2005 [host, distribution: 167]; WilliaMa2005a [host, distribution: 146]; WilliaMa2009a [taxonomy: 97-101]; WilliaWa1988a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 34-35].



Coccidohystrix lubersaci (Balachowsky)

NOMENCLATURE:

Centrococcus lubersaci Balachowsky, 1953: 277. Type data: MOROCCO: Bled Gouttitir, on Artemisia herba-alba. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female.

Artemicoccus lubersaci; Balachowsky, 1953o: 146. Change of combination.

Coccidohystrix lubersaci Gavrilov-Zimin & Matile-Ferrero, 2014: 97-98.



HOST: Asteraceae: Artemisia herba-alba [Balach1953, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Morocco [Balach1953, Balach1953o, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Balachowsky (1953).

KEYS: Gavrilov-Zimin & Matile-Ferrero 2014: 97-98 (female) [Key to Palaearctic species of Coccidohystrix]; Danzig et al. 2012: 237-238 (female) [Key to species of the genera Artemicoccus and Coccidohistrix].

CITATIONS: Balach1953 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 277-281]; Balach1953o [taxonomy: 146]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 44, 45]; DanzigKaGa2012 [taxonomy: 238]; GavrilMa2014 [taxonomy: 98].



Coccidohystrix madecassa (Mamet)

NOMENCLATURE:

Centrococcus madecassus Mamet, 1959a: 394. Type data: MADAGASCAR: Lake Tsimanampetsotsa, on undetermined plant. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

Coccidohystrix madecassus; Ben-Dov, 1994: 96. Change of combination.

Coccidohystrix madecassa; Pellizzari & Williams, 2013: 411. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Madagascar [Mamet1959a, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Mamet (1959a).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 96]; Mamet1959a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution : 394, 395].



Coccidohystrix maghribiensis Gavrilov-Zimin & Matile-Ferrero

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccidohystrix maghribiensis Gavrilov-Zimin & Matile-Ferrero, 2014: 100-101. Type data: MOROCCO: Border of Sahara desert, 10 km South of Ouarzazate, oasis Fint, on undetermined dicotyledonous herb, 9/28/2013, by I. Gavrilov-Zimin. Holotype female (examined). Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust. Notes: paratypes: 3 adult females with the same collecting data,



HOST: LAMIALES : Veronica? [GavrilMa2014].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Morocco [GavrilMa2014].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Gavrilov-Zimin & Matile-Ferrero, 2015

STRUCTURE: Adult female. Body broadly oval, about 2 mm long. Antennae 7-segmented. Legs well developed, slender, without translucent pores. Claw with a slight denticle. Anal apparatus complete, with inner row of pores, double outer row of spinulae and 6 long setae. Multilocular pores occasionally present on last abdominal tergite and forming transverse rows on five posterior abdominal sternites. Quinquelocular pores occasionally present on dorsum and scattered on all medial zone of ventrum. Trilocular (rarely 4-locular) pores present near spiracles only: 8-14 pores near each spiracle. Minute discoidal pores occasionally present on both body surfaces. Simple tubular ducts of three sizes; largest ones forming transverse rows on all tergites; medial and smaller ducts forming together transverse rows on abdominal sternites and present in small number on sternites of cephalothorax. Most of large conical setae present in mamelons in transverse rows on most tergites; each mamelon includes 2-5 conical setae; singular conical setae, similar in size with conical setae in mamelons or smaller also present on dorsum. Minute, almost cylindrical setae scattered on dorsum and grouping around each mamelon. (Gavrilov-Zimin & Matile-Ferrero, 2015)

SYSTEMATICS: This species as well as C monicae differs from all other species of Coccidohystrix in the presence of very few trilocular pores, which can be found near spiracles only. C. maghribiensis can be distinguished from C> monicae by the numerous mamelons, scattered on the dorsum and the very small dorsal setae instead of the long cylindrical setae seen on C. monicae. (Gavrilov-Zimin & Matile-Ferrero, 2015)

KEYS: Gavrilov-Zimin & Matile-Ferrero 2014: 97-98 (female) [Key to Palaearctic species of Coccidohystrix].

CITATIONS: GavrilMa2014 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 97-98, 100-101].



Coccidohystrix monicae Gavrilov-Zimin & Matile-Ferrero

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccidohystrix monicae Gavrilov-Zimin & Matile-Ferrero, 2014: 100, 102, 104. Type data: TUNISIA: Kairouan, km 8, road from Ousseltia to Haffouz, on roots of Paronychia sp., 4/7/1979, by D. Matile-Ferrero. Holotype female (examined). Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Caryophyllaceae: Paronychia sp. [GavrilMa2014]

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Tunisia [GavrilMa2014].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Gavrilov-Zimin & Matile-Ferrero, 2015.

STRUCTURE: Body broadly oval, about 2 mm long. Antennae 7-segmented. Legs well developed, slender, without translucent pores. Claw with slight denticle. Anal apparatus complete, with inner row of pores, one outer row of spinulae and six long setae. (Gavrilov-Zimin & Matile-Ferrero, 2015)

SYSTEMATICS: This species differs from all other species of Coccidohystrix except C. maghribiensis in having very few trilocular pores, which can be found near spiracles only. It differs from C. maghribiensis, by having a small number of conical setae, which are located along body margin only and are not grouped in mamelons. (Gavrilov-Zimin & Matile-Ferrero, 2015)

KEYS: Gavrilov-Zimin & Matile-Ferrero 2014: 97-98 (female) [Key to Palaearctic species of Coccidohystrix].

CITATIONS: GavrilMa2014 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 97-98,100,102,104].



Coccidohystrix samui Kozár & Konczne Benedicty

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccidohystrix samui Kozár & Konczne Benedicty, 1997: 252. Type data: HUNGARY: Budapest (Sas-hegy), in plant community: Pulsatillo-Festucetum rupicolae, 17 April 1997; coll. F. Samu and Cs. Szinetar. Holotype female. Type depository: Budapest: Plant Protection Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary; type no. 20. Described: female. Illust.

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Hungary [KozarKo1997, KozarKiSa2004].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Kozár & Konczne Benedicty (1997).

KEYS: Gavrilov-Zimin & Matile-Ferrero 2014: 97-98 (female) [Key to Palaearctic species of Coccidohystrix]; Kozar & Konczne 1997: 254 (female) [Palearctic].

CITATIONS: GavrilMa2014 [taxonomy: 98]; Kaydan2015 [distribution, host, molecular data: 205]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 56]; KozarKo1997 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 251-255].



Coccidohystrix splendens (Goux)

NOMENCLATURE:

Echinococcus echinatus Balachowsky, 1936c: 157. Type data: MOROCCO: at sea dunes near Agadir, on the roots of an undetermined plant. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust. Homonym of Coccidohystrix echinata (Balachowsky, 1930).

Coccidohystrix echinatum; Lindinger, 1943b: 219. Change of combination.

Echinococcus splendens Goux, 1946: 26. Type data: FRANCE: Marseille, Madrague de Montredon, on Cistus albidus. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

Centrococcus echinatus; Borchsenius, 1948a: 953. Change of combination.

Centrococcus splendens; Balachowsky, 1953o: 146. Change of combination.

Coccidohystrix splendens; Kozár & Walter, 1985: 68. Change of combination.

Coccidohystrix splendens Gavrilov-Zimin & Matile-Ferrero, 2014: 97. Replacement name for Coccidohystrix echinata (Balachowsky, 1936).



HOST: Lamiaceae: Cistus albidus [Goux1946, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: France [Goux1946, BenDov1994]; Germany [Schmut1956b]; Italy [LongoMaPe1995]; Morocco [Balach1936c, Foldi2001].

BIOLOGY: Living on the leaves of the host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Goux (1946). Redescription and illustration in Gavrilov-Zimin & Matile-Ferrero, 2015.

STRUCTURE: Adult female. Body elongate-oval, about 2 mm long. Antennae 8-9-segmented. Legs well developed, slender, without translucent pores. Claw with a slight denticle. Anal apparatus complete, with inner row of pores, one outer row of spinulae and six setae, which are slightly longer than diameter of anal ring. Multilocular pores absent. (Gavrilov-Zimin & Matile-Ferrero, 2015)

SYSTEMATICS: The females of C. splendens (Goux) differ from C. echinata (Balachowsky, 1936), in having a smaller number of antennal segments (8 instead of 9). However, since the number of antennal segments is one of the most variable characters of mealybugs and it always varies in large series of females. Gavrilov-Zimin & Matile-Ferrero onsider C. splendens as a junior synonym of C. echinata, but use it as a substitute name for Coccidohystrix echinata (Balachowsky, 1936) which is a junior secondary homonym of C. echinata (Balachowsky, 1930).

KEYS: Gavrilov-Zimin & Matile-Ferrero 2014: 97-98 (female) [Key to Palaearctic species of Coccidohystrix]; Danzig et al. 2012: 237-238 (female) [Key to species of the genera Artemicoccus and Coccidohistrix]; Kozar & Konczne 1997: 254 (female) [Palearctic]; Kozar & Konczne 1997: 254 (female) [Palearctic].

CITATIONS: Balach1936c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 157-160]; Balach1953o [taxonomy: 146]; Balach1953o [taxonomy: 146]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 96]; Borchs1948a [taxonomy: 953]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy: 307]; DanzigKaGa2012 [taxonomy: 238]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; GavrilMa2014 [distribution, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 97-98, 103-104]; Goux1946 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 334-340]; KozarKo1997 [taxonomy: 254]; KozarKo1997 [taxonomy: 254]; KozarWa1985 [taxonomy: 68]; Lindin1943b [taxonomy: 219]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 118]; Schmut1956b [host, distribution: 66].



Coccidohystrix zangherii Kozár & Pellizzari Scaltriti

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccidohystrix zangherii Kozár & Pellizzari Scaltriti, 1989a: 507. Type data: ITALY: Campo Imperatore, Fonte Vetica, on Juniperus nana. Holotype female. Type depository: IEPI. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Cupressaceae: Juniperus nana [KozarPe1989a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Italy [KozarPe1989a, LongoMaPe1995].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Kozár & Pellizzari Scaltriti (1989a).

KEYS: Gavrilov-Zimin & Matile-Ferrero 2014: 97-98 (female) [Key to Palaearctic species of Coccidohystrix]; Danzig et al. 2012: 237-238 (female) [Key to species of the genera Artemicoccus and Coccidohistrix]; Kozar & Konczne 1997: 254 (female) [Palearctic].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 96]; DanzigKaGa2012 [taxonomy: 238]; GavrilMa2014 [taxonomy: 98]; KozarKo1997 [taxonomy: 254]; KozarPe1989a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 507-510]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 118].



Coccura Šulc

NOMENCLATURE:

Tetrura Lichtenstein, 1882a: 124. Type species: Coccus rubi Schrank, by original designation. Homonym of Tetrura Lesson, 1844 in Aves. Notes: The nominal type species was a misidentification of Coccus comari Kunow.

Tetruria; Ashmead, 1891: 97. Misspelling of genus name. Notes: Mis-spelling of Tetrura.

Coccura Šulc, 1908a: 64. Replacement name for Tetrura Lichtenstein, 1882a. Notes: Sulc designated the type species Coccus rubi Schrank, as a misidentification of Coccus comari Kunow, 1880.

Rosanococcus Kanda, 1934: 311. Type species: Phenacoccus suwakoensis Kwana and Toyoda, by monotypy and original designation. Synonymy by Takahashi, 1958: 3. Notes: A subjective synonym of Coccura.

Hemisphaerococcus Borchsenius, 1934: 12. Nomen nudum.

Mediococcus Kiritchenko, 1936a: 144. Type species: Mediococcus circumscriptus Kiritchenko, by monotypy. Synonymy by Danzig, 1982a: 141. Notes: A subjective synonym of Coccura.

Calyptococcus Borchsenius, 1948a: 956. Type species: Calyptococcus desertus Borchsenius, by original designation. Synonymy by Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 185.

Cocura; Nur et al., 1987. Misspelling of genus name.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good definition and characters given by Borchsenius (1948a), Borchsenius (1949) and by Tang (1992).

SYSTEMATICS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014, considered the montypic genus Calyptococcus as a junior synonym of Coccurs because its type speies, Calyptococcus was placed here under synonymy with Coccura suwakoensis. This last species was used as a type for the monotypic genus Rosanococcus, but this genus was synonymised with Coccura by Takahashi (1958).

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin 2014: 183-185 (female) [Key to general of Phenacoccinae]; Tang 1992: 439 (female) [species Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Danzig 1988: 697 (female) [Far East of Russia]; Wang 1982TC: 21 (female) [China]; Danzig 1980b: 135-137 (female) [Far East Russia]; Tereznikova 1975: 160 (female) [Ukraine & Palaearctic region]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 39 (female) [Armenia]; Borchsenius 1949: 89 (female) [as Calyptococcus; Palaearctic region]; Borchsenius 1949: 89 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Borchsenius 1949: 300 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: Ashmea1891 [taxonomy: 97]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 31,67,95,97,226,477]; Borchs1934 [taxonomy: 12]; Borchs1948a [taxonomy, description: 956]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description: 299-300, 304-306]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description: 61, 109, 135-137]; Danzig1982a [taxonomy, description: 141]; DanzigGa2014 [description, taxonomy: 185-187]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 94]; Kanda1934 [taxonomy, description: 311]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, description: 96-97]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description: 90]; KwonDaPa2003 [taxonomy: 106]; Lichte1882a [taxonomy, description: 124]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 28,41,117,177,194-19]; NurBrBe1987 [distribution: 54]; Sulc1908a [taxonomy, description: 63-67]; Takaha1958 [taxonomy: 3]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description: 418-419,438-439]; Tao1999 [taxonomy: 12]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description: 173-175]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description: 220]; WilliaGu2010 [taxonomy: 66-68].



Coccura circumscripta (Kiritchenko)

NOMENCLATURE:

Mediococcus circumscriptus Kiritchenko, 1936a: 144. Type data: TURKMENISTAN: Chodzhent District, Mongol-tau, on Athraphaxis pyrifolia. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female.

Coccura transcaspica Borchsenius, 1949: 304. Type data: TURKMENISTAN: on Atraphaxis sp.. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Synonymy by Danzig, 2012: 647.

Coccura circumscripta; Danzig, 1982a: 141. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Polygonaceae: Atraphaxis [Borchs1949, Danzig1972b, Danzig1982a], Atraphaxis pyrifolia [Kiritc1936, BenDov1994], Atraphaxis spinosa [TerGri1962, TerGri1973, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [Borchs1949, TerGri1973, BenDov1994]; Azerbaijan (Nakhichevan' ASSR [TerGri1973]); Mongolia [Danzig1972b, Danzig1982a, BenDov1994]; Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Borchs1949, TerGri1973, BenDov1994]; Turkey [KaydanKo2010a]; Turkmenistan [Kiritc1936a, Borchs1949, TerGri1973, BenDov1994]; Uzbekistan (Fergana Oblast [Borchs1949, TerGri1962, TerGri1973, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the branches of the host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Kiritchenko (1936a)and by Ter-Grigorian (1973). Good description and illustration of the first-instar nymph given by Ter-Grigorian (1973). Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949) and by Ter-Grigorian (1962).Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949) and by Tang (1992).

STRUCTURE: Female. Body dark brown, reaching 2.2 mm in length. Antenna 9-segmented. Anal opening slightly distant from posterior margin of body. Anal ring with 2 incomplete rows of pores. Ostioles poorly developed, without pores and setae. Quinquelocular pores single on thorax, concentrated near spiracles. Bottle-shaped glands present only on ventral surface of body. (Danzig, 2012)

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Natural enemies discussed by Trjapitzin (1989).

KEYS: Danzig 2012: 642-643 [A key to the species of Coccura]; Tang 1992: 439 (female) [as Coccura transcaspica; Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Borchsenius 1949: 300 (female) [as Coccura transcaspica; Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 99,305]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 303-305]; Danzig1972b [host, distribution: 333]; Danzig1982a [host, distribution: 141]; Danzig2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 647-648]; Kaydan2015 [distribution, host, molecular data: 205]; KaydanKo2010a [distribution, host: 33]; Kiritc1936a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 144-146]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 443,503,504]; TerGri1962 [description, host, distribution: 130]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 222-224]; Trjapi1989 [biological control: 270, 300].



Coccura comari (Kunow)

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus comari Kunow, 1880: 46. Type data: GERMANY: Damhof, near Koenigsberg, on Comarum palustre. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Notes: Type material probably lost.

Tetrura rubi Lichtenstein, 1882e: 275. Type data: FRANCE: Montpellier, on Rubus discolor. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Synonymy by Sulc, 1908a: 64.

Phenacoccus comari; Cockerell, 1897p: 589. Change of combination.

Coccura comari; Šulc, 1908a: 64. Change of combination.

Phaenacoccus comari; Kiritchenko, 1932a: 261. Misspelling of genus name.

Phenacoccus (Tetrura) rubi; Goux, 1933: 235. Misidentification.

Pseudococcus gavalovi Borchsenius, 1936: 105. Type data: REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA: Sadgevaho and Nigusiana, on roots of Rubus caesius. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Synonymy by Borchsenius, 1949: 300.

COMMON NAME: Kunow's mealybug [KosztaKo1988F].



HOSTS: Crassulaceae: Sedum [TerGri1973, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994]. Rosaceae: Alchemilla [KosztaKo1988F], Alchemilla sericata [TerGri1973, BenDov1994], Comarum [Borchs1949, TerGri1973, Terezn1975, Danzig1978a, KosztaKo1988F, Tang1992], Comarum palustre [Kunow1880, Fernal1903b, Sulc1908a, BenDovMa1989, BenDov1994], Fragaria [KosztaKo1988F], Fragaria vesca [Schmut1952a, BenDov1994], Malus [Tang1984b], Potentilla [KosztaKo1988F], Potentilla anserina [Mateso1968a, BenDov1994], Potentilla argentae [Mateso1968a, BenDov1994], Potentilla reptans [Ossian1985, BenDov1994], Pyrus malus [Tang1984c, BenDov1994], Rosa [Danzig1978a, KosztaKo1988F, Gavril2010], Rosa acicularis [Danzig1978a], Rosa spinosissima [Mateso1968a, BenDov1994], Rubus [Lindin1912b, Borchs1934, Borchs1937, Borchs1949, Danzig1964, Danzig1978a, KotejaZaEl1978, Kozar1983a], Rubus caesius [Borchs1936, Borchs1937a, Borchs1949, Danzig1959, BenDovMa1989, KozarGuBa1994, BenDov1994], Rubus chamaemorus [Vikber1985], Rubus crataegifolius [KwonDaPa2003], Rubus discolor [Lichte1882a, Lichte1882e, BenDovMa1989, BenDov1994], Rubus fructicosus [Goux1933a, Kiritc1940, SampoOl1977, Marott1987a, BenDov1994], Rubus idaeus [Danzig1959, LongoRu1990, BenDov1994], Rubus saxatilis [Danzig1959, BenDov1994], Sanguisorba [Borchs1949, Danzig1964, TerGri1973, Terezn1975, Danzig1978a, KosztaKo1988F, Tang1992, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [TerGri1973]; Austria [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994]; Bulgaria [Gavril2010]; China (Gansu (=Kansu) [Tang1984b, BenDov1994]); Czech Republic [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994]; Finland [Vikber1985]; France [Lichte1882a, Lichte1882e, Goux1933a, BenDovMa1989, BenDov1994, Foldi2001, GavrilMa2008]; Georgia (Georgia [Borchs1934, Borchs1936, Borchs1937, Borchs1949, BenDov1994]); Germany [Kunow1880, Sulc1908a, Borchs1937a, Danzig1978a, Schmut1980, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994]; Hungary [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994, KozarKiSa2004]; Italy [SampoOl1977, Marott1987a, LongoRu1990, BenDov1994, LongoMaPe1995]; Kazakhstan [Mateso1968, BenDov1994]; Latvia [Rasina1955, Terezn1975]; Poland [Koteja1974b, KotejaZaEl1978, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994]; Russia (Bashkortostan (=Bashkir) Aut. Oblast [Borchs1949], Kaliningrad Oblast [Kunow1880, BenDovMa1989, BenDov1994], Lipestsk Oblast [Gavril2003a], St. Petersburg (=Leningrad) Oblast [Danzig1959, BenDov1994], Yakutia-Sakha (=Yakut) AR [Danzig1978a, BenDov1994]); South Korea [new]; Sweden [Ossian1985, BenDov1994, Gertss2001]; Switzerland [KozarGuBa1994, BenDov1994]; Ukraine (Krym (=Crimea) Oblast [Borchs1949]); Yugoslavia [Kozar1983a, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994] [Masten2007].

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the root crowns of its host plants. Life history, natural enemies and associated ant discussed by Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ter-Grigorian (1973), Tereznikova (1975), Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F), Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero (1989). Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949), Sampo & Olmi (1977), Vikberg (1985), Tang (1992) and by Kwon et al. (2003).

STRUCTURE: Female. Body pink, reaching 4 mm in length. Quinquelocular pores situated on thorax and abdomen. Bottle-shaped glands numerous on ventral surface of body and forming narrow stripe along margin of dorsal surface. (Danzig, 2012)

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Biological control discussed by Sampo & Olmi (1977).

KEYS: Danzig 2012: 642-643 [A key to the species of Coccura]; Tang 1992: 439 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Borchsenius 1949: 300 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 97]; BenDovMa1989 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 169-171]; Borchs1934 [host, distribution: 12]; Borchs1936 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 105-108]; Borchs1937 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 51]; Borchs1937a [host, distribution: 173]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 300, 301]; Cocker1897p [taxonomy: 589]; Danzig1959 [host, distribution: 445]; Danzig1964 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 631]; Danzig1978a [host, distribution: 73]; Danzig2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, life history, structure, taxonomy: 644-646]; DanzigGa2014 [illustration: 13]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 91]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Gavril2003a [host, distribution: 109]; Gavril2004 [host, distribution: 526]; Gavril2010 [host, distribution: 36]; GavrilKu2005 [taxonomy, distribution: 17-34]; Gertss2001 [distribution: 123-130]; Goux1933a [host, distribution: 235]; HardyGuHo2008 [taxonomy, phylogeny, molecular data: 51-71]; Kiritc1932a [taxonomy: 261]; Kiritc1940 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 120]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, biological control, life history: 92-93]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy, distribution: 73, 98]; KotejaZaEl1978 [host, distribution: 502]; Kozar1983a [host, distribution: 142]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 57]; Kunow1880 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 46, 47]; KwonDaPa2003 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 106-107]; LagowsKo1996 [host, distribution: 31, 33]; Lichte1882a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 124]; Lichte1882e [taxonomy, host, distribution: lxxv]; Lindin1912b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 297, 298]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 118]; LongoRu1990 [host, distribution: 114]; Marott1987a [host, distribution: 108]; Masten2007 [host, distribution, taxonomy: 1-242]; Ossian1985 [host, distribution: 145]; Rasina1955 [host, distribution: 69]; SampoOl1977 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, biological control: 91-94]; Schmut1980 [taxonomy: 50]; SimonKa2011 [distribution: 235]; Sulc1908a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 65-67]; Tang1984b [host, distribution: 125]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 439, 440]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 175, 176]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 220-222]; Vikber1985 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 161]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 17].



Coccura convexa Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccura convexa Borchsenius, 1949: 302. Type data: RUSSIA: Primor'ye Kray, on Artemisia sp. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 1980b: 138. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Artemisia [Borchs1949, Danzig1977a, BenDov1994], Artemisia prope obtusiloba [Danzig1972b, BenDov1994], Filifolium sibiricum [Danzig1984a, BenDov1994]. Chenopodiaceae: Eurotia [Danzig1982a, BenDov1994]. Rosaceae: Spiraea salicifolia [TangLi1988, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China (Nei Monggol (=Inner Mongolia) [TangLi1988, BenDov1994]); Mongolia [Danzig1972b, Danzig1977a, Danzig1980b, Danzig1982a, Danzig1984, BenDov1994]; North Korea [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994, KwonDaPa2003]; Russia (Primor'ye Kray [Borchs1949, Danzig1980b, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the roots of the host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Danzig (1980b) and by Tang & Li (1988). Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949) and by Tang (1992).

STRUCTURE: Female. Body orange, reaching 3.5 mm in length. Antenna 8- or, less frequently, 9-segmented. Quinquelocular pores situated on thorax and abdomen. Bottle-shaped glands numerous on ventral surface of body; arranged in narrow stripe along margin of body on dorsal surface. (Danzig, 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: The species is very similar to C. comari. (Danzig, 2012)

KEYS: Danzig 2012: 642-643 [A key to the species of Coccura]; Tang 1992: 439 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Borchsenius 1949: 300 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 98]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 302-304]; Danzig1972b [host, distribution: 333]; Danzig1977a [host, distribution: 197]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 138, 139]; Danzig1982a [host, distribution: 141]; Danzig1984a [host, distribution: 33]; KwonDaPa2003 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 106-107]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 442, 443]; TangHaTa1992 [host, distribution: 8]; TangLi1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 57]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 12].



Coccura desertus (Borchsenius)

NOMENCLATURE:

Calyptococcus desertus Borchsenius, 1948a: 956. Type data: TADZHIKISTAN: Melnikov, on Artemisia sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female.

Coccura desertus; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 185. Change of combination.



HOST: Asteraceae: Artemisia [Borchs1948a, Borchs1949, Tang1992, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Borchs1948a, Borchs1949, Tang1992, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949) and by Tang (1992).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 67]; Borchs1948a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 956]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 306-307]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 67].



Coccura suwakoensis (Kuwana & Toyoda)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus suwakoensis Kuwana & Toyoda, 1915: 443. Type data: JAPAN: Honshu Island, Yamanshi and Nagano, on Cydonia vulgaris and on Osmanthus frograns. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Ibaraki-ken: Insect Taxonomy Laboratory, National Institute of Agricultural Environmental Sciences, Kannon-dai, Yatabe, Tsukuba-shi, (Kuwana), Japan. Described: female.

Rosanococcus suwakoensis; Kanda, 1934: 311. Change of combination.

Hemisphaericoccus ussuri Maslovskii, 1935: 171. Nomen nudum; discovered by Danzig, 1980: 137.

Phenacoccus ussuriensis Borchsenius, 1936: 108. Type data: RUSSIA: Primorye Territory, on plum tree. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 1980b: 137. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Synonymy by Danzig, 1980: 137.

Hemisphaerococcus ussuriensis Kiritshenko, 1940a: 188. Nomen nudum; discovered by Borchsenius, 1949: 302.

Coccura ussuriensis Borchsenius, 1949: 302. Nomen nudum.

Phenacoccus prodigialis Ferris, 1950: 9. Type data: CHINA: Yunnan Province, near Kunming, on Prunus mume. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Danzig, 2012: 643.

Coccura suwakoensis; Danzig, 1980b: 137. Change of combination.

Cocura swoakoensis; Nur et al., 1987: 54. Misspelling of genus and species names.



HOSTS: Araliaceae: Kalopanax septemlobum [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994]. Berberidaceae: Berberis wilsoniana [Ferris1950, BenDov1994]. Caprifoliaceae: Lonicera [Borchs1949, Danzig1980b, BenDov1994]. Fabaceae: Maackia amurensis [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994]. Oleaceae: Fraxinus [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994], Fraxinus mandshurica [Tang1984b, BenDov1994], Osmanthus [KuwanaTo1915, BenDov1994], Osmanthus frograns [KuwanaTo1915, BenDov1994], Syringa [Borchs1936], Syringa amurensis [Borchs1949, Danzig1980b, BenDov1994]. Rosaceae: Crataegus [Borchs1936, Borchs1949, Danzig1980b, BenDov1994], Cydonia vulgaris [KuwanaTo1915, BenDov1994], Malus [Borchs1949], Malus asiatica [TangLi1988, BenDov1994], Malus manshurica [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994], Padus [Borchs1949], Padus maackii [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994], Prunus [Borchs1936, BenDov1994], Prunus mume [Ferris1950, TangHaTa1992, BenDov1994], Pyrus [Borchs1936, BenDov1994], Rosa [Borchs1949], Rubus crataegifolius [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994], Sorbaria sorbifolia [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994], Spiraea salicifolia [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: China (Yunnan [Danzig1980b]). Palaearctic: China [Ferris1950, Tang1984b, Tang1992, TangHaTa1992, BenDov1994] (Nei Monggol (=Inner Mongolia) [TangLi1988, BenDov1994]); Japan (Hokkaido [KuwanaTo1915, Danzig1980b, Kawai1980, NurBrBe1987, BenDov1994]); North Korea [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994, KwonDaPa2003]; Russia (Caucasus [Borchs1936], Primor'ye Kray [Borchs1949, Koteja1974b, Danzig1980b, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the branches and stems of the host plant. Occurring near the tips of the twigs. Unfertilized females overwinter on the basal part of a trunk and in cracks of the bark. The overwintered insects pass onto branches in spring. The emergence of larvae lasts from July (mass) to September. (Danzig, 2012)

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Kanda (1934), Danzig (1980b) and by Tang & Li (1988). Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949), Kawai (1980) and by Tang (1992).Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Ferris (1950).

STRUCTURE: Body crimson, length exceeding 6 mm. Antenna 9-segmented. Quinquelocular pores very scanty on thorax and abdomen. (Danzig, 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: GeneBank Accession No. AB439514 (Yokogawa & Yahara, 2009).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: In forests, only single individuals of this species usually occur, while in the ornamental plantings, these insects reach great abundance and damage lilacs and ashtrees, causing drying of the leaves, shoots, and branches and pollution of the plants with honeydew. (Danzig, 2012)

KEYS: Danzig 2012: 642-643 [A key to the species of Coccura]; Tang 1992: 439 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Borchsenius 1949: 300 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 98,99,338-339]; Borchs1936 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 108, 109]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 301-302]; ChenWoWu2012 [catalogue, distribution, taxonomy: 300]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 137, 138]; Danzig2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, life history, structure, taxonomy: 643]; Ferris1950 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 9, 24]; Kanda1934 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 311-312]; Kawai1972 [host, distribution: 6]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 96, 97]; Kiritc1940a [p. 188]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy, distribution: 73]; KuwanaTo1915 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 443-446]; KwonDaPa2003 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 107-108]; NurBrBe1987 [distribution: 54]; RossHaOk2012 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 199]; Tang1984b [host, distribution: 125]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 440, 441]; TangHaTa1992 [host, distribution: 8]; TangLi1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 59, 60]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 12,23]; YokogaYa2009 [molecular data, phylogeny, genebank: 57-66].



Cucullococcus Ferris

NOMENCLATURE:

Cucullococcus Ferris, 1941b: 25. Type species: Cucullococcus vaccinii Ferris, by monotypy and original designation.

Lusitanococcus Neves, 1954: 238. Type species: Lusitanococcus arrabidensis Neves, by monotypy. Synonymy by Morrison & Morrison, 1966: 112.

Cuculiococcus; Tang, 1992: 588. Misspelling of genus name.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good definition and characters given by Ferris (1953a), Neves (1954), Gomez-Menor Ortega (1957), McKenzie (1967) and by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Tang 1992: 588 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; McKenzie 1967: 46 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1953a: 282 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 110, 216]; Ferris1953a [taxonomy, description: 312]; GomezM1957 [taxonomy, description: 72]; MarottFr2001 [taxonomy: 127-131]; McKenz1967 [taxonomy, description : 134]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 52, 112]; Neves1954 [taxonomy, description: 238-239]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description: 589].



Cucullococcus arrabidensis (Neves)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lusitanococcus arrabidensis Neves, 1954: 240. Type data: PORTUGAL: Serra da Arrabida, Formozinho, on Erica arborea and E. lusitanica. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Lisbon: Coleccoes do Centro de Zoologia do Instituto de Investigacao Cientifica Tropical, Portugal. Described: female. Illust.

Cucullococcus arabidensis; Martin, 1985: 91. Misspelling of species name.

Cuculiococcus arrabidensis; Tang, 1992: 589. Change of combination.

Cuculiococcus arrabidensis; Tang, 1992: 589. Misspelling of genus name.



HOSTS: Ericaceae: Erica arborea [Neves1954, BenDov1994], Erica ciliaris [GomezM1957, BenDov1994], Erica lusitanica [Neves1954, BenDov1994], Erica terminalis [Tang1992], Erica umbellata [GomezM1957, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Portugal [Neves1954, BenDov1994]; Spain [GomezM1957, Martin1985, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Neves (1954) and by Gomez-Menor Ortega (1957). Good description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 216]; FrancoRuMa2011 [distribution: 18,25]; GomezM1957 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 72-78]; GomezM1960O [host, distribution: 202]; MarottFr2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 127-131]; Martin1985 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 91]; Neves1954 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 240-244, 252]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution : 589].



Cucullococcus vaccinii Ferris

NOMENCLATURE:

Cucullococcus vaccinii Ferris, 1941b: 25. Type data: U.S.A.: California, Siskiyou County, on Vaccinium mebranaceum. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

COMMON NAME: bilberry mealybug [McKenz1967].



HOSTS: Ericaceae: Vaccinium mebranaceum [Ferris1941b, McKenz1967, BenDov1994], Vaccinium parvifolium [Ferris1941b, McKenz1967, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (California [Ferris1941b, McKenz1967, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the small twigs of its host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Ferris (1941, 1953a) and by McKenzie (1967).

KEYS: McKenzie 1967: 134 (female) [U.S.A., California].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 110]; Ferris1941 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 25-28]; Ferris1953a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 312-313]; McKenz1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 134, 135].



Dawa Williams

NOMENCLATURE:

Dawa Williams, 1985: 105. Type species: Dawa karrinyupae Williams, by original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good definition and characters given by Williams (1985).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 112]; Willia1985 [taxonomy, description: 35, 105].



Dawa karrinyupae Williams

NOMENCLATURE:

Dawa karrinyupae Williams, 1985: 105. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Western Australia, Karrinyup, on Gompholobium tomentosum. Holotype female. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Fabaceae: Daviesia squarrosa [Willia1985, BenDov1994], Gompholobium tomentosum [Willia1985, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Queensland [Willia1985, BenDov1994], Western Australia [Willia1985]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Williams (1985).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 112]; Willia1985 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 105-107].



Eastia De Lotto

NOMENCLATURE:

Eastia De Lotto, 1964: 350. Type species: Eastia jouberti De Lotto, by monotypy and original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good definition and characters given by De Lotto (1964).

KEYS: Millar 2002: 189-195 (female) [Pseudococcidae genera of South Africa].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 147]; DeLott1964 [taxonomy, description: 350]; Millar2002 [taxonomy: 189-195].



Eastia jouberti De Lotto

NOMENCLATURE:

Eastia jouberti De Lotto, 1964: 350. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: East London, on Podocarpus sp. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Podocarpaceae: Podocarpus [DeLott1964, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [DeLott1964, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by De Lotto (1964).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 147]; DeLott1964 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 350, 351]; Millar2002 [illustration: 210].



Erimococcus Ezzat

NOMENCLATURE:

Erimococcus Ezzat, 1966a: 169. Type species: Phenacoccus limoniastri Priesner and Hosny, by monotypy and original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good definition and characters given by Ezzat (1966a). Redescription in Kaydan, 2015.

STRUCTURE: Female covered with white powdery wax. Ovisac woolly, white. Antennae 8 or 9 segmented. Eyes oval, on a small basal cone. Labium 3 segmented, longer than wide. Posterior spiracles always larger than anterior spiracles. Circulus present, lying between abdominal segments III and IV. Legs well developed, claw with a denticle; tarsal digitules hair-like, not capitate; claw digitules knobbed, claw digitules broader than tarsal digitules. Both pairs of ostioles well developed; anterior ostioles usually more weakly developed than posterior pair. Anal lobes well developed. Anal ring oval, with 1 inner row of pores and 1 or 2 outer rows of pores and 6 setae. (Kaydan, 2015)

SYSTEMATICS: Erimococcus can be recognised by the absence of a full set of cerarii and the presence of clusters or groupings of oral collar tubular ducts, each cluster with one to three ducts of two sizes. (Kaydan, 2015)

KEYS: Kaydan 2015: 209 (female) [Key to the genera of the Peliococcus species-group].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 148]; Ezzat1966a [taxonomy, description: 169-170]; Kaydan2015 [description, distribution, molecular data, phylogenetics, taxonomy: 209-211].



Erimococcus kimmericus (Kiritshenko)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus zillae; Archangelskaya, 1937: 129. Misidentification; discovered by Borchsenius, 1949.

Phenacoccus kimmericus Kiritshenko, 1940a: 189. Type data: UKRAINE: Krym, Partenit-Tuac, on Astragalus sp. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 2001: 128. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female.

Peliococcus kimmericus; Borchsenius, 1949: 247. Change of combination.

Peliococcus pseudozillae Borchsenius, 1949: 248. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: Tyan-Shan and UZBEKISTAN: Samarkand, on Phlomis sp. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 2001: 128. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Synonymy by Danzig, 2001: 128.

Peliococcus bitubulatus Borchsenius, 1949: 251. Type data: TADZHIKISTAN: Mikoyan district and ARMENIA: Megri, on Artemisia sp. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 2001: 128. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Synonymy by Danzig, 2001: 128.

Peliococcus mesasiaticus Borchsenius & Kozarzhevskaya, 1966: 40. Type data: TURKMENISTAN: Tsulki Geok-Tepinskogo Region, on Zygophyllum sp. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Danzig, 2001: 128.

Peliococcus butibulatus; Bazarov, 1971b: 91. Misspelling of species name.

Peliococcus xerophylus Bazarov, 1971b: 92. Type data: TURKMENISTAN: Kugitang, on grapevine. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Danzig, 2001: 128.

Peliococcus pesudozillae; Tang, 1992: 514. Misspelling of species name.

Phenacoccus kimmericus; Tang, 1992: 540. Revived combination.

Spinococcus bitubulatus; Tang, 1992: 557. Change of combination.

Peliococcus bitubulatus; Ben-Dov, 1994: 292. Revived combination.

Peliococcus kimmericus; Ben-Dov, 1994: 294. Revived combination.

Peliococcus xerophilus; Danzig, 2001: 128. Misspelling of species name.

Peliococcus ilamicus Moghaddam, 2013: 39-40, 41. Type data: IRAN: Ilam, Meymeh, on Daphne angustifalia, 10/3/2005, by M. Moghaddam. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Tehran: Plant Pests and Diseases Research Institute, Iran. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Kaydan, 2015: 210.

Erimococcus kimmericus; Kaydan, 2015: 209. Change of combination.



FOES: COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Nephus bipunctatus Kugelann [FallahShOs2006a]. HYMENOPRTERA Encyrtidae: Anagyrus matritensis (Mercet) [Moghad2013], Tetracnemus peliococci Myartseva [FallahAbSa2014, FallahJaAb2014]. HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Anagyrus orbitalis (Ruschka) [FallahShOs2006], Cheiloneurus kollari (Mayr) [FallahShOs2006], Cheiloneurus paralia (Walker) [FallahShOs2006], Leptomastix histrio Mayr [FallahShOs2006].

HOSTS: Amaranthaceae: Noaea sp. [Moghad2013a]. Asteraceae: Artemisia [Borchs1949, BenDov1994, Danzig2001], Centaurea [Danzig2001]. Berberidaceae: Berberis vulgare [Danzig2001]. Chenopodiacaea: Salsola dendroides [FallahJaAb2014]. Fabaceae: Astragalus [Borchs1949, Matile1988, BenDov1994], Glycyrrhiza [Danzig2001], Prosopis stephaniana [Moghad2013]. Moraceae: Morus alba [TerGri1973, BenDov1994, Danzig2001], Morus nigra [TerGri1973, BenDov1994, Danzig2001]. Poaceae: Phlomis [Borchs1949, BenDov1994, Danzig2001]. Rutaceae: Haplophyllum [TerGri1973, BenDov1994], Haplophyllum atriplicoides [Danzig2001]. Solanaceae: Lycium ruthenicum [Danzig2001]. Thymelaeaceae: Daphne angustifalia [Moghad2013]. Umbelliferae: Cuminum cyminus [KaydanUlEr2007]. Vitaceae: Ampelopsis vitifolia [Danzig2001], Vitis [Bazaro1971b, BenDov1994]. Zygophyllaceae: Zygophyllum [BorchsKo1966, BenDov1994], Zygophyllum atriplicoides [FallahJaAb2014].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Afghanistan [Danzig1972c, BenDov1994, KozarFoZa1996]; Armenia [Borchs1949, TerGri1973, BenDov1994]; Crete [PellizPoSe2011]; Iran [KozarFoZa1996, Moghad2009, Moghad2013]; Kazakhstan [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]; Saudi Arabia [Matile1988, BenDov1994]; Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]; Turkey [KaydanKoYa2001, KaydanUlEr2007]; Turkmenistan [BorchsKo1966, Bazaro1971b, BenDov1994]; Ukraine [Terezn1975, BenDov1994] (Krym (=Crimea) Oblast [Kiritc1940a, BenDov1994]); Uzbekistan [Borchs1949, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Borchsenius & Kozarzhevskaya (1966), Bazarov (1971b), Ter-Grigorian (1973), Tereznikova (1975) and by Danzig (2001).Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949) and by Tang (1992).Detailed description and illustration in Moghaddam, 2013.

SYSTEMATICS: Peliococcus ilamicus is similar to P. kimmericus (Kiritshenko) in having: (i) presence of ostioles and circulus, (ii) large and small types of oral collar tubular ducts clearly associated together, and (iii) 18 pairs of cerarii. However, P. ilamicus differs from P. kimmericus in possessing (character states on P. kimmericus in brackets) (i) associations of large and small types of tubular ducts on margins and submargins of dorsal abdominal segments I-V, thorax and head, and across dorsal abdominal segments VI and VII (across of dorsal abdominal segments and thorax only), and (ii) absence of an anal lobe bar (present but only slightly sclerotized). P. ilamicus is also similar to P. tritubulatus (Kiritshenko) in having: (i) ostioles, circulus, (ii) absence of dorsal multilocular disc pores, (iii) large and small types of oral collar tubular ducts clearly associated together. But, P. ilamicus differs from P. tritubulatus in possessing (character states on P. tritubulatus in brackets) (i) associations of 1 large type and a single small type of ducts (associations of 133, mainly 2 large and a single small type of ducts). (Moghaddam, 2013) In Kaydan, 2014, he concluded that these small differences in the distribution of the dorsal clusters tubular ducts between P. ilamicus and P. kimmericus should be considered geographic and within the intraspecific variability of P. kimmericus, which is a widely distributed and highly polymorphic species. Therefore, he considered P. ilamicus to be a synonym of Peliococcus kimmericus Kiritshenko (previously in Peliococcus and now in Erimococcus).

KEYS: Kaydan 2015: 210 (female) [Key to species of Erimococcus]; Moghaddam 2013: 39 (female) [as Peliococcus kimmericus; Key to species of Peliococcus Borchsenius in Iran]; Moghaddam 2013: 39 (female) [as Peliococcus ilamicus; Key to species of [Peliococcus] Borchsenius in Iran]; Danzig 2001: 124-125 (female) [as Peliococcus kimmericus; Palaearctic region]; Tang 1992: 555 (female) [as Spinococcus bitubulatus; China]; Tang 1992: 530 (female) [as Phenacoccus kimmericus; China]; Tang 1992: 514 (female) [as Peliococcus pseudozillae; China]; Tang 1992: 513 (female) [as Peliococcus kimmericus; China]; Tereznikova 1975: 201 (female) [as Peliococcus kimmericus; Ukraine]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 177 (female) [as Peliococcus kimmericus; Armenia]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 176 (female) [as Peliococcus kimmericus; Armenia]; Bazarov 1971b: 91 (female) [as Peliococcus xerophylus; Central Asia]; Bazarov 1971b: 91 (female) [as Peliococcus butibulatus; Central Asia]; Bazarov 1971b: 91 (female) [Central Asia]; Borchsenius 1949: 243 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Borchsenius 1949: 243 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Borchsenius 1949: 243 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: Archan1937 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 129-130]; Bazaro1971b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 92-93]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 292, 294-295, 297,]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 247-249, 251-253]; BorchsKo1966 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 39-40]; CebeciAr2006 [host, distribution: 138]; Danzig1972c [host, distribution: 581]; Danzig2001 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 128-129]; FallahJaAb2014 [biological control, host: 515]; FallahShOs2006 [host, distribution, biological control: 97-98]; FallahShOs2006a [host, distribution, biological control: 95-96]; Kaydan2015 [taxonomy: 209]; KaydanKo2010a [distribution: 3]; KaydanKoYa2001 [host, distribution: 379]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 100]; Kiritc1940a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 189-190]; KozarFoZa1996 [host, distribution: 64]; Matile1988 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 26-28]; Moghad2009 [host, distribution: 22]; Moghad2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 39-43, 99]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 67]; PellizPoSe2011 [distribution, host: 293]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 518, 520-521, 526]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 203]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 179-184]; Trjapi1989 [biological control: 122, 127, 136, 138,].



Erimococcus limoniastri (Priesner & Hosny)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus limoniastri Priesner & Hosny, 1935: 112. Type data: EGYPT: Mersa Matrouh, on Limoniastrum monopetalus. Syntypes, female. Type depository: CMAE. Described: female. Illust.

Erimococcus limoniastri; Ezzat, 1966a: 170. Change of combination.

Spinococcus limoniastri; Tang, 1992: 561. Change of combination.

Erimococcus limoniastri; Kaydan, 2015: 210. Revived combination.



HOST: Plumbaginaceae: Limoniastrum monopetalus [PriesnHo1935, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Egypt [PriesnHo1935, Ezzat1966a, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Priesner & Hosny (1935) and by Ezzat (1966a). Good description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Kaydan 2015: 210 (female) [Key to species of Erimococcus]; Kaydan 2011: 210 (female) [Key to species of Erimococcus]; Tang 1992: 554 (female) [as Spinococcus limoniastri; China].

CITATIONS: AbdRab2001d [distribution: 1357]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 148,149]; Ezzat1966a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 170-173]; EzzatNa1987 [distribution: 89]; MohammGh2008 [distribution: 155]; PriesnHo1935 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 112-114]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 561].



Erimococcus montanus (Bazarov & Babaeva)

NOMENCLATURE:

Peliococcus montanus Bazarov & Babaeva, 1981: 323. Type data: TADZHIKISTAN: Gissarsk Ridge, on Astragalus sp. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Erimococcus montanus; Kaydan, 2015: 209. Change of combination.



HOST: Fabaceae: Astragalus [BazaroBa1981, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [BazaroBa1981, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Bazarov & Babaeva (1981) and by Danzig (2001). Good description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Kaydan 2015: 210 (female) [Key to species of Erimococcus]; Tang 1992: 514 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: BazaroBa1981 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 323-325]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 295]; Danzig2001 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 128, 130]; Kaydan2015 [taxonomy: 209]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 519-520].



Erimococcus multitubulatus (Danzig)

NOMENCLATURE:

Peliococcus multitubulatus Danzig, 1980: 33. Type data: MONGOLIA: Vostochni Aimak, Matad, host plant not indicated. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Spinococcus multitubulatus; Tang, 1992: 565. Change of combination.

Erimococcus multitubulatus; Kaydan, 2015: 209. Change of combination.

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Mongolia [Danzig1980, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description of the adult female given by Tang (1992) and by Danzig (2001).

KEYS: Kaydan 2015: 210 (female) [Key to species of Erimococcus]; Danzig 2001: 124-125 (female) [as Peliococcus multitubulatus; Palaearctic region]; Tang 1992: 555 (female) [as Spinococcus multitubulatus; China].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 295-296]; Danzig1980 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 32-33]; Danzig2001 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 133, 135]; Kaydan2015 [taxonomy: 209]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 565].



Erimococcus ozani Kaydan

NOMENCLATURE:

Erimococcus ozani Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 397. Type data: TURKEY: Iđdýr-Aralýk-Nahcivan road, N: 39°57’348’’, E:044°07’460’’, 853 m, on Suaeda sp., 6/12/2007, by M.B. Kaydan. Holotype female (examined). Type depository: Turkey: Kaydan's Personal Collection. Described: female. Illust. Unavailable name.

Erimococcus ozani Kaydan, 2015: 210-212.



HOST: Amaranthaceae: Suaeda sp. [Kaydan2014]

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Turkey [Kaydan2015].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Kaydan, 2015.

STRUCTURE: Body elongate oval, 1.54–1.64 mm long, 0.88–0.98 mm wide. Eye marginal. Antenna 8 segmented. (Kaydan, 2015)

SYSTEMATICS: E. ozani is closest to E. limoniastri and E. talhouki in having: (i) few cerarii, and (ii) pairs of oral collar tubular ducts on the dorsum, each pair with 1 large and 1 small duct. However, E. ozani can be readily distinguished from these and all other species in the genus in lacking: (i) multilocular disc pores on the dorsum (as in E. multitubulatus); and (ii) quinquelocular pores on the venter. (Kaydan, 2014) Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014 used the name "Erimococcus ozani" before it was made available in Kaydan, 2015. According to Article 16 (specifically 16.1 and 16.4) of the ICZN (1999), this name must be considered unavailable from their work.

KEYS: Kaydan 2015: 210 (female) [Key to species of Erimococcus].

CITATIONS: Kaydan2015 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, phylogenetics, structure, taxonomy: 210-212].



Erimococcus salviae (Hadzibejli)

NOMENCLATURE:

Peliococcus salviae Hadzibejli, 1963: 425. Type data: GEORGIA: on Salvia verticillata. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia, and Tbilisi: Plant Protection Institute, Republic of Georgia. Described: female. Illust.

Erimococcus salviae; Kaydan, 2015: 209. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Carduus sp. [KaydanKo2010a]. Boraginaceae [KaydanKo2010a]. Brassicaceae [KaydanKiKo2005, KaydanUlEr2007]. Lamiaceae: Phlomis sp. [KaydanKo2010a], Salvia verticillata [Hadzib1963, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Georgia (Georgia [Hadzib1963, BenDov1994]); Turkey [KaydanKiKo2005, KaydanUlEr2007].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Hadzibejli (1963) and by Danzig (2001).

KEYS: Kaydan 2015: 210 (female) [Key to species of Erimococcus]; Danzig 2001: 124-125 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 297-298]; Danzig2001 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 128, 131]; Hadzib1963 [taxonomy, description, illusrtation, host, distribution: 425-427]; Kaydan2015 [taxonomy: 209]; KaydanKiKo2005 [host, distribution: 89]; KaydanKo2010a [distribution, host: 35]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 100].



Erimococcus talhouki (Matile-Ferrero)

NOMENCLATURE:

Peliococcus talhouki Matile-Ferrero, 1984c: 225. Type data: SAUDI ARABIA: Riyadh, on Prosopis farcta. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

Peliococcus tahouki; Tang, 1992: 523. Misspelling of species name.

Erimococcus talhouki; Kaydan, 2015: 209. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Fabaceae: Prosopis farcata [Matile1984c, BenDov1994], Prosopis stephaniana [Moghad2013]. Moraceae: Morus alba [Moghad2013].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Afghanistan [KozarFoZa1996]; Iran [KozarFoZa1996, Moghad2009]; Saudi Arabia [Matile1984c, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Matile-Ferrero (1984c). Good description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Kaydan 2014: 210 (female) [Key to species of Erimococcus]; Moghaddam 2013: 39 (female) [as Peliococcus talhouki; Key to species of Peliococcus Borchsenius in Iran]; Tang 1992: 513 (female) [as Peliococcus talhouki; China].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 299]; Kaydan2015 [taxonomy: 210]; KozarFoZa1996 [host, distribution: 64]; Matile1984c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 225-227]; Moghad2009 [host, distribution: 22]; Moghad2013 [distribution, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 43-44, 99]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 67]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 523].



Eriocorys De Lotto

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriocorys De Lotto, 1967: 1. Type species: Eriocorys hystrix De Lotto, by monotypy and original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good definition and characters given by De Lotto (1967).

KEYS: Millar 2002: 189-195 (female) [Pseudococcidae genera of South Africa].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 149]; DeLott1967 [taxonomy, description: 1-2]; Millar2002 [taxonomy: 185-233].



Eriocorys hystrix De Lotto

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriocorys hystrix De Lotto, 1967: 2. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Middelburg, on Nestlera humilis. Holotype female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Asteraceae: Nestlera humilis [DeLott1967, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [DeLott1967, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by De Lotto (1967).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 149]; DeLott1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 2, 3]; Millar2002 [illustration: 211].



Fonscolombia Lichtenstein

NOMENCLATURE:

Fonscolombia Lichtenstein, 1877b: 35. Type species: Fonscolombia graminis Lichtenstein. Notes: Type species proposed by Ben-Dov and Matile-Ferrero (1989b).

Fonscolombea Lindinger, 1908: 94. Unjustified replacement name; discovered by Morrison & Morrison, 1966: 79.

Conicoccus Goux, 1994: 41. Type species: Conicoccus montrottieri Goux, by original designation. Synonymy by Matile-Ferrero, 2004: 74.

BIOLOGY: Female covered with white powdery wax. Ovisac woolly, white. Generally found on the roots of the host plant. (Kaydan, 2014)

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero (1989) and by Danzig (2007).

STRUCTURE: Fonscolombia Lichtenstein is characterized in having; (i) 6-8 segmented antennae; (ii) well-developed legs; (iii) claw with or without denticle; (iv) quinquelocular pores present or absent on venter and (v) reduced cerarii number (1-6) in posterior abdominal segments. (Kaydan, 2014)

SYSTEMATICS: Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero (1989) have shown that the nominal type species, Coccus radicumgraminis Fonscolombe, was a misidentification by Lichtenstein (1877a), of Fonscolombia graminis Lichtenstein. Further, Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero (1989a) applied to ICZN to fix Foscolombia graminis Lichtenstein as type species. The application was adopted by Opinion 1654 (1991), and the name Fonscolombia Lichtenstein was placed by this Opinion, on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology.

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin 2014: 183-185 (female) [Key to general of Phenacoccinae]; Danzig 2007: 364-365 (female) [10 species of Fonscolombia in Russia and adjacent countries].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 168]; BenDovMa1989 [taxonomy, description: 166]; Danzig2007 [taxonomy, description, revision: 363-377]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 114]; Kaydan2014 [description, taxonomy: 444]; Lichte1877b [taxonomy: 35]; Lindin1908 [taxonomy: 94]; Matile2004 [taxonomy: 73-76]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 79-80].



Fonscolombia abdita (Borchsenius)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus bicerarius Borchsenius, 1949: 225. Type data: ARMENIA: on Sorghum sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Synonymy by Danzig, 2006a: 219.

Phenacoccus abditus Borchsenius, 1949: 226. Type data: TADZHIKISTAN: Stalinavada, on Cynodon dactylon. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female.

Caulococcus abditus; Borchsenius, 1960c: 49. Change of combination.

Caulococcus bicerarius; Borchsenius, 1960e: 49. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus abditus; Ben-Dov, 1994: 303-304. Revived combination.

Phenacoccus bicerarius; Ben-Dov, 1994: 311. Revived combination.

Fonscolombia abdita; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 201. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.

COMMON NAME: bicerarian mealybug [KosztaKo1988F].



HOSTS: Poaceae: Agrostis tenius [KaydanKiKo2005], Avena [KaydanKiKo2005], Corynephorus canescens [Koteja1971a, KotejaZa1979, BenDov1994], Cynodon dactylon [Borchs1949, BenDov1994, KaydanKiKo2005], Elymus angustus [Mateso1968, BenDov1994], Festuca [KotejaZa1983, BenDov1994], Lolium [KaydanUlZe2004, KaydanUlEr2007], Sorghum [Borchs1949, TerGri1966, BenDov1994, MyartsKaPo1995].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [Borchs1949, TerGri1966, BenDov1994]; Crete [PellizPoSe2011]; Georgia [Danzig2006a]; Hungary [Kozar1984, BenDov1994, KozarKiSa2004]; Kazakhstan [Mateso1968, BenDov1994]; Poland [Koteja1974b, KotejaZa1979, KotejaZa1983, BenDov1994, Lagows1996, GolanLaJa2001] [SimonKa2011]; Russia (Yakutia-Sakha (=Yakut) AR [Danzig1978a, BenDov1994]); Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Borchs1949, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994]; Turkey [KaydanUlZe2004, KaydanKiKo2005, KaydanUlEr2007]; Turkmenistan [MyartsKaPo1995].

BIOLOGY: The species usually inhabits the valleys of the mountain rivers; in the Pamirs was found at an altitude of 2500 m in the wormwood saline deserts; in Yakutia was collected in pine forest. Mealybugs live under the leaf sheaths of Poaceae. (Danzig, 2006a)

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949) and by Tang (1992).Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Ter-Grigorian (1973) and by Tang (1992). Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949) and by Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F).

STRUCTURE: Female. Body elongate, pink, up to 2 mm long. Antennae 9-segmented. Legs with slender segments, apices of tibiae with translucent pores. Circulus absent. Dorsal multilocular pores absent, or singular pores present on posterior abdominal segments. Ventral tubular ducts present on sternites VI-VIII. Quinquelocular pores not numerous or absent. (Danzig2006a)

SYSTEMATICS: The number of the quinquelocular pores is a subject to geographical and individual variation. In specimens from Tajikistan, these pores are always present and situated near the mouthparts, fore and middle coxae; occasionally singular pores are present on anterior abdominal segments. In specimens from Armenia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenia, and Yakutia, quinquelocular pores are always absent. In Georgian specimens these pores are also absent or singular pores occur near the mouthparts. (Danzig, 2006a) The synonymy is based on a comparison of the types. Ph. bicerarius differs from Ph. abditus in the absence of the quinquelocular pores, but this character varies between specimens. (Danzig, 2006a)

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin 2014: 200-201 (female) [Key to species of Fonscolombia]; Danzig 2006a: 197-200 (female) [as Phenacoccus abditus; A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus]; Danzig 1988: 700 (female) [as Phenacoccus abditus; Far East of Russia]; Kosztarab & Kozar 1988F: 123 (female) [as Phenacoccus abditus; Central Europe]; Bazarov & Nurmamatov 1975b: 55 (female) [as Phenacoccus bicerarius; Tajikistan]; Bazarov & Nurmamatov 1975b: 55 (female) [as Phenacoccus abditus; Tajikistan]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 136 (female) [as Phenacoccus abditus; Armenia]; Borchsenius 1949: 211 (female) [as Phenacoccus bicerarius; Palaearctic region]; Borchsenius 1949: 211 (female) [as Phenacoccus abditus; Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 303-304, 311]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 225-227]; Borchs1960c [taxonomy: 47-49]; CebeciAr2006 [host, distribution: 139]; Danzig1978a [host, distribution: 74-75]; Danzig2006a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 200, 219-221]; DanzigGa2014 [description, distribution, host, host, taxonomy: 201-204]; GolanLaJa2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 229-249]; KaydanKiKo2005 [host, distribution: 89]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 101]; KaydanUlZe2004 [host, distribution: 219-224]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 126]; Koteja1971a [host, distribution: 321]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy, distribution: 73]; KotejaZa1979 [host, distribution: 673]; KotejaZa1983 [host, distribution: 473]; Kozar1984 [host, distribution: 128]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 57]; LagowsKo1996 [host, distribution: 31, 34]; Mateso1968 [host, distribution: 110]; MyartsKaPo1995 [host, distribution: 223-225]; PellizPoSe2011 [distribution, host: 293]; SimonKa2011 [distribution: 235]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 422-424, 698]; TerGri1966 [host, distribution: 88]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 170-172].



Fonscolombia alibotush (Gavrilov)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus alibotush Gavrilov, 2010: 33, 35-36. Type data: BULGARIA: Alibotush Mountains, above hut Izvora, altitude 1000 meters, on roots of Trifolium sp.; collected 19.vi.2009. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female.

Fonscolombia alibotush; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 204. Change of combination.



HOST: Fabaceae: Trifolium [Gavril2010].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Bulgaria [Gavril2010].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Gavrilov (2010).

STRUCTURE: Female broadly oval, about 3 mm long. Antennae 8-segmented. Legs small, wihout translucent pores; flaw with denticle. Circulus broadly oval. Multilocular pores present on venter only, forming transvrse rows on adominal segments; several pores also prsent on metathorax. Quinquelocular pores present venrally around rostrum. Trilocular pores evenly scattered on entire bocy surface. Simple discoidal pores sparsely present of both body surfaces. Tubular ducts simple, all approximately of same size, forming rows on dorsal and ventral sides of abdominal segments and present sparsely on dorsal and ventral parts of thorax and head. Cerarii 14-16 pair (severa thoracic pair absent. Dorsal surface covered by setae varying from short conical to long flagellate type. (Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014)

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin 2014: 200-201 (female) [Key to species of Fonscolombia].

CITATIONS: DanzigGa2014 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 200,204-206]; Gavril2010 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 33-36].



Fonscolombia amnicola (Borchsenius)

NOMENCLATURE:

Euripersia amnicola Borchsenius, 1948a: 956. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: Aktyuvinska region, on Elymus giganteus. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 2007: 370. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 137-36. Described: female.

Fonscolombia amnicola; Danzig, 2007: 370. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Juncaceae [KaydanKo2010a]. Lamiaceae: Thymus [TerGri1973, BenDov1994]. Poaceae: Agropyron [TerGri1966, BenDov1994], Agropyron repens [BorchsTe1956, BenDov1994], Avena [TerGri1966, TerGri1973, BenDov1994], Bromus [TerGri1966, BenDov1994], Elymus giganteus [Borchs1948a, BenDov1994], Elymus multicaulis [Mateso1968, BenDov1994], Festuca [TerGri1966, BenDov1994], Festuca sulcata [Mateso1968, BenDov1994], Hordeum [TerGri1966, BenDov1994], Lolium [TerGri1966, BenDov1994], Poa [TerGri1966, BenDov1994], Poa bulbosa [TerGri1973, BenDov1994], Stipa [TerGri1966, TerGri1973, BenDov1994], Stipa holosenica [KaydanKo2010a], Triticum [TerGri1966, BenDov1994], Triticum vulgare erythrospermum [BorchsTe1956, BenDov1994]. Scrophulariaceae: Veronica [TerGri1966, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [BorchsTe1956, TerGri1966, BenDov1994, Danzig2007]; Georgia [Danzig2007]; Kazakhstan [Borchs1948a, BenDov1994, Danzig2007]; Kyrgyzstan (=Kirgizia) [Danzig2007]; Turkey [KaydanKoYa2001, KaydanUlEr2007].

BIOLOGY: Lives on thin roots of the host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Ter-Grigorian (1973), Tereznikova (1975) and by Danzig (2007). Good description and illustration of the first-instar nymph, female second-instar nymph and female third-instar nymph given by Ter-Grigorian (1973).

STRUCTURE: Female up to 4.5 mm. Living female pink. Antennae 6-segmented. Les small in comparison to body, without translucent pores; claw denticle poorly developed. Anal apparatus complete, with 6 shortened setae, similar in length to diameter of anal ring. Curculus large, oval. Multilocular pores located on three posterior abdominal sternites only. Quinquelocular pores absent. Tubular ducts of two sizes; larger ducts present in medial zone of venter; small ducts numerous throughout on dorsum except for three posterior abdominal segments; on entral surfact smaller ducts present on thorax, forming rows and bands on abdominal sternites. (Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014)

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin 2014: 200-201 (female) [Key to species of Fonscolombia]; Kaydan 2014: 446 (female) [Key to adult female Fonscolombia]; Danzig 2007: 364-365 (female) [Fonscolombia species of Russia]; Tang 1992: 446 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Tereznikova 1975: 177 (female) [Ukraine]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 94 (female) [Armenia].

CITATIONS: Bazaro1971c [host, distribution: 89]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 153]; Borchs1948a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 956]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 180-181]; BorchsTe1956 [host, distribution]; CebeciAr2006 [host, distribution: 137]; Danzig2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 370-372]; DanzigGa2014 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 201,206-208]; Kaydan2014 [taxonomy: 444, 446]; KaydanKo2010a [distribution, host: 33]; KaydanKoYa2001 [host, distribution: 379]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 99]; Mateso1968 [host, distribution: 108]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 448, 449]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 177, 178]; TerGri1966 [host, distribution: 86]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 94-98].



Fonscolombia asphodeli (Goux)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus asphodeli Goux, 1942: 33. Type data: FRANCE: Hyeres (Var), on Asphodelus sp. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Marotta, Russo & Matile-Ferrero, 1997: 436. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female.

Fonscolombia asphodeli; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 208-210. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Carlina acaulis [MarottRuMa1997]. Liliaceae: Asphodelus [Goux1942, BenDov1994], Asphodelus microcarpus [MarottRuMa1997, KaydanUlEr2007].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Corsica [Foldi2003]; France [Goux1942, MarottRuMa1997, Foldi2001, GavrilMa2008]; Sardinia [Pelliz2003]; Sicily [MarottRuMa1997]; Turkey [KaydanUlEr2007].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Goux (1942) and by Marotta et al. (1997). Good description and illustration of the first-instar nymph given by Goux (1942).

STRUCTURE: Female oval, up to 3.3 mm long. Antennae 8-9 segmented. Legs small, without translucent pores; claw with denticle. Circulus small, oval. Multilocular pores forming transverse rows on several posterior abdominal tergites, transverse rows on abdominal sternites and groups near spiracles. Quinquelocular pores scattered aon all medial and sumedial zone of venter. In medial zone of thoracic sternites quinquelocular pores totally replace trilocular pores, which are absent here, but evenly scattered on all other surfaces of the body. Simple tubular ducts, of one size, scaattered on entire surface of bocy forming more or less clear transverse bands on abdominal tertires and sternites. Cerarii numbering 18 pair; all cerarii with 2 thick conical setae and several associated trilocular pores. Dorsal surface of body covered by small conical setae and flagellate setae of different sizes. (Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014)

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin 2014: 200-201 (female) [Key to species of Fonscolombia]; Marotta & Russo & Matile-Ferrero 1997: 438 (female) [as Phenacoccus asphondeli; Italy].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 308-309]; CebeciAr2006 [host, distribution: 139]; DanzigGa2014 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 200,208-209]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Foldi2003 [host, distribution: 149]; GavrilMa2008 [host, distribution: 443]; Goux1942 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 33-40]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 101]; MarottRuMa1997 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 436-439]; Pelliz2003 [host, distribution: 100-101]; Pelliz2011 [distribution: 313].



Fonscolombia butorinae Danzig & Gavrilov

NOMENCLATURE:

Fonscolombia butorinae Danzig & Gavrilov, 2005: 529. Type data: RUSSIA: Voronezh oblast, sandy wastw land near Mashmet vill., in lower axils of Koeleria sabuletorum; collected I. Gavrilov, 11.vi.2003. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 355. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae: Koeleria sabuletorum [DanzigGa2005].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Russia (Voronoezh Oblast [DanzigGa2005]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Danzig & Gavrilov (2005).

KEYS: Kaydan 2014: 446 (female) [Key to adult female Fonscolombia]; Danzig 2007: 364-365 (female) [Fonscolombia species of Russia].

CITATIONS: DanzigGa2005 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 528-529]; Kaydan2014 [taxonomy: 444]; Kaydan2014 [taxonomy: 446].



Fonscolombia cerarifera (Danzig)

NOMENCLATURE:

Longicoccus cerariiferus Danzig, 1975: 49. Type data: MONGOLIA: Ubsu-Nurskii Aymak, Khara-Us-Nur, on Elymus sp. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Caulococcus cerariiferus; Tang, 1992: 424. Change of combination.

Caulococcus cerariferus; Tang, 1992: 699. Misspelling of species name.

Longicoccus cerariiferus; Ben-Dov, 1994: 215. Revived combination.

Phenacoccus kazakhstanicus Danzig, 2006a: 224-225. Synonymy by Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 209.

Fonscolombia cerarifera; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 209-211. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.



HOSTS: Poaceae [Danzig2006a], Elymus [Danzig1975, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kazakhstan (Dzhambul Oblast [Danzig2006a]). Palaearctic: Mongolia [Danzig1975, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Occurring on roots of the host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Danzig (1975) and by Tang (1992).Detailed description and illustration in Danzig, 2006a)

STRUCTURE: Female. Body elongate, 2.5 mm long. Antennae 9-segmented. Legs with comparatively short segments and thick hind femur; hind femur and tibia with translucent pores. Circulus absent. Multilocular pores situated on five posterior abdominal sternites; singular pores occur near spiracles and mouthparts. Quinquelocular pores absent. Dorsal tubular ducts forming rows on meso- and metathorax, and on abdomen; singular dorsal ducts occur along margin of anterior part of body. (Danzig, 2006a)

SYSTEMATICS: Phenacoccus kazakhstanicus is similar to Ph. phenacoccoides but differs in having larger tubular ducts, which are present everywhere on the dorsum. The groups of trilocular pores near spiracles, characteristic of Ph. phenacoccoides, are absent in this species. (Danzig, 2006a)

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin 2014: 200-201 (female) [Key to species of Fonscolombia]; Danzig 2006a: 197-200 (female) [A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus]; Tang 1992: 422 (female) [as Caulicoccus cerariferus; China].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 215]; Danzig1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 49-51]; Danzig2006a [description, distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 200, 224-225]; DanzigGa2014 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 200,209-211]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 424, 699].



Fonscolombia edentata (Danzig)

NOMENCLATURE:

Euripersia edentata Danzig, 1971: 374. Type data: RUSSIA: Primor'ye Kray, Sudzukhinskii Reserve, Syaukhe Bay, on Arundinella hirta. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Fonscolombia edentata; Danzig, 2007: 374. Change of combination.



HOST: Poaceae: Arundinella hirta [Danzig1971, Danzig1980b, BenDov1994, Danzig1971].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Russia (Primor'ye Kray [Danzig1971, Danzig1980b, BenDov1994, Danzig2007]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Danzig (1971, 1980b, 2007).

KEYS: Kaydan 2014: 446 (female) [Key to adult female Fonscolombia]; Danzig 2007: 364-365 (female) [Fonscolombia species of Russia]; Tang 1992: 447 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 154]; Danzig1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 374, 375]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 140-142]; Danzig2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 374-375]; Kaydan2014 [taxonomy: 444]; Kaydan2014 [taxonomy: 446]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 450, 451].



Fonscolombia europaea (Newstead)

NOMENCLATURE:

Ripersia europaea Newstead, 1897b: 167. Type data: CHANNEL ISLANDS: Guernsey, on roots of various plants in ants' nests and GERMANY: Rheim, with Lasius alienus. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Ripersia wasmanni Newstead, 1900: 249. Type data: GERMANY: Rhineland, Linz, associated with Lasius alienus and L. flavus, and LUXEMBURG: in nests of L. alienus. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Synonymy by Matile-Ferrero & Ben-Dov, 1995: 259.

Ripersiella wunni Reyne, 1953: 235. Type data: GERMANY: Kirn, on grass roots in nests of Lasius alienus. Holotype female. Type depository: Amsterdam: Institut voor Taxonomische Zoologie, The Netherlands. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Williams, 1962: 24.

Euripersia brevispina Borchsenius & Ter-Grigorian, 1956: 17. Type data: ARMENIA: vill. Sarnakhpyur [Aginsk distr.], under stone; coll, Dz. Khatchtryan, 17.viii.1952. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 2007: 365. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Danzig, 1971: 373.

Ripersia sera Borchsenius, 1958: 156. Type data: CHINA: Kwangtung Province, Kwangchow, on roots of unidentified grass. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: Beijing: Institute of Entomology, Academy of Sciences, China, and St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 211.

Euripersia europaea; Williams, 1962: 24. Change of combination.

Chnaurococcus globosus Wang, 1979: 271. Type data: TIBET [= XIJANG]: Yang Ba Jing, on Medicago sativa. Holotype female. Type depository: Beijing: Institute of Entomology, Academy of Sciences, China. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Tang, 1992: 507.

Chnaurococcus sera; Yang, 1982: 45. Change of combination.

Euripersia europea; Kosztarab & Kozár, 1988F: 96. Misspelling of species name.

Euripersia europea; Tang, 1992: 451. Misspelling of species name.

Mirococcus sera; Tang, 1992: 507. Change of combination.

Euripersia europea; Gertsson, 2000: 149. Misspelling of species name.

Euripersia europea; Gertsson, 2001: 125. Misspelling of species name.

Fonscolombia europaea; Matile-Ferrero, 2004: 74. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: grass mealybug [KosztaKo1988F].



ASSOCIATE: HYMENOPRTERA Formicidae: Lasius niger (L.) [MalumpBa2012].

HOSTS: Fabaceae: Medicago archiducis-nicolai [Wang1979, Wang1981TC, Yang1982, BenDov1994], Trifolium [TerGri1966, TerGri1973, BenDov1994]. Lamiaceae: Thymus [TerGri1973, BenDov1994]. Poaceae [Borchs1958], Agropyron [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994], Agrostis [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994], Corynephorus [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994], Deschampsia [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994], Festuca [Kozar1999a, Gertss2000], Festuca ovina [KotejaZa1983, BenDov1994], Festuca pallens [KotejaZa1983, BenDov1994], Nardus stricta [Matile2004], Poa bulbosa [BorchsTe1956, BenDov1994], Poa compressa [KotejaZa1969, KotejaZa1983], Secale [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994], Triticum [Tang1992, TangHaTa1992, BenDov1994], Zerna tectorum [TerGri1973, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: China (Guangdong (=Kwangtung) [Borchs1958, Tang1992, TangHaTa1992, BenDov1994]). Palaearctic: Armenia [BorchsTe1956, TerGri1966, TerGri1973, BenDov1994, Danzig2007]; Austria [DownieGu2004]; China [Yang1982] (Xizang (=Tibet) [Wang1979, Wang1980, BenDov1994]); France [Matile2004]; Germany [Newste1897b, Newste1900, Schmut1980, BenDov1994]; Hungary [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994, KozarKoSc1999, KozarKiSa2004]; Italy [KozarPe1989, BenDov1994, LongoMaPe1995]; Luxembourg [Newste1900, BenDov1994]; Mongolia [Danzig1975, BenDov1994, Danzig2007]; Netherlands [Reyne1953, BenDov1994]; Poland [KotejaZa1969, Koteja1974b, KotejaZa1983, BenDov1994]; Russia (Voronoezh Oblast [Gavril2003a]); Sweden [Gertss2000, Gertss2001]; Turkey [KaydanKo2010a]; Ukraine [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994, Danzig2007]; United Kingdom (Channel Islands [Newste1897b, BenDov1994], England [Willia1962, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Living on roots of its host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Reyne (1953), Williams (1962), Ter-Grigorian (1973), Tereznikova (1975) and by Danzig (2007). Description of adult female by Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F) and by Tang (1992). Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1958). Good description of the adult female given by Wang (1979, 1981) and by Tang (1992).

STRUCTURE: Female up to 2.5 mm long, yellowish-pink or pink. Antennae 6-segmented. Legs normally developed; hind coxae and simetimes hind femurs with few translucent pores; rarely these pores totally absent; claw denticle poorly developed or absent. Anal apparatus complete, with 6 shortened setae similar in length to diameter of anal ring. Circulus absent. Multilocular pores present on 3-4 posterior abdominal sternites. Quinquelocular pores arrange in groups near mouthparts and coxae. Tubular ducts of one size, few located only on venter, forming transverse rows on metathorax and abdomen. (Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014)

SYSTEMATICS: Sometimes has been misidentified as Ripersia tomlinii Newstead. Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014, observed that paratypes of Ripersia sera differ from Fonscolombia europae only in the absence of transleucent pores on hind coxae, and because the number of such pores varies rather significantly in different populations of F. europae, they did not consider this character enough to support the independence of the species.

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin 2014: 200-201 (female) [Key to species of Fonscolombia]; Kaydan 2014: 446 (female) [Key to adult female Fonscolombia]; Danzig 2007: 364-365 (female) [Fonscolombia species of Russia]; Matile-Ferrero 2004: 76 (female) [Fonscolombia species of France]; Tang 1992: 505 (female) [as Mirococcus sera; Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Tang 1992: 447 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Kosztarab & Kozár 1988F: 96 (female) [Central Europe]; Tereznikova 1975: 177 (female) [Ukraine]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 94 (female) [Armenia].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 80, 154, 476]; Borchs1958 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 156, 157]; BorchsTe1956 [host, distribution: 17]; Danzig1971 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 373]; Danzig1975 [distribution: 54]; Danzig2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 365-367]; DanzigGa2014 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 201,211-214]; DownieGu2004 [host, distribution, phylogeny, molecular data: 258-259]; Gavril2003a [host, distribution: 109]; GavrilKu2005 [taxonomy, distribution: 19-34]; Gertss2000 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 149]; Gertss2001 [distribution: 123-130]; Green1925 [host, distribution: 518]; HardyGuHo2008 [taxonomy, phylogeny, molecular data: 51-71]; Kaydan2014 [taxonomy: 444, 446]; KaydanKo2010a [distribution, host: 34]; KosztaKo1978 [host, distribution: 42]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 96-97]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy, distribution: 74]; KotejaZa1969 [host, distribution: 360]; KotejaZa1983 [host, distribution: 472]; Kozar1999a [host, distribution: 138]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 57]; KozarKoSc1999 [host, distribution: 111-114]; KozarPe1989 [host, distribution: 200]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 118]; MalumpBa2012 [distribution: 19]; Matile2004 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 74,76]; MatileBe1995 [taxonomy, distribution: 259]; Newste1897b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 167, 168]; Newste1900 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 249]; Reyne1953 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 235-239]; Schmut1980 [distribution: 50]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 451, 452, 507]; TangHaTa1992 [host, distribution: 8]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 19]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 178-180]; TerGri1966 [host, distribution: 86]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 99-101]; Wang1979 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 272]; Wang1980 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 285, 286]; Willia1962 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 24-26]; WilliaMa2012 [distribution: 83,86]; Yang1982 [host, distribution: 45].



Fonscolombia graminis Lichtenstein

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus radicum graminis; Lichtenstein, 1877: 35. Misidentification.

Fonscolombia graminis Lichtenstein, 1877: 35. Type data: FRANCE: Herault, Montpellier, on Avena sativa. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero, 1989: 168. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female.

Coccus radicum graminis; Lichtenstein, 1877: cviii. Misidentification.

Fonscolombia graminis; Lichtenstein, 1877: cviii.

Ripersia interrupta Goux, 1934a: 27. Type data: FRANCE: Var, Gassin, on Dactylis hispanica. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Matile-Ferrero, 2004: 74. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France; type no. 652-1. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Matile-Ferrero, 2004: 74.

Euripersia interrupta; Matile-Ferrero & Ben-Dov, 1995: 258. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Avena sativa [Lichte1877a], Dactylis hispanica [Goux1934a, BenDov1994], Hordeum [BenDovMa1989, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Corsica [Matile2004]; France [Lichte1877, Goux1934a, BenDovMa1989, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female given by Goux (1934a) and by Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero (1989a).

STRUCTURE: Female broadly oval, about 2 mm long. Antennae 6 segmented. Legs well developed; hind coxae with tranlucent pores; claw with poorly developed denticle. Aanl apparatus complete with 6 shortened setae, which are slightly longer than the diameter of the anal ring. Circulus absent. Multilocular pores present in medial zone of five posterior abdominal sternites only. Quinquelocular pores present in medial zone of cephalothorax. Simple discoidal pores, similar in size to trilocular pores, scattered on entire body surface. Simple tubular ducts of one size, sparsely scattered on entire body surface. Cerarii numbering 2 pair on two posterior abdominal segments; each cerarius with 2 small and thin conical setae and a group of associated trilocular pores. Dorsal surface of body covered by short flagellate setae. (Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014)

SYSTEMATICS: The binomen Fonscolombia graminis Lichtenstein was placed by Opinion 1654 (1991), on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology. The new combination by Matile-Ferrero & Ben-Dov (1995) was based on characters of the species as given in Goux (1934a).

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin 2014: 200-201 (female) [Key to species of Fonscolombia]; Kaydan 2014: 446 (female) [Key to adult female Fonscolombia]; Danzig 2007: 364-365 (female) [Fonscolombia species of Russia]; Matile-Ferrero 2004: 76 (female) [Fonscolombia species of France].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 475]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 169]; BenDovMa1989 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 167, 168]; Danzig2007 [taxonomy: 365]; DanzigGa2014 [description, distribution, illustration, host, taxonomy: 200, 214-216]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Goux1934a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 27-31]; ICZN1991a [taxonomy: 266-267]; Kaydan2014 [taxonomy: 444]; Kaydan2014 [taxonomy: 446]; Lichte1877 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 34, 35]; Lichte1877b [taxonomy: cviii, cix]; Matile2004 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 74-76]; MatileBe1995 [taxonomy: 258].



Fonscolombia halimiphylli (Danzig)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus halimiphylli Danzig, 1968b: 846. Type data: TADZHIKISTAN: Vakhsha, on Halimiphyllum gontscharovii. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Phenacoccus halimiphilli; Trjapitzin, 1989: 138. Misspelling of species name.

Euripersia halimiphylli; Tang, 1992: 452. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus halimiphylli; Ben-Dov, 1994: 322. Revived combination.

Fonscolombia halimiphylli; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 216. Change of combination.



FOES: HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Epidinocarsis sogdianus Sugonjaev [Trjapi1989], Eremophasma eremobium [Trjapi1989].

HOST: Zygophyllaceae: Halimiphyllum gontscharovii [Danzig1968b, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Danzig1968b, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Monophagous on Halimiphyllum gontsharovii. It inhabits deserts of the Vakhsh valley and mountain arid zones up to an altitude of 1700 m. In the mountains, the mealybugs live either openly (on leaves, fruits, and stems) or in fruits damaged by caterpillars of Lepidoptera. In deserts, the mealybugs live in the fruits only. (Danzig, 2006a) Oviposition of the first generation occurs in the 2nd and 3rd ten-day periods of May; at the end of May or in early June, the crawlers of the second generation hatch. Oviposition of the second generation occurs in the last third of June. At this time, in the stony desert near Kzyl Kala the fruits of Halimiphyllum gontsharovii dehisce and fall. The oviposition occurs openly on branches and carpels. Ovisacs protect females and eggs from dehydration. At the same time, the crawlers of the next generation begin to hatch; probably, they migrate in the shelters. (Danzig, 2006a)

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Danzig (1968b). Good description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

STRUCTURE: Female elongate oval, up to 3 mm long. Antennae 9-segmented. Legs well developed, without translucent pores; claw with normally developed denticle. Circulus large, oval. Multilocular pores forming transvrse rows on IV-VII abdominal tergites. Simple tubular ducts of one size forming transverse rows on II-VII abdominal sternites, sparsely present on thoracic sternites and anterior abdominal sternites. Dorsal surface of body covered by thin, small flagellate setae. (Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014)

SYSTEMATICS: This species is very similar to Ph. arthrophyti, but differs in the presence of circulus, much fewer number of quinquelocular pores, and presence of trilocular pores in the medial part of the ventrum. (Danzig, 2006a)

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin 2014: 200-201 (female) [Key to species of Fonscolombia]; Danzig 2006a: 200 (female) [as Phenacoccus halimiphylli; A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus]; Tang 1992: 447 (female) [as Phenacoccus halimiphylli; Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Bazarov & Nurmamatov 1975b: 56 (female) [as Phenacoccus halimiphylli; Tajikistan].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 322]; Danzig1968b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 846-847]; Danzig2006a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 200, 213-214]; DanzigGa2014 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 200,216-218]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 452-453]; Trjapi1989 [biological control: 138, 160].



Fonscolombia herbacea (Danzig)

NOMENCLATURE:

Euripersia herbacea Danzig, 1971: 375. Type data: RUSSIA: Primor'ye Kray, Sudzykinskii Reserve, on Silene koreana. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Fonscolombia herbacea; Danzig, 2007: 375. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Alliaceae: Allium [Danzig1971, BenDov1994]. Asteraceae: Artemisia [Danzig1971, BenDov1994], Artemisia frigida [Danzig1978a, BenDov1994]. Caryophyllaceae: Silene koreana [Danzig1971, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kazakhstan (Karaganda Oblast [DanzigGa2014]); Mongolia [Danzig1971, Danzig1972b, BenDov1994, Danzig2007]; Russia (Irkutsk Oblast [Danzig1971, BenDov1994, Danzig2007], Primor'ye Kray [Danzig1971, BenDov1994, Danzig2007]); South Korea [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Occurring on roots of the host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Danzig (1971, 1980b, 2007).

STRUCTURE: Femal up to 3 mm long, yellow. Antennae usually 9-, rarly 7-8- segmented; sometimes apial segment partly subdivided into two parts; claw with denticle. Anal apparatus complete, with 6 setae which are slightly longer than the diaameter of the anal ring. Circulus one, nearly round. Multilocular pores solitary, distributed in the marginal zone of the venter and forming transverse rows and bance on abdominal sternites. Quinquelocular pores numerous in medial zone of thorax and anterior abdominal sternites. Simple discoidal pores occur on both body sides. Tubular ducts of two sizes; larger ducts forming froups along margin on both surfaces of body, and additional sparse ducts forming transverse rows on dorsal surface of cephalothorax and anterior abdominal segments; small ducs about two times thinner than larger ducts present in medial zone of ventrum.Dorasl surface covered by minute conical setae and short flagellate setae. (Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014)

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin 2014: 200-201 (female) [Key to species of Fonscolombia]; Kaydan 2014: 446 (female) [Key to adult female Fonscolombia]; Tang 1992: 447 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 155]; Danzig1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 375, 376]; Danzig1972b [host, distribution: 333]; Danzig1978a [host, distribution: 73]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 142, 143]; Danzig2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 375-376]; DanzigGa2014 [description, distribution, economic importance, illustration, taxonomy: 201,218-220]; Kaydan2014 [taxonomy: 444]; Kaydan2014 [taxonomy: 446]; KwonDaPa2003 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 108]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 453].



Fonscolombia incerta (Kiritshenko)

NOMENCLATURE:

Ripersia festucae Borchsenius, 1937a: 184. Nomen nudum.

Ripersia incerta Kiritshenko, 1940: 124. Type data: UKRAINE: Odessa Oblast, Odessa, on Festuca ovina, and UKRAINE: Krym, Simferopol, on Stipa sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female.

Phenacoccus incertus; Borchsenius, 1949: 224. Change of combination.

Caulococcus incertus; Danzig, 1964: 629. Change of combination.

Euripersia caulicola Tereznikova, 1979: 49. Type data: UKRAINE: Krym, shore of Lake Tobechik, on grass. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Danzig, 2006a: 221.

Paroudablis brachipodi Savescu, 1985: 115. Type data: ROMANIA: Bacau District, Tg. Ocna, on Brachypodium pinnatum. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Bucarest: Academie des Sciences Agricoles et Forestieres, Romania. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 221.

Phenacoccus brachipodi; Ben-Dov, 1994: 311. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus incertus; Ben-Dov, 1994: 324. Revived combination.

Fonscolombia incerta; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 221. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.

COMMON NAME: uncertain mealybug [KosztaKo1988F].



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Centaurea sp [KaydanKo2010a]. Brassicaceae [KaydanKo2010a], Capsella bursa-pastoris [KaydanKo2010a]. Poaceae [Terezn1979, BenDov1994], Aegilops sp. [KaydanKo2010a], Ammophila arenaria [Marott1992a, BenDov1994], Brachypodium pinnatum [Savesc1985, BenDov1994], Festuca ovina [Kiritc1940, BenDov1994], Hordeum sp [KaydanKo2010a], Stipa [Kiritc1940, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Italy [DanzigGa2014]; Kazakhstan [DanzigGa2014]; Moldova [KozarOs1987, BenDov1994]; Romania [Savesc1985, BenDov1994]; Sardinia [Marott1992, BenDov1994, PellizFo1996]; Turkey [KaydanKo2010a]; Ukraine [Kiritc1940, BenDov1994] (Krym (=Crimea) Oblast [Kiritc1940, Terezn1979, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the roots of grasses.

GENERAL REMARKS: Acceptance of the synonymy of Paroudablis with Phenacoccus (see Danzig, 1980b) necessitates the new combination of this species. Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Savescu (1985).Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Tereznikova (1975). Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949), Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F) and by Tang (1992).Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Tereznikova (1979). Good description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

STRUCTURE: Female. Body oval, from pink to lemon yellow; 2.5 mm. Antennae 9-segmented. Legs comparatively short, with thick hind femur. Anal ring with incomplete outer row of pores and short slender setae. Circulus absent. Multilocular pores situated on 3-4 posterior sternites of abdomen. Quinquelocular pores absent. Dorsal tubular ducts forming transverse rows on all tergites. Ventral ducts forming rows and bands on abdomen, arranged along body margin; groups of ventral ducts and singular ones also occur on thorax. Dorsal and marginal ventral ducts twice as large as majority of ventral medial ones, but some medial ventral ducts of the same size as dorsal ducts. (Danzig, 2006a)

SYSTEMATICS: Kiritshenko described Ph. incertus from female larva III, supposing that it was adult female. Ome type slide with one female was examined in Danzig (2006a) and it was designated as a lectotype. Probably, this specimen was described by Borchsenius (1949) and Tereznikova (1975). The drawing by Tereznikova differs from the specimen mentioned above in the absence of ventral tubular ducts in the medial part of thorax and large ones in the medial part of the ventral surface of the body (perhaps these ducts were overlooked). (Danzig, 2006a) Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014 noted that the original description and figure of Paroudablis brachipocii Sazvescu, does not differ from Fonscolombia incerta.

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin 2014: 200-201 (female) [Key to species of Fonscolombia]; Danzig 2006a: 197-200 (female) [as Euripersia caulicola; A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus]; Marotta & Russo & Matile-Ferrero 1997: 438 (female) [as Phenacoccus incertus; Italy]; Tang 1992: 447 (female) [as Phenacoccus incertus; Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Kosztarab & Kozar 1988F: 123 (female) [as Phenacoccus incertus; Central Europe]; Tereznikova 1975: 211 (female) [as Euripersia caulicola; Ukraine]; Borchsenius 1949: 211 (female) [as Ripersia incertus; Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 154, 311, 324-325]; Borchs1937a [taxonomy: 184]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 224-225]; Danzig1964 [taxonomy: 629]; Danzig2006a [taxonomy: 200]; DanzigGa2014 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 201,220-223]; KaydanKo2010a [distribution, host: 36]; Kiritc1940 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 124-125]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 129-130]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 119]; Marott1992a [host, distribution: 85]; Pelliz2011 [distribution: 313]; PellizFo1996 [distribution: 120]; Savesc1985 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 115-117]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 430, 449, 450]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 219-222]; Terezn1979 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 49-51].



Fonscolombia kokandica (Nurmamatov)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus kokandicus Nurmamatov, 1986b: 94. Type data: TADZHIKISTAN: Kuraminsky Ridge, near Alti-Topkana, on Piptatherum kokanicum. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Fonscolombia kokandica; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 223. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.



HOSTS: Poaceae [KaydanKo2010a], Piptatherum kokanicum [Nurmam1986b, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Nurmam1986b, BenDov1994]; Turkey [KaydanKo2010a].

BIOLOGY: The species lives under the leaf sheaths of Piptatherum kokanicum; was collected on rocky slope at an altitude 2000 m. Females and larvae of last stage were found in early June. (Danzig, 2006a)

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Nurmamatov (1986b).

SYSTEMATICS: The species is very similar to F. setiger Borchs. but differs in the thicker and shorter tibiae, which are only twice as long as tarsi. Nurmamatov (1986) described and figured three conical setae in C18. However, the holotype and a paratype have (similar to Ph. setiger) two conical setae in C18, but these setae are much thinner than those in Ph. setiger. (Danzig, 2006a)

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin 2014: 200-201 (female) [Key to species of Fonscolombia]; Danzig 2006a: 197-200 (female) [as Phenacoccus kokandicus; A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 327]; Danzig2006a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 200, 219-220]; DanzigGa2014 [distribution, host, host, taxonomy: 201,223-224]; KaydanKo2010a [distribution, host: 36]; Nurmam1986b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 93-95].



Fonscolombia menieri (Matile-Ferrero & Balachowsky)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus menieri Matile-Ferrero & Balachowsky, 1972: 107. Type data: CANARY ISLANDS: Barranco de San Andre, on Euphorbia canariensis. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

Fonscolombia menieri; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 224. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Euphorbiaceae: Euphorbia canariensis [MatileBa1972, CarnerPe1986, BenDov1994]. Hypericaceae: Hypericum sp. [BenDov2013]

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Canary Islands [MatileBa1972, BenDov1994, MatileOr2001, BenDov2013].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Matile-Ferrero & Balachowsky (1972).

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin 2014: 200-201 (female) [Key to species of Fonscolombia].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 331]; BenDov2013 [distribution, host: 73]; CarnerPe1986 [host, distribution: 54-55]; DanzigGa2014 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 200,223-224]; MatileBa1972 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 107-110]; MatileOr2001 [host, distribution: 195].



Fonscolombia phenacoccoides (Kiritchenko)

NOMENCLATURE:

Trionymus phenacoccoides Kiritchenko, 1932: 136. Type data: UKRAINE: Odessa Oblast, Odessa, on Agropyron repens. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female.

Erium phenacoccoides; Lindinger, 1935a: 122. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus phenacoccoides; Borchsenius, 1937: 54. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus cynodontis Borchsenius, 1949: 229. Type data: UZBEKISTAN and TADZHIKISTAN: on Cynodon dactylon. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female.

Caulococcus cynodontis; Borchsenius, 1960c: 49. Change of combination.

Caulococcus phenacoccoides; Borchsenius, 1960e: 49. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus eugeniae Bazarov, 1967a: 60. Type data: TADZHIKISTAN: Pamir, Zor-Kul, on Elymus sp. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Danzig, 2006a: 223-224. Homonym of Phenacoccus eugeniae Takahashi.

Euripersia eugeniae; Tang, 1992: 451. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus bazarovi Ben-Dov, 1994: 310. Replacement name for Phenacoccus eugeniae Bazarov.

Phenacoccus cynodontis; Ben-Dov, 1994: 314. Revived combination.

Phenacoccus phenacoccoides; Ben-Dov, 1994: 337. Revived combination.

Phenacoccus kochiae Danzig, 2006a: 216-218. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: Alma-Ata Province, near Lepsy Station, between Lake Balkhash and the railway, sandy desert, on Kochia prostrata, 6/11/1963, by G. Matesova. Holotype female (examined). Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 1693. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 226.

Fonscolombia phenacoccoides; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 226. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: pink grass-mealybug [KosztaKo1988F].



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Olgaea leuophylla [Tang1992, TangHaTa1992]. Chenopodiaceae: Kochia prostrata [Danzig2006a]. Poaceae: Aegilops [KaydanKiKo2005], Agropyron desertorum [Mateso1968a], Agropyron repens [Kiritc1932], Agropyron romosum [Mateso1968a], Agropyron sibiricum [Mateso1968a], Aneurolepidium chinense [Wu2000a], Cleistogenes squarrosa [Danzig1977a], Cynodon dactylon [Borchs1949, BenDov1994, Wu2000a], Elymus [Bazaro1967a, BenDov1994, Wu2000a], Elymus angustus [Mateso1968a, Danzig1972b, BenDov1994], Elytrigia [Terezn1975a], Elytrigia repens [DanzigGa2005], Hordeum murinum [KaydanKiKo2005], Phleum phleoides [Mateso1968a], Poa nemoralis [Terezn1975a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China [Tang1992, TangHaTa1992, BenDov1994, Wu2000a] (Ningxia (=Ningsia) [Wu2000a]); Georgia (Georgia [Borchs1937]); Germany [Danzig2006a]; Hungary [KosztaKo1988F, KozarKiSa2004]; Kazakhstan [Mateso1968] (Alma Ata Oblast [Danzig2006a]); Moldova [KozarOs1987]; Mongolia [Danzig1972b, Danzig1977a, BenDov1994]; Poland [Lagows1996, SimonKa2011]; Russia (Voronoezh Oblast [DanzigGa2005], Yakutia-Sakha (=Yakut) AR [Danzig1978a]); Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Borchs1949, Bazaro1967a, BenDov1994, Danzig2006a]; Turkey [KaydanKiKo2005, KaydanUlEr2007]; Ukraine [Kiritc1932] (Krym (=Crimea) Oblast [Borchs1949]); Uzbekistan [Borchs1949, BenDov1994] (Bukhara Oblast [Danzig2006a]).

BIOLOGY: The species inhabits plain and mountain steppes, occurs in the deserts and in saline lands. In the Western Pamirs; it was found at an altitude of 3400 m. It lives in axils of lower leaves and on roots of wild Poaceae. (Danzig2006a) Adult females occur from May to October in the leaf axils of the host plants.

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Danzig, 2006a.Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Tereznikova (1975) and by Tang (1992). Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949).Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949) and by Tang (1992).Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Bazarov (1967a). Good description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

STRUCTURE: Body oval; 3 mm. Antennae 9-segmented. Legs with slender segments; hind femur and tibia with translucent pores. Spiracles with groups of trilocular poes. Circulus absent. Multilocular pores present on dorsal and ventral sides of abdomen; singular multilocular pores occasionally occurring near hind spiracles. Quinquelocular pores absent. Tubular ducts present on both sides of abdomen; dorsal and ventral ducts of the same size. (Danzig, 2006a)Body elongate, pink, 3.5 mm long. Antennae 9-, rarely 8-segmented. Legs comparatively short, often with tick hind femur; hind femur and tibia sometimes with translucent pores. Spiracles with groups of trilocular pores. Circulus usually absent. Dorsal multilocular pores occasionally present on abdominal segments. Ventral multilocular pores forming transverse rows and bands on 3-4 posterior abdominal segments; sometimes singular pores present along body margin. Quinquelocular pores often absent. Tubular ducts occasionally present on posterior abdominal tergites. (Danzig, 2006a)

SYSTEMATICS: In the initial description, Ph. kochiae was said to be similar to Ph. phenacoccoides but differed in the oval body and more numerous multilocular pores on both sides of the body. The host plants of the two species are also different; Ph. phenacoccoides is oligophagous on Poaceae and has never been collected from dicotyledons. (Danzig, 2006a)The species is characterized by variability in the number of multilocular pores and tubular ducts and the presence or absence of quinquelocular pores. Quinquelocular pores are always absent in specimens from the western part of the species range and occasionally present in specimens from the eastern populations. Quinquelocular pores vary in number between specimens. Circulus is usually absent in this species, but in one of the two females from Yakutia the circulus was found. (Danzig, 2006a) However, in Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014, they determined that these characters vary between individual females in a single population and were not acceptable for species independency.

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin 2014: 200-201 (female) [Key to species of Fonscolombia]; Danzig 2006a: 197-200 (female) [as Phenacoccus kochiae; A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus]; Danzig 2006a: 197-200 (female) [as Phenacoccus phenacoccoides; A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus]; Wu 2000a: 69-70 (female) [as Phenacoccus phenacoccoides; PHenacoccus species of China]; Wu 2000a: 69-70 (female) [as Phenacoccus phenacoccoides; Phenacoccus species of China]; Tang 1992: 447 (female) [as Euripersia eugeniae; Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Danzig 1988: 700 (female) [Far East of Russia]; Kosztarab & Kozar 1988F: 123 (female) [as Caulococcus phenacoccoides; Central Europe]; Bazarov & Nurmamatov 1975b: 55 (female) [as Phenacoccus eugeniae; Tajikistan]; Tereznikova 1975: 211 (female) [as Caulococcus phenacoccoides; Ukraine]; Borchsenius 1949: 211 (female) [as Phenacoccus cynodontis; Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: Bazaro1967a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 60-63]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 310, 314, 337]; Borchs1937 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 54]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 228-230]; Borchs1960c [taxonomy: 49]; Danzig1972b [host, distribution: 332]; Danzig1977a [host, distribution: 197]; Danzig1978a [host, distribution: 75]; Danzig2006a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 200,216-218,223-224]; DanzigGa2005 [taxonomy, cytogenetics: 529]; DanzigGa2014 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 201,226-228]; Gavril2004 [host, distribution: 524]; Gavril2011a [cytogenetics: 378]; GavrilKu2005 [taxonomy, distribution: 17-34]; KaydanKiKo2005 [host, distribution: 90]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 101]; Kiritc1932 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 136-137]; Kiritc1936 [host, distribution: 71]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 131]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 57]; KozarOs1987 [host, distribution]; LagowsKo1996 [host, distribution: 31, 34]; Lindin1935a [taxonomy: 122]; Mateso1968 [host, distribution: 110]; SimonKa2011 [distribution: 235]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 425,433,451,701]; TangHaTa1992 [host, distribution: 7, 8]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 10]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 147, 148]; Wu2000a [host, distribution: 62,63,69-70,72].



Fonscolombia porifera (Borchsenius)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus poriferus Borchsenius, 1949: 234. Type data: RUSSIA: Primor'ye Kray, on grass. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 1980b: 135. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female.

Phenacoccus comitans Bazarov, 1967a: 62. Type data: TADZHIKISTAN: Pamir, on roots of Elymus sp. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Danzig, 1980: 135.

Caulococcus comitans; Tang, 1992: 424. Change of combination.

Caulococcus poriferus; Tang, 1992: 433. Change of combination.

Caulococcus poreferus; Tang, 1992: 680. Misspelling of species name.

Caulococcus porferus; Tang et al., 1992: 8. Misspelling of species name.

Phenacoccus poriferus; Ben-Dov, 1994: 338. Revived combination.

Fonscolombia porifera; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 230. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Agropyron [Wu2000a], Agrostis [Wu2000a], Aneurolepidium [Wu2000a], Elymus [Wu2000a], Elymus chinensis [Danzig1984a, BenDov1994], Elymus dasystachys [Danzig1984a, BenDov1994], Elymus mollis [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994], Festuca supina [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China [Tang1992, TangHaTa1992, BenDov1994, Wu2000a]; Mongolia [Danzig1984a]; North Korea [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994]; Russia (Primor'ye Kray [Borchs1949, Danzig1980b, BenDov1994]); Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Bazaro1967a, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Collected on sand beaches under the leaf sheaths of Elymus, Festuca supina and Carex. (Danzig, 2006a) Oligophagous on cereals. Occurring in leaf axils. Female body elongate-oval, up to 4 mm long. Antennae with 9 short segments. Legs small. Circulus absent.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Danzig (1980b) and by Tang (1992). Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Often abundant: a dangerous pest. (Danzig, 2006a)

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin 2014: 200-201 (female) [Key to species of Fonscolombia]; Danzig 2006a: 197-200 (female) [as Phenacoccus poriferus; A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus]; Kwon et al. 2003: 114 (female) [as Caulococcus poriferus; Korea]; Wu 2000a: 69-70 (female) [as Phenacoccus poriferus; Phenacoccus species of China]; Bazarov & Nurmamatov 1975b: 56 (female) [as Phenacoccus comitans; Tajikistan]; Borchsenius 1949: 211 (female) [as Phenacoccus poriferus; Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: Bazaro1967a [host, distribution: 60-63]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 338]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 234-235]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 135-136]; Danzig1984a [host, distribution: 338]; Danzig2006a [description, distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 198, 203-204]; DanzigGa2014 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 200,230-232]; KwonDaPa2003 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 114,117]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 433-434, 702]; TangHaTa1992 [host, destribution: 8]; Wu2000a [host, distribution: 67,69-70].



Fonscolombia rotunda (Kanda)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus rotundus Kanda, 1943a: 45. Type data: JAPAN: Honsyu, Mt. Zinmuzi, Kanagawaken, on Stephanandra incisa. Holotype female. Type depository: Yokohama: S. Kanda Collection, Asano Senior High School, Kanagawa-ku, Japan. Described: female.

Coccura trichonota Danzig, 1971: 388. Type data: RUSSIA: Primor'ye Kray, on Aralia mandshurica. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 233.

Phenacoccus trichonotus; Danzig, 1980: 127. Change of combination.

Fonscolombia rotunda; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 233. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.

Coccura trichonotuta; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 233. Misspelling of species name.



HOSTS: Araliaceae: Aralia mandshurica [Danzig1971, BenDov1994], Eleutherococcus senticosus [Danzig1971, BenDov1994]. Asteraceae: Artemisia [Danzig1971, BenDov1994]. Betulaceae: Alnus hirsuta [Danzig1971, BenDov1994], Betula dahurica [Danzig1971, BenDov1994]. Celastraceae: Euonymus [Danzig1971, BenDov1994]. Rosaceae: Crataegus [Danzig1971, BenDov1994], Malus mandshurica [Danzig1971, BenDov1994], Padus asiatica [Danzig1971, BenDov1994], Sorbaria sorbifolia [Danzig1971, BenDov1994], Stephanandra incisa [Kanda1943a, BenDov1994]. Schisandraceae: Schisandra chinensis [Danzig1971, BenDov1994]. Ulmaceae: Ulmus propinqua [Danzig1971, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Japan [Kanda1943a, BenDov1994]; Russia (Primor'ye Kray [Danzig1971, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Usually occurs on subterranean parts of the trunk and shoots and thick roots; above ground found only in fissures and wounds under the bark where their presence is betrayed by ants which cover the mealybugs with pieces of masticated wood. Ants tend colonies of Ph. trichonotus and build galleries from masticated wood over them. (Danzig, 2006a)

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Kanda (1943a). Good description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Danzig (1971, 1980b). Good description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

STRUCTURE: Adult female body broad-oval, orange, up to 3 mm. Antennae 9-segmented. Circuli 2 or 3 in number. Multilocular pores present on abdominal sternites only, numerous. (Danzig, 2006a)

SYSTEMATICS: Ph. trichonatus differs from other species of this genus in the presence of flagellate setae on the dorsum. (Danzig, 2006a) Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014 determined that upon comparison of Coccura triconota with the original description and figure of Phenococcus rotundus that the species were conspecific.

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin 2014: 200-201 (female) [Key to species of Fonscolombia]; Danzig 2006a: 197-200 (female) [A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus]; Tang 1992: 529 (female) [China]; Danzig 1988: 700 (female) [Far East of Russia]; Danzig 1980b: 124 (female) [Far East of Russia]; Kanda 1943a: 43 (female) [as Phenacoccus rotundus; Japan].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 341]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 347-348]; Danzig1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 388-389]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 126-127]; Danzig2006a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 198, 204-205]; DanzigGa2014 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 201,233-235]; Kanda1943a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 45-47]; Kawai1972 [host, distribution: 8]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 549]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 550-551].



Fonscolombia setigera (Borchsenius)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus setiger Borchsenius, 1949: 223. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: Aktyubinsk, on Agropyrum sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female.

Caulococcus setiger; Borchsenius, 1960E: 49. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus kaplini Danzig, 1983: 514. Type data: TURKMENISTAN: on Aristida karelinii. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Danzig, 2006a: 218-219.

Phenacoccus gobicus Danzig, 1987: 577. Type data: MONGOLIA: Bayan-Khongor Aymak, host plant not recorded. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Danzig, 2006a: 218-219.

Caulococcus kaplini; Tang, 1992: 431. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus kaplini; Ben-Dov, 1994: 327. Revived combination.

Phenacoccus setiger; Danzig, 2006a: 218-219. Revived combination.

Fonscolombia setigera; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 235. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Agropyron [Borchs1949, BenDov1994], Aristida karelinii [Danzig1983, BenDov1994], Elytrigia repens [Danzig2006a], Stipa gobica [Danzig2006a], Stipa lessingiana [Danzig2006a], Stipagrostis karelinii [Danzig2006a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kazakhstan [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]; Mongolia [Danzig1987, BenDov1994]; Russia (Orenburg Oblast [Danzig2006a]); Turkmenistan [Danzig1983, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: The species lives in the steppes, on stems of Poaceae. (Danzig, 2006a)

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949) and by Tang (1992).Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Danzig (1983). Good description of the adult female gien by Tang (1992).Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Danzig (1987).

STRUCTURE: Body elongate, 1.8 mm long. Antennae 9-, rarely 8-segmented. Legs well developed, with long and thin tibiae and tarsi; tibia more than 3 times as long as tarsus without claw. Circulus large, oval. Multilocular pores situated on 3 posterior abdominal sternites. Quinquelocular pores usually absent; sometimes singular pores present. Dorsal tubular ducts forming transverse rows on thorax and bands on abdomen. Ventral ducts somewhat smaller than dorsal ones, arranged along margin of metathorax and abdomen and forming transverse rows on abdominal sternites IV-VII. (Danzig, 2006a)

SYSTEMATICS: Synonymy of Ph. setiger, Ph. kaplini and Ph. gobicus was based on a comparison of types and Danzig (2006a) determined that the differences between these types were within ingraspecific variation.

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin 2014: 200-201 (female) [Key to species of Fonscolombia]; Danzig 2006a: 197-200 (female) [as Phenacoccus setiger; A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus]; Borchsenius 1949: 210 (female) [as Phenacoccus setiger; Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 320, 327, 342]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 223-224]; Borchs1960c [taxonomy: 49]; Danzig1983 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 514-515]; Danzig1987 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 577-578]; Danzig2006a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 200, 218-219]; DanzigGa2014 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 201,235-237]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 431, 435-436].



Fonscolombia stepposa (Matesova)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccopsis stepposa Matesova, 1968: 109. Nomen nudum.

Phenacoccopsis stepposa Matesova, 1968a: 155. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: former Ulan District, Kalbinsk Ridge, on Poa stepposa. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Euripersia stepposa; Danzig, 1971: 373. Change of combination.

Fonscolombia stepposa; Danzig, 2007: 368. Change of combination.



HOST: Poaceae: Poa stepposa [Mateso1968a, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kazakhstan [Mateso1968a, BenDov1994, Danzig2007, Danzig2007]; Russia (Primor'ye Kray [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994, Danzig2007]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Matesova (1968a) and by Danzig (1980b, 2007).

SYSTEMATICS: This species is very similar to the European-Siberian F. tomlinii, but differs in the presence of quinquelocular pores on the dorsum. (Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014)

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin 2014: 200-201 (female) [Key to species of Fonscolombia]; Kaydan 2014: 446 (female) [Key to adult female Fonscolombia]; Danzig 2007: 364-365 (female) [Fonscolombia species of Russia]; Tang 1992: 447 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 156]; Danzig1971 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 373, 374]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 140, 141]; Danzig2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 368-370]; DanzigGa2014 [distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 201,237-238]; Kaydan2014 [taxonomy: 444]; Kaydan2014 [taxonomy: 446]; Mateso1968 [host, distribution: 109]; Mateso1968a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 155-156].



Fonscolombia stipae (Nurmamatov)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus stipae Nurmamatov, 1986b: 762. Type data: TADZHIKISTAN: Gissark Ridge, Iskanderkul, on Stipa sp. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Fonscolombia stipae; Danzig, 2007: 373. Change of combination.



HOST: Poaceae: Stipa [Nurmam1986a, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Nurmam1986a, BenDov1994]; Turkmenistan [MyartsKaPo1995].

BIOLOGY: Living on roots of its host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Nurmamatov (1986a) and by Danzig (2007).

STRUCTURE: Female broadly oval, up to 3 mm long. Antennae 7-segmented. Legs small in comparison with body, without translucent pores; claw with poorly visible denticle. Anal apparatus complete, with 6 shortened setae, whicch are similar in length to the diameter of the anal ring. Curculus large, oval. Multilocular pores located only in medial zone of three posterior abdominal sternites. Quinquelocular pores absent. tubular ducts of one size, occasionally present on dorsal surface of thorax and anterior abdominal sternites; on vener they occur along margin of cephalothorax and forming bands in medial part of abdominal sternites. Cerarii numberins 4-7 pair. Dorsal surface of body covered with thin and slightly curved flagellate setae. (Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014)

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin 2014: 200-201 (female) [Key to species of Fonscolombia]; Kaydan 2014: 446 (female) [Key to adult female Fonscolombia]; Danzig 2007: 364-365 (female) [Fonscolombia species of Russia].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 346]; Danzig2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 373]; DanzigGa2014 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 201,238-240]; Kaydan2014 [taxonomy: 444]; Kaydan2014 [taxonomy: 446]; MyartsKaPo1995 [host, distribution: 223-225]; Nurmam1986a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 762-764].



Fonscolombia tomlinii (Newstead)

NOMENCLATURE:

Ripersia tomlinii Newstead, 1892: 146. Type data: CHANNEL ISLANDS: Guernsey, on grass roots in ants' nests. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Ripersia montana Newstead, 1898: 97. Type data: FRANCE: Haute Savoie, Argentieres, on roots of grass and composites. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Matile-Ferrero, 2004: 75. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Synonymy by Matile-Ferrero, 2004: 75.

Ripersia exul exul Green, 1924b: 46. Type data: CHANNEL ISLANDS: Guernsey, in nests of ants. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Synonymy by Williams, 1962: 26.

Ripersia mesnili Balachowsky, 1934a: 67. Type data: FRANCE: Corsica, Niolo, on Trisetum. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Synonymy by Williams, 1962: 26.

Pseudococcus bufo Kiritchenko, 1936a: 149. Type data: UKRAINE: Odessa Oblast, Odessa, on roots of Gramineae, Krym, Kekeneiz, on roots of Poa bulbosa. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Synonymy by Danzig, 1971: 373.

Phenacoccus agropyri Borchsenius, 1937: 52. Type data: UKRAINE: Northern Caucasus, Shuntk Station, in ditch near rail way station, on couch-grass roots; collected N.B. 22.v.1934. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 2007: 367. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Synonymy by Danzig, 1971: 373.

Ripersia exul allosiana Goux, 1945: 37. Type data: FRANCE: Lac d'Allos, Basses-Alpes, on the roots of grass. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Matile-Ferrero, 2004: 75. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Matile-Ferrero, 2004: 75.

Phenacoccopsis agropyri; Borchsenius, 1949: 200. Change of combination.

Phenacoccopsis nassonovi Borchsenius, 1949: 201. Type data: RUSSIA: St. Peterburg [= Leningrad] Oblast, on grass. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 2007: 367. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Synonymy by Danzig, 1971: 373.

Phenacoccopsis bufo; Borchsenius, 1949: 202. Change of combination.

Euripersia tomlinii; Williams, 1962: 26. Change of combination.

Euripersia montana; Kozár & Walter, 1985: 68. Change of combination.

Bessenayla balachowskyi Goux, 1988: 6. Type data: FRANCE: Courzieu near Lynos, on Aira sp. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 241.

Bessenayla balachoswkyi; Goux, 1988a: 6. Misspelling of species name.

Conicoccus montrottieri Goux, 1994: 43. Type data: FRANCE: Rhone, Bessenay, on Gramineae; collected 12.viii.1952, by L. Goux. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Matile-Ferrero, 2004: 75. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France; type no. 1548-1. Described: female. Synonymy by Matile-Ferrero, 2004: 75.

Fonscolombia tomlinii; Danzig, 1994: 46. Change of combination.

Bessenayla balachoswkyi; Ben-Dov, 1994: 61. Misspelling of species name. Notes: Bessenayla balachowskyi mis-spelled Bessenayla balachoswkyi.

Euripersia exul allosiana; Matile-Ferrero & Ben-Dov, 1995: 258. Change of combination.

Eurypersia tomlini; Lagowska & Koteja, 1996: 33. Misspelling of genus name.

Phenacoccopsis nasononi; Tao, 1999: 14. Misspelling of species name.

Fonscolombia tomlini; Gertsson, 2011: 40. Misspelling of species name.

COMMON NAME: Tomlin's mealybug [KosztaKo1988F].



FOE: HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Ericydnus longicornis (Dalman) [Schmut1955b, KosztaKo1988F].

HOSTS: Asteraceae [Newste1898, Marott1987a, BenDov1994], Artemisia dracunculus [Danzig1974, BenDov1994]. Crassulaceae: Sedum [Danzig1994]. Cyperaceae: Carex [Danzig1959, BenDov1994]. Poaceae [Newste1898, Goux1931, Marott1987a, BenDov1994], [Goux1945, BenDov1994], Agropyron repens [BorchsTe1956, TerGri1966, BenDov1994], Aira [Goux1988a, BenDov1994], Arrhenatherum elatius [Schmut1952, BenDov1994], Atropis [Mateso1968, BenDov1994], Avenastrum pubescens [Mateso1968, BenDov1994], Bromus [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994], Corynephorus canescens [Schmut1952, BenDov1994], Dactylis glomerata [Mateso1968, BenDov1994], Deschampsia flexuosa [Schmut1952, BenDov1994], Elymus angustus [Mateso1968, BenDov1994], Elymus juncus [Mateso1968, BenDov1994], Festuca glauca [Zahrad1987, BenDov1994], Festuca ovina [Koteja1972, BenDov1994], Festuca sulcata [Mateso1968, BenDov1994], Hardeum [TerGri1966, BenDov1994], Koeleria gracilis [Mateso1968, BenDov1994], Phleum phleoides [Mateso1968, BenDov1994], Poa bulbosa [Kiritc1936a, BenDov1994], Poa compressa [Koteja1972, BenDov1994], Poa pratensis [Mateso1968, BenDov1994], Poa stepposa [Mateso1968, BenDov1994], Stipa grandis [Danzig1984, BenDov1994], Stipa sibirica [Danzig1984, BenDov1994], Tragopogon [BorchsTe1956, BenDov1994], Triticum [TerGri1966, BenDov1994], Triticum compactum erinaceum [BorchsTe1956, BenDov1994], Triticum vulgare erythrospermum [BorchsTe1956, BenDov1994]. Rubiaceae: Galium [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994]. Umbelliferae: Daucus carota [BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [Borchs1949, TerGri1966, BenDov1994, Danzig2007]; China [Tang1992, TangHaTa1992, BenDov1994]; Corsica [Foldi2003, Matile2004]; Czech Republic [Zahrad1987, BenDov1994]; Denmark [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994]; France [Goux1988a, BenDov1994, Foldi2001] [Newste1898, Goux1931, Balach1934a, Goux1945, BenDov1994, Foldi2001, MatilePe2002]; Germany [Schmut1952, Schmut1980, BenDov1994]; Hungary [KozarWa1986, BenDov1994, KozarKiSa2004]; Italy [Newste1900, Leonar1920, Marott1987a, BenDov1994, LongoMaPe1995]; Kazakhstan [Mateso1968, BenDov1994, Danzig2007]; Mongolia [Danzig1980, Danzig1984a, BenDov1994]; Netherlands [Reyne1951, BenDov1994]; Poland [Koteja1974b, KotejaZa1983, BenDov1994, Lagows1996]; Russia (Lipestsk Oblast [Gavril2003a], St. Petersburg (=Leningrad) Oblast [Borchs1949, BenDov1994], Yakutia-Sakha (=Yakut) AR [Danzig1978a, BenDov1994]); Sicily [MazzeoRuLo1997, RussoMa1997]; Spain [Martin1985]; Sweden [Gertss2000, Gertss2001]; Switzerland [Danzig1994]; Ukraine [Borchs1949, BenDov1994, Danzig2007] (Krym (=Crimea) Oblast [Borchs1937, BenDov1994]); United Kingdom (Channel Islands [Newste1892, BenDov1994], England [Willia1962, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Living on roots of the host plant.Occurring on the roots of a variety of herbaceous plants, especially grasses often found in association with ants. Life history, natural enemies and associated ant discussed by Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female by Borchsenius (1939a), Williams (1962), Ter-Grigorian (1973) (as P. bufo), Tereznikova (1975), Zahradnik (1987), Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F), Tang (1992) and by Danzig (2007). Description of the adult female and first-instar nymph by Borchsenius (1949). Description and illustration of first-instar nymph by Ter-Grigorian (1973). Description of the adult female given by Leonardi (1920), Gomez-Menor Ortega (1937) and by Goux (1945).Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Goux (1988a).

STRUCTURE: Female up to 3.5 mm long, pink. Antennae 6-8-segmented. Claw denticle well developed. Anal apparatus complete; number of its pores and spinulae and length of setae vary in different populations. Circuli 2 or 3 in number, conves, sclerotized. Multilocular pores acattered on ventral surface of abdomen and metathorax. Quinquelocular pores scattered in medial zone of thoraxic sternites. Simple discoidal porees sparsely scallered on entire surface of body. Simple tubular ducts of one size forming trhnsverse rows on abdomen and randomly sparse on thorax. Cerarii numberint 2-3 pair. Small conical setae present on dorsum along with flagellate setae of different sizes. (Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014)

SYSTEMATICS: The new combination by Matile-Ferrero & Ben-Dov (1995) was based on characters of the species as given in Goux (1945).Goux (1988) page 8, published the species epithet mis-spelled Bessenayla balachoswkyi, but further in the original description it was correctly spelled balachowskyi.

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin 2014: 200-21 (female) [Key to species of Fonscolombia]; Kaydan 2014: 446 (female) [Key to adult female Fonscolombia]; Danzig 2007: 364-365 (female) [Fonscolombia species of Russia]; Matile-Ferrero 2004: 76 (female) [Fonscolombia species of France]; Tang 1992: 447 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Kosztarab & Kozár 1988F: 96 (female) [Central Europe]; Tereznikova 1975: 177 (female) [Ukraine]; Borchsenius 1949: 199 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: Balach1934a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 67-71]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 61, 62]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 61,62,156,157,474]; Borchs1937 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 52]; Borchs1939a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 46-47]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 200-203]; BorchsTe1956 [host, distribution]; Cocker1897c [taxonomy, host, distribution: 240]; Danzig1959 [host, distribution: 445]; Danzig1971 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 373]; Danzig1974 [host, distribution: 69]; Danzig1978a [host, distribution: 74]; Danzig1980 [host, distribution: 33]; Danzig1984a [host, distribution: 33]; Danzig1994 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 46]; Danzig2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 367-368]; DanzigGa2005 [taxonomy, cytogenetics: 527-529]; DanzigGa2014 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 14,200,240-243]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Foldi2003 [host, distribution: 148]; Gavril2003a [host, distribution: 109]; Gavril2004 [host, distribution: 526]; Gavril2007 [taxonomy: 1]; GavrilKu2005 [taxonomy, distribution: 19-34]; Gertss2000 [host, distribution: 149]; Gertss2001 [distribution: 123-130]; Gertss2011 [distribution: 40]; GomezM1937 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 363-365]; Goux1931 [host, distribution: 332]; Goux1945 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 37]; Goux1988a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 6-11]; Goux1994 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 41-43]; Green1920 [taxonomy: 122]; Green1924b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 46-47]; Jansen2001 [host, distribution: 197-206]; Kaydan2014 [taxonomy: 444,446]; Kaydan2014 [taxonomy: 446]; Kiritc1936a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 149-151]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 97-98]; Koteja1972 [host, distribution: 567]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy, distribution: 74]; KotejaZa1983 [host, distribution: 472]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 57]; KozarWa1985 [taxonomy: 68]; KozarWa1986 [host, distribution: 115]; LagowsKo1996 [host, distribution: 31, 33]; Leonar1920 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 423]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 118]; LongoRu1990 [host, distribution: 114]; Marott1987a [host, distribution: 109]; MarottTr1995a [taxonomy: 70-71]; Martin1985 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 98]; Mateso1968 [host, distribution, life history: 108-109]; Matile2004 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 75-76]; MatileBe1995 [taxonomy: 258]; MatilePe2002 [host, distribution: 351]; Newste1892 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 146-147]; Newste1898 [p. 97]; Reyne1951 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 189-206]; RussoMa1997 [distribution: 48]; Schmut1952 [host, distribution: 392]; Schmut1955b [biological control: 515]; SimonKa2011 [distribution: 235]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 455-456, 717]; TangHaTa1992 [host, distribution: 8]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 14]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 180-182]; TerGri1966 [host, distribution: 87]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 125-127]; Willia1962 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 26-28]; WilliaMa2012 [distribution: 83,86]; Zahrad1987 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 355-357].



Fonscolombia tshadaevae (Danzig)

NOMENCLATURE:

Euripersia tshadaevae Danzig, 1980b: 35. Type data: MONGOLIA: Ara-Khangaiskii Aymak, Tevshrulekh, host plant not indicated. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Fonscolombia tshadaevae; Danzig, 2007: 370. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Iridaceae: Iris dichotoma [Danzig1984, BenDov1994]. Poaceae: Aneurolepidum chinense [Danzig1980b], Cleistogenes squarrosa [Danzig1980b], Stipa grandis [Danzig1984, BenDov1994, Danzig1980b], Stipa sibirica [Danzig1980b]. Umbelliferae: Bupleurum bicaula [Danzig1984, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China [Tang1992, TangHaTa1992, BenDov1994, Danzig2007]; Mongolia [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994, Danzig2007].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Tang (1992) and by Danzig (2007).

KEYS: Kaydan 2014: 446 (female) [Key to adult female Fonscolombia]; Danzig 2007: 364-365 (female) [Fonscolombia species of Eussia]; Tang 1992: 447 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 157, 158]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 34-35]; Danzig1984a [host, distribution: 34]; Danzig2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 370-371]; Kaydan2014 [taxonomy: 444]; Kaydan2014 [taxonomy: 446]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 456, 457]; TangHaTa1992 [host, distribution: 8].



Fonscolombia ulusoyi Kaydan

NOMENCLATURE:

Fonscolombia ulusoyi Kaydan, 2014: 443-449. Type data: TURKEY: Iđdýr-Tuzluca-Gaziler, N: 40°06’218’’; E: 043°27’952’’, on Stipa sp., 5/29/2008, by MB Kaydan. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Turkey: Kaydan's Personal Collection; type no. 4367. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Collected at 1000m. Paratypes. 2 females with same data with Holotype; 1 female, Turkey, Erzurum-Horasan-Köprüköy road, N: 39°57’252’’; E:042°17’166'’; 1690 m; on Festuca sp. (Poaceae), 09.07.2010, coll: M. Bora Kaydan (KPCT:4827).



HOSTS: Poaceae: Festuca sp. [Kaydan2014], Stipa sp. [Kaydan2014]

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Turkey [Kaydan2014].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Kaydan, 2014.

STRUCTURE: Body elongate oval, 1.34-1.68 mm long, 0.83-1.37 mm wide. Eye marginal, 35-40 µm wide. Antenna 6 segmented, 260-280 µm long; apical segment 75-80 µm long, 25-30 µm wide, with apical setae 22.5-27.5 µm long plus three fleshy setae, each 20-35 µm long. (Kaydan, 2014)

SYSTEMATICS: Fonscolombia ulusoyi can be distinguished in having: (i) two cerarii on the posterior abdominal segments; (ii) absence of oral collar tubular ducts on dorsum; (iii) absence of quinquelocular pores on venter; (iv) large discoidal pores on both on venter and dorsum and (v) circuli present. However F. ulusoyi is closest to F. herbaceae in having large discoidal pores and circulus on venter but differs in lacking oral collar tubular ducts on dorsum and lacking quinquelocular pores on venter. Fonscolombia ulusoyi is also similar to F. europaea in lacking oral collar tubular ducts on the dorsum but different from this species in having a circulus on venter. Fonscolombia ulusoyi is also close to F. stipae in lacking oral collar tubular duct on the dorsum and in having a circulus on venter but differs in having 6 segmented antennae (7 segmented antennae in F. stipae) and only two cerarii on abdominal segments (6 pairs of cerarii in F. stipae). (Kaydan, 2014)

KEYS: Kaydan 2014: 446 (female) [Key to adult female Fonscolombia].

CITATIONS: Kaydan2014 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 443-449].



Gouxia Koçak & Kemal

NOMENCLATURE:

Giraudia Goux, 1989: 292. Type species: Giraudia danielaferreroae Goux, by original designation. Homonym of Giraudia Förster, 1869; Giraudia Bourguigant,; discovered by Koçak & Kemal, 2009: 1.

Gouxia Koçak & Kemal, 2009: 1. Replacement name for Giraudia Goux, 1989.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good definition and characters given by Goux (1989).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 174]; Goux1989 [taxonomy, description: 292]; KocakKe2009 [taxonomy: 1].



Gouxia danielaferreroae (Goux)

NOMENCLATURE:

Giraudia danielaferreroae Goux, 1989: 292. Type data: FRANCE: Courzieu (Rhone), on Holcus lanatus. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

Gouxia danielaferreroae; Koçak & Kemal, 2009: 1. Change of combination.



HOST: Poaceae: Holcus lanatus [Goux1989, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: France [Goux1989, BenDov1994, Foldi2001].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Goux (1989). Goux (1989) also described the first instar crawler.

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 174]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Goux1989 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 292-296]; KocakKe2009 [taxonomy: 1].



Heliococcus Šulc

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus Šulc, 1912a: 39. Type species: Heliococcus bohemicus Sulc, by original designation.

Saliococcus Kanda, 1934: 308. Type species: Dactylopius takae Kuwana, by monotypy and original designation. Synonymy by Kanda, 1935a: 70. Notes: A subjective synonym of Heliococcus.

Takahashicoccus Kanda, 1959a: 239. Type species: Heliococcus takahashii Kanda, by monotypy and original designation. Synonymy by Danzig, 1980b: 145. Notes: A subjective synonym of Heliococcus.

Helicoccus; Matesova, 1984: 1428. Misspelling of genus name.

Novonilacoccus Ghosh & Ghose, 1987: 38. Type species: Novonilacoccus oryzae Ghosh and Ghose, by monotypy and original designation. Synonymy by Williams, 2004a: 343.

Helicoccus; Tang et. al., 1992: 8. Misspelling of genus name.

Heteroheliococcus Wu & Tang, 1997: 282. Type species: Heliococcus mirabilis Bazarov, by monotypy and original designation. Synonymy by Williams, 2004a: 343.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by Sulc (1912), Kanda (1935a), Borchsenius (1949), Ferris (1950b), Kanda (1959a), McKenzie (1964, 1967), Matile (1970), Ter-Grigorian (1973), Bazarov (1974, 1974a), Miller (1974), Tereznikova (1975), Danzig (1980b), Williams (1985), Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F), Williams & Granara de Willink (1992), Kosztarab (1996), Williams (2004a) and by Danzig (2007a).

KEYS: Danzig 2007a: 569-571 (female) [(Heliococcus species of palearctic region.]; Granara de Willink & Szumik 2007: 38 (female) [Phenacoccinae genera of South America]; Williams 2004a: 41 (female) [Genera of southern Asia]; Williams 2004a: 343 (female) [Heliococcus species of southern Asia]; Kwon et al. 2003: 108 (female) [Species of Korea]; Millar 2002: 189-195 (female) [Pseudococcidae genera of South Africa]; Kosztarab 1996: 129 (female) [Northeastern North America]; Tang 1992: 458-461 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Williams & Granara de Willink 1992: 189-190 (female) [Central and South America]; Williams & Granara de Willink 1992: 40 (female) [Central and South America]; Danzig 1988: 696 (female) [Far East of Russia]; Danzig 1988: 701-702 (female) [species Far East of Russia]; Kosztarab & Kozár 1988F: 99-100 (female) [species Central Europe]; Avasthi & Shafee 1987: 2 (female) [India]; Williams 1985: 36 (female) [Australia]; Wang 1982ZQ: 53 (female) [species China]; Wang 1982ZQ: 21 (female) [China]; Danzig 1980b: 145-147 (female) [Far East Russia]; Kawai 1980: 97 (female) [species Japan]; Tereznikova 1975: 182 (female) [species Ukraine & Palaearctic region]; Tereznikova 1975: 160 (female) [Ukraine & Palaearctic region]; Bazarov 1974: 349-351 (female) [species Palaearctic region]; Miller 1974: 180 (female) [species North America ]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 38 (female) [Armenia]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 200-201 (female) [species Armenia]; McKenzie 1967: 44 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1967: 183-184 (female) [North America North America ]; McKenzie 1964: 233 (female) [species North America]; Ferris 1950b: 21 (female) [North America]; Borchsenius 1949: 89 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Borchsenius 1949: 272 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: Bazaro1974 [taxonomy, description: 349]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 176,258,479,499]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description: 271-272]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description: 109, 145-147]; Danzig2007a [taxonomy, description: 567-609]; Danzig2008 [taxonomy: 33]; Ferris1950b [taxonomy, description: 96]; Ferris1953a [taxonomy: 362]; GhoshGh1987 [taxonomy, description: 38-39]; Goux1934b [taxonomy: 170-171]; GranarSz2007 [taxonomy: 38]; Kanda1934 [taxonomy, description: 308-309]; Kanda1935a [taxonomy, description: 70-75]; Kawai1972 [taxonomy: 7]; Koszta1996 [taxonomy, description: 77, 128-129]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description: 99-100]; KwonDaPa2003 [taxonomy: 108]; Mateso1984 [taxonomy: 1427-1429]; Matile1970 [taxonomy, description: 176-178]; McKenz1964 [taxonomy: 233]; McKenz1967 [taxonomy, description: 182-183]; Millar2002 [taxonomy: 189-195]; Miller1974 [taxonomy, description: 177]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 90, 179, 192]; Sassce1912 [taxonomy: 86]; Sulc1912a [taxonomy, description: 39]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description: 457]; Tao1999 [taxonomy: 15]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description: 182]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description: 200]; Wang1982ZQ [taxonomy, description: 53]; Willia1962 [taxonomy, description: 6, 28]; Willia1985 [taxonomy, description: 35, 172]; Willia2004a [taxonomy, description: 343-344]; WilliaGr1992 [taxonomy, description: 189-190]; WuTa1997 [taxonomy, description: 282-285]; Xie1998 [taxonomy: 79].



Heliococcus acirculus Wu, Jia & Tang

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus acirculus Wu, Jia & Tang, 1996: 257. Type data: CHINA: Shanxi province, Qinshui county, on roots of Artemisia sp. Holotype female and first instar. Type depository: Shanxi: Entomological Institute, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, China. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Artemisia [WuJiTa1996], Artemisia apiacea [WuJiTa1996].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China (Shanxi (=Shansi) [WuJiTa1996]).

BIOLOGY: Collected from roots of Artemisia sp. (Wu et al., 1996).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Wu et al. (1989).

CITATIONS: WuJiTa1996 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 257-258].



Heliococcus adenostomae McKenzie

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus adenostomae McKenzie, 1960: 707. Type data: U.S.A.: California, Mendocino County, Calpella, on Adenostoma fasciculatum. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

COMMON NAMES: adenostoma heliococcus mealybug [McKenz1960]; Adenostoma Heliococcus mealybug [McKenz1960]; McKenzie adenostoma mealybug [McKenz1967].



HOST: Rosaceae: Adenostoma fasciculatum [McKenz1960, McKenz1967, BenDov1994, DownieGu2004].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (California [McKenz1960, McKenz1967, BenDov1994, DownieGu2004]).

BIOLOGY: Living on the leaves and stems of the host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by McKenzie (1967).

KEYS: Miller 1974: 180 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1967: 183 (female) [U.S.A., California]; McKenzie 1964: 233 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 176]; DownieGu2004 [host, distribution, phylogeny, molecular data: 258-259]; HardyGuHo2008 [taxonomy, phylogeny, molecular data: 51-71]; McKenz1960 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 707-709]; McKenz1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 183-184].



Heliococcus ardisiae (Siraiwa)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenaococcus ardisiae Siraiwa, 1939a: 16. Type data: JAPAN: Kumatori-mura, Sennan-gun and Osaka-fu, on Ardisia japonica. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Notes: Type material lost. S. Takagi, 1989, personal communication to Y. Ben-Dov.

Heliococcus ardisiae; Kanda, 1941e: 26. Change of combination.



HOST: Myrsinaceae: Ardisia japonica [Siraiw1939a, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Japan [Siraiw1939a, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Siraiwa (1939a) and by Kawai (1980).

KEYS: Kawai 1980: 97 (female) [Japan].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 176]; Kanda1941e [host, distribution: 26]; Kawai1972 [host, distribution: 7]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 97]; Siraiw1939a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 16].



Heliococcus astragali Danzig

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus astragali Danzig, 2007a: 596. Type data: TURKMENISTAN: Murgab valley, 59 km south of lolotan desert, on roots of Astragalus sp.; collected E. Danzig, 25.iv.1980. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 106-82. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Fabaceae: Astragalus [Danzig2007a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Turkmenistan [Danzig2007a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Danzig (2007a).

KEYS: Danzig 2007a: 569-571 (female) [Heliococcus species of Palearctic Region].

CITATIONS: Danzig2007a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 596-597].



Heliococcus atraphaxidis Bazarov

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus atraphaxidis Bazarov, 1963: 38. Type data: TAJIKISTAN: Varzovsk Gorge, on Atraphaxis sp. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Heliococcus inconspicuus Bazarov, 1974: 355. Type data: TURKMENISTAN: Kugitang, on Atraphaxis sp. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Danzig, 2007a: 605.

Heliococcus kirgisicus Bazarov, 1974: 355. Type data: KYRGYZSTAN: Issik-Kul, on Grossularia sp. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Danzig, 2007a: 605.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Artemisia caespitosa [Danzig2007a]. Grossulariaceae: Grossularia [Bazaro1974, BenDov1994, Danzig2007a], Grossularia [Danzig2007a]. Polygonaceae: Atraphaxis [Bazaro1963, Bazaro1974a, BenDov1994]. Zygophyllaceae: Zygophyllum brachypterum [Bazaro1974a, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kazakhstan [Bazaro1963, Bazaro1974, BenDov1994]; Kyrgyzstan (=Kirgizia) [Bazaro1974, BenDov1994]; Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Bazaro1963]; Turkmenistan [Bazaro1974, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female by Bazarov (1963, 1974b) and by Danzig (2007a).

KEYS: Danzig 2007a: 569-571 (female) [Heliococcus species of Palearctic Region]; Tang 1992: 459 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Tang 1992: 459 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Tang 1992: 459 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Bazarov 1974: 350 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Bazarov 1974: 350 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Bazarov 1974: 350 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: Bazaro1963 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 38, 39, 41]; Bazaro1974 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 355-357]; Bazaro1974 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 354, 355]; Bazaro1974a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 632, 634]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 176, 177]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 182]; Danzig2007a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 605-606]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 461, 462]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 472, 473]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 474].



Heliococcus atriplicis McKenzie

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus atriplicis McKenzie, 1964: 235. Type data: U.S.A.: California, Imperial County, Brawley, on Atriplex lentiformis. Holotype female. Type depository: Sacramento: California State Collection of Arthropods, California Dept. Food & Agriculture, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

COMMON NAMES: atriplex mealybug [McKenz1967]; Atriplex mealybug [McKenz1967]; saltbrush mealybug.



HOST: Chenopodiaceae: Atriplex lentiformis [McKenz1964, McKenz1967, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (California [McKenz1964, McKenz1967, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the leaves of its host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by McKenzie (1967).

KEYS: Miller 1974: 180 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1967: 182 (female) [U.S.A., California]; McKenzie 1964: 233 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 177]; McKenz1964 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 235]; McKenz1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 183, 185, 186].



Heliococcus bambusae (Takahashi)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus bambusae Takahashi, 1930: 6. Type data: TAIWAN: Suisha, on Bambusa sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Taichung: Entomology Collection, Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, Wu-feng, Taichung, Taiwan. Described: female.

Heliococcus bambusae; Goux, 1934b: 171. Change of combination.

Heliococcus lingnaniae Wang, 1982a: 318. Type data: CHINA: Guangdong Province, on Lingnania cerosissima. Holotype female. Type depository: Beijing: Institute of Entomology, Academy of Sciences, China. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Tang, 1992: 462.

Helicoccus bambusae; Tang et. al., 1992: 8. Misspelling of genus name.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Bambusa [Takaha1930, BenDov1994], Lingnania cerosissima [Wang1982a, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Taiwan [Takaha1930, BenDov1994]. Palaearctic: China [Wang1982a, Tang1992, TangHaTa1992, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Takahashi (1930). Good description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Tang 1992: 458 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Wang 1982ZQ: 53 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 177]; Goux1934b [p. 171]; Takaha1930 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 6-10]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 462, 463]; Tang2001 [distribution: 3]; TangHaTa1992 [host, distribution: 8]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 15]; Wang1982a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 318, 319]; WangVaXu1998 [host, distribution: 3].



Heliococcus baotoui Tang in Tang & Li

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus baotoui Tang in Tang & Li, 1988: 63. Type data: CHINA: Inner Mongolia, Baotou City, on Ixeris chinensis. Holotype female. Type depository: Shanxi: Entomological Institute, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, China. Described: female. Illust.

Helicoccus baotoui; Tang et. al., 1992: 8. Misspelling of genus name.



HOST: Asteraceae: Ixeris chinensis [TangLi1988, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China (Nei Monggol (=Inner Mongolia) [TangLi1988, BenDov1994]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Tang & Li (1988). Good description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Tang 1992: 459 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 177]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 463]; TangHaTa1992 [host, distribution: 8]; TangLi1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 63, 64]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 16]; WuJiTa1996 [taxonomy: 258].



Heliococcus bohemicus Šulc

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus bohemicus Šulc, 1912a: 40. Type data: CZECK REPUBLIC: Prague, Brno, on Robinia pseudoacacia. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Brno: K. Sulc Collection, Moravian Museum, Czech Republic. Described: female. Illust.

Phenacoccus hystrix; Zillig & Niemeyer, 1929: 73. Misidentification; discovered by Borchsenius, 1949.

Phenacoccus strachyos; Kiritshenko, 1931: 313. Misidentification; discovered by Borchsenius, 1949. Notes: Described again as new variety.

Phenacoccus mutinensis Menozzi, 1933: 43. Type data: ITALY: Spilamberto di Modena, on Rubus sp., Coll. Menozzi, viii.1928. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Marotta, Russo & Matile-Ferrero, 1997: 437. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France; type no. 5011-2. Described: female. Synonymy by Marotta, Russo & Matile-Ferrero, 1997: 437.

Heliococcus danzigae Bazarov, 1974: 353. Type data: RUSSIA: St. Peterburg [= Leningrad] Oblast, Pushkin, on dry grass. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Danzig, 2007a: 579.

Heliococcus mutinensis; Marotta & Russo & Matile-Ferrero, 1997: 437. Change of combination.

COMMON NAMES: Bazarov's mealybug [KosztaKo1988F]; Bohemian mealybug [KosztaKo1988F].



ASSOCIATE: VIRUS Closteroviridae: Ampelovirus GLRaV-3 [BahderPoAl2013].

FOES: COLEOPTERA Nitidulidae: Scymnus quadrimaculata Hbst. [Campor1993]. HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Ericydnus [Campor1993], Leptomastidea bifasciata Mayr [Campor1993], Leptomastix histrio [Campor1993].

HOSTS: Asteraceae: Hieracium [Gavril2003a], Hieracium aurantiacum [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994], Solidago virga-aurea [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994]. Bignoniaceae: Catalpa [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994]. Cyperaceae: Carex [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994]. Empetraceae: Empetrum [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994]. Ericaceae: Calluna [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994]. Fabaceae: Caragana [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994], Robinia pseudacacia [Sulc1912a, BenDov1994, WuJiTa1996a]. Fagaceae: Quercus [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994]. Hippocastanaceae: Aesculus hippocastanum [GomezM1937, BenDov1994, KozarGuBa1994]. Lamiaceae: Phlomis [KaydanUlEr2007]. Pinaceae: Larix dahurica [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994], Picea abies [Gertss2000], Pinus [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994]. Platanaceae: Platanus acerifolia [Schmut1955a, BenDov1994], Platanus occidentalis [KozarGuBa1994], Platanus orientalis [TerGri1973, BenDov1994]. Poaceae [MarottTr1995]. Rosaceae: Crataegus chlorosarca [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994], Crataegus oxyacantha [Menozz1933, Marott1987a, BenDov1994], Pyrus [WuJiTa1996a], Rosa [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994], Rubus sachalinensis [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994], Rubus sp. [Menozz1933, Marott1987a, BenDov1994, JansenBeKa2011]. Salicaceae: Populus maximowiczii [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994]. Saxifragaceae: Bergenia pacifica [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994]. Ulmaceae: Ulmus pumila [Danzig1977a, BenDov1994]. Vitaceae: Parthenocissus quinquefolia [Gavril2003a], Vitis vinifera [KosztaKo1988F, Campor1993, BenDov1994, Foldi2000, MilonaKo2008].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [TerGri1973, BenDov1994]; Austria [MatrahKo2008]; Azerbaijan [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]; China (Ningxia (=Ningsia) [WuJiTa1996a], Shanxi (=Shansi) [WuJiTa1996a], Xingiang Uygur (=Sinkiang) [WuJiTa1996a]); Crete [JansenBeKa2011]; Czech Republic [Sulc1912a, BenDov1994]; France [Goux1934b, BenDov1994, Foldi2000, Foldi2001]; Georgia [Yasnos2001]; Germany [Schmut1955a, Schmut1980, BenDov1994]; Greece [MilonaKo2008]; Hungary [KosztaKo1988F, JakabSz1989, BenDov1994, KozarKo2002b, KozarKiSa2004]; Italy [Menozz1933, Marott1987a, MarottTr1990, Pelliz1991, Campor1993, BenDov1994, LongoMaPe1995]; Mongolia [Danzig1977a, BenDov1994]; Poland [KotejaZaEl1978, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994, Lagows1996, Koteja2000a, GolanLaJa2001]; Russia (Kuril Islands [Danzig1978, BenDov1994], Primor'ye Kray [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994], Sakhalin Oblast [Danzig1978, Danzig1980b, BenDov1994], St. Petersburg (=Leningrad) Oblast [Bazaro1974, BenDov1994], Voronoezh Oblast [Gavril2003a], Yakutia-Sakha (=Yakut) AR [Danzig1978, BenDov1994]); Spain [GomezM1937, BenDov1994]; Sweden [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994, Gertss2000, Gertss2001]; Switzerland [KozarGuBa1994, Danzig1994]; Turkey [KaydanKoYa2001, KaydanUlEr2007]; Ukraine [Borchs1949, BenDov1994] (Krym (=Crimea) Oblast [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]); Yugoslavia [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Heliococcus bohemicus is a biparental species. In northern Italy, Veneto region it overwinters as young larvae and develops two generations per year. The first oviposition period starts in late May continuing till June. The second one starts in early August and ends in early September. The females are ovoviviparous. The males of the first generation appear in late March untill early April. The males of the second generation appear in early July (Camporese, 1993).Feeding on the leaves of herbaceous plants and on the bark of woody plants. Recorded from roots of Graminae (Marotta & Tranfaglia, 1995).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Menozzi (1933), Ter-Grigorian (1973), Bazarov (1974) (as H. danzigae, Danzig (1980b), Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F) and by Danzig (2007a). Description of adult female by Borchsenius (1949).

SYSTEMATICS: Heliococus bohemicus was erroneously synonymised with Phenacoccus stachyos Ehrhorn by Kiritchenko (1931: 313). Lindinger (1912: 293) erroneously regarded H. bohemicus as a synonym of Phenacoccus hystrix (Barensprung, 1849).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Occasionally a pest on grape vines (Kosztarab & Kozár, 1988F; Camporese, 1993).

KEYS: Danzig 2007a: 569-571 (female) [Heliococcus species of Palearctic Region]; Tang 1992: 460 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Danzig 1988: 702 (female) [Far East of Russia]; Kosztarab & Kozár 1988F: 99-100 (female) [Central Europe]; Danzig 1980b: 147 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Tereznikova 1975: 182 (female) [Ukraine & Palaearctic region]; Bazarov 1974: 349-350 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 200 (female) [Armenia].

CITATIONS: BahderPoAl2013 [economic importance: 1293]; Bazaro1974 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 353-355,632,635,640]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 177-179, 334]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 275-276]; Campor1993 [life history, economic importance, host, distribution, biological control: 195-200]; CebeciAr2006 [host, distribution: 137]; Danzig1977a [host, distribution: 199]; Danzig1978 [host, distribution: 8-9]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 150, 151]; Danzig1994 [host, distribution: 46]; Danzig2007a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 579-583]; Foldi2000 [host, distribution: 78]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; FoldiDe1998 [description, host, distribution: 198]; Gavril2003a [host, distribution: 109]; GavrilKu2005 [taxonomy, distribution: 17-34]; Germai2011 [distribution, economic importance: 31-34]; Germai2011a [distribution, economic importance: 8]; Gertss2000 [host, distribution: 149]; Gertss2001 [distribution: 123-130]; GolanLaJa2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 229-249]; GomezM1937 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 324-327]; Goux1934b [taxonomy: 170]; Hoffma2002 [life history, ecology, host, distribution, biological control: 1-164]; JakabSz1989 [host, distribution: 216]; JansenBeKa2011 [distribution, host: 483-484]; KaydanKoYa2001 [host, distribution: 379]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 99]; Kiritc1931 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 313]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 100-102]; Koteja2000a [distribution: 172]; KozarGuBa1994 [host, distribution: 153]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 57]; KozarKo2002b [host, distribution: 375]; KreiteGrTh2004 [host, distribution, biological control: 38-40]; LagowsKo1996 [host, distribution: 31, 33]; LeMaguFuCh2013 [economic importance, host: 416]; Lindin1912b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 293]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 118-119]; MalausFeWa2011 [distribution, molecular data , phylogeny: 142-155]; Marott1987a [host, distribution: 110]; MarottTr1990 [host, distribution: 109]; MarottTr1995 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 269, 270]; MatrahKo2008 [host, distribution: 155]; Menozz1933 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 43-45]; MilonaKo2008 [host, distribution: 37]; Pelliz1991 [host, distribution: 764]; PellizPoSe2011 [distribution, host: 293]; ReggiaCoMa2003 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history : 42-45]; Sassce1912 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 87]; Schmut1955a [host, distribution: 101]; Schmut1980 [distribution: 50]; SentenKu2003 [host, distribution, biological control: 247-252]; SforzaBoGr2003 [economic importance, disease transmission, host, distribution: 975-981]; SforzaGr2000 [host, distribution, economic importance: 46-50]; SimonKa2011 [distribution: 235]; Sulc1912a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 40]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 463-464, 466-467]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 184, 185]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 203-204]; WuJiTa1996a [host, distribution: 290]; Yasnos2001 [host, distribution, biological control: 435-440]; ZandigBiPa2004 [host, distribution: 9-10]; ZilligNi1929 [taxonomy, life history, chemical control: 67-100].



Heliococcus brincki Matile-Ferrero

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus brincki Matile-Ferrero, 1970: 178. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Cape Province, Kakamas, on dry, gravely soil. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [Matile1970, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Matile-Ferrero (1970).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 178]; Matile1970 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 177-179].



Heliococcus buteae Williams

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus buteae Williams, 2004a: 345. Type data: INDIA: Marashtra, Chandrapur, on Butea frondosa; collected 25.vii.1969. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Fabaceae: Butea frondosa [Willia2004a].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: India (Maharashtra [Willia2004a]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Williams (2004a).

KEYS: Williams 2004a: 343 (female) [Heliococcus species of southern Asia].

CITATIONS: Willia2004a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 344-347].



Heliococcus chodzhenticus Nurmamatov

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus chodzhentica Nurmamatov, 1975: 25. Type data: TAJIKISTAN: North Tadzhikistan, Kayrakkum, on Artemisia sp. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Heliococcus chodzhenticus; ScaleNet, 2005: xx. Justified emendation.

Heliococcus chordzhenticus; Danzig, 2007a: 594. Misspelling of species name.



HOST: Asteraceae: Artemisia [Nurmam1975, BenDov1994, Danzig2007a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Nurmam1975, BenDov1994, Danzig2007a].

BIOLOGY: Living on roots of its host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Nurmamatov (1975) and by Danzig (2007a).

KEYS: Danzig 2007a: 569-571 (female) [Heliococcus species of Palearctic Region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 178]; Danzig2007a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 594-595]; Nurmam1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 25-27].



Heliococcus cinereus Goux

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus cinereus Goux, 1934b: 164. Type data: FRANCE: Corsica, Bastia, on probably Helianthemum. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Asteraceae: Helianthemum [Goux1934b, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Corsica [Goux1934b, BenDov1994, Foldi2001].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Goux (1934b).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 178]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Foldi2003 [host, distribution: 148]; Goux1934b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 164-168].



Heliococcus clemente Miller

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus clemente Miller, 1974: 180. Type data: U.S.A.: California, Los Angeles County, San Clemente Island, Pyramid Head, under rock. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (California [Miller1974, BenDov1994, DownieGu2004]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring under rocks.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Miller (1974).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 179]; DownieGu2004 [host, distribution, phylogeny, molecular data: 258-259]; HardyGuHo2008 [taxonomy, phylogeny, molecular data: 51-71]; Miller1974 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 180-182].



Heliococcus corralesi Williams & Granara de Willink

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus corralesi Williams & Granara de Willink, 1992: 190. Type data: MEXICO: Coahuila, Saltillo, on guayule, Parthenium argentatum. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Asteraceae: Parthenium argentatum [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Williams & Granara de Willink (1992).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 179]; WilliaWa1988a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 190-192].



Heliococcus deserticola Miller

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus deserticola Miller, 1974: 183. Type data: U.S.A.: Nevada, Lincoln County, near Alamo, on Ambrosia dumosa. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Ambrosia dumosa [Miller1974, BenDov1994], Ambrosia ilicifolia [Miller1974, BenDov1994], Baccharis [Miller1974, BenDov1994], Viguiera stenoloba [Miller1974, BenDov1994]. Polygonaceae: Encelia frutescens [Miller1974, BenDov1994], Eriogonum foliolosum [Miller1974, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico [Miller1974, WilliaGr1992]; United States of America (Arizona [Miller1974, BenDov1994], California [Miller1974, BenDov1994], Nevada [Miller1974, BenDov1994], Texas [Miller1974, BenDov1994]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Miller (1974) and by Williams & Granara de Willink (1992). Reliable description and illustration of immature stages given by Miller (1974).

KEYS: Miller 1974: 180 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 179]; Miller1974 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 183-190]; WilliaGr1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 192, 193].



Heliococcus destructor Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus destructor Borchsenius, 1941a: 6. Type data: TURKMENISTAN: Ashkhabad, Botanical Gardens, under bark on stem of Punica granatum; collected N.S. Borchsenius, 17.v.1940. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 2007a: 585. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 55-40. Described: female.

Heliococcus zizyphi Borchsenius, 1958: 161. Type data: CHINA: Tientsin, environs of, on Ziziphus sp. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: Beijing: Institute of Entomology, Academy of Sciences, China, and St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Danzig, 2007a: 585.

Heliococcus slavonicus Borchsenius & Tereznikova, 1959a: 492. Type data: UKRAINE: Transcarpathian Province, Begerovo, on Dianthus sp. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Danzig, 2007a: 585.

Heliococcus kehejanae Ter-Grigorian, 1967a: 136. Type data: ARMENIA: Razdansk Ridge, near Atarbekyan, on undetermined plant. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Heliococcus kenejanae; Bazarov, 1974: 351. Misspelling of species name.

Heliococcus zizyphi; Wang, 1982ZQ: 53. Misspelling of species name.

Heliococcus zizyphi; Tang, 1992: 491. Misspelling of species name.

Heliococcus zizyphi; Tang et al., 1992: 8. Misspelling of species name.

Heliococcus ziziphi; Ben-Dov, 1994: 190. Justified emendation.

Heliococcus zizyphi; Xie, 1998: 79. Misspelling of species name.



HOSTS: Anacardiaceae: Rhus coriaria [Bazaro1974a, BenDov1994]. Asteraceae: Artemisia dracunculus [Bazaro1974a, BenDov1994], Cousinia [Bazaro1974a, BenDov1994]. Caprifoliaceae: Lonicera [Bazaro1974a, BenDov1994]. Caryophyllaceae: Dianthus [BorchsTe1959a, BenDov1994], Dianthus carthusianorum [KotejaZaEl1978, KotejaZa1983, BenDov1994], Silene [Gavril2010]. Chenopodiacaea: Kochia prostrata [Gavril2006]. Crassulaceae: Sedum [KotejaZaEl1978, KotejaZa1983, BenDov1994]. Elaeagnaceae: Elaeagnus [Bazaro1974a, BenDov1994], Hippophae rhamnoides [Bazaro1974a, BenDov1994]. Fabaceae: Trifolium repens [BorchsTe1959a, BenDov1994]. Lamiaceae: Thymus [BorchsTe1959a, BenDov1994]. Moraceae: Maclura pomifera [Bazaro1974a, BenDov1994], Morus [Borchs1941a, BenDov1994], Morus alba [Danzig2007a], Morus nigra [Danzig2007a]. Platanaceae: Platanus [Bazaro1974a, BenDov1994]. Punicaceae: Punica granatum [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]. Ranunculaceae: Ranunculus [KotejaZaEl1978, KotejaZa1983, BenDov1994]. Rhamnaceae: Ziziphus [Borchs1958, BenDov1994], Ziziphus sativa [Tang1992, TangHaTa1992, BenDov1994]. Rosaceae: Cerasus tianschanica [Bazaro1974a, BenDov1994], Pyrus [Tang1984, BenDov1994]. Rubiaceae: Galium vernum [KotejaZaEl1978, KotejaZa1983, BenDov1994]. Zygophyllaceae: Zygophyllum fabago [Bazaro1974a, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [TerGri1967a, TerGri1973, BenDov1994, Danzig2007a]; Bulgaria [Gavril2010]; China [Borchs1958, Tang1984, Tang1992, TangHaTa1992, BenDov1994] (Shanxi (=Shansi) [Xie1998]); Georgia [Yasnos2001]; Kazakhstan [Borchs1949, Bazaro1974a, BenDov1994]; Kyrgyzstan (=Kirgizia) [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]; Poland [KotejaZaEl1978, KotejaZa1983]; Russia (Astrakhan' Oblast [Gavril2006], Volgograd Oblast [Danzig2007a], Voronoezh Oblast [Danzig2007a]); Switzerland [Danzig1994]; Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]; Turkmenistan [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]; Ukraine [BorchsTe1959a, BenDov1994] (Zakarpat'ye (=Transcarpathia) Oblast [Danzig2007a]); Uzbekistan [Borchs1949, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Borchsenius & Tereznikova (1959a) (as H. slavonicus, Bazarov (1974a). Ter-Grigorian (1967a, 1973) (as H. kehejanae, Tang (1977), Danzig (2007a) and by Gavrilov (2010). Description of adult female by Borchsenius (1949) and by Tang (1992). Borchsenius (1949) again referred to this species as n. sp., although the 1941b description is valid.

KEYS: Danzig 2007a: 569-571 (female) [heliococcus species of Palearctic region]; Tang 1992: 460-462 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Wang 1982ZQ: 53 (female) [China]; Bazarov 1974: 351 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 201 (female) [Armenia]; Borchsenius 1949: 272 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: Bazaro1974a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 639-640, 642-644]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 179-180,182,187,190]; Borchs1941a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 6, 7]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 281-282]; Borchs1958 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 161-162]; BorchsTe1959a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 492-494]; Danzig1994 [host, distribution: 46]; Danzig2007a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 585-586]; Gavril2004 [host, distribution: 526]; Gavril2006 [host, distribution: 787]; Gavril2010 [taxonomy, illustration, host, distribution: 36-37]; KotejaZa1983 [host, distribution: 472]; KotejaZaEl1978 [host, distribution: 502]; Tang1977 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 38, 39]; Tang1984 [host, distribution: 125]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 467,473-474,491,492]; TangHaTa1992 [host, distribution: 8]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 16]; TerGri1967a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 136-138]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 210-212]; Xie1998 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 79-80]; Yasnos2001 [host, distribution, biological control: 435-440].



Heliococcus dissimilis Danzig

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus dissimilis Danzig, 1980: 35. Type data: MONGOLIA: Sukhe-Batorskii Aymak, near Barun-Urta, host plant not indicated. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Heliococcus dissmilis; Tang, 1992: 459. Misspelling of species name.

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Mongolia [Danzig1980, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Danzig (1980, 2007a). Description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Danzig 2007a: 569-571 (female) [Heliococcus species of Palearctic Region]; Tang 1992: 459 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 180]; Danzig1980 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 35, 36]; Danzig2007a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 594-596]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 467, 468].



Heliococcus dorsiporosus Danzig

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus dorsiporosus Danzig, 1971: 382. Type data: RUSSIA: Primor'ye Kray, Khasan, on Arundinella hirta. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae: Arundinella hirta [Danzig1971, Danzig1980b, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Russia (Primor'ye Kray [Danzig1971, Danzig1980b, BenDov1994]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Danzig (1971, 1980b. 2007a).

KEYS: Danzig 2007a: 569-571 (female) [Heliococcus species - Palearctic region.]; Tang 1992: 459 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Danzig 1988: 701 (female) [Far East of Russia]; Danzig 1980b: 145 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 180]; Danzig1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 382, 383]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 146, 147]; Danzig2007a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 571-572].



Heliococcus etubularis Matesova

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus etubularis Matesova, 1984: 1427. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: south-east Turgaisk Plataeu, near Kaind, on Agropyron pectiniformis. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Heliococcus dtubularis; Tang, 1992: 674. Misspelling of species name.

Heliococcus etubulatus; Danzig, 2007a: 575. Misspelling of species name.



HOST: Poaceae: Agropyron pectiniformis [Mateso1984, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kazakhstan [Mateso1984, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Living on roots of its host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Matesova (1984) and by Danzig (2007a).

KEYS: Danzig 2007a: 569-571 (female) [Heliococcus species of Palearctic region]; Tang 1992: 459 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 180]; Danzig2007a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 575-577]; Mateso1984 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 1427-1429]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 469].



Heliococcus glacialis (Newstead)

NOMENCLATURE:

Dactylopius glacialis Newstead, 1900: 248. Type data: ITALY: Courmayeur, associated with ants. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Brookes, 1978: 244. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Heliococcus cydoniae Borchsenius, 1937: 49. Type data: AZERBAIJAN: on Cydonia sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Synonymy by Danzig, 1986a: 21.

Heliococcus glacialis; Brookes, 1978: 244. Change of combination.

Heliococcus glacilis; Tang, 1992: 458. Misspelling of species name.

COMMON NAMES: Borchsenius-Quince mealybug [KosztaKo1988F]; quince mealybug.



HOSTS: Fabaceae: Genista transcaucasica [TerGri1973, BenDov1994], Lathyrus pratensis [TerGri1973, BenDov1994], Medicago sp. [KaydanKo2010a], Trifolium [Bazaro1974a, BenDov1994]. Poaceae: Agropyron [TerGri1973, BenDov1994]. Rosaceae: Cydonia [Borchs1937, BenDov1994], Rosa [Bazaro1974a, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [TerGri1973, BenDov1994]; Azerbaijan [Borchs1937, BenDov1994]; Georgia (Abkhaz ASSR [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]); Hungary [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994]; Italy [Newste1900, Marott1987a, BenDov1994, LongoMaPe1995]; Turkey [KaydanKo2010a]; Ukraine (Krym (=Crimea) Oblast [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ter-Grigorian (1973), Bazarov (1974a), Tereznikova (1975) (all as H. cydoniae), Brookes (1978) and Danzig (2007a). Description of the adult female by Borchsenius (1949). Borchsenius (1949) again referred to Heliococcus cydoniae as a new species, although his 1937 description is valid.

KEYS: Danzig 2007a: 569-571 (female) [Heliococcus species of Palearctic region]; Tang 1992: 458, 460 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Kosztarab & Kozár 1988F: 99 (female) [Central Europe]; Tereznikova 1975: 182 (female) [Ukraine & Palaearctic region]; Bazarov 1974: 349 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 200 (female) [Armenia]; Borchsenius 1949: 272 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: Bazaro1974a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 623, 624]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 180]; Borchs1937 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 48, 49]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 272-274]; Brooke1978 [taxonomy, description, host, illustration, host, distribution: 243-245]; Danzig1986 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 21]; Danzig2007a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 577-578]; KaydanKo2010a [distribution, host: 34]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 100-102]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 118]; Marott1987a [host, distribution: 109]; MatilePe2002 [host, distribution: 351]; Newste1900 [p. 248]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 183, 184]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 201-203]; Trjapi1989 [biological control: 151].



Heliococcus glycinicola Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus glycinicola Borchsenius, 1956b: 674. Type data: NORTH KOREA: Yuzhni Khamgen Province, on Glycine hispida. Syntypes, immature. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: immature. Illust.



HOST: Fabaceae: Glycine hispida [Borchs1956b, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: South Korea [Borchs1956b, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of last-instar nymph by Borchsenius (1956b).

SYSTEMATICS: This species was described (Borchsenius, 1956) from the last instar nymph. Danzig (2007a) reported that she could not trace the type material.

KEYS: Kwon et al., 2003: 108 (female) [Korea]; Tang 1992: 459 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 181]; Borchs1956b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 674-675]; Danzig2007a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 608]; KwonDaPa2003 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 108-109]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 470, 471].



Heliococcus halocnemi Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus halocnemi Borchsenius, 1949: 277. Type data: UZBEKISTAN: near Mount Kagan, on Halocnemum strobilaceum; collected N.S. Borchsenius, 16.viii.1944. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 2007a: 587. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 38-45. Described: female.

Heliococcus xerophilus Matesova, 1968: 112. Nomen nudum.

Heliococcus xerophilus Matesova, 1968a: 158. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: Zaysan District, on Eurotia ceratoides. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Danzig, 2007a: 587.



HOSTS: Chenopodiaceae: Eurotia ceratoides [Mateso1968a, BenDov1994], Halocnemum strobilaceum [Borchs1949, BenDov1994, Danzig2007a], Kalidium gracile [Danzig1972b, Danzig1974, BenDov1994], Salsola [Bazaro1974a, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kazakhstan [Mateso1968a, BenDov1994]; Mongolia [Danzig1972b, Danzig1974, BenDov1994]; Uzbekistan [Borchs1949, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Descriuption and illustration of adult female by Bazarov (1974a), Matesova (1968) (as H. xerophilus and by Danzig (2007a). Description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949) and by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Danzig 2007a: 569-571 (female) [Heliococcus species of Palearctic Region]; Tang 1992: 459 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Bazarov 1974: 350 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 200 (female) [Armenia]; Borchsenius 1949: 272 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: Bazaro1974a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 626,627,629]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 181,190]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 277-279]; Danzig1972b [host, distribution: 335]; Danzig1974 [host, distribution: 69]; Danzig2007a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 587-589]; Mateso1968 [host, distribution: 112]; Mateso1968a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 158, 159]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 471,491].



Heliococcus herbaceus Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus herbaceus Borchsenius, 1956b: 672. Type data: NORTH KOREA: Southern Hamgyung Province, near Pukchkheng, on upper side of graminean leaf; collected N.S. Borchsenius, 3.viii.1950. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 2007a: 593. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 391-51. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae: Agropyron [Borchs1956b, BenDov1994, Danzig2007a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: North Korea [Borchs1956b, BenDov1994, Danzig2007a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Borchsenius (1956b) and by Danzig (2007a). Description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Danzig 2007a: 569-571 (female) [Heliococcus species of Palearctic Region]; Kwon et al., 2003: 108 (female) [Korea]; Tang 1992: 460 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 181]; Borchs1956b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 672-674]; Danzig2007a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 593-594]; KwonDaPa2003 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 108-109]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 472].



Heliococcus hissaricus Nurmamatov

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus hissarica Nurmamatov, 1975: 29. Type data: TADZHIKISTAN: slopes of Gissarsk Ridge, near Gushar, under stone and on roots of undetermined plant. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Nurmam1975, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Nurmamatov (1975) and by Danzig (2007a).

KEYS: Danzig 2007a: 569-571 (female) [Heliococcus species of Palearctic Region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 181]; Danzig2007a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 602-605]; Nurmam1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 29, 30].



Heliococcus innermongolicus (Wu & Tang)

NOMENCLATURE:

Heteroheliococcus innermongolicus Wu & Tang, 1997: 282. Type data: CHINA: Inner Mongolia, Keng in Hexigten Banner, on Cleistogenes squarrosa. Holotype female. Type depository: Shanxi: Entomological Institute, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, China. Described: female. Illust.

Heliococcus innermongolicus; ScaleNet, 2004: xxx. Change of combination.



HOST: Poaceae: Cleistogenes squarrosa [WuTa1997].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Mongolia [WuTa1997].

SYSTEMATICS: This species is assigned here in ScaleNet to Heliococcus following the synonymy of Heteroheliococcus with Heliococcus by Williams (2004a: 343).



Heliococcus insignis (Lobdell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus insignis Lobdell, 1930: 210. Type data: U.S.A.: Mississippi, Columbus, on Ulmus. Holotype female. Type depository: MSPB. Described: female. Illust.

Heliococcus insignis; Ferris, 1950b: 97. Change of combination.



HOST: Ulmaceae: Ulmus [Lobdel1930, Ferris1950b, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Kansas [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994], Louisiana [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994], Mississippi [Lobdel1930, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the bark of the host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Ferris (1950b).

KEYS: Miller 1974: 180 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1967: 182-183 (female) [U.S.A., California]; McKenzie 1964: 233 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1950b: 96 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 182]; Ferris1950b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 97-98]; Lobdel1930 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 210, 211, 223].



Heliococcus kurilensis Danzig

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus kurilensis Danzig, 1971: 386. Type data: RUSSIA: Kurile Islands, Cape Stolbchatyi, on Rubus triphyllus. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Rosaceae: Rubus crataegifolius [KwonDaPa2003], Rubus parvifolius [Danzig1980a], Rubus sachalinensis [Danzig1980a], Rubus triphyllus [Danzig1971].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Russia (Kuril Islands [Danzig1971], Sakhalin Oblast [Danzig1971]); South Korea [new].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Danzig (1971, 1980b, 2007a) and by Kwon et al. (2003). Description of adult female by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Danzig 2007a: 569-571 (female) [Heliococcus species of Palearctic region]; Kwon et al., 2003: 108 (female) [Korea]; Tang 1992: 459 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Danzig 1980b: 147 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Danzig 1980b: 702 (female) [Far East of Russia].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 182]; Danzig1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 386, 387]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 149, 150]; Danzig2007a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 579-580]; KwonDaPa2003 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 108-110]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 475].



Heliococcus lishanensis Wu in (Wu, Jia & Tang)

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus lishanensis Wu in (Wu, Jia & Tang), 1996a: 288. Type data: CHINA: Shanxi Province, Qinshui County, Mountain Lishan, under leafshelth of an unknown weed (Gramineae), 22.VII.1995. Holotype female. Type depository: Shanxi: Entomological Institute, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, China. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae [WuJiTa1996a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China (Shanxi (=Shansi) [WuJiTa1996a]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Wu, Jia & Tang (1996a).

SYSTEMATICS: Heliococcus lishanensis resembles H. mirabilis in having numerous quinquelocular pores and small crateriform ducts on the dorsum and venter, but can be distinguished from the latter by the absence of multilocular pores and circulus.

CITATIONS: WuJiTa1996a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 288-289].



Heliococcus maritimus Danzig

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus maritimus Danzig, 1971: 388. Type data: RUSSIA: Primor'ye Kray, Khasan Area, Kedrovaya Pad Reserve, on Majanthemum. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Liliaceae: Majanthemum [Danzig1971, Danzig1980b, BenDov1994], Streptosus amplexifolius [Danzig1971, Danzig1980b, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Russia (Primor'ye Kray [Danzig1971, Danzig1980b, BenDov1994]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Danzig (1971, 1980b, 2007a). Description of the adult female by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Danzig 2007a: 569-571 (female) [Heliococcus species of Palearctic region]; Tang 1992: 460 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Danzig 1988: 702 (female) [Far East of Russia]; Danzig 1980b: 147 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 182, 183]; Danzig1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 387, 388]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 147-150]; Danzig2007a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 579, 581]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 475, 476].



Heliococcus medicagicola Wu, Jia & Tang

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus medicagicola Wu, Jia & Tang, 1996: 258. Type data: CHINA: Shanxi province, Qinshui, on roots of Medicago sativa. Holotype female. Type depository: Shanxi: Entomological Institute, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, China. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Fabaceae: Medicago sativa [WuJiTa1996].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China (Shanxi (=Shansi) [WuJiTa1996]).

BIOLOGY: Collected from the roots of Medicago sativa (Wu et al., 1996).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Wu et al. (1996).

CITATIONS: WuJiTa1996 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 258-259].



Heliococcus medvedevi Danzig

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus medvedevi Danzig, 1982a: 141. Type data: MONGOLIA: Kovdoski Aymak, near Bulgana, host plant not indicated in original description, but Danzig (2007a) noted "under leaf sheaths of Lasiagrostis". Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Heliococcus medevedevi; Ben-Dov, 1994: 183. Misspelling of species name.



HOST: Poaceae: Lasiagrostis [Danzig2007a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kazakhstan [Danzig2007a]; Mongolia [Danzig1982a, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Danzig (1982a, 2007a).

KEYS: Danzig 2007a: 569-571 (female) [Heliococcus species of Palearctic Region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 183]; Danzig1982a [taxonomy, description, illustration, distribution: 141, 142]; Danzig2007a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 600].



Heliococcus minutus (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus minutus Green, 1925b: 519. Type data: ENGLAND: Channel Islands, Guernsey (L'Ancresse), on Erica cinerea. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Heliococcus minutus; Williams, 1962: 29. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Brassicaceae: Lepidium subulatum [GomezM1928, Martin1985, BenDov1994]. Ericaceae: Erica cinerea [Green1925b, BenDov1994]. Fabaceae: Ulex [Balach1935b, GomezM1928, Martin1985, BenDov1994]. Lamiaceae: Thymus mastichina [Balach1935b, GomezM1937, Martin1985, BenDov1994], Thymus serphyllum [Goux1933a, BenDov1994], Thymus vulgaris [Goux1933a, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: France [Goux1933a, BenDov1994, Foldi2001]; Spain [GomezM1928, Balach1935b, Martin1985, BenDov1994, SancheBe2010]; United Kingdom (Channel Islands [Green1925b, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring in clusters on the underground stems of the host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Williams (1962). Adult female redescribed and illustrated by Gomez-Menor Ortega (1928, 1937)

CITATIONS: Balach1935b [host, distribution: 265]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 183]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; GomezM1928; GomezM1937 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 327-332]; Goux1933a [host, distribution: 234]; Green1925b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 519, 520]; Martin1985 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 93-94]; SancheBe2010 [host, distribution: 319]; Willia1962 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 29-30]; WilliaMa2012 [distribution: 81,83]; WilliaMa2012 [distribution, host: 91].



Heliococcus mirabilis Bazarov

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus mirabilis Bazarov, 1974: 351. Type data: KYRGYZSTAN: Sugut, on Astragalus sp. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Heteroheliococcus mirabilis; Wu & Tang, 1997: 282. Change of combination.

Heliococcus mirabilis; ScaleNet, 2004: xx. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Fabaceae: Astragalus [Bazaro1974, BenDov1994]. Rosaceae: Sibbaladianthe sericea [Danzig1975, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kyrgyzstan (=Kirgizia) [Bazaro1974, BenDov1994]; Mongolia [Danzig1975, Danzig1977a, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Living on roots of its host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Bazarov (1974) and by Danzig (2007a)

SYSTEMATICS: This species, the type species of Heteroheliococcus, is re-assigned here (in ScaleNet) to Heliococcus following the synonymy of the former with the latter by Williams (2004a).

KEYS: Danzig 2007a: 569-571 (female) [Heliococcus species of Palearctic]; Tang 1992: 459 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Bazarov 1974: 349 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: Bazaro1974 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 351-355]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 183]; Danzig1975 [host, distribution: 54]; Danzig1977a [distribution: 199]; Danzig2007a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 571-573]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 451]; Willia2004a [taxonomy: 343]; WuTa1997 [taxonomy: 282, 284].



Heliococcus montanus Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus montanus Borchsenius, 1949: 274. Type data: UZBEKISTAN: Samarkand Province, near Urgut village, on stem of Alhagi sp.; collected N.S. Borchsenius, 14.vi.1940. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 2007a: 585. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 135. Described: female.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Arctium [Borchs1949, BenDov1994], Artemisia [Bazaro1974, BenDov1994]. Dipsacaceae: Scabiosa [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]. Euphorbiaceae: Euphorbia [Bazaro1974, BenDov1994]. Fabaceae: Alhagi [Borchs1949, BenDov1994], Astragalus [Bazaro1974, BenDov1994]. Lamiaceae: Eremostachys [Bazaro1974, BenDov1994], Salvia [Borchs1949, BenDov1994], Ziziphora pamiroalatum [Bazaro1974, BenDov1994]. Papaveraceae: Papaver [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]. Umbelliferae: Ferula [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]. Vitaceae: Ampelopsis [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]. Zygophyllaceae: Zygophyllum fabago [Borchs1949, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]; Uzbekistan [Borchs1949, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Bazarov (1974a) and by Danzig (2007a). Description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949) and by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Danzig 2007a: 563-571 (female) [Heliococcus species of Palearctic region]; Tang 1992: 459 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Bazarov 1974: 350 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Borchsenius 1949: 272 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: Bazaro1974a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 636, 637]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 183]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 274-275]; Danzig2007a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 585-587]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 477].



Heliococcus myopori Kawai

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus myopori Kawai, 1973: 320. Type data: JAPAN: Ogasawara [= Bonin] Islands, Minami-jima, on Myoporum boninense. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Sapporo: Entomological Institute, Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Japan. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Myoporaceae: Myoporum boninense [Kawai1973, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Bonin Islands (=Ogasawara-Gunto) [Kawai1973, Kawai1987, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Kawai (1973). Good description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Tang 1992: 461 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Kawai 1980: 98 (female) [Japan].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 184]; Kawai1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 320, 322, 323]; Kawai1987 [host, distribution: 77]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 478].



Heliococcus nivearum austriacus Balachowsky

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus nivearum austriacus Balachowsky, 1953l: 240. Type data: AUSTRIA: Tyrol, Hochfirst, on Saxifraga oppositifolia, S. bryoides, mosses and lichens. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Saxifragaceae: Saxifraga bryoides [Balach1953l, BenDov1994], Saxifraga oppositifolia [Balach1953l, BenDov1994]. BRYOPHYTA Bryophyta [BenDov1994]. LICHENS [BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Austria [Balach1953l, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Balachowsky (1953l). Although Balachowsky (1953l) provided characters to its separation from H. nivearum, both Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F) and Tang (1992) placed this subspecies as a synonym of the former.

CITATIONS: Balach1953l [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 239, 240]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 184]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy: 99]; Tang1992 [taxonomy: 478].



Heliococcus nivearum nivearum Balachowsky

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus nivearum nivearum Balachowsky, 1953l: 238. Type data: FRANCE: Hautes Alpes, Ecrins, on Androsace sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

COMMON NAME: snow mealybug [KosztaKo1988F].



HOSTS: Primulaceae: Androsace [Balach1953l, BenDov1994]. Saxifragaceae: Saxifraga [KosztaKo1988F].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: France [Balach1953l, BenDov1994, Foldi2001].

KEYS: Tang 1992: 458 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Kosztarab & Kozár 1988F: 99 (female) [Central Europe].

CITATIONS: Balach1953h [taxonomy: 93]; Balach1953l [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 238-240]; Balach1953m [taxonomy: 295]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 184]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 102-103]; Miller1974 [taxonomy: 178]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 478, 479]; Terezn1959 [taxonomy: 796].



Heliococcus oligadenatus Danzig

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus oligadenatus Danzig, 1972b: 333. Type data: MONGOLIA: Dyelger-Khangay-Ula, under a stone. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Artemisia [Danzig2007a]. Brassicaceae: Alyssum [Danzig2007a]. Chenopodiaceae: Anabasis brevifolia [Danzig1974, BenDov1994], Eurotia caratoides [Danzig1972b, BenDov1994], Salsola lacrifolia [Danzig1974, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Mongolia [Danzig1972b]; Russia (Primor'ye Kray [Danzig2007a]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Danzig (1972b, 2007a). Description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Danzig 2007a: %69-571 (female) [Heliococcus species of Palearctic Region]; Tang 1992: 458 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Danzig 1988: 702 (female) [Far East of Russia].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 184]; Danzig1972b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 333-335]; Danzig1974 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 69]; Danzig2007a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 606-608]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 479].



Heliococcus osborni (Sanders)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus (Paroudablis) osborni Sanders, 1902: 284. Type data: U.S.A.: Ohio, Columbus, Campus of Ohio State University, on Platanus occidentalis. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Phenacoccus pettiti Hollinger, 1917: 281. Type data: U.S.A.: Missouri, Boone County, near Columbia, on several named hosts. Syntypes, female. Type depository: MSPB. Described: female. Synonymy by Ferris, 1950: 99.

Heliococcus obsorni; Ezzat & Nada, 1987: 88. Misspelling of species name.

COMMON NAME: Osborn mealybug [Koszta1996].



HOSTS: Aceraceae: Acer [Koszta1996]. Anacardiaceae: Rhus [Koszta1996], Rhus toxicodendron [Hollin1917b]. Asteraceae: Ambrosia trifida [Hollin1917b], Onopordum [Ezzat1960a, BenDov1994]. Betulaceae: Betula pubescens [Ossian1972]. Bignoniaceae: Catalpa [Ferris1950b, Koszta1996]. Caprifoliaceae: Symphoricarpos orbiculatus [Hollin1917b]. Cornaceae: Cornus [Koszta1996]. Ericaceae: Vaccinium [Koszta1996]. Fabaceae: Cercis canadensis [Hollin1917b], Gleditsia [Koszta1996], Medicago [Koszta1996]. Fagaceae: Fagus [Koszta1996]. Juglandaceae: Carya [Koszta1996]. Moraceae: Morus [Koszta1996]. Oleaceae: Fraxinus [Koszta1996], Fraxinus americana [Hollin1917b]. Oxalidaceae: Oxalis [Koszta1996]. Platanaceae: Platanus occidentalis [Sander1902]. Rosaceae: Prunus [Koszta1996]. Rubiaceae: Crucianella herbacea [Ezzat1960a, BenDov1994]. Salicaceae: Populus [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994]. Ulmaceae: Celtis [Koszta1996], Ulmus [Koszta1996]. Vitaceae: Psedera quinquefolia [Hollin1917b].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Canada (Alberta); United States of America (Colorado [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994], District of Columbia [Koszta1996], Idaho [Koszta1996], Indiana [Koszta1996], Iowa [Koszta1996], Louisiana [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994], Missouri [Hollin1917, Koszta1996], New York [Ferris1950b, Koszta1996], Ohio [Sander1902, Koszta1996], Oklahoma [Koszta1996], Texas, Virginia [Koszta1996], West Virginia [Koszta1996]). Palaearctic: Egypt [Ezzat1960a, BenDov1994]; Sweden [Ossian1972].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Ferris (1950b), Ezzat (1960b) and by Kosztarab (1996). Phenacoccus pettiti was erroneously considered to be a synonym of Phenacoccus stachyos Ehrhorn by Hollinger (1918, 1923). Ferris (1918b) listed both P. osborni and P. p

KEYS: Kosztarab 1996: 129 (female) [Northeastern North USA]; Miller 1974: 180 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1967: 183 (female) [U.S.A., California]; McKenzie 1964: 233 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1950b: 96 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 184-185]; Ezzat1960a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 34-36]; EzzatNa1987 [distribution: 88]; Ferris1918d [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 59, 60]; Ferris1950b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 99-100]; Hollin1923 [host, distribution: 51]; Koszta1996 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 129-131]; Lawson1917 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 180-183]; MohammGh2008 [distribution: 155]; NewtonGlMa2011 [distribution: 520]; Ossian1972 [host, distribution: 98]; Sander1902 [p. 284].



Heliococcus pamirensis Bazarov

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus pamirensis Bazarov, 1974: 357. Type data: TADZHIKISTAN: Eastern Pamir, on Eurotia ceratoides. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Artemisia [Bazaro1974, BenDov1994]. Brassicaceae: Christolea pamirica [Bazaro1974, BenDov1994]. Chenopodiaceae: Eurotia ceratoides [Bazaro1974, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Bazaro1974, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Bazarov (1974) and by Danzig (2007a). Description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Danzig 2007a: 569-571 (female) [Heliococcus species of Palearctic region]; Tang 1992: 460 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Wang 1982ZQ: 53 (female) [China]; Bazarov 1974: 351 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: Bazaro1974 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 357, 358]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 185]; Danzig2007a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 589, 592]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 479, 480]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 16].



Heliococcus pavlovskii Borchsenius & Tereznikova

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus pavlovskii Borchsenius & Tereznikova, 1959a: 492. Type data: RUSSIA: Primor'ye Kray, on grass. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female.



HOSTS: Fabaceae: Caragana pygmaea [Danzig1975, BenDov1994]. Poaceae [BorchsTe1959a, BenDov1994], Arundinella hirta [Danzig2007a]. Rosaceae: Potentilla mollii [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994]. Salsolaceae: Salsola laricifolia [Danzig2007a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China [Tang1992, TangHaTa1992, BenDov1994]; Mongolia [Danzig1975, Danzig1980b, BenDov1994]; Russia (Primor'ye Kray [BorchsTe1959a, BenDov1994], Yakutia-Sakha (=Yakut) AR [Danzig1978a, Danzig1980b, BenDov1994]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Borchsenius & Tereznikova (1959a) and by Danzig (1980b, 2007b).

KEYS: Danzig 2007a: 569-571 (female) [Heliococcus species of Palearctic Region]; Tang 1992: 458 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Danzig 1988: 702 (female) [Far East of Russia]; Danzig 1980b: 147 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 185]; BorchsTe1959a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution]; Danzig1975 [host, distribution: 54]; Danzig1978a [host, distribution: 74]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 155]; Danzig2007a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 602-603]; TangHaTa1992 [host, distribution: 8]; WuJiTa1996 [taxonomy: 259].



Heliococcus phaseoli (Laing)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus phaseoli Laing, 1929a: 475. Type data: SIERRA LEONE: on dwarf beans. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Heliococcus phaseoli; Goux, 1934b: 171. Change of combination.



HOST: Fabaceae: Phaseolus [Laing1929].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Sierra Leone [Laing1929a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Laing (1929a) and by Williams (1958b).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 185]; Goux1934b [taxonomy: 171]; Laing1929a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 475, 476]; Willia1958b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 19-21].



Heliococcus puerariae Kwon, Danzig & Park

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus puerariae Kwon, Danzig & Park, 2003: 109. Type data: KOREA: Gurye-ri, Iyang, Hwasun, Jeollanam-do, on Pueraria thunbergiana; collected G.M. Kwon, 24.5.2001. Holotype female. Type depository: Suwon: National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Korea . Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Betulaceae: Alnus japonica [KwonDaPa2003]. Fabaceae: Pueraria thunbergiana [KwonDaPa2003].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: South Korea [KwonDaPa2003].

KEYS: Kwon et al., 2003: 108 (female) [Korea].



Heliococcus quadriglandularis Bazarov

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus quadriglandularis Bazarov, 1974: 360. Type data: TADZHIKISTAN: Pamir, under a stone. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Heliococcus guadriglandularis; Tang, 1992: 460. Misspelling of species name.

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Bazaro1974, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Bazarov (1974). Description of adult female given by Tang (1992) and by Danzig (2007a).

KEYS: Danzig 2007a: 569-571 (female) [Heliococcus species of Palearctic Region]; Tang 1992: 460 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Bazarov 1974: 351 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: Bazaro1974 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 359, 360]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 185]; Danzig2007a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 592]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 481].



Heliococcus radicicola Goux

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus radicicola Goux, 1931b: 113. Type data: FRANCE: Rhone, Courzieu, on roots of Dianthus carthusianorum, Poterium sanguisorba and Rumex acetosella. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 2007a: 583. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France; type no. R198548. Described: female. Illust.

Heliococcus saxatilis Borchsenius, 1949: 276. Type data: ARMENIA: on Minor Megri slopes, on stone, collected N.S. Borchsenius, 25.v.1947. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 2007a: 583. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 29-48. Described: female. Synonymy by Danzig, 2007a: 583.

COMMON NAME: pink root mealybug [KosztaKo1988F].



HOSTS: Apiaceae: Eryngium campestre [KaydanKo2010a]. Asteraceae: Achillea millefolium [KaydanKiKo2005], Carduus pycnophelus [KaydanKiKo2005], Chondrilla [KaydanKiKo2005], Lactuca seriola [KaydanKiKo2005], Taraxacum [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]. Brassicaceae: Aethionema arabicum [KaydanKo2010a], Diplotaxis tenuifolia [KaydanKiKo2005], Sisymbrium [KaydanKiKo2005]. Caryophyllaceae: Dianthus carthusianorum [Goux1931b, BenDov1994]. Fabaceae: Lathyrus [Marott1992a, BenDov1994]. Geraniaceae: Erodium [KaydanKiKo2005]. Lamiaceae: Stachys [KaydanKiKo2005], Teucrium [Borchs1949, BenDov1994], Thymus [ZakOgaKo1964, BenDov1994], Thymus serphyllum [Schmut1952a, BenDov1994]. Malvaceae: Malva [KaydanKiKo2005]. Polygonaceae: Rumex acaetosella [Goux1931b, BenDov1994]. Rosaceae: Cydonia oblonga [TerGri1956, TerGri1969, TerGri1973, BenDov1994], Dryas octopetala [Matile1983, BenDov1994], Potentilla [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994], Poterium sanguisorba [Goux1931b, BenDov1994], Sanguisorba [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]. Scrophulariaceae: Verbascum [KaydanKiKo2005]. Umbelliferae: Daucus [KaydanKiKo2005].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [Borchs1949, TerGri1956, TerGri1969, TerGri1973, Matile1983, BenDov1994]; France [Goux1931b, BenDov1994, Foldi2001]; Germany [Schmut1952, Schmut1980, BenDov1994]; Hungary [KozarKiSa2004]; Italy [Marott1992a, BenDov1994, LongoMaPe1995]; Poland [Koteja1974b, BenDov1994]; Sweden [Ossian1959, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994, Gertss2001]; Switzerland [Matile1983, BenDov1994]; Turkey [KaydanKoYa2001, KaydanUlTo2002, KaydanUlZe2004, KaydanKiKo2005, KaydanUlEr2007]; Ukraine (Krym (=Crimea) Oblast [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the roots and stems of a variety of herbaceous plants. Life history discussed by Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Borchsenius (1949) (as H. saxatilis, Ter-Grigorian (1973), Bazarov (1974a), Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F), Tang (1992) and by Danzig (2007a).

KEYS: Danzig 2007a: 569-571 (female) [Heliococcus species of Palearctic region]; Tang 1992: 458,460 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Kosztarab & Kozár 1988F: 99 (female) [Central Europe]; Tereznikova 1975: 182 (female) [Ukraine & Palaearctic region]; Bazarov 1974: 350 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 200-201 (female) [Armenia]; Borchsenius 1949: 272 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: Bazaro1974a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 623-628]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 185-186]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 276-277,279]; CebeciAr2006 [host, distribution: 137]; Danzig2007a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 583-585]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Gertss2001 [distribution: 123-130]; Goux1931b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 113-118]; KaydanKiKo2005 [host, distribution: 87]; KaydanKo2010a [distribution, host: 34]; KaydanKoYa2001 [host, distribution: 379]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 99]; KaydanUlTo2002 [host, distribution: 253-257]; KaydanUlZe2004 [host, distribution: 220]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 103]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy, distribution: 73]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 57]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 118]; Marott1992a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 76-78]; Matile1983 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 632, 633]; Ossian1959 [host, distribution: 195]; Schmut1952 [distribution: 369]; Schmut1980 [ distribution : 50]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 482-484]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 184, 186-188]; TerGri1956 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 36]; TerGri1969 [host, distribution: 52]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 204-207]; Trjapi1989 [biological control: 121]; ZakOgaKo1964 [host, distribution: 424].



Heliococcus salviae Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus salviae Borchsenius, 1949: 282. Type data: TAJIKISTAN: hills south of Ura-Tyube, on rhizomes and stems of Salvia sp.; collected N.S. Borchsenius, 31.vii.1944. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 2007a: 589. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 256. Described: female.



HOSTS: Lamiaceae: Salvia [Borchs1949, BenDov1994], Scutellaria bucharica [Bazaro1974a, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Borchs1949, BenDov1994, Danzig2007a]; Uzbekistan [Danzig2007a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Dscription and illustration of adult female by Bazarov (1974a) and by Danzig (2007a). Description of the adult female by Borchsenius (1949) and by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Danzig 2007a: 569-571 (female) [Heliococcus species of Palearctic Region]; Tang 1992: 460 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Bazarov 1974: 350 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Borchsenius 1949: 272 (female) [Palaearctic region ].

CITATIONS: Bazaro1974a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 632, 633]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 186]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 282-283]; Danzig2007a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 589-591]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 482, 483].



Heliococcus schmelevi Bazarov

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus schmelevi Bazarov, 1976: 62. Type data: KYRGYZSTAN: Ataynaski Ridge, near Kurtsai, on Perovskia angustifolia. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Lamiaceae: Perovskia angustifolia [Bazaro1976, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kyrgyzstan (=Kirgizia) [Bazaro1976, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Bazarov (1976).

KEYS: Danzig 2007a: 569-571 (female) [Heliococcus species of Palearctic Region]; Tang 1992: 458 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions].

CITATIONS: Bazaro1976 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 62-64]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 62]; Danzig2007a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 605]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 484].



Heliococcus scutellariae Nurmamatov

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus scutellariae Nurmamatov, 1975: 27. Type data: TAJIKISTAN: Kuraminsk Ridge, Pangoz, on Scutellaria multicaulis. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Chenopodiaceae: Camphorosma lessengii [Danzig2007a]. Lamiaceae: Scutellaria multicaulis [Nurmam1975, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kazakhstan [Danzig2007a]; Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Nurmam1975, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Living on roots of its host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Nurmamatov (1975) and by Danzig (2007a).

KEYS: Danzig 2007a: 569-571 (female) [Heliococcus species of palearctic Region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 186]; Danzig2007a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 596-598]; Nurmam1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 27-29].



Heliococcus singularis Avasthi & Shafee

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus singularis Avasthi & Shafee, 1982: 306. Type data: INDIA: Andhra Pradesh, Prakasam, Chirala, on Cupressus sp. Holotype female. Type depository: Aligarh: Aligarh Muslim University, Department of Zoology, India. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Cupressaceae: Cupressus [AvasthSh1982, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: India (Tamil Nadu [AvasthSh1982, BenDov1994, Willia2004a]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Avasthi & Shafee (1982) and by Williams (2004a).

KEYS: Williams 2004a: 343 (female) [Heliococcus species of southern Asia]; Tang 1992: 458 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions].

CITATIONS: AvasthSh1982 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 306-308]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 187]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 484-485]; Varshn1992 [host, distribution: 41]; Willia2004a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 346-349].



Heliococcus stachyos (Ehrhorn)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus stachyos Ehrhorn, 1900: 313. Type data: U.S.A.: California, Santa Clara County, San Francisco to Canon, near Mayfield, on Stachys bullata. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Heliococcus stachyos; Ferris, 1950b: 101. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: betony mealybug [McKenz1967, Koszta1996].



HOSTS: Aceraceae: Acer platanoides [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Anacardiaceae: Rhus diversiloba [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994]. Asteraceae: Encelia farinosa [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Bignoniaceae: Catalpa [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Cornaceae: Cornus [Koszta1996]. Ericaceae: Arctostaphylos [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Fabaceae: Thermopsis [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Juglandaceae: Carya [Koszta1996]. Lamiaceae: Monardella [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994], Stachys bullata [Ehrhor1900, BenDov1994]. Moraceae: Morus [Koszta1996]. Platanaceae: Platanus [Koszta1996]. Polygonaceae: Eriogonum inflatum [McKenz1967, BenDov1994], Eriogonum umbellatum polyanthum [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Rosaceae: Adenostoma fasciculatum [McKenz1967, BenDov1994], Prunus [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Salicaceae: Populus [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Scrophulariaceae: Diplacus aurantiacus [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994]. Solanaceae: Solanum umbelliferum [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994]. Ulmaceae: Ulmus [McKenz1967, Koszta1996].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (California [Ehrhor1900, BenDov1994], District of Columbia [Koszta1996], Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the twigs, braches and roots of its host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Ferris (1950b), McKenzie (1967) and by Kosztarab (1996). A number of species have been synonymized with P. stachyos, although these synonymies have not been accepted by subsequent authors: occus comari Kunow by Kiritshenko

KEYS: Kosztarab 1996: 131 (female) [Northeastern North USA]; Miller 1974: 180 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1967: 183 (female) [U.S.A., California]; McKenzie 1964: 233 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1950b: 96 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 187]; Ehrhor1900 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 313, 314, 317]; Ferris1918d [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 59, 60]; Ferris1950b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 101-102]; Goux1934b [taxonomy: 170]; Hollin1923 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 51]; Kiritc1931 [host, distribution: 313]; Koszta1996 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution : 131-132]; McKenz1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 186-188].



Heliococcus sulcii Goux

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus sulcii Goux, 1934b: 167. Type data: FRANCE: Rhone, Courzieu, on Genista pilosa. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

Heliococcus caucasicus Borchsenius, 1949: 279. Type data: ARMENIA: near Ayrum Station, on Artemisia sp.; collected N.S. Borchsenius, 10.vi.1947. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 2007a: 602. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 35-48. Described: female. Synonymy by Danzig, 2007a: 602.

Heliococcus tesquorum Borchsenius, 1949: 284. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: Aktyubinskaya Region, Alga, on Artemisia sp.; collected N.S. Borchsenius, 7.viii.1936. Lectotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 159-36. Described: female.

Heliococcus marginalis Goux, 1953: 104. Type data: FRANCE: Marseille, Marseilleveyre, under a stone. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Danzig, 2007a: 602.

Heliococcus artemisiae Ter-Grigorian, 1967a: 134. Type data: ARMENIA: Erevan, on Artemisia fragrans. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Danzig, 2007a: 602.

Heliococcus sulci Bazarov, 1974a: 640. Unjustified emendation.

Heliococcus caucasicu; Ben-Dov, 1994: 178. Misspelling of species name.

COMMON NAME: Sulc's mealybug.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Artemisia [Borchs1949, BenDov1994, Danzig2007a], Artemisia fragrans [TerGri1967a, TerGri1973, Bazaro1974a, BenDov1994], Artemisia nitrosa [Borchs1949, Bazaro1974a, BenDov1994], Sonchus [WuJiTa1996a]. Caryophyllaceae: Dianthus [Terezn1975, BenDov1994]. Chenopodiaceae: Camphorosma [Danzig2007a], Camphorosma lessingii [Bazaro1974a, Danzig1977a, BenDov1994]. Euphorbiaceae: Euphorbia seguieriana [Terezn1975, BenDov1994], Euphorbia steposa [Terezn1975, BenDov1994]. Fabaceae: Genista pilosa [Goux1934b, BenDov1994], Trifolium repens [Terezn1975, BenDov1994]. Lamiaceae: Lagochilus [Mateso1968, BenDov1994], Marrubium [KaydanKiKo2005], Thymus marschallianus [KozarDr1991, BenDov1994], Thymus praecox [KozarOrKo1977, BenDov1994]. Rosaceae: Potentilla arenaria [KozarOrKo1977, BenDov1994], Rubus [WuJiTa1996a]. Scrophulariaceae: Rehmannia glutinosa [WuJiTa1996a], Veronica [Danzig2007a]. Solanaceae: Solanum septemlobum [WuJiTa1996a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [Borchs1949, TerGri1967a, TerGri1973, BenDov1994, Danzig2007a]; China (Nei Monggol (=Inner Mongolia) [WuJiTa1996a], Ningxia (=Ningsia) [WuJiTa1996a], Shanxi (=Shansi) [WuJiTa1996a, Xie1998]); France [Goux1934b, Goux1953, BenDov1994, Foldi2001]; Germany [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994, Foldi2001]; Hungary [KozarOrKo1977, KozarDr1991, BenDov1994, KozarKiSa2004]; Italy [KozarTrPe1984, Marott1987a, BenDov1994, LongoMaPe1995]; Kazakhstan [Borchs1949, BenDov1994, Danzig2007a]; Mongolia [Danzig1977a, BenDov1994]; Poland [Lagows1996, GolanLaJa2001]; Turkey [KaydanKiKo2005, KaydanUlEr2007]; Ukraine [Borchs1949, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Occurring on roots and stems of steppe inhabiting herbaceous plants.Lives on roots of its host plant.Lives on the roots of its host plant.Originally found under a stone.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Borchsenius (1949) as H. tesquorum and H. caucasicus, Goux (1953) (as H. Marginalis, Ter-Grigorian (1973) (as H. caucasicus, Bazarov (1974a), Tereznikova (1975) and by Danzig (2007a). Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F) listed H. slavonicus as a synonym of this species.

KEYS: Danzig 2007a: 569-571 (female) [Heliococcus species of Palearctic Region]; Tang 1992: 460 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Kosztarab & Kozár 1988F: 100 (female) [Central Europe]; Tereznikova 1975: 182 (female) [Ukraine & Palaearctic region]; Bazarov 1974: 350-351 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 201 (female) [Armenia]; Borchsenius 1949: 272 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: Bazaro1974a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 626,630-632,640-641]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 104,167,178,187-189]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 279-280,283-285]; Danzig1977a [host, distribution: 199]; Danzig2007a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 601-602]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Gavril2011a [cytogenetics: 380]; GolanLaJa2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 229-249]; Goux1934b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 167-170]; Goux1953 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 104-109]; KaydanKiKo2005 [host, distribution: 87]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 100]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 103, 104]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy, distribution: 73]; Kozar1999a [host, distribution: 138]; KozarDr1991 [host, distribution: 362]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 57]; KozarOrKo1977 [host, distribution: 71]; KozarTrPe1984 [host, distribution: 4]; LagowsKo1996 [host, distribution: 31, 33]; Marott1987a [host, distribution: 109]; Mateso1968 [host, distribution: 112]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 461]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 464-465,485-486,489]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 187, 188]; TerGri1967a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 134-137]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 208-213]; WuJiTa1996a [host, distribution: 291]; Xie1998 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 80-81].



Heliococcus summervillei Brookes

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus summervillei Brookes, 1978: 241. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Queensland, on Paspalum dilatatum, and paratype females, PAKISTAN: Peshawar, on Saccharum officinarum. Holotype female. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia. Described: female. Illust.

Novonilacoccus oryzae Ghosh & Ghose, 1987: 5. Type data: INDIA: West Bengal, Kalyani, on Oryza sativa. Holotype female. Type depository: Kalyani: Department of Agricultural Entomology, Bihan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, West Bengal, India. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Williams, 2004a: 349.



FOES: COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant [Summer1928]. HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Leptomastix guttatipennis Girault [Summer1928].

HOSTS: Poaceae: Bracharia ruziziensis [BrinonMaCh2004], Bracharis decumbens basilink [BrinonMaCh2004], Chloris gayana callide [BrinonMaCh2004], Digitaria milanjiana jarra [BrinonMaCh2004], Oryza sativa [GhoshGh1987, Varshn1992, BenDov1994], Panicum maximum makueni [BrinonMaCh2004], Panicum maximum hamil [BrinonMaCh2004], Paspalum [Summer1928], Paspalum compressum [BrinonMaCh2004], Paspalum dilatatum [Willia1985, BenDov1994], Saccharum officinarum [Brooke1978, BenDov1994], Urochloa mosambicensis nixon [BrinonMaCh2004].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Queensland [Summer1928, Brooke1978, BenDov1994]); New Caledonia [BrinonMaCh2004]. Oriental: India (West Bengal [GhoshGh1987, Varshn1992, BenDov1994, Willia2004a]); Pakistan [Brooke1978, BenDov1994, Willia2004a].

BIOLOGY: Heavy infestations were observed on leaves of the host (Ghosh & Ghose, 1987).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Brookes (1978), Ghosh & Ghose (1987) [as Novonilacoccus oryzae] and by Williams (2004a). Description and illustration of first-instar nymph, second-instar female nymph and third-instar female nymph given by Ghosh & Ghose (1987) [as Novonilacoccus oryzae]. Description and illustration of adult male by Ghosh & Ghose (1989) [as Novonilacoccus oryzae].

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Summerville (1928) first reported on this species as "mealy bug" and presented observations on its economic importance, life history, control and natural enemies. Brinon et al. (2004) recorded this species from New Caledonia, reporting of severe damage to pasture grasses from 1998 to 2003. In 2003 the pest populations were almost completely redced, probably due to unexplaiend natural causes.

KEYS: Williams 2004a: 343 (female) [Heliococcus species of southern Asia]; Tang 1992: 458 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 188]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 38-39]; BrinonMaCh2004 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history: 425-428]; Brooke1978 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 241, 242, 244]; GhoshGh1987 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 39-48]; Summer1928 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history, biological control: 201-209]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 486]; Varshn1992 [host, distribution: 41]; Varshn1992 [host, distribution: 43]; Willia1985 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 172]; Willia2004a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 348-350].



Heliococcus szetshuanensis Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus szetshuanensis Borchsenius, 1962a: 232. Type data: CHINA: Sechuan, host plant not recorded. Holotype female. Type depository: Beijing: Institute of Entomology, Academy of Sciences, China. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Kasianthus [Tang1992, TangHaTa1992, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China [Borchs1962a, Tang1992, TangHaTa1992, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1962a). Good description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Tang 1992: 460 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Wang 1982ZQ: 53 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 188]; Borchs1962a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 232, 234, 235]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 487]; TangHaTa1992 [host, distribution: 8]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 16].



Heliococcus takae (Kuwana)

NOMENCLATURE:

Dactylopius takae Kuwana, 1907: 184. Type data: JAPAN: on bamboo. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Ibaraki-ken: Insect Taxonomy Laboratory, National Institute of Agricultural Environmental Sciences, Kannon-dai, Yatabe, Tsukuba-shi, (Kuwana), Japan. Described: female.

Phenacoccus takae; Kuwana, 1917a: 122. Change of combination.

Saliococcus takae; Kanda, 1934: 309. Change of combination.

Heliococcus takae; Danzig, 1971: 383. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Arundinaria [Kanda1935a, BenDov1994], Bambusa [Kuwana1907, BenDov1994], Sasa kurilensis [Danzig1971, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China [Tang1992, TangHaTa1992, BenDov1994]; Japan [Kuwana1907, BenDov1994]; Russia (Kuril Islands [Danzig1971, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Oligophagous on bamboo.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Kuwana (1907, 1917), Kanda (1935a), Danzig (1971, 1980b, 2007a) and by Kawai (1980). Description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Danzig 2007a: 569-571 (female) [Heliococcus species of Palearctic region]; Tang 1992: 458 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Danzig 1988: 701 (female) [Far East of Russia]; Danzig 1980b: 145 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Kawai 1980: 98 (female) [Japan].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 188]; Danzig1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 383-385]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 152, 153]; Danzig2007a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 573-575]; Kanda1934 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 309-310]; Kanda1935a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 70-73]; Kawai1972 [host, distribution: 7]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 98, 99]; Kuwana1907 [host, distribution: 184]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 487, 488]; TangHaTa1992 [host, distribution: 8].



Heliococcus takahashii Kanda

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus takahashii Kanda, 1935a: 73. Type data: JAPAN: Yokohama, Mitsuzawa, on Arundinaria sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: UPLB. Described: female.

Takahashicoccus takahashii; Kanda, 1959a: 239. Change of combination.

Takahashicoccus (Heliococcus) takahashii; Kawai, 1972: 10. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Arundinaria [Kanda1935a, BenDov1994], Sasa kurilensis [Danzig1971, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Japan [Kanda1935a, BenDov1994]; Russia (Kuril Islands [Danzig1971, BenDov1994], Sakhalin Oblast [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Danzig (1980b, 2007a). Description of adult female by Kawai (1980) and by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Danzig 2007a: 569-571 (female) [Heliococcus species of Palearctic]; Tang 1992: 458 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Danzig 1988: 702 (female) [Far East of Russia]; Danzig 1980b: 147 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Kawai 1980: 98 (female) [Japan].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 188]; Danzig1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 385, 386]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 153-155]; Danzig2007a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 575-576]; Kanda1935a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 73-75]; Kanda1959a [taxonomy: 239]; Kawai1972 [host, distribution, taxonomy: 10]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 98]; Trjapi1989 [biological control: 113].



Heliococcus tokyoensis (Kanda)

NOMENCLATURE:

Saliococcus tokyoensis Kanda, 1959: 179. Type data: JAPAN: Honshu, Tokyo, Otsuka, on Pleioblastus chino. Syntypes, female. Type depository: UPLB. Described: female.

Heliococcus (Saliococcus) tokioensis; Kawai, 1972: 7. Change of combination.

Heliococcus (Saliococcus) tokioensis; Kawai, 1972: 7. Misspelling of species name.

Heliococcus tokyoensis; Kawai, 1980: 98. Change of combination.



HOST: Poaceae: Pleioblastus chino [Kanda1959, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Japan [Kanda1959, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description of the adult female given by Kanda (1959) and by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Tang 1992: 458 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Kawai 1980: 98 (female) [Japan].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 189]; Kanda1959 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 179-180]; Kawai1972 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 7]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 98]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 489, 490].



Heliococcus varioporus Matesova

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus varioporus Matesova, 1968: 122. Nomen nudum.

Heliococcus varioporus Matesova, 1968a: 636. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: Kalbinsk Ridge, on Eriophorum schauchzeri. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Cyperaceae: Carex [Danzig2007a], Eriophorum schauchzeri [Mateso1968a, BenDov1994, Danzig2007a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kazakhstan [Mateso1968, BenDov1994]; Mongolia [Danzig1977a, BenDov1994]; Russia (Irkutsk Oblast [Danzig2007a]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Matesova (1968), Bazarov (1974a) and by Danzig (2007a). Description of the adult female by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Danzig 2007a: 569-571 (female) [Heliococcus species of Palearctic Region]; Tang 1992: 458 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Danzig 1988: 702 (female) [Far East of Russia]; Bazarov 1974: 351 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: Bazaro1974a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 636, 638, 640]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 189]; Danzig2007a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 589-590]; Mateso1968 [host, distribution: 112]; Mateso1968a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 155-158]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 490].



Heliococcus wheeleri (King)

NOMENCLATURE:

Dactylopius wheeleri King, 1902j: 285. Type data: U.S.A.: Texas, Austin, in nests of Camponotus maculatus var. sansabeanus. Syntypes, female. Type depository: New York: American Museum of Natural History, Department of Entomology Collection, New York, USA. Described: female.

Pseudococcus wheeleri; Fernald, 1903b: 112. Change of combination.

Heliococcus wheeleri; Ferris, 1953a: 363. Change of combination.

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Texas [King1902f, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Living in ants' nests, Camponotus maculatus var. sansbeanus.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description of the adult female given by King (1902c).

SYSTEMATICS: Ferris (1953a) discussed this species and noted that the type-species specimens are immature, but may be the same species as H. insignis (Lobdell).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 189]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 112]; Ferris1953a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 363]; King1902f [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 285].



Heliococcus zoysiae Kwon, Danzig & Park

NOMENCLATURE:

Heliococcus zoysiae Kwon, Danzig & Park, 2003: 112. Type data: KOREA: Buchon-ri, Busan, jangheung, Jeollanam-do, on Zoysia japonica; collected G.M. Kwon, 18.9.2001. Holotype female. Type depository: Suwon: National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Korea . Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Zoysia japonica [KwonDaPa2003]. Rosaceae: Potentilla [Danzig2007a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China [Danzig2007a]. Palaearctic: Mongolia [Danzig2007a]. Palaearctic: Russia (Irkutsk Oblast [Danzig2007a], Yakutia-Sakha (=Yakut) AR [Danzig2007a]); South Korea [KwonDaPa2003].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Kwon et al. (2003) and by Danzig (2007a).

KEYS: Danzig 2007a: 569-571 (female) [Heliococcus species of palearctic region]; Kwon et al. 2003: 108 (female) [Korea].

CITATIONS: Danzig2007a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 598-600]; KwonDaPa2003 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 112-113].



Heterobrevennia Goux

NOMENCLATURE:

Ripersia (Brevennia) Goux, 1940: 58. Type species: Ripersia (Brevennia) tetrapora Goux, by original designation.

Heterococcopsis Borchsenius, 1948a: 955. Type species: Heterococcopsis lonicerae Borchsenius, by original designation. Synonymy by Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2013: 459.

Heterobrevennia Kaydan, 2011: 50-62. Type species: Heterobrevennia opertus (Borchsenius).

Brevennia (Heterobrevennia); Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin, 2012a: 786-787. Change of status.

Brevennia (Heterobrevennia); Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2013: 464. Change of status.

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description in Kaydan, 2011.

STRUCTURE: Adult female: Body elongate, 2.82-3.20 mm long, 1.56-2.20 mm wide. Antennae generally 8 or 9 segmented (but occasionally 7 when 2nd and 3rd segments fused). Eyes present on margin. Labium 3 segmented. Posterior spiracles slightly larger than anterior spiracles. Legs well developed, with translucent pores on hind femur and tibia; claw with a denticle; tarsal digitules setose, claw digitules capitate, broader than tarsal digitules. Both anterior and posterior ostioles well developed. Multilocular disc pores limited to margins of both body surfaces and to posterior abdominal segments. Quinquelocular pores smaller than multilocular pores, scattered over both body surfaces. Trilocular pores present on dorsum. Oral-collar tubular ducts elongate, generally situated on body margin. Anal ring with 6 setae.

SYSTEMATICS: Heterobrevennia is most similar to Heterococcopsis in having trilocular pores on the dorsum and 8- or 9-segmented antennae. The two genera differ as follows (features of Heterococcopsis in parentheses): i) no circuli (with 3 circuli), ii) trilocular pores scattered on dorsum (trilocular pores on dorsum restricted to cerarii, ostioles and posterior abdominal segments), iii) at least five cerarii, of which 3 are present on head (only 2 cerarii, restricted to posterior abdominal segments), and iv) legs slender (legs stout). Heterobrevennia is also similar to all the other genera in the Heterococcus-group. Asphodelococcus can be readily separated from Heterobrevennia by the following combination of features (features of Heterobrevennia in parenthesis): (i) antennae 6 segmented (antennae 9 segmented), (ii) multilocular pores of unusual shape and often quadrate, and with heavily sclerotised hexagonal pores (pores normal), and (iii) cerarii numbering 4 pairs and restricted to abdomen (cerarii numbering 5 or more pairs, present on both abdomen and head). Annulococcus differs from Heterobrevennia in the following combination of features (features of Heterobrevennia in parenthesis): (i) cerarii poorly developed, present along the body margin (cerarii numbering 5 or more pairs, present on both abdomen and head), (ii) quinquelocular pores larger than other multilocular pores (quinquelocular pores smaller than other multilocular pores), (iii) oral-collar tubular ducts very short and stout (oral-collar tubular ducts elongate), and (iv) trilocular pores absent (trilocular pores present) (Kaydan, 2011). Brevennia Goux shares many morphological features with Heterobrevennia, namely, the presence of trilocular pores on the dorsum and venter and the abundance of quinquelocular pores on both dorsum and venter, but the two genera differ in the absence of claw denticles and Brevennia also lacks anterior ostioles. Boreococcus Danzig, Heterococcus Borchsenius and Pseudorhodania can be readily distinguished from Heterobrevennia due to the complete absence of trilocular pores in these three genera. (Kaydan, 2011) Laingococcus Williams differs from Heterobrevennia in having the following combination of features (features of Heterobrevennia in parenthesis): (i) ostioles absent (ostioles present), (ii) cerarii absent (5 or more cerarii present on both abdomen and head); (iii) a circulus present (absent); (iv) dorsal body setae similar in size to those on venter (dorsal body setae spinose, ventral setose); and (v) in having a rotund body (body elongate oval). In having trilocular pores on the dorsum and venter, Heterobrevennia is somewhat similar to Paramacoccus Foldi & Cox but Paramacoccus is unique in lacking ostioles On the other hand, in having trilocular pores on the dorsum and venter, and spine-like setae on dorsum, Heterobrevennia is somewhat similar to Phenacoccus Cockerell but new genus differs in having many quinquelocular pores on the dorsum. (Kaydan, 2011) Although Kaydan (2011) elevated Herterobrevennia to a separate genus from Brevennia, Danzig and Gavrilov-Zamin (2012) described a new species in the genus Brevennia, subgenus Heterobrevennia without a formal synonomization of the two genera. We have decided to recognize the genus Heterobrevennia for the purposes of ScaleNet, but Brevennia ferenci remains as described.

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin 2013: 464 (female) [A Key to the Species of the Genus Brevennia (Including Four Palaearctic Species Not Known from Russia and Adjacent Countries)]; Kaydan 2011: 50 (female) [Key to adult females of the Heterococcus group]; Kaydan 2011: 50 (female) [as Heterococcopsis; Key to adult females of the Heterococcus group]; Tang 1992: 572-573 (female) [as Heterococcopsis; species Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Foldi & Cox 1989: 1121 (female) [as Heterococcopsis; Heterococcopsis; species Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Borchsenius 1949: 89 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: Borchs1948a [description, taxonomy: 955]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy: 171]; FoldiCo1989 [description, taxonomy: 1129]; Kaydan2011 [description, distribution, host, structure, taxonomy: 50-62]; Kaydan2011 [structure: 50]; Tang1992 [description, taxonomy: 585-586].



Heterobrevennia ferenci (Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin)

NOMENCLATURE:

Brevennia (Brevennia) ferenci Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin, 2012: 234-236. Type data: SLOVAKIA: Dévény, on Iris pumila, 6/7/2012, by F. Kozár. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 10470. Described: female. Illust.

Brevennia (Heterobrevennia) ferenci; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2013: 464. Change of combination.



HOST: Iridaceae: Iris pumila [DanzigGa2012].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Slovakia [DanzigGa2012].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin, 2012.

STRUCTURE: Adult female. Body elongate oval, up to 3 mm long. Antennae nine segmented. Hind coxae, femora and tibiae with translucent pores. Claw with a denticle. Circuli absent. Both pairs of ostioles well developed.

SYSTEMATICS: The new species is similar to other species of the genus Brevennia, but differs from all of them in the absence of the dorsal multilocular pores and in a smaller number of the trilocular pores. (Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin, 2012) Although Kaydan (2011) put Herterobrevennia in a separate genus, Danzig and Gavrilov-Zamin treated this new species in the genus Brevennia, subgenus Heterobrevennia without a formal synonomization of the two genera. We have decided to recognize the genus Heterobrevennia for the purposes of ScaleNet.

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin 2013: 464 (female) [A Key to the Species of the Genus Brevennia (Including Four Palaearctic Species Not Known from Russia and Adjacent Countries)]; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin 2012: 236 (female) [The key for the species of the Heterobrevennia].

CITATIONS: DanzigGa2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 234-236].



Heterobrevennia gullanae Kaydan

NOMENCLATURE:

Heterobrevennia gullanae Kaydan, 2011: 54. Type data: TURKEY: Van-Geva (N: 38°16’663’’, E: 043°03’898’’), on the leaf sheaths of Poaceae, 6/9/2009, by M.B. Kaydan. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Van: Plant protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Yüzüncü Yil University, Van, Turkey; type no. 4530. Described: female. Illust.

Brevennia (Heterobrevennia) gullani; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin, 2012: 236. Change of combination and misspelling of species epithet.



HOST: Poaceae [Kaydan2011].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Turkey [Kaydan2011].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Kaydan, 2011.

STRUCTURE: Body oval. In the leaf sheaths of grasses. The adult female of Heterobrevennia gullanae Kaydan is unique for a species in the Heterococcusgroup in having the following combination of features: (i) many quinquelocular pores on both the dorsum and venter, (ii) short hair-like tarsal digitules, (iii) claw digitules capitate, thicker than tarsal digitules, (iv) many multilocular pores on venter, (v) translucent pores present on both femur and tibia, (vi) two groups of multilocular pores on dorsum of head, (viii) six pairs of cerarii, 3 on head and 3 posteriorly on abdomen, (ix) many oral-collar tubular ducts on the venter and dorsum, and (x) the presence of trilocular pores throughout the dorsum. (Kaydan, 2011)

SYSTEMATICS: Heterobrevennia gullanae resembles H. opertus but H. gullanae differs in having the following combination of characters (characters of H. opertus in brackets): (i) two groups of multilocular pores on the head (absent), (ii) cerarii numbering 6 pairs (7), (iii) many trilocular pores present throughout dorsum (trilocular pores on dorsum few, generally restricted to posterior abdominal segment, and in cerarii and ostioles), (iv) antennae 8, rarely 7 segmented (9 segmented). Heterobrevennia gullanae is also similar to H. kozari Kaydan, but differs in having (character states for H. kozari in brackets): (i) 6 pairs of cerarii (5), (ii) translucent pores on coxa absent (present), and (iii) one size of oral-collar tubular ducts on dorsum (two sizes medially on posterior abdominal segment).

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin 2013: 464-465 (female) [as Brevennia (Heterococcus) gullani; A Key to the Species of the Genus Brevennia (Including Four Palaearctic Species Not Known from Russia and Adjacent Countries)]; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin 2012: 236 (female) [The key for the species of Heterobrevennia]; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin 2012a: 289 (female) [Key to species of Brevennia and Heterobrevennia]; Kaydan 2011: 54 [Key to Heterobrevennia species].

CITATIONS: DanzigGa2012 [taxonomy: 236]; DanzigGa2012a [taxonomy: 789]; DanzigGa2013 [taxonomy: 465]; Kaydan2011 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 54-56].



Heterobrevennia kozari Kaydan

NOMENCLATURE:

Heterobrevennia kozari Kaydan, 2011: 56-58. Type data: TURKEY: Bitlis-Siirt road (N: 38°11’772’’, E: 041°49’067’’), 748 m altitude, on the leaf sheaths of Cynodon dactylon (Poaceae), 5/26/2009, by M.B. Kaydan. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Van: Plant protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Yüzüncü Yil University, Van, Turkey; type no. 4325. Described: female. Illust.

Brevennia (Brevennia) kozari; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin, 2012a: 789. Change of combination.



HOST: Poaceae: Cynodon dactylon [Kaydan2011].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Turkey [Kaydan2011].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Kaydan, 2011.

STRUCTURE: Adult female body oval. The adult female of Heterobrevennia kozari Kaydan is unique for a species in the Heterococcus group in having the following combination of character states: (i) many quinquelocular pores on both dorsum and venter, (ii) hair-like tarsal digitules, (iii) ventral multilocular pores present on posterior abdominal segments, (iv) translucent pores present on coxa, femur and tibia, (v) five pairs of cerarii, and (vi) many oral-collar tubular ducts throughout the dorsum. The most unique characters are the presence of 5 cerarii and pores on hind coxa.

SYSTEMATICS: In having most of the above mentioned features, H. kozari resembles H. opertus but differs in having (characters of H. opertus in brackets): (i) only 5 pairs of cerarii (7), (ii) many trilocular pores scattered throughout dorsum (trilocular pores on dorsum few, generally restricted to the posterior abdominal segment, cerarii and ostioles), (iii) transcluent pores present on hind coxa (absent), and (iv) dorsal multilocular pores present only on abdominal segments VI and VII (scattered all over body). H. kozari is also similar to H. gullanae Kaydan, but differs in having (characters of H. gullanae in brackets): (i) 5 pairs of cerarii (6), (ii) transcluent pores on coxa (absent), (iii) one size of oral-collar tubular ducts on dorsum (two sizes on posterior abdominal segment), (iv) dorsal multilocular pores restricted to abdominal segments VI and VII (also present in two group on head), and (v) antennae 9 segmented (8, rarely 7).

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin 2013: 464-465 (female) [A Key to the Species of the Genus Brevennia (Including Four Palaearctic Species Not Known from Russia and Adjacent Countries)]; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin 2012: 236 (female) [The key for the species of Heterobrevennia]; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin 2012a: 787,789 (female) [Key to species of Brevennia and Heterobrevennia]; Kaydan 2011: 54 (female) [Key to Heterobrevennia species].

CITATIONS: DanzigGa2012 [taxonomy: 236]; DanzigGa2012a [taxonomy: 789]; DanzigGa2013 [taxonomy: 465]; Kaydan2011 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 56-58].



Heterobrevennia operta (Borchsenius)

NOMENCLATURE:

Heterococcopsis opertus Borchsenius, 1949: 265. Type data: TADZHIKISTAN: Gissarskii Ridge, on Dactylis glomerata. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female.

Heterobrevennia opertus; Kaydan, 2011: 50-54. Change of combination.

Brevennia (Heterobrevennia) operta; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin, 2012: 236. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Agropyron repens [KaydanKo2010a], Cynodon dactylon [KaydanKiKo2005], Dactylis glomerata [Borchs1949, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]; Turkey [KaydanKiKo2005, KaydanUlEr2007].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949) and by Tang (1992).

STRUCTURE: Adult female: Body elongate oval, 2.82-3.20 mm long, 1.56-2.20 mm wide. Antennae generally 8 or 9 segmented (but occasionally 7 when 2nd and 3rd segments fused). Eyes present on margin. Labium 3 segmented. Posterior spiracles slightly larger than anterior spiracles. Legs well developed, with translucent pores on hind femur and tibia; claw with a denticle; tarsal digitules setose, claw digitules capitate, broader than tarsal digitules. Both anterior and posterior ostioles well developed. Multilocular disc pores limited to margins of both body surfaces and to posterior abdominal segments. Quinquelocular pores smaller than multilocular pores, scattered over both body surfaces. Trilocular pores present on dorsum. Oral-collar tubular ducts elongate, generally situated on body margin. Anal ring with 6 setae.

SYSTEMATICS: H. opertus resembles H. kozari but differs in having (characters of H. kozari in brackets): (i) 7 pairs of cerarii (5), (ii) trilocular pores on dorsum few, generally restricted to the posterior abdominal segment, cerarii and ostioles (many trilocular pores scattered throughout dorsum), (iii) transcluent pores absent on hind coxa (present), and (iv) dorsal multilocular pores scattered all over bodypresent (present only on abdominal segments VI and VII). H. opertus resembles H. gullanae, but H. opertus differs in having the following combination of characters (characters of H. gullanae in brackets): (i) multilocular pores absent on the head (two groups of multilocular pores on the head), (ii) cerarii numbering 7 pairs (6), (iii) trilocular pores on dorsum few, generally restricted to posterior abdominal segment, and in cerarii and ostioles many trilocular pores present throughout dorsum), (iv) antennae 9 segmented (8, rarely 7 segmented ).

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin 2013: 464 (female) [A Key to the Species of the Genus Brevennia (Including Four Palaearctic Species Not Known from Russia and Adjacent Countries)]; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin 2012: 236 (female) [The key for the species of the Heterobrevennia]; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin 2012a: 788-789 (female) [Key to Brevennia and Heterobrevennia]; Kaydan 2011: 54 (female) [Key to Heterobrevennia species]; Tang 1992: 576 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Bazarov & Nurmamatov 1975: 63 (female) [East Pamir]; Borchsenius 1949: 264 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 191]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 265-266]; DanzigGa2012 [taxonomy: 236]; DanzigGa2012a [distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 789,793-796]; DanzigGa2013 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 464,471-472]; Gavril2011a [cytogenetics: 380]; Kaydan2011 [description, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 53-54,59]; KaydanKiKo2005 [host, distribution: 88]; KaydanKo2010a [distribution, host: 34]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 100]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 579].



Heterococcus Ferris

NOMENCLATURE:

Heterococcus Ferris, 1918d: 65. Type species: Heterococcus arenae Ferris, by monotypy and original designation.

Stachycoccus Borchsenius, 1962a: 240. Type species: Stachycoccus caulicola Borchsenius, by original designation. Synonymy by Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin, 2012a: 782-783.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good definition and characters given by Morrison (1945), Borchsenius (1949), Ferris (1953a), Williams (1961, 1962, 1970DJ), McKenzie (1967), Miller & McKenzie (1970), Ter-Grigorian (1973), Miller (1975), Tereznikova (1975), Danzig (1980b) and by Kosztarab (1996).

STRUCTURE: Body of female oval or oblong-oval, anal lobes not distinct. Antennae usually 8 or 9-segmented (rarely 6 or 7-segmented). Legs short, with fine segments. Claw with small denticle. Anterior and posterior ostioles well developed. Multilocular pores situated on both sides of body or only on ventral side (absent only in H. biporus Goux). Quinquelocular pores numerous on both sides of body. Trilocular pores absent. Tubular ducts narrow. Cerarii forming 1-4 pairs at end of abdomen, also occasionally C3 present. Abdominal cerarii formed by 2 conical setae and quinquelocular pores; as an exception (in H. nudus), in addition to quinquelocular pores, 1 trilocular pore occasionally present in C18. Dorsal setae conical or flagellate. (Danzig & Zamin, 2013)

SYSTEMATICS: Comparison with related genera given by Miller & McKenzie (1970). Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin (2013) determined that there was no morphological differences between Stachycoccus and Heterococcus and, therefore, synonymized them.

KEYS: Kaydan 2011: 50 (female) [as Stachycoccus; Key to adult females of the Heterococcus group]; Granara de Willink & Szumik 2007: 38 (female) [Phenacoccinae genera of South America]; Kosztarab 1996: 133 (female) [Northeastern North America]; Tang 1992: 570 (female) [as Stachycoccus; Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Tang 1992: 571 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Foldi & Cox 1989: 1120 (female) [as Stachycoccus; Heterococcus and associated genera]; Foldi & Cox 1989: 1121 (female) [Heterococcus and associated genera]; Danzig 1988: 696 (female) [Far East of Russia]; Kosztarab & Kozár 1988F: 105 (female) [species Central Europe]; Tranfaglia & Marotta 1987: 162 (female) [Related genera]; Wang 1982TC: 21 (female) [China]; Wang 1982: 21 (female) [as Stachycoccus; China]; Miller 1975DR: 3 (female) [species World]; Miller 1975DR: 35 (male) [species World]; Tereznikova 1975: 160 (female) [Ukraine & Palaearctic region]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 38 (female) [Armenia]; McKenzie 1967: 44 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1967: 188-189 (female) [species North America]; Ferris 1953a: 282 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1953a: 364 (female) [North America]; Borchsenius 1949 (female) [Palearctic]; Borchsenius 1949: 267 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Morrison 1945: 45 (female) [species World]; Morrison 1945: 40 (female) [Heterococcus and associated genera].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 191, 496]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description: 266-267]; Borchs1962a [taxonomy, description: 240]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description: 109, 143]; Danzig1985 [taxonomy, description: 112]; DanzigGa2012a [description, distribution, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 781-799]; DanzigGa2013 [description, distribution, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 459-474]; Ferris1918d [taxonomy, description: 65]; Ferris1953a [taxonomy, description: 364]; FoldiCo1989 [taxonomy, description: 1130, 1131]; GranarSz2007 [taxonomy: 38]; Kaydan2011 [taxonomy: 50]; Koszta1996 [taxonomy, description: 77, 131-133]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description: 104]; McKenz1967 [taxonomy, description: 188-189]; Miller1975DR [taxonomy, description: 1-4]; MillerMc1970 [taxonomy, description: 438-439]; Morris1945 [taxonomy, description: 45]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, description: 93, 188]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description: 587]; Tao1999 [taxonomy: 16, 28]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description: 188-190]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description: 198]; TranfaMa1985 [taxonomy: 161-162]; Willia1961 [taxonomy, description: 671]; Willia1962 [taxonomy, description: 6, 29]; Willia1985 [taxonomy: 65]; WilliaGu2010 [taxonomy: 66-68].



Heterococcus abludens Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Heterococcus abludens Borchsenius, 1962a: 238. Type data: CHINA: Yunnan Province, Chingtung, on grass. Holotype female. Type depository: Beijing: Institute of Entomology, Academy of Sciences, China. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae [Borchs1962a, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China [Borchs1962a, Tang1992, TangHaTa1992, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration given by Miller (1975DR).Good description of the adult female given by Miller & McKenzie (1970) and by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin 2013: 460 (female) [A Key to the Species of the Genus Heterococcus]; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin 2012a: 784 (female) [Heterococcus of the Palearctic Region]; Miller 1975DR: 3 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 191]; Borchs1962a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 238-240]; DanzigGa2012a [taxonomy: 784]; DanzigGa2013 [taxonomy: 460]; Miller1975DR [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 4-6]; MillerMc1970 [taxonomy, description: 440]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 580, 581]; TangHaTa1992 [host, distribution: 9]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 16].



Heterococcus arenae Ferris

NOMENCLATURE:

Heterococcus arenae Ferris, 1918d: 65. Type data: U.S.A.: California, Monterey County, Pacific Grove, on Poa douglasii. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Miller & McKenzie, 1970: 440. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Agropyron [Miller1975DR, BenDov1994], Aristida [Miller1975DR, BenDov1994], Elymus triticoides [Miller1975DR, BenDov1994], Festuca [Miller1971a, Miller1975DR, BenDov1994], Oryzopsis [Miller1975DR, BenDov1994], Poa douglasii [Miller1975DR, BenDov1994], Spartina patens [Koszta1996], Stipa [Miller1975DR, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Arizona [Miller1975DR, BenDov1994], California [Miller1971a, Miller1975DR, BenDov1994], Colorado [Miller1975DR, BenDov1994], Idaho [Miller1975DR, BenDov1994], Kansas [Miller1975DR, BenDov1994], Missouri [Miller1975DR, BenDov1994], Nebraska [Miller1975DR, BenDov1994], New Jersey [Koszta1996], New Mexico [Miller1975DR, BenDov1994], Oregon [Miller1975DR, BenDov1994], Utah [Miller1975DR, BenDov1994], Wyoming [Miller1975DR, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring beneath the leaf sheaths of its host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration given by Morrison (1945), Ferris (1953a), McKenzie (1967) and by Miller (1975DR).

KEYS: Kosztarab 1996: 133 (female) [Northeastern North USA]; Miller 1975DR: 3 (female) [World]; Miller 1975DR: 19, 24 (larva) [World]; McKenzie 1967: 189 (female) [U.S.A., California]; Ferris 1953a: 364 (female) [North America]; Morrison 1945: 45 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 191]; Ferris1918d [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 65]; Ferris1953a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 365-366]; Koszta1996 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 133-134]; McKenz1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 189-191]; Miller1971a [host, distribution: 208, 209]; Miller1975DR [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 6-9, 19-22]; MillerMc1970 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 440-442]; Morris1945 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 46-48].



Heterococcus avenae Savescu

NOMENCLATURE:

Heterococcus avenae Savescu, 1985: 121. Type data: ROMANIA: Constanza District, Basarabi, on Avena fatua. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Bucarest: Academie des Sciences Agricoles et Forestieres, Romania. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae: Avena fatua [Savesc1985, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Romania [Savesc1985, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Living on roots of its host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Savescu (1985).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 192]; Savesc1985 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 121-122].



Heterococcus biporus (Goux)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus (Heterococcus) biporus Goux, 1937e: 253. Type data: FRANCE: Tamaris (Var), on Brachypodium pinnatum. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

Heterococcus biporus; Morrison, 1945: 48. Change of combination.

Heterococcus biporous; Miller, 1975DR: 3. Misspelling of species name.



HOST: Poaceae: Brachypodium pinnatum [Goux1937e, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Corsica [Foldi2003]; France [Goux1937e, BenDov1994, Foldi2001].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Goux (1937e). Good description of the adult female given by Morrison (1945), Miller & McKenzie (1970), Miller (1975DR) and by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin 2013: 460 (female) [A Key to the Species of the Genus Heterococcus]; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin 2012a: 784 (female) [Heterococcus of the Palearctic Region]; Miller 1975DR: 3 (female) [World]; Morrison 1945: 45 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 192]; DanzigGa2012a [taxonomy: 784]; DanzigGa2013 [taxonomy: 460]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Foldi2003 [host, distribution: 148]; Goux1937e [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 253-256]; Miller1975DR [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 9]; MillerMc1970 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 442]; Morris1945 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 48]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 581].



Heterococcus caulicola (Borchsenius)

NOMENCLATURE:

Stachycoccus caulicola Borchsenius, 1962a: 240. Type data: CHINA: Yunnan Province, Chindung, on grass. Holotype female. Type depository: Beijing: Institute of Entomology, Academy of Sciences, China. Described: female. Illust.

Heterococcus caulicola; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin, 2012a: 782. Change of combination.



HOST: Poaceae [Borchs1962a, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China [Borchs1962a, Tang1992, TangHaTa1992, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1962a). Good description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 496]; Borchs1962a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 240-241]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 587-588]; TangHaTa1992 [host, distribution: 9]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 28].



Heterococcus cyperi (Hall)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus cyperi Hall, 1926a: 4. Type data: EGYPT: Kharga Oasis, on Cyperus sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Heterococcus cyperi; Ezzat, 1960c: 47. Change of combination.



HOST: Cyperaceae: Cyperus [Hall1926a, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Egypt [Hall1926a, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Occurring in the leaf sheath of the host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration given by Ezzat (1960c)and by Miller (1975DR). Good description of the adult female given by Tang(1992).

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin 2013: 460 (female) [A Key to the Species of the Genus Heterococcus]; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin 2012a: 784 (female) [Heterococcus of the Palearctic Region]; Miller 1975DR: 3 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 192]; DanzigGa2012a [taxonomy: 784]; DanzigGa2013 [taxonomy: 460]; Ezzat1960c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 47-49]; EzzatNa1987 [distribution: 88]; Hall1926a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 4, 5]; Miller1975DR [taxonomy, descrition, illustration, host, distribution: 9-11]; MohammGh2008 [distribution: 155]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 581, 582].



Heterococcus dethieri Matile-Ferrero

NOMENCLATURE:

Heterococcus dethieri Matile-Ferrero, 1983: 633. Type data: SWITZERLAND: Parc National des Grisons, Munt La Schera, in humus of Caricetum firmae. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Switzerland [Matile1983, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Matile-Ferrero (1983). Good description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin 2013: 460 (female) [A Key to the Species of the Genus Heterococcus]; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin 2012a: 784 (female) [Heterococcus of the Palearctic Region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 192]; DanzigGa2012a [taxonomy: 784]; DanzigGa2013 [taxonomy: 460]; Matile1983 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 633-635]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 582].



Heterococcus nigeriensis Williams

NOMENCLATURE:

Heterococcus nigeriensis Williams, 1961: 671. Type data: NIGERIA: Samaru, on guineacorn (Sorghum vulgare). Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Brevennia (Brevennia) nigeriensis; Miller, 1975: 49. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Chloris pycnothrix [Harris1961, BenDov1994], Cynodon dactylon [Harris1961, BenDov1994], Pennisetum typhoides [Harris1961, BenDov1994], Sorghum vulgare [Willia1961, BenDov1994], Zea mays [Harris1961, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Nigeria [Willia1961, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Occurring between the stem and leaf sheath.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Williams (1961).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Causes severe distortion of the host plant's leaves and stems given by Harris (1961).

KEYS: Williams D. J. 1970: 114 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 192, 193]; Harris1961 [host, distribution, economic importance: 677-684]; Miller1975DR [taxonomy: 49]; Willia1961 [taxonomy, description, illustation, host, distribution: 671-673].



Heterococcus nudus (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus nudus Green, 1926: 172. Type data: ENGLAND: Camberley, from leaf sheaths of grasses. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Heterococcus nudus; Green, 1928: 10. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus (Heterococcus) nudus; Goux, 1933: 235. Change of combination.

Heterococcus tritici; Borchsenius, 1937: 55. Misidentification.

Heterococcus borkhsenii Morrison, 1945: 48. Type data: UKRAINE: Odessa, in leaf sheaths of wheat grass. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 1980b: 143. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Danzig, 1968: 502.

Heterococcus graminicola Morrison, 1945: 48. Type data: U.S.A.: Ohio, Wooster, on Phleum pratense. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Miller, 1975: 11.

Heterococcus occidentalis Morrison, 1945: 53. Type data: U.S.A.: Washington, Yakima, on grass. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Miller, 1975: 11.

Heterococcus graminicolus; Ferris, 1953a: 367. Change of combination.

Heterococcus variabilis Schmutterer, 1958: 18. Type data: GERMANY: Oberammergau, on Agrostis alba. Holotype female. Type depository: Wetlenberg: The Schmutterer Collection, Germany. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Miller, 1975: 11.

Heterococcus pulverarius; Williams, 1961: 673. Misidentification; discovered by Miller, 1975: 11.

Heterococcus pulverarius; Williams, 1962: 31. Misidentification; discovered by Miller, 1975: 11.

Heterococcus pulverarius; Williams, 1963: 101. Misidentification; discovered by Miller, 1975: 11.

Heterococcus borchsenii; Ter-Grigorian, 1966: 90. Misspelling of species name.

Heterococcus pulverarius; McKenzie, 1967: 191. Misidentification; discovered by Miller, 1975: 11.

Heterococcus pulverarius; Komosinska & Podsiadlo, 1967: 684. Misidentification; discovered by Miller, 1975: 11.

Heterococcus pulverarius; Danzig, 1968: 502. Misidentification; discovered by Miller, 1975: 11.

Heterococcus pulverarius; Koteja & Zak-Ogaza, 1969: 360. Misidentification; discovered by Miller, 1975: 11.

Heterococcus agropyri Savescu, 1985: 119. Type data: ROMANIA: Bucarest, on Agropyron repens. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Bucarest: Academie des Sciences Agricoles et Forestieres, Romania. Described: female. Illust.

Heterococcus agropyri; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin, 2012a: 784. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: naked grass-mealybug [Koszta1996].



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Haplopappus [KozarHuFo1989, BenDov1994]. Poaceae [Goux1931, TerGri1966, KozarTrPe1984, Marott1987a, Koszta1996], Agropyron [KozarHuFo1989, BenDov1994, KaydanKiKo2005], Agropyron repens [Savesc1985, BenDov1994], Agropyron repens [Miller1975DR, KozarWa1986, KozarGuBa1994, KaydanKiKo2005], Agrostis [KozarGuBa1994], Agrostis alba [Schmut1958, Miller1975DR, BenDov1994], Alopecurus [Miller1975DR, BenDov1994], Arrhenatherum elatius [Miller1975DR, BenDov1994], Briza media [Miller1975DR, BenDov1994], Bromus [KozarGuBa1994], Bromus carinatus [Miller1975DR, BenDov1994], Bromus inermis [Miller1975DR, BenDov1994], Dactylis glomerata [Foldi2000], Echinochloa crusgalli [KaydanKiKo2005], Elymus glaucus [Miller1975DR, BenDov1994], Festuca arundinaceae [KaydanKiKo2005], Festuca rubra [Miller1975DR, BenDov1994, KaydanKiKo2005], Festuca supina [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994], Holcus [Miller1975DR, BenDov1994], Holcus lanatus [Goux1933a, BenDov1994, Foldi2000], Hordeum [TerGri1966, BenDov1994], Hordeum murinum [Miller1975DR, BenDov1994, KaydanKiKo2005], Koeleria gracilis [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994], Lolium [TerGri1966, BenDov1994, KaydanKiKo2005], Lolium perenne [Miller1975DR, KozarGuBa1994, Foldi2000, KaydanKiKo2005], Molinia coerulea [Schmut1958, BenDov1994], Panicum [Miller1975DR, BenDov1994], Phleum pratense [Morris1945, Miller1975DR, BenDov1994], Poa pratensis [KotejaZa1983, BenDov1994], Setaria viridis [Miller1975DR, BenDov1994, KaydanKiKo2005], Sieglingia decumbens [Miller1975DR, BenDov1994], Sorghum [MyartsKaPo1995, KaydanKiKo2005], Sorghum halepense [PellizPoSe2011], Stipa [KaydanKiKo2005].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Canada (British Columbia [KozarHuFo1989, BenDov1994]); United States of America (California [McKenz1967, Miller1975DR, BenDov1994], District of Columbia [Miller1975DR, BenDov1994], Idaho [Miller1975DR, BenDov1994], Kansas [Miller1975DR, BenDov1994], Maryland [Miller1975DR, Koszta1996], Massachusetts [Koszta1996], Michigan [Koszta1996], New Hampshire [Miller1975DR, Koszta1996], New Jersey [Miller1975DR, Koszta1996], New York [Miller1975DR, Koszta1996], North Dakota [Miller1975DR, BenDov1994], Ohio [Miller1975DR, Koszta1996], Oregon [Miller1975DR, BenDov1994], Pennsylvania [Miller1975DR, Koszta1996], Virginia [Miller1975DR, Koszta1996], Washington [Miller1975DR, BenDov1994], West Virginia [Koszta1996]). Palaearctic: Armenia [Borchs1949, TerGri1966, BenDov1994]; Azerbaijan [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]; Crete [PellizPoSe2011]; France [Goux1931, Goux1933a, BenDov1994, Foldi2000, Foldi2001]; Georgia (Georgia [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]); Germany [Schmut1958, BenDov1994]; Greece [MilonaKo2008, MilonaKoKo2008a]; Hungary [KozarWa1986, BenDov1994, KozarKoSc1999, KozarKo2002b, KozarKiSa2004]; Italy [KozarTrPe1984, Marott1987a, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994, LongoMaPe1995]; Moldova [KozarOs1987, BenDov1994]; Netherlands [Schmut1958, BenDov1994]; Poland [ZakOgaKo1964, Koteja1974b, KotejaZa1983, BenDov1994, Lagows1996, GolanLaJa2001]; Romania [Savesc1985, BenDov1994]; Russia (Voronoezh Oblast [Gavril2003a], Yakutia-Sakha (=Yakut) AR [Danzig1978a, BenDov1994]); Switzerland [KozarGuBa1994]; Turkey [KaydanKiKo2005, KaydanUlEr2007]; Turkmenistan [MyartsKaPo1995]; Ukraine [Borchs1949, Miller1975DR, BenDov1994] (Krym (=Crimea) Oblast [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]); United Kingdom (England [Green1926, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring in the leaf sheath and crown of its host plants.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female by Borchsenius (1949) (as H. borkhsenii), Ferris (1953a) (as H. graminicolus, Williams (1961) (as H. pulverarius), McKenzie (1967) (as H. pulverarius), Ter-Grigorian (1973), Miller (1975), Danzig (1980b) and by Kosztarab (1996). Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Savescu (1985).

STRUCTURE: See colour illustration in McKenzie (1967).

SYSTEMATICS: This species has frequently been misidentified as Trionymus pulverarius (Newstead) or Heterococcus pulverarius (now in Brevennia) (see Miller, 1975). Data on the taxonomy, synonyms, nomenclature, geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance given by Ben-Dov (1994).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Caused browning and stunting of grasses in U.S.A., Washington state (Kosztarab, 1996).

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin 2013: 460 [A Key to the Species of the Genus Heterococcus]; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin 2012a: 784 (female) [Heterococcus in the Palaearctic Region]; Kosztarab 1996: 135 (female) [Northeastern North USA]; Kosztarab & Kozár 1988F: 105 (female) [Central Europe]; Miller 1975DR: 3 (female) [World]; Miller 1975DR: 35 (male) [World]; Miller 1975DR: 19, 24 (larva) [World]; Tereznikova 1975: 190 (female) [Ukraine & Palaearctic region]; McKenzie 1967: 189 (female) [U.S.A., California]; Ferris 1953a: 364 (female) [North America]; Borchsenius 1949: 267 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Morrison 1945: 45 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 191, 193-194]; Borchs1937 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 55]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 269]; Danzig1968 [taxonomy: 502, 503]; Danzig1978a [host, distribution: 74]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 143-145]; DanzigGa2012a [distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 784-786]; DanzigGa2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 460,462]; Ferris1953a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 367-368]; Foldi2000 [host, distribution: 78]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Gavril2003a [host, distribution: 111]; GavrilKu2005 [taxonomy, distribution: 17-34]; GavrilTr2008a [taxonomy, karyology: 74]; GolanLaJa2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 229-249]; Goux1931 [host, distribution: 3]; Goux1933a [host, distribution: 235]; Green1926a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 172, 173]; Green1928 [host, distribution: 10]; HardyGuHo2008 [taxonomy, phylogeny, molecular data: 51-71]; HodgsoHa2013 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 797]; Jansen2001 [host, distribution: 197-206]; KaydanKiKo2005 [host, distribution: 88]; KaydanKo2010a [distribution, host: 34]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 100]; Koszta1996 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, economic importance: 135, 136]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 105-107]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy, distribution: 74]; Koteja2000a [distribution: 172]; KotejaZa1983 [host, distribution: 472]; KozarGuBa1994 [host, distribution: 153]; KozarHuFo1989 [host, distribution: 72]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 57]; KozarKo2002b [host, distribution: 375]; KozarKoSc1999 [host, distribution: 111-114]; KozarOs1987 [host, distribution : 92]; KozarWa1986 [host, distribution: 115]; Lagows1996 [host, distribution: 31]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 118]; Marott1987a [host, distribution: 109]; McKenz1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 191-193]; Miller1975DR [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 11-14]; MilonaKo2008 [host, distribution: 35-38]; MilonaKoKo2008a [distribution: 143-147]; Morris1945 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 48-53]; MyartsKaPo1995 [host, distribution: 223-225]; PellizPoSe2011 [distribution, host: 292,296]; RossHaOk2012 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 199]; Savesc1985 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 119-121]; Schmut1958; SimonKa2011 [distribution: 235]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 190, 191, 193]; TerGri1966 [host, distribution: 90]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 199-200]; Willia1961 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 673-675]; Willia1963 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 101]; WilliaMa2012 [distribution, taxonomy: 83]; ZakOgaKo1964 [host, distribution: 423].



Heterococcus raui Miller

NOMENCLATURE:

Heterococcus raui Miller, 1975DR: 14. Type data: U.S.A.: South Carolina, Charleston County, Folly Beach, on Andropogon virginicus. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.

COMMON NAME: Rau mealybug [Miller1975DR].



HOST: Poaceae: Andropogon virginicus [Miller1975DR, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (South Carolina [Miller1975DR, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the stems and in the sheaths just above the ground.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Miller (1975).

KEYS: Miller 1975DR: 3 (female) [World]; Miller 1975DR: 35 (male) [World]; Miller 1975DR: 19, 24 (larva) [World].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 194]; HodgsoHa2013 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 797]; Miller1975DR [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 14-16].



Heterococcus tritici (Kiritshenko)

NOMENCLATURE:

Trionymus tritici Kiritshenko, 1932: 135. Type data: UKRAINE: Odessa Oblast, Odessa, on Agropyrum repens and cultivated wheat. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female.

Erium tritici; Lindinger, 1935a: 122. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus biporus; Kiritshenko, 1940a: 188. Misidentification; discovered by Borchsenius, 1949.

Heterococcus confertus Borchsenius, 1949: 267. Type data: TADZHIKISTAN: Kondara, on wild rye. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Synonymy by Miller, 1975: 17.

Heterococcus tritici; Ben-Dov, 1994: 194. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: wheat mealybug [KosztaKo1988F].



HOSTS: Poaceae: Agropyron repens [Kiritc1932, BenDov1994], Avena [KaydanKiKo2005], Bromus [Borchs1949, Miller1975DR, BenDov1994], Cynodon dactylon [KaydanKiKo2005], Elymus [Miller1975DR, BenDov1994], Elymus caput-medusae [KaydanKiKo2005], Elytrigia repens [DanzigGa2013], Secale [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994], Triticum [Kiritc1932, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]; Turkey [KaydanKiKo2005, KaydanUlEr2007]; Turkmenistan [Miller1975DR, BenDov1994]; Ukraine [Kiritc1932].

BIOLOGY: Occurring under the leaf sheaths of the host plants.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Miller (1975) and by Tereznikova (1975). Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Has been recorded from cultivated wheat (Kiritchenko, 1932).

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin 2013: 460 (female) [A Key to the Species of the Genus Heterococcus]; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin 2012a: 784 (female) [Heterococcus in the Palaearctic Region]; Kosztarab & Kozár 1988F: 105 (female) [Central Europe]; Miller 1975DR: 3 (female) [World]; Tereznikova 1975: 190 (female) [Ukraine & Palaearctic region]; Borchsenius 1949: 267 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 194]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 267-269]; DanzigGa2012a [description, illustration, taxonomy: 783-784]; DanzigGa2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 460-462]; KaydanKiKo2005 [host, distribution: 88]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 100]; Kiritc1932 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 135]; Kiritc1936 [host, distribution: 71]; Kiritc1940a [taxonomy: 188]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 105-107]; Lindin1935a [taxonomy: 122]; Miller1975DR [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 16, 19]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 584]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 189, 190].



Kalaginella Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin

NOMENCLATURE:

Kalaginella Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin, 2013a: 558. Type species: Kalaginella intermedia Danzig & Gavrilov-Zamin.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration in Danzig and Gavrilov, 2013a.

STRUCTURE: Female. Legs normally developed; claw without denticle. Ostioles and circuli absent. Anal apparatus simplified, only with several pores. Discoidal pores of one type-quinquelocular, similar in size to multilocular pores of other mealybugs. Tubular ducts simple. Cerarii and conical setae absent. Both sides of body with flagellate setae. (Danzig & Gavrilov, 2013a)

SYSTEMATICS: The genus Kalaginella differs from all the other mealybugs except Archanginella with reduced cerarii and anal apparatus in the presence of quinquelocular pores instead of multilocular and trilocular ones. However, these quinquelocular pores and tubular ducts in Archanginella and Kalaginella differ fundamentally. Tubular ducts simple, without collar. Quinquelocular pores large, corresponding in size to usual multilocular pores of mealybugs in Kalaginella Tubular ducts with deep and wide collar almost totally closing the duct. Quinquelocular pores small, corresponding in size to usual quinquelocular pores of mealybugs in Archanginella.

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin 2013a: 215 (female) [Key to Pseudococcidae from Russia and Neighboring Countries].

CITATIONS: DanzigGa2013a [description, distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 558, 560].



Kalaginella intermedia Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin

NOMENCLATURE:

Kalaginella intermedia Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2013a: 559-560. Type data: TURKMINISTAN: 10 mi. NE of Ashkhabad, on grass, on 06/27/1995, by G. Kalagina. Holotype female (examined). Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae [DanzigGa2013a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Turkmenistan [DanzigGa2013a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration in Danzig & Gavrilov, 2013a,

STRUCTURE: Body oblong-oval, length 2 mm. Antenna of holotype broken off, with only 6 anterior segments remained. Legs with slightly shortened but not thickened segments, without translucent pores. Anal ring with several pores. Quinquelocular pores forming transverse rows on both sides of body. Tubular ducts of two size, dorsal larger than ventral ones; both types of ducts singular on abdomen. Dorsal tubular ducts, in addition, forming row along margin of metathorax and abdomen. Both sides of body with flagellate setae. (Danzig & Gavrilov, 2013a)

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin 2013a: 556 (female).

CITATIONS: DanzigGa2013a [description, distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 560].



Lacombia Goux

NOMENCLATURE:

Ripersia (Lacombia) Goux, 1940: 62. Type species: Ripersia bouhelieri Goux, by original designation.

Lacombia; Morrison, 1945: 41. Change of status.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good definition and characters given by Goux (1940), Boratynski (1968) and by Ben-Dov (1991).

CITATIONS: BenDov1991 [taxonomy, description: 7-8]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 209]; Boraty1968 [taxonomy, description: 401-403]; Goux1940 [taxonomy, description: 62]; Morris1945 [taxonomy: 41]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 102].



Lacombia bouhelieri (Goux)

NOMENCLATURE:

Ripersia bouhelieri Goux, 1938e: 199. Type data: MOROCCO: Mediouna, Tit Mellil Road, on Lupinus luteus. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

Ripersia (Lacombia) bouhelieri; Goux, 1940: 62. Change of combination.

Lacombia bouhelieri; Ben-Dov, 1994: 209. Change of combination.



HOST: Fabaceae: Lupinus luteus [Goux1938e, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Morocco [Goux1938e, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Living on the roots of the host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Goux (1938e).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 209]; Goux1938e [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 199-201]; Goux1940 [taxonomy: 62].



Lacombia dactyloni (Bodenheimer)

NOMENCLATURE:

Rhizoecus falcifer; Bodenheimer, 1935: 250. Misidentification.

Rhizoecus dactyloni Bodenheimer, 1943: 31. Type data: ISRAEL: Jerusalem, on Cynodon dactylon. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Ben-Dov, 1991: 8. Type depository: Bet Dagan: Department of Entomology, The Volcani Center, Israel. Described: female.

Lacombia urbanii Boratynski, 1968: 403. Type data: MALTA: Comino Island, in nest of Tapinoma erraticum. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Ben-Dov, 1991a: 8.

Lacombia dactyloni; Ben-Dov, 1991: 8. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Anacyclus clavatus [BenDov1991], Artemisia herba-alba [BenDov1991, BenDov1994]. Poaceae: Cynodon dactylon [Bodenh1935, Bodenh1943, BenDov1991, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Israel [Bodenh1935, Bodenh1943, BenDov1991, BenDov1994]; Malta [Boraty1968, Koteja1974b, BenDov1994]; Tunisia [BenDov1991, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Living on roots of its host plant, always in association with the ant Tapinoma erraticum (Ben-Dov, 1991).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Bodenheimer (1943), Boratynski (1968) and by Ben-Dov (1994).

CITATIONS: BenDov1991 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 8-10]; BenDov1994 [taxonomy: 209]; BenDov2012 [catalogue, distribution, host: 35, 43]; Bodenh1935 [host, distribution: 250]; Bodenh1943 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 31]; Boraty1968 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 403-408]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy, distribution: 72].



Laingiococcus Morrison

NOMENCLATURE:

Laingiococcus Morrison, 1945: 54. Type species: Heterococcus painei Laing, by monotypy and original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good definition and characters given by Williams (1960), Williams & Watson (1988a) and by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Kaydan 2011: 50 (female) [Key to adult females of the Heterococcus group]; Williams & Watson 1988a: 17 (female) [Tropical South Pacific Region]; Morrison 1945: 40 (female) [Heterococcus and associated genera].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 210]; Kaydan2011 [taxonomy: 50]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 103]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description: 492]; Willia1960 [taxonomy, description: 400]; WilliaWa1988a [taxonomy, description: 87, 89].



Laingiococcus painei (Laing)

NOMENCLATURE:

Heterococcus painei Laing, 1930: 20. Type data: SOLOMON ISLANDS: on coconut. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Williams & Watson, 1988a: 89. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Phenacoccus horridus Lever, 1933: 4. Nomen nudum; discovered by Lever, 1935: 7.

Laingiococcus painei; Morrison, 1945: 54. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus horridus Williams, 1960: 402. Nomen nudum; discovered by Williams, 1960: 402.



HOSTS: Annonaceae: Annona muricata [WilliaWa1988a, BenDov1994]. Arecaceae: Cocos nucifera [Laing1930, WilliaWa1988a, BenDov1994]. Moraceae: Ficus [Willia1960, WilliaWa1988a, BenDov1994], Ficus septica [Willia1960, BenDov1994]. Myrsinaceae: Maesa [Willia1960, WilliaWa1988a, BenDov1994]. Rutaceae: Citrus [WilliaWa1988a, BenDov1994]. Sterculiaceae: Theobroma cacao [WilliaWa1988a, BenDov1994]. Verbenaceae: Gmelina moluccana [WilliaWa1988a, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Papua New Guinea [WilliaWa1988a]; Solomon Islands [Laing1930, Willia1960, WilliaWa1988a, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Often tended by and found in the nests of ants Oecophylla smaragdina.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Laing (1930), Williams (1960) and by Williams & Watson (1988a).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 210]; Laing1930 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 20-21]; Morris1945 [taxonomy: 54]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 492]; Willia1960 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 400-402]; WilliaWa1988a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 88-89].



Longicoccus Danzig

NOMENCLATURE:

Longicoccus Danzig, 1975: 49. Type species: Longicoccus clarus Borchsenius, by original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good definition and characters given by Danzig (1975), Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F) and by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Tang 1992 (female) [World]; Kosztarab & Kozar 1988F: 63 (female) [Central Europe]; Wang 1982TC: 22 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 214]; Danzig1975 [taxonomy, description: 49]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description: 107]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description: 495].



Longicoccus affinis (Ter-Grigorian)

NOMENCLATURE:

Mirococcus affinis Ter-Grigorian, 1967: 91. Type data: ARMENIA: Sisiyan, Sisiyansk Ridge, on grass. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Longicoccus affinis; Danzig, 1975: 49. Change of combination.

Longicoccus affinis; Ben-Dov, 1994: 214. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Poaceae [TerGri1967, TerGri1969], Agropyron repens [KaydanKo2010a], Hordeum bulbosa [KaydanKiKo2005].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [TerGri1967, Koteja1974b]; Turkey [KaydanKiKo2005, KaydanUlEr2007].

BIOLOGY: Living on roots of its host plant.ECO >Parasites in the Palaearctic region discussed by Trjapitzin (1989).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Ter-Grigorian (1967) and Ter-Grigorian (1973). Good description of the adult female given by Koteja (1971) and by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Tang 1992: 496 (female) [China]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 102 (female) [Armenia]; Koteja 1971: 5 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 214-215]; Danzig1975 [taxonomy: 49]; KaydanKiKo2005 [host, distribution: 88]; KaydanKo2010a [distribution, host: 34]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 100]; Koteja1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 8]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy, distribution: 73]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 496]; TerGri1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 91-93]; TerGri1969 [host, distribution: 53]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 104-105]; Trjapi1989 [biological control: 223].



Longicoccus ashtarakensis (Ter-Grigorian)

NOMENCLATURE:

Mirococcus ashtarakensis Ter-Grigorian, 1964b: 246. Type data: ARMENIA: Ashtarak Region, on grass. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Mirococcus ashtaracenis; Ter-Grigorian, 1969: 52. Misspelling of species name.

Longicoccus ashtarakensis; Danzig, 1975: 49. Change of combination.



HOST: Poaceae [TerGri1964b, TerGri1966, TerGri1969].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [TerGri1964b, TerGri1966, TerGri1969, Koteja1974b].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Ter-Grigorian (1964b, 1973). Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Koteja (1971) and by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Tang 1992: 495 (female) [China]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 102 (female) [Armenia]; Koteja 1971: 5 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 215]; Danzig1975 [taxonomy: 49]; Koteja1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 6, 8]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy distribution: 73]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 497]; TerGri1964b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 246, 248, 249]; TerGri1966 [host, distribution: 87]; TerGri1969 [host, distribution: 52]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 104-105].



Longicoccus clarus (Borchsenius)

NOMENCLATURE:

Mirococcus clarus Borchsenius, 1949: 182. Type data: RUSSIA: Dagestan AR, Makhatz-Kala, on Festuca. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female.

Longicoccus clarus; Danzig, 1975: 49. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Cynodon dactylon [KaydanKo2010a], Festuca [Borchs1949, BenDov1994], Hordeum bulbosa [KaydanKiKo2005].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Russia (Dagestan AR [Borchs1949, Koteja1971, Koteja1974b, BenDov1994]); Turkey [KaydanKiKo2005, KaydanUlEr2007].

BIOLOGY: Lives on roots of the host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949) and by Koteja (1971). Good description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Tang 1992: 496 (female) [as Caulicoccus cerariferus; China]; Koteja 1971: 5 (female) [World]; Borchsenius 1949: 181 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 215]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 182-183]; Danzig1975 [taxonomy: 49]; Gavril2004 [host, distribution: 526]; KaydanKiKo2005 [host, distribution: 88]; KaydanKo2010a [distribution, host: 34]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 100]; Koteja1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 8]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy, distribution: 73]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 497, 498].



Longicoccus divnogoricus Gavrilov

NOMENCLATURE:

Longicoccus divnogoricus Gavrilov, 2003a: 109. Type data: RUSSIA: Voronoezh Oblast, 25 km from Lysok, on roots of grass; collected I.A. Gavrilov, 11.vii.2002. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae [Gavril2003a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Russia (Voronoezh Oblast [Gavril2003a]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Gavrilov (2003a).

CITATIONS: Gavril2003a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 109-110]; GavrilKu2005 [taxonomy, distribution: 17-34].



Longicoccus festucae (Koteja)

NOMENCLATURE:

Mirococcus festucae Koteja, 1971: 14. Type data: POLAND: Pieskowa Skala, on Festuca pallens. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Krakow: Institute of Systematic and Experimental Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland. Described: female. Illust.

Longicoccus festucae; Danzig, 1975: 49. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: Koteja's mealybug [KosztaKo1988F].



HOSTS: Poaceae: Festuca [KaydanKiKo2005], Festuca pallens [Koteja1971a, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994], Poa pratensis [KaydanKiKo2005].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Hungary [KozarWa1986, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994, KozarKoSc1999, KozarKiSa2004]; Poland [Koteja1971, Koteja1974b, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994]; Turkey [KaydanKiKo2005, KaydanUlEr2007].

BIOLOGY: Occurring under the leaf sheaths of the host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Koteja (1971). Good description of the adult female given by Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F) and by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Tang 1992: 496 (female) [China]; Koteja 1971: 6 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 215]; Danzig1975 [taxonomy: 49]; KaydanKiKo2005 [host, distribution: 88]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 100]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 107-108]; Koteja1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 12-16]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 57]; KozarKoSc1999 [host, distribution: 111-114]; KozarWa1986 [distribution: 115]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 498].



Longicoccus longiventris (Borchsenius)

NOMENCLATURE:

Mirococcus longiventris Borchsenius, 1949: 183. Type data: ARMENIA: Megri, on grass. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female.

Mirococcus longispinus; Ter-Grigorian, 1966: 87. Misspelling of species name.

Longicoccus longiventris; Danzig, 1975: 49. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Poaceae [Borchs1949, TerGri1966, TerGri1969, BenDov1994], Hordeum bulbosa [KaydanKiKo2005], Poa pratensis [KaydanKiKo2005].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [TerGri1966, TerGri1969, Koteja1971, Koteja1974b, BenDov1994]; Turkey [KaydanKiKo2005, KaydanUlEr2007].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Koteja (1971). Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949), Ter-Grigorian (1973) and by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Tang 1992: 496 (female) [China]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 102 (female) [Armenia]; Koteja 1971: 5 (female) [World]; Borchsenius 1949: 181 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 215-216]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 183-184]; Danzig1975 [catalogue: 49]; KaydanKiKo2005 [host, distribution: 88]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 100]; Koteja1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 14]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy, distribution: 73]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 499]; TerGri1966 [host, distribution: 87]; TerGri1969 [host, distribution: 52]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 105].



Longicoccus psammophilus (Koteja)

NOMENCLATURE:

Mirococcus psammophilus Koteja, 1971: 8. Type data: POLAND: Mikoszewo, on Festuca ovina and Deschampsia flexuosa. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Krakow: Institute of Systematic and Experimental Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland. Described: female. Illust.

Longicoccus psammophilus; Danzig, 1975: 49. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: sand-loving mealybug.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Artemisia [Danzig1980, BenDov1994]. Poaceae: Aegilops [KaydanKiKo2005], Agropyron repens [KaydanKiKo2005], Ammophila arenaria [Marott1992a, BenDov1994], Deschampsia flexuosa [Koteja1971, BenDov1994], Festuca ovina [Koteja1971, BenDov1994], Hordeum murinum [KaydanKiKo2005], Poa bulbosa [KaydanKiKo2005], Setaria [Marott1992a, BenDov1994], Stipa capillata [KozarWa1986].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Czech Republic [Zahrad1987, BenDov1994]; Hungary [KozarWa1986, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994, KozarKoSc1999, KozarKiSa2004]; Italy [LongoMaPe1995]. Palaearctic: Mongolia [Danzig1980, BenDov1994]. Palaearctic: Poland [Koteja1971, Koteja1974b, BenDov1994]; Turkey [KaydanKiKo2005, KaydanUlEr2007].

BIOLOGY: Occurring under the leaf sheaths of the host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female Koteja (1971), Zahradnik (1987) and by Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F). Good description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Tang 1992: 496 (female) [World]; Koteja 1971: 5 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 216]; Danzig1975 [taxonomy: 49]; Danzig1980 [host, distribution: 35]; KaydanKiKo2005 [host, distribution: 88]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 100]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 107-108]; Koteja1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 8-14]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy, distribution: 73]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 57]; KozarKoSc1999 [host, distribution: 111-114]; KozarWa1986 [host, distribution: 115]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 119]; Marott1992a [host, distribution: 78]; SimonKa2011 [distribution: 235]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 499-500]; Zahrad1987 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 359-360].



Madacanthococcus Mamet

NOMENCLATURE:

Madacanthococcus Mamet, 1959a: 396. Type species: Madacanthococcus philippicolus Mamet, by monotypy and original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good definition and characters given by Mamet (1959a).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 221]; Mamet1959a [taxonomy, description: 396]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 113].



Madacanthococcus philippicolus Mamet

NOMENCLATURE:

Madacanthococcus philippicolus Mamet, 1959a: 396. Type data: MADAGASCAR: near Antsirabe, on Philippia sp. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Ericaceae: Philippia [Mamet1959a, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Madagascar [Mamet1959a, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Mamet (1959a).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 221]; Mamet1959a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 396-398].



Malekoccus Matile-Ferrero

NOMENCLATURE:

Malekoccus Matile-Ferrero, 1988: 32. Type species: Malekoccus acaciae Matile-Ferrero, by original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good definition and characters given by Matile-Ferrero (1988).

STRUCTURE: Legs well developed; claw with will defined denticle. Two pair of ostioles. Multilocular and quinquelocular pores (about the same size). Trilocular pores scattered on entire body surface. Tubular ducts of two types; simple and with flat ring near duct opening. Two last pair of cerarii, each with 2 thin conical setae, without concentration of trilocular pores. Dorsal setae conical. (Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014)

SYSTEMATICS: Malekoccus is similar to Phenacoccus, however, Malekoccus has ducts with a flat ring near the opening. In addition, it has peculiar large 5-locular pores, about the same size as the multilocular pores. (Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014)

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin 2014: 183-185 (female) [Key to general of Phenacoccinae].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 224]; DanzigGa2014 [description, taxonomy: 244]; DanzigGa2014 [description, taxonomy: 244]; Matile1988 [taxonomy, description: 32, 34].



Malekoccus acaciae Matile-Ferrero

NOMENCLATURE:

Malekoccus acaciae Matile-Ferrero, 1988: 34. Type data: SAUDI ARABIA: Wadi Bani Malek, on Acacia asak. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Fabaceae: Acacia acaciae [Matile1988, BenDov1994], Acacia asak [DanzigGa2014].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Saudi Arabia [Matile1988, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Matile-Ferrero (1988).

STRUCTURE: Female broadly oval, up to 2.5 mm long. Antennae 9-segmented. Legs well developed, wihout translucent pores; claw with will defined denticle; claw digitules invisible in available specimens. Anal apparatus complete, constructed with two separate halves, each with inner row of pores and an outer row of spinulae; 6 short anal setae present, similar in length to diameter of anal ring. Circuli absent. Multilocular pores forming transverse rows and bands on IV-VIII abdominal sternites. Quinquelocular pores about the same size as multilocular ones, scattered in medial zone of ventral surface of thorax and three anterior abdominal sternites. Trilocular pores scallered on entire body surface, bu less numerous in medial zone of thorax. Simple discoidal pores scattered on entire body surface. Tubular ducts of two types; simple and with flat ring near duct opening. Simple tubular ducts present on ventral surface of abdomen only, together with multilocular pores. Ducts with flat ring scattered on entire body surface. Two last pari of cerarii present; each with 2 thin conical setae, without concentration of trilocular pores. Dorsal setae conical. (Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014)

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 224]; DanzigGa2014 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 244-245]; Matile1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 33-34].



Mammicoccus Balachowsky

NOMENCLATURE:

Mammicoccus Balachowsky, 1959: 337. Type species: Mammicoccus murilloi Balachowsky, by monotypy and original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good definition and characters given by Balachowsky (1959) and by Williams & Granara de Willink (1992).

KEYS: Granara de Willink & Szumik 2007: 38 (female) [Phenacoccinae genera of South America]; Williams & Granara de Willink 1992: 227-229 (female) [Central and South America]; Williams & Granara de Willink 1992: 42 (female) [Central and South America]; Miller & McKenzie 1971 (female) [species].

CITATIONS: Balach1959 [taxonomy, description: 337]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 224]; GranarSz2007 [taxonomy: 38]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 114]; WilliaGr1992 [taxonomy, description: 42, 227-229].



Mammicoccus balachowskyi Miller & McKenzie

NOMENCLATURE:

Mammicoccus balachowskyi Miller & McKenzie, 1971: 581. Type data: PERU: near Caraz Ancash, host plant not indicated. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

COMMON NAME: Balachowsky mealybug [MillerMc1971].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Peru [MillerMc1971, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the flower of its host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and distribution of the adult female given by Miller & McKenzie (1971) and by Williams & Granara de Willink (1992).

KEYS: Williams & Granara de Willink 1992: 229 (female) [Central and South America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 224]; MillerMc1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 581-583]; WilliaGr1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 229, 230].



Mammicoccus murilloi Balachowsky

NOMENCLATURE:

Mammicoccus murilloi Balachowsky, 1959: 337. Type data: COLOMBIA: Papayan, Cauca, on a plant of Labiatae. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Lamiaceae [Balach1959, WilliaGr1992].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Colombia [Balach1959, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, Kondo2001].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Balachowsky (1959) and by Williams & Granara de Willink (1992).

KEYS: Williams & Granara de Willink 1992: 227 (female) [Central and South America].

CITATIONS: Balach1959 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 337-339]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 224]; Kondo2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 36]; WilliaGr1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 229-232].



Mirococcopsis Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Mirococcopsis Borchsenius, 1948c: 582. Type species: Mirococcopsis rubidus Borchsenius, by original designation.

Liucoccus Borchsenius, 1960e: 930. Type species: Liucoccus ehrhornioides Borchsenius, by original designation.

Eumirococcus Ter-Grigorian, 1964a: 858. Type species: Eumirococcus borchsenii Ter-Grigorian, by original designation. Synonymy by Gavrilov, 2007: 2.

Mirococcopsis (Liucoccus); Gavrilov, 2007: 4. Change of status.

Mirococcopsis (Mirococcopsis); Gavrilov, 2007: 2. Change of status.



Mirococcopsis multicircularia Kaydan & Gavrilov

NOMENCLATURE:

Mirococcopsis multicircularia Kaydan & Gavrilov, 2010: 50-53. Type data: TURKEY: Bahçesaray-Van, on undermined Poaceae; Collected 25 June, 2006, M.B. Kaydan. Holotype. Type depository: Van: Plant protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Yüzüncü Yil University, Van, Turkey. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae [KaydanGa2010].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Turkey [KaydanGa2010].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Kaydan & Gavrilov (2010).

CITATIONS: KaydanGa2010 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 50-53].



Mirococcopsis (Liucoccus) Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Liucoccus Borchsenius, 1960e: 930. Type species: Liucoccus ehrhornioides Borchsenius, by original designation.

Mirococcopsis (Liucoccus); Gavrilov, 2007: 4. Change of status.

GENERAL REMARKS: Gavrilov (2007) revised Mirococcopsis and splitted it to two subgenera Mirococcopsis Liucoccus and Mirococcopsis Mirococcopsis and redecribed most of the species assigned to it. Definition and characters by Borchsenius (1949), Ter-Grigorian (1973), Tereznikova (1975), Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F) and Gavrilov (2007).

SYSTEMATICS: Gavrilov (2007) regarded Liucoccus a subgenus of Mirococcopsis.

KEYS: Tang 1992: 92 (female) [China]; Wang 1982TC: 20 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 213]; Borchs1960e [taxonomy, description: 930]; Gavril2007 [taxonomy, description: 4-5]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 111]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description: 97]; Tao1999 [taxonomy: 17].



Mirococcopsis (Liucoccus) ehrhornioides (Borchsenius)

NOMENCLATURE:

Liucoccus ehrhornioides Borchsenius, 1960e: 930. Type data: CHINA: Yunnan Province, on Phragmites sp. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Mirococcopsis (Liucoccus) ehrhornioides; Gavrilov, 2007: 4. Change of combination.



HOST: Poaceae: Phragmites [Borchs1960e, BenDov1994, Gavril2006].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: China (Yunnan [Borchs1960e, BenDov1994, Gavril2007]).

BIOLOGY: Living under leaf sheaths of Phragmites sp. (Gavrilov, 2007).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by by Borchsenius (1960e), Tang (1992) and by Gavrilov (2007).

KEYS: Gavrilov 2007: 2-3 (female) [Species of Mirococcopsis].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 214]; Borchs1960e [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 928, 930]; Gavril2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 4-5]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 97]; TangHaTa1992 [host, distribution: 2]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 17].



Mirococcopsis (Mirococcopsis) Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Mirococcopsis Borchsenius, 1948c: 582. Type species: Mirococcopsis rubidus Borchsenius, by original designation.

Eumirococcus Ter-Grigorian, 1964a: 858. Type species: Eumirococcus borchsenii Ter-Grigorian, by original designation. Synonymy by Gavrilov, 2007: 2.

Mirococcopsis (Mirococcopsis); Gavrilov, 2007: 2. Change of status.

GENERAL REMARKS: Gavrilov (2007) revised Mirococcopsis and splitted it to two subgenera Mirococcopsis Liucoccus and Mirococcopsis Mirococcopsis and redecribed most of the species assigned to it. Definition and characters by Borchsenius (1949), Ter-Grigorian (1973), Tereznikova (1975), Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F) and Gavrilov (2007).

KEYS: Gavrilov 2007: 3-4 (female) [world]; Tang 1992: 100 (female) [Palearctic and Oriental regions]; Kosztarab & Kozár 1988F: 63 (female) [Central Europe]; Matesova 1981: 56-57 (female) [Kazakhstan]; Tereznikova 1975: 159 (female) [Ukraine]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 37, 86 (female) [Armenia]; Borchsenius 1949: 87, 168-169 (female) [Palearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 151, 230]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description: 168-169]; Gavril2007 [taxonomy, description, revision: 1-23]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description: 110]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 121]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description: 444]; Tao1999 [taxonomy: 18]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description: 194]; TerGri1964a [taxonomy, description: 858]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description: 86, 107]; WilliaGu2010 [taxonomy: 66-68].



Mirococcopsis (Mirococcopsis) ammophila Bazarov & Nurmamatov

NOMENCLATURE:

Mirococcopsis ammophila Bazarov & Nurmamatov, 1975a: 94. Type data: TADZHIKISTAN: Kuraminsk Ridge, near Pangoz, on Cousinia polycephala. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Mirococcopsis brevipilosa Matesova, 1981: 59. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: Tald-Kurgansk District, on Erysimum diffusum. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Gavrilov, 2007: 6.

Mirococcopsis (Mirococcopsis) ammophila; Gavrilov, 2007: 6. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Apiaceae: Prangos odontalgica [Gavril2006]. Asteraceae: Cousinia polycephala [BazaroNu1975a, BenDov1994, Gavril2006]. Brassicaceae: Alyssum campestre [Mateso1981, BenDov1994], Erysimum diffusum [Mateso1981, BenDov1994], Erysimum diffusum [Gavril2006]. Caryophyllaceae: Minuartia setacea [KozarOs1987, BenDov1994], Silene komarovii [BazaroNu1975a, BenDov1994]. Lamiaceae: Eremostachys iliensis [Mateso1981, BenDov1994, Gavril2006], Scutellaria bucharica [BazaroNu1975a, BenDov1994]. Papaveraceae: Papaver sp. [KaydanKo2010a]

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kazakhstan (Taldy Kurgan Oblast [Mateso1981, BenDov1994, Gavril2007]); Moldova [KozarOs1987, BenDov1994, Gavril2007]; Russia (Astrakhan' Oblast [Gavril2007]); Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [BazaroNu1975a, BenDov1994, Gavril2007]; Turkey [KaydanKo2010a]; Ukraine (Krym (=Crimea) Oblast [Gavril2007]).

BIOLOGY: Living on roots and under lower leaf sheths of host plants (Gavrilov, 2007).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Bazarov & Nurmamatov (1975a), Matesova (1981) (as M. brevipilosa) and by Gavrilov (2007).

KEYS: Gavrilov 2007: 3-4 (female) [Species of Mirococcopsis]; Tang 1992: 107 (female) [China]; Tang 1992: 106 (female) [China]; Bazarov & Nurmamatov 1975a: 94 (female) [Tadjikistan].

CITATIONS: BazaroNu1975a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 94-96]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 230-231]; Gavril2006 [host, distribution: 787]; KaydanKo2010a [distribution, host: 34]; KozarOs1987 [host, distribution: 92]; Mateso1981 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 59-60]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 107-108]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 108].



Mirococcopsis (Mirococcopsis) artemisiphila Tang in Tang & Li

NOMENCLATURE:

Mirococcopsis artomisiphilus; Tang in Tang & Li, 1988: 17. Misspelling of species name.

Mirococcopsis artemisiphilus Tang in Tang & Li, 1988: 217. Type data: CHINA: Inner Mongolia, Chifeng City, on Artemisia gmelinii. Holotype female. Type depository: Shanxi: Entomological Institute, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, China. Described: female. Illust.

Mirococcopsis artemisiphila; Pellizzari & Williams, 2013: 412. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.



HOST: Asteraceae: Artemisia gmelinii [TangLi1988, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China (Nei Monggol (=Inner Mongolia) [TangLi1988, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Lives on roots of the host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Tang & Li (1988).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 230]; TangLi1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 217].



Mirococcopsis (Mirococcopsis) avetianae Ter-Grigorian

NOMENCLATURE:

Mirococcopsis avetianae Ter-Grigorian, 1964b: 245. Type data: ARMENIA: Kechuski Ridge and Gukasyanski Region, on Thymus sp.; collected V. Gukasyan, 29.vi.1954. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Gavrilov, 2007: 9. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Mirococcopsis (Mirococcopsis) avetianae; Gavrilov, 2007: 9. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Lamiaceae: Thymus [TerGri1964b, BenDov1994, Gavril2006]. Oleaceae: Fraxinus [TerGri1969, BenDov1994]. Poaceae [TerGri1969, BenDov1994], Agropyron [TerGri1964b, TerGri1966, BenDov1994, Gavril2006], Bromus [TerGri1966, BenDov1994], Festuca [TerGri1964b, TerGri1966, BenDov1994, Gavril2006], Zerna tectorum [TerGri1964b, BenDov1994, Gavril2006]. Scrophulariaceae: Veronica [TerGri1966, BenDov1994, Gavril2006], Veronica kurdica [TerGri1964b, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [TerGri1964b, TerGri1966, TerGri1973, BenDov1994, Gavril2007]; Hungary [KozarKiSa2004]; Turkey [KaydanKo2010a].

BIOLOGY: All records of adult females of this species were collected in late June (Ter-Grigorian, 1973; Gavrilov, 2007).

GENERAL REMARKS: Dscription and illustration of adult female by Ter-Grigorian (1964b, 1973) and by Gavrilov (2007).

KEYS: Gavrilov 2007: 3-4 (female) [Species of Mirococcopsis]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 86 (female) [Armenia].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 230]; Gavril2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 8-9]; KaydanKo2010a [distribution, host: 34]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 57]; TerGri1964b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 245-247]; TerGri1966 [host, distribution: 86]; TerGri1969 [host, distribution: 53]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 88-90].



Mirococcopsis (Mirococcopsis) borchsenii (Ter-Grigorian)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eumirococcus borchsenii Ter-Grigorian, 1964a: 858. Type data: ARMENIA: Sisyan Region, Sisyan, on Artemisia sp. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Mirococcopsis (Mirococcopsis) borchsenii; Gavrilov, 2007: 9. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Artemisia [TerGri1964a, TerGri1973, BenDov1994, Gavril2007]. Poaceae [TerGri1969].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [TerGri1964a, TerGri1973, BenDov1994, Gavril2007]; Hungary [KozarKiSa2004].

BIOLOGY: Living on roots of its host plant (Gavrilov, 2007).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ter-Grigorian (1964a, 1973) and by Gavrilov (2007).

KEYS: Gavrilov 2007: 3-4 (female) [Species of Mirococcopsis].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 151]; Gavril2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 9-10]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 57]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 445]; TerGri1964a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 858, 859]; TerGri1969 [host, distribution: 53]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 107-109].



Mirococcopsis (Mirococcopsis) chinensis Tang

NOMENCLATURE:

Mirococcopsis chinensis Tang, 1992: 595. Type data: CHINA: Inner Mongolia, roots of Festuca sp. Holotype female. Type depository: Shanxi: Entomological Institute, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, China. Described: female. Illust.

Mirococcopsis chinensis; ScaleNet, 2009. Change of combination.



HOST: Poaceae: Festuca [Tang1992, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China (Nei Monggol (=Inner Mongolia) [Tang1992, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Lives on roots of its host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 231]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 595, 728]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 18].



Mirococcopsis (Mirococcopsis) elongata Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Mirococcopsis elongatus Borchsenius, 1948c: 583. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: on unidentified plant. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female.

Micrococcopsis elongatus; Kozár & Walter, 1986: 115. Misspelling of genus name.

Mirococcopsis elongata; Pellizzari & Williams, 2013: 412. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.

COMMON NAME: elongate mealybug [KosztaKo1988F].



HOSTS: Poaceae: Festuca [KozarWa1986, BenDov1994, KaydanKiKo2005], Stipa [KaydanKiKo2005], Stipa capillata [KozarWa1986, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Hungary [KozarWa1986, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994, KozarKiSa2004]; Kazakhstan [Borchs1948c]; Turkey [KaydanKiKo2005, KaydanUlEr2007].

BIOLOGY: Occurring in the leaf sheaths of the host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949) and by Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F).

KEYS: Kosztarab & Kozar 1988F: 112 (female) [Central Europe]; Kozar 1981a: 316 (female) [Hungary]; Borchsenius 1949: 169 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 231]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 171]; KaydanKiKo2005 [host, distribution: 88]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 100]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 112]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 57]; KozarWa1986 [host, distribution: 115].



Mirococcopsis (Mirococcopsis) kalaginae Gavrilov

NOMENCLATURE:

Mirococcopsis (Mirococcopsis) kalaginae Gavrilov, 2007: 11. Type data: TURKMENISTAN: Kara-Kala, Ingdedzhik canyon, on Artemisia sp.; collected G. Kalagina, 9.v.1993. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 38-93. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Asteraceae: Artemisia [Gavril2006].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Turkmenistan [Gavril2007].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Gavrilov (2007).

KEYS: Gavrilov 2007: 3-4 (female) [Species of Mirococcopsis].

CITATIONS: Gavril2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 11-12].



Mirococcopsis (Mirococcopsis) longipilosa Matesova

NOMENCLATURE:

Mirococcopsis longipilosa Matesova, 1981: 60. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: Kzyl-Ordinskaya Province, right bank of Syr-Dar'ya River, near station Dzhusaly, on roots of Kochia prostrata; collected G. Matesova, 22.v.1967. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Mirococcopsis (Mirococcopsis) longipilosa; Gavrilove, 2007: 12. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Chenopodiaceae: Kochia prostrata [Mateso1981, BenDov1994, Gavril2006], Salsola arbuscula [Mateso1981, BenDov1994, Gavril2006].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kazakhstan (Kzyl Orda Oblast [Mateso1981, BenDov1994, Gavril2007]).

BIOLOGY: Living on roots of Kochia and Salsola (Gavrilov, 2007).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Matesova (1981) and by Gavrilov (2007).

KEYS: Gavrilov 2007: 3-4 (female) [Species of Mirococcopsis]; Tang 1992: 107 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 231]; Gavril2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 12-13]; Mateso1981 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 60-62]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 109-110].



Mirococcopsis (Mirococcopsis) nagyi Kozár

NOMENCLATURE:

Mirococcopsis nagyi Kozár, 1981a: 315. Type data: HUNGARY: Vertes Mountains, Csakvar, on Stipa pennata. Holotype female. Type depository: Budapest: Hungarian Natural History Museum, Zoological Department, Hungary. Described: female. Illust.

Mirococcopsis (Mirococcopsis) nagyi; Gavrilov, 2007: 15. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: Nagy's mealybug [KosztaKo1988F].



HOST: Poaceae: Stipa pennata [Kozar1981a, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994, Gavril2006].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Hungary [Kozar1981a, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994, Gavril2007]; Italy [LongoMaPe1995]; Switzerland [KozarGuBa1994].

BIOLOGY: Occurring in leaf sheaths of the host plant (Gavrilov, 2007).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Kozár (1981a), Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F) and by Gavrilov (2007).

KEYS: Gavrilov 2007: 3-4 (female) [Species of Mirococcopsis]; Kosztarab & Kozar 1988F: 112 (female) [Central Europe]; Kozar 1981a: 316 (female) [Hungary].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 231]; Gavril2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 14-15]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 112-114]; Kozar1981a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 315-317]; KozarGuBa1994 [host, distribution: 153]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 119].



Mirococcopsis (Mirococcopsis) rubida Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Mirococcopsis rubidus Borchsenius, 1948c: 582. Type data: TADZHIKISTAN: Shaar-tuzskii district, near Aiwadzh village, bank of Amu-Dar'ya river, on stems of wild cereals; collected N. Borchsenius, 17.vi.1944. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Gavrilov, 2007: 15. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 23-45. Described: female.

Mirococcopsis (Mirococcopsis) rubida; Gavrilov, 2007: 15. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Poaceae [Borchs1948c, Gavril2006], Aeluropus littoralis [Borchs1948c, BenDov1994, Gavril2006].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China [Tang1984b, BenDov1994]; Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Borchs1949, BenDov1994, Gavril2007]; Uzbekistan [Gavril2007].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Gavrilov (2007). Description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949) and by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Gavrilov 2007: 3-4 (female) [Species of Mirococcopsis]; Tang 1992: 106 (female) [China]; Kozar 1981a: 316 (female) [Hungary]; Borchsenius 1949: 169 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 231-232]; Borchs1948c [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 582]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 169-170]; Gavril2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 15-16]; Tang1984b [host, distribution: 124]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 18].



Mirococcopsis (Mirococcopsis) subalpina (Danzig)

NOMENCLATURE:

Trionymus subalpinus Danzig, 1985: 116. Type data: RUSSIA: North Caucasus, Teberda State Reserve, Malaya Khatipara, altitude 2350 m, steppe meadow, under leaf sheaths of wild grass; collected E. Danzig, 14.vii.1982. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Mirococcopsis subalpinus; Tang, 1992: 112. Change of combination.

Trionymus subalpinus; Ben-Dov, 1994: 529. Revived combination.

Mirococcopsis subalpinus; Danzig, 1997a: 95. Revived combination.

Mirococcopsis (Mirococcopsis) subalpina; Gavrilov, 2007: 18. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Poaceae [Gavril2006], Bromus variegatus [Danzig1985, BenDov1994, Gavril2006].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Russia (Karachay-Cherkessia AR [Danzig1985, BenDov1994]); Turkey [KaydanKo2010a].

BIOLOGY: Occurring under leaf sheaths of the host plant (Gavrilov, 2007).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Danzig (1985) and by Gavrilov (2007).

KEYS: Gavrilov 2007: 3-4 (female) [Species of Mirococcopsis]; Tang 1992: 107 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 529]; Danzig1985 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 116-120]; Danzig1997a [taxonomy: 95]; Gavril2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 17-18]; KaydanKo2010a [distribution, host: 35]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 112-113].



Mirococcopsis (Mirococcopsis) subterranea (Newstead)

NOMENCLATURE:

Ripersia subterranea Newstead, 1893: 79. Type data: ENGLAND: Norfolk, Ingoldisthorpe, near King's Lynn, on Nardus stricta. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Ripersia tomlinii; Newstead, 1903: 187. Misidentification.

Ripersia formicarii Newstead in Donisthorpe, 1907: 5. Type data: ENGLAND: Kent, Charing, with Lasius niger. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Synonymy by Williams, 1962: 17.

Ripersia corynephori; Kiritshenko, 1940: 124. Misidentification; discovered by Borchsenius, 1949: 158.

Pseudococcus parvus Borchsenius, 1949: 158. Type data: REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA: Gori District, Akhal-Chiza Mountain, on roots of Festuca sp. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 1997a: 112. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Synonymy by Danzig, 1997a: 112.

Chnaurococcus subterraneus; Williams, 1962: 17. Change of combination.

Chnaurococcus parvus; Ter-Grigorian, 1966: 85. Change of combination.

Trionymus parvus; Matesova, 1968: 105. Change of combination.

Trionymus subterraneus; Gavrilov & Kuznetsova, 2005: 21. Change of combination.

Mirococcopsis (Mirococcopsis) subterranea; Gavrilov, 2007: 18. Change of combination.

COMMON NAMES: root mealybug; Russian root mealybug [KosztaKo1988F].



ASSOCIATE: HYMENOPRTERA Formicidae: Lasius niger [MalumpBa2012].

HOSTS: Asteraceae: Centaurea [KosztaKo1988F], Centaurea sibirica [Mateso1968, BenDov1994]. Fabaceae: Oxytropis [TerGri1973, KosztaKo1988F], Oxytropis cyanea [TerGri1973, BenDov1994], Trifolium [TerGri1973, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994]. Poaceae [Goux1931, Zahrad1987], Agropyron [TerGri1966, KosztaKo1978, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994], Corynephorus canescens [MalumpOsPy2010], Festuca [Borchs1949, TerGri1966, TerGri1973, KosztaKo1978, KosztaKo1988F], Festuca [KosztaKo1978, KosztaKo1988F, Tang1992], Festuca ovina [Koteja1972, BenDov1994], Festuca pallens [KotejaZa1983, KotejaZa1969, BenDov1994], Festuca sulcata [Mateso1968, BenDov1994], Koeleria [KosztaKo1988F], Koeleria gracilis [Mateso1968, BenDov1994], Nardus [KosztaKo1978, KosztaKo1988F], Nardus stricta [Newste1893, Willia1962, BenDov1994], Phragmites [KosztaKo1988F], Phragmites communis [Mateso1968, BenDov1994], Poa [TerGri1966, KosztaKo1978, KosztaKo1988F, Tang1992, Gavril2006], Poa annua [Mateso1968, BenDov1994], Poa bulbosa [TerGri1973, BenDov1994], Poa compressa [KotejaZa1969, KotejaZa1983, BenDov1994], Poa pratensis [Mateso1968, BenDov1994], Stipa [TerGri1966, TerGri1973, Mateso1968, KosztaKo1978, KosztaKo1988F], Stipa lessingiana [Mateso1968, BenDov1994]. Rosaceae: Filipendula [KosztaKo1988F], Filipendula hexapetala [Mateso1968, BenDov1994], Potentilla [Mateso1968, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994]. Scrophulariaceae: Verbascum [TerGri1973, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [TerGri1966, KosztaKo1978, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994]; Czech Republic [Zahrad1987, BenDov1994]; Denmark [KozarzRe1977, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994]; France [Goux1931, BenDov1994, Foldi2001]; Georgia (Georgia [Borchs1949, TerGri1973, KosztaKo1978, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994]); Hungary [KozarKo2002b, KozarKiSa2004]; Italy [LongoMaPe1995]; Kazakhstan [Mateso1968, KosztaKo1978, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994]; Lithuania [MalumpOsPy2010]; Netherlands [Reyne1957, BenDov1994]; Poland [KotejaZa1969, Koteja1972, Koteja1974b, KotejaZa1983, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994]; Russia (Caucasus [Danzig1997a], Dagestan AR [Danzig1997a], Voronoezh Oblast [Gavril2003a]); Spain [GomezM1937, Martin1985, BenDov1994]; Sweden [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994, Gertss2001]; Ukraine [Kiritc1940, Borchs1949, Terezn1975, KosztaKo1978, BenDov1994]; United Kingdom (Channel Islands [Willia1962, BenDov1994], England [Newste1893, KosztaKo1978, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994], Scotland [Willia1962, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Generally found in nests of ants (Lasius alienus, L. niger and Formica flava) and on roots of grasses (Kozarzhevskaya & Reitzel, 1977; Kosztarab & Kozár, 1988F). Life history and associated ants discussed by Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Williams (1962) (as Chnaurococcus subterraneus), Ter-Grigorian (1973), Tereznikova (1975) (as Chnaurococcus parvus (Borchsenius)), Kosztarab & Kozár (1988), Tang (1992) and Gavrilov (2007). Description and illustration of first-instar nymph and female second-instar nymph by Ter-Grigorian (1973). Description of adult female by Borchsenius (1949).

KEYS: Gavrilov 2007: 3-4 (female) [Species of Mirococcopsis]; Danzig 1997a: 96 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Tang 1992: 189 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Kosztarab & Kozar 1988F: 84 (female) [Central Europe]; Kozár & Kosztarab 1976: 302 (female) [Hungary]; Borchsenius 1949: 96 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 80, 81]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 158]; Cocker1897c [taxonomy, host, distribution: 240]; Danzig1997a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 112]; Donist1907 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 7]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Gavril2003a [host, distribution: 108]; Gavril2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 18-20]; GavrilKu2005 [distribution, taxonomy: 19-34]; Gertss2001 [distribution: 123-130]; GomezM1937 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 365]; Goux1931 [host, distribution: 3]; Green1920 [taxonomy: 122]; Green1921 [taxonomy: 191]; Jansen2001 [host, distribution: 185-195]; Kiritc1940 [host, distribution: 124]; KosztaKo1978 [description, host, distribution: 38, 39]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 84-86]; Koteja1972 [host, distribution: 566, 567]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy, disribution: 74, 100]; KotejaZa1969 [host, distribution: 360]; KotejaZa1983 [host, distribution: 474]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 56]; KozarKo1976 [taxonomy: 302]; KozarKo2002b [host, distribution: 375]; KozarzRe1977 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 379]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 118]; MalumpBa2012 [distribution: 19]; MalumpOsPy2010 [host, distribution: 254]; Martin1985 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 90]; Mateso1968 [host, distribution: 105]; Newste1893 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distibution: 77-79]; Reyne1957 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 20]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 190, 191]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 173-174]; TerGri1966 [host, distribution: 85]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 77-80]; Willia1962 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 17, 19, 20]; WilliaMa2012 [distribution: 83, 85, 86]; Zahrad1987 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 357, 358].



Mirococcopsis (Mirococcopsis) teberdae (Danzig)

NOMENCLATURE:

Trionymus teberdae Danzig, 1985: 116. Type data: RUSSIA: Karachay-Cherkessia AR, Teberda State Reserve, on roots of grass. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Mirococcopsis teberdae; Tang, 1992: 113. Change of combination.

Trionymus teberdeae; Ben-Dov, 1994: 529. Revived combination.

Mirococcopsis teberdae; Danzig, 1997a: 95. Revived combination.

Mirococcopsis (Mirococcopsis) teberdae; Gavrilov, 2007: 20. Change of combination.



HOST: Poaceae [Danzig1985, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Russia (Karachay-Cherkessia AR [Danzig1985, BenDov1994, Gavril2007]); Turkey [KaydanKo2010a].

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the roots of the host plant (Gavrilov, 2007).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Danzig (1985) and by Gavrilov (2007).

KEYS: Gavrilov 2007: 3-4 (female) [Species of Mirococcopsis]; Tang 1992: 107 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 529-530]; Danzig1985 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 116-117]; Danzig1997a [taxonomy: 95]; Gavril2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 20-21]; KaydanKo2010a [distribution, host: 35]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 113].



Odacoccus Williams & Watson

NOMENCLATURE:

Odacoccus Williams & Watson, 1988a: 125. Type species: Odacoccus anaclastus Williams & Watson, by present designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good definition and characters given by Williams & Watson (1988a).

KEYS: Williams & Watson 1988a: 19 (female) [Tropical South Pacific Region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 259]; WilliaWa1988a [taxonomy, description: 125].



Odacoccus anaclastus Williams & Watson

NOMENCLATURE:

Odacoccus anaclastus Williams & Watson, 1988a: 125. Type data: LORD HOWE ISLAND: Government House, on ?Saccharum sp. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae: Saccharum [WilliaWa1988a, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Lord Howe Island [WilliaWa1988a, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Williams & Watson (1988a).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 259]; WilliaWa1988a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 125-127].



Oxyacanthus De Lotto

NOMENCLATURE:

Oxyacanthus De Lotto, 1971c: 252. Type species: Oxyacanthus incohatus De Lotto, by original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good definition and characters given by De Lotto (1971c).

KEYS: Nillar 2002: 189-195 (female) [Pseudococcidae genera of South Africa]; De Lotto 1971c: 253 (female) [South Africa].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 260]; DeLott1971c [taxonomy, description: 252-253]; Millar2002 [taxonomy: 185-233].



Oxyacanthus captiosus (De Lotto)

NOMENCLATURE:

Spinococcus captiosus De Lotto, 1969a: 25. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Cape Province, Barkly West, on Lycium sp. Holotype female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa.

Oxyacanthus captiosus; De Lotto, 1971c: 253. Change of combination.



HOST: Solanaceae: Lycium [DeLott1969, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [DeLott1969, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by De Lotto (1969).

KEYS: De Lotto 1971c: 253 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 260-261]; DeLott1969 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 25-26]; DeLott1971c [taxonomy: 253]; Millar2002 [illustration: 225].



Oxyacanthus chrysocomae (Brain)

NOMENCLATURE:

Tylococcus chrysocomae Brain, 1915: 93. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Tulbagh and Grahamstown, on Chrysocoma tenuifolia. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female. Illust.

Oxyacanthus chrysocomae; De Lotto, 1971c: 253. Change of combination.



HOST: Asteraceae: Chrysocoma tenuifolia [Brain1915, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [Brain1915, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by De Lotto (1958a).

KEYS: De Lotto 1971c: 253 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 261]; Brain1915 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 94-96]; DeLott1958a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 117-119]; DeLott1971c [taxonomy: 253].



Oxyacanthus incohatus De Lotto

NOMENCLATURE:

Oxyacanthus incohatus De Lotto, 1971c: 253. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Cape Province, Barkly West, on Pentzia viridis. Holotype female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Asteraceae: Pentzia viridis [DeLott1971c].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [DeLott1971c].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by De Lotto (1971c).

KEYS: De Lotto 1971c: 253 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 261]; DeLott1971c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 253-255].



Paramococcus Foldi & Cox

NOMENCLATURE:

Paramococcus Foldi & Cox, 1989: 1121. Type species: Paramococcus venezuelanus Foldi and Cox, by monotypy and original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good definition and characters given by Foldi & Cox (1989) and by Williams & Granara de Willink (1992).

KEYS: Kaydan 2011: 50 (female) [Key to adult females of the Heterococcus group]; Williams & Granara de Willink 1992: 42 (female) [Central and South America]; Foldi & Cox 1989: 1121 (female) [Heterococcus and associated genera].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 281]; FoldiCo1989 [taxonomy, description: 1121]; Kaydan2011 [taxonomy: 50]; WilliaGr1992 [taxonomy, description: 42, 343-345].



Paramococcus venezuelanus Foldi & Cox

NOMENCLATURE:

Paramococcus venezuelanus Foldi & Cox, 1989: 1121. Type data: VENEZUELA: Merida, paramo of Piedras Blancas, 4000m altitude, on Aciachne pulvinata. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae: Aciachne pulvinata [FoldiCo1989, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, FoldiKo2006].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Venezuela [FoldiCo1989, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, FoldiKo2006].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Foldi & Cox (1989) and by Williams & Granara de Willink (1992). Good description and illustration of the adult male given by Foldi & Cox (1989). Good description and illustration of the first instar and second instar female given by Foldi & Cox (1989).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 281]; FoldiCo1989 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 1121-1127]; FoldiKo2006 [host, distribution: 312]; WilliaGr1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 345, 346].



Pararhodania Ter-Grigorian

NOMENCLATURE:

Pararhodania Ter-Grigorian, 1964a: 860. Type species: Pararhodania armena Ter-Grigorian, by original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good definition and characters given by Ter-Grigorian (1964a, 1973) and by Tang (1992).

SYSTEMATICS: Pararhodania is characterized by the adult female having short legs and an incomplete anal ring, lacking dorsal ostioles and trilocular pores, and possessing only multilocular and quinquelocular pores. (Kaydan & Kozar, 2011)

KEYS: Tang 1992: 570 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 37 (female) [Armenia].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 286]; KaydanKo2011 [taxonomy: 588]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description: 584-585]; TerGri1964a [taxonomy, description: 860-861]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description: 115].



Pararhodania armena Ter-Grigorian

NOMENCLATURE:

Pararhodania armena Ter-Grigorian, 1964a: 861. Type data: ARMENIA: Urtski Ridge, on Artemisia sp. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Artemisia [TerGri1964a, BenDov1994]. Compositae: Achillea sp. [KaydanKo2011], Taraxacum sp. Van-Muradiye [KaydanKo2011]

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [TerGri1964a]; Turkey [KaydanKo2011].

BIOLOGY: Living on roots of its host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Ter-Grigorian (1964a, 1973). Good description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 286]; KaydanKo2011 [description, illustration, structure, taxonomy,: 587-596]; KaydanKo2011 [description, distribution, host, illustration, physiology, taxonomy: 588-591]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 585]; TerGri1964a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 860-861]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host distribution: 116-117].



Peliococcopsis Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Peliococcopsis Borchsenius, 1948a: 954. Type species: Phenacoccus caucasicus Borchsenius, by original designation.

Peliococcus; Tang, 1992: 686. Misspelling of genus name.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by Borchsenius (1949), Ter-Grigorian (1973), Tereznikova (1975), Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F), Tang (1992), Tang et al. (1992) and by Danzig (2001).

SYSTEMATICS: Peliococcopsis is characterized (in contrast to Peliococcus) by the presence of quinquelocular disc pores on the dorsum; currently it has only two species, both with a Palaearctic distribution (Danzig, 2001)

KEYS: Kaydan 2015: 209 (female) [Key to the genera of the Peliococcus species-group]; Moghaddam 2013: 7-8 (female) [Key to genera of Iranian Pseudococcidae based on adult female morphology]; Danzig 2001: 149 (female) [palaearctic region]; Tereznikova 1975: 160 (female) [Ukraine & Palaearctic region]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 37 (female) [Armenia]; Borchsenius 1949: 89 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 290]; Borchs1948a [taxonomy, description: 954]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description: 262]; Danzig2001 [taxonomy, description: 149]; Kaydan2014 [taxonomy: 209]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description: 115]; Moghad2013 [distribution, taxonomy: 8, 37]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 150]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description: 509]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description: 198-199]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description: 196].



Peliococcopsis parvicerarius (Goux)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus cycliger; Lepiney & Mimeur, 1931: 253. Misidentification.

Phenacoccus cycliger; Balachowsky, 1932d: xxxv. Misidentification.

Phenacoccus parvicerarius Goux, 1937b: 223. Type data: FRANCE: Corsica, Bastia, on Cynodon dactylon. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

Peliococcopsis parvicerarius; Danzig, 1960: 178. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Corynephorus canescens [KotejaZa1983, BenDov1994], Cynodon dactylon [Goux1937b, Pelliz1991, BenDov1994], Lolium temulentum [Goux1937b, Rungs1948, BenDov1994], Poa pratensis [Danzig1959, BenDov1994], Stenotaphrum americanum [Goux1937b, Rungs1948, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Corsica [Goux1937b, BenDov1994]; France [Foldi2001]; Italy [Pelliz1991, BenDov1994, LongoMaPe1995]; Morocco [Goux1937b, Rungs1948, BenDov1994]; Poland [KotejaZa1983, KotejaZaEl1978, BenDov1994, Lagows1996]; Russia (St. Petersburg (=Leningrad) Oblast [Danzig1959, BenDov1994]); Ukraine [Terezn1975, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Occurring inside leaf sheaths and at stem bases.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Danzig (1960), Tereznikova (1975), Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F) and by Danzig (2001). Good description of the adult female given by (1992) and by Tang et al. (1992).

KEYS: Danzig 2001: 149 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: Balach1932d [taxonomy: xxxv]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 290]; Danzig1959 [host, distribution: 445]; Danzig1960 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 178-180]; Danzig2001 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 149, 152]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Foldi2003 [host, distribution: 148]; Goux1937b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 223-230]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 117-118]; KotejaZa1983 [host, distribution: 473]; KotejaZaEl1978 [host, distribution: 502]; LagowsKo1996 [host, distribution: 31, 33]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 119]; Pelliz1991 [host, distribution: 765]; Rungs1948 [host, distribution: 116]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 510-511]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description, illusrtation, host, distribution: 199-200].



Peliococcopsis priesneri (Laing)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus priesneri Laing, 1936: 80. Type data: EGYPT: Giza, on grass. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Phenacoccus caucasicus Borchsenius, 1937: 54. Type data: GEORGIA: Abkhaz Aut. Oblast, Sukhumi, street, on Cynodon dactylon; collected 10.ix.1932. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 2001: 149. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 2171 T. Described: female. Synonymy by Danzig, 2001: 149.

Peliococcopsis caucasicus; Borchsenius, 1949: 262. Change of combination.

Peliococcus priesneri; Ezzat, 1960d: 51. Change of combination.

Peliococcopsis priesneri; Tang, 1992: 511. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Poaceae [Laing1936, BenDov1994], Agropyron [TerGri1966, TerGri1973, KozarPe1989, BenDov1994, Danzig2001], Cynodon [KozarPe1989], Cynodon dactylon [Borchs1949, Ezzat1960d, BenDov1980, BenDov1994, Danzig2001, KaydanKiKo2005].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [Borchs1949, TerGri1966, BenDov1994]; Crete [Kozar1985, BenDov1994]; Egypt [Laing1936, EzzatNa1987, BenDov1994]; Georgia (Georgia [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]); Iran [Moghad2009]; Israel [BenDov1980, BenDov1994]; Italy [KozarPe1989, BenDov1994, LongoMaPe1995]; Turkey [KaydanKiKo2005, KaydanUlEr2007].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Ezzat (1960d), Ter-Grigorian (1973) and by Danzig (2001). Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949) and by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Danzig 2001: 149 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Ezzat 1960d: 57 (female) [Egypt].

CITATIONS: AbdRab2001d [distribution: 1362]; BenDov1980 [host, distribution: 269]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 290, 297]; BenDov2012 [catalogue, distribution, host: 35,]; Borchs1937 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 54]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 262-263]; Danzig2001 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 149-151]; Ezzat1960d [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 51-54]; EzzatNa1987 [distribution: 89]; Gavril2011a [cytogenetics: 379]; Kaydan2015 [distribution, host, molecular data: 205]; KaydanKiKo2005 [host, distribution: 88]; KaydanKo2010a [distribution, host: 35]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 100]; Kozar1985 [host, distribution: 202]; KozarPe1989 [host, distribution: 200]; Laing1936 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 80-82]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 119]; Moghad2009 [host, distribution: 22]; Moghad2013 [description, distribution, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 37-39, 99]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 67]; MohammGh2008 [distribution: 155]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 510-512]; TerGri1966 [host, distribution: 90]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 196-198].



Peliococcus Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Spinococcus Kiritchenko, 1931: 314. Nomen nudum.

Acanthococcus Kiritchenko, 1936a: 155. Type species: Acanthococcus marrubii Kiritshenko, by monotypy. Synonymy by Borchsenius, 1949: 203. Homonym of Acanthococcus Signoret, 1875.

Peliococcus Borchsenius, 1948a: 954. Type species: Phenacoccus chersonensis Kiritshenko, by original designation.

Spinococcus Borchsenius, 1949: 203. Replacement name for Acanthococcus Kiritchenko, 1936a; synonymy by Danzig, 2001: 123-124.

Cyclococcus Ferris, 1950b: 116. Nomen nudum.

Parapedronia Balachowsky, 1953: 283. Type species: Pedronia spinigera Goux, by original designation. Synonymy by Danzig, 2001: 123.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters given by Balachowsky (1953), Danzig (2001).

STRUCTURE: Adult female. Covered with white powdery wax in life. Ovisac woolly, white. Antennae generally 9 segmented (7 or 8 segmented in P. calluneti, 8 segmented in P. spinigerus). Eyes oval, protruding on small basal cones. Labium 3 segmented, always longer than wide. Posterior spiracles always larger than anterior pair. Circulus present, rarely absent, lying between abdominal segments III and IV. Legs well developed; claw with a denticle; tarsal digutules hair-like, not capitate; claw digitules knobbed, subequal in length; claw digitules thicker than tarsal digitules. Both pairs of ostioles well developed, but anterior ostioles usually more weakly developed than posterior pair. Anal lobes well developed. Anal ring oval, with 1 inner row of pores, 1 or 2 outer rows of pores and 6 setae. (Kaydan, 2015)

SYSTEMATICS: Danzig (2001) regarded Parapedronia and Spinococcus as synonyms of Peliococcus. Most Peliococcus species have cerarii of usual type, similar to the cerarii on the majority of other mealybug genera (according to Danzig (2001), who referred to this type of cerarius as "Peliococcus type"), but in some cases (the type species of Peliococcus and species included previously in Spinococcus), each cerarius is on an elevated area with two enlarged conical setae situated close together, and with trilocular pores closely associated with the base of the enlarged setae, sometimes even touching the basal socket (Danzig, 2001) Eupeliococcus was described by Săvescu (1985) with two species from Romania, but Săvescu did not designate a type species and, therefore, according to Article 13.3 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (4th ed.), the name Eupeliococcus must be considered a nomen nudum. (Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014)

KEYS: Kaydan 2015: 209 (female) [Key to the genera of the Peliococcus species-group]; Moghaddam 2013: 7-8 (female) [Key to genera of Iranian Pseudococcidae based on adult female morphology]; Millar 2002: 189-195 (female) [Pseudococcidae genera of South Africa]; Danzig 2001: 124-125 (female) [Russia and Palaeartci region]; Kosztarab 1996: 146 (female) [Northeastern North America]; Tang 1992 (female) [China]; Tang 1992: 554-555 (female) [species China]; Goux 1990b: 301 (female) [France]; Danzig 1988: 697 (female) [Far East of Russia]; Kosztarab & Kozar 1988F: 62 (female) [Central Europe]; Kosztarab & Kozar 1988F: 154 (female) [species Central Europe]; Williams 1985: 36 (female) [Australia]; Kozar 1984: 130 (female) [species Hungary]; Danzig 1980b: 120 (female) [Far East Russia]; Tereznikova 1975: 160 (female) [Ukraine & Palaearctic region]; Tereznikova 1975: 257 (female) [species Ukraine]; Tereznikova 1975: 159 (female) [Ukraine & Palaearctic region]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 38 (female) [Armenia]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 38 (female) [Armenia]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 128 (female) [species Armenia]; Bazarov 1971c (female) [Central Asia]; Bazarov 1971a (female) [USSR]; McKenzie 1967: 45 (female) [North America]; Balachowsky 1953: 284 (female) [Marocco]; Ferris 1953a: 282 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1950b: 21 (female) [North America]; Borchsenius 1949: 89 (female) [Palaearctic region ]; Borchsenius 1949: 242-244 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Borchsenius 1949: 88 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Borchsenius 1949: 203-204 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: Balach1953 [taxonomy, description: 283]; Balach1953 [taxonomy: 282]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 152]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 282, 290-291]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 493-494]; Borchs1948a [taxonomy, description: 954]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description: 241-244]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description: 203-204]; Danzig1960 [taxonomy: 176]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description: 109, 118-120]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy: 118]; Danzig2001 [taxonomy, description: 123-154]; DanzigGa2014 [description, taxonomy]; DeLott1969 [taxonomy, description: 25]; Ferris1950b [taxonomy, description: 115]; Goux1989a [taxonomy, description: 301-302]; Goux1990a [taxonomy, description: 77-79]; Kaydan2014 [taxonomy: 202,209]; Kiritc1931 [taxonomy: 314]; Kiritc1936a [taxonomy: 155]; Koszta1996 [taxonomy, description: 77, 145-146]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description: 117-119]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description: 153-154]; Kozar1984 [taxonomy, description: 129]; KwonDaPa2003 [taxonomy: 114]; Millar2002 [taxonomy: 185-233]; Moghad2013 [distribution, taxonomy: 8, 39]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 53, 146, 151]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 187]; Savesc1985 [taxonomy, description: 116-117]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description: 512]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description: 553-554]; Tao1999 [taxonomy: 22]; Tao1999 [taxonomy: 28]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description: 200]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description: 257]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description: 175-176]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description: 127-128]; Willia1962 [taxonomy, description: 6, 31]; Willia1962 [taxonomy, description: 6, 56]; Willia1985 [taxonomy, description: 35, 257].



Peliococcus agriensis Kaydan

NOMENCLATURE:

Peliococcus agriensis Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 406. Type data: TURKEY: Ađri, Mount Ađri, N: 39°36’520’’, E: 044°12’498’’, on Artemisia vulgaris, 6/7/2006, by M.B. Kaydan. Holotype female (examined). Type depository: Turkey: Kaydan's Personal Collection; type no. 2811. Described: female. Illust. Unavailable name. Notes: Collected at 1635 m. Paratype: 1 adult female on a separate slide, with same data as holotype.

Peliococcus agriensis Kaydan, 2015: 214-216.



HOST: Asteraceae: Artemisia vulgaris [Kaydan2015].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Turkey [Kaydan2015].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Kaydan, 2015.

STRUCTURE: Body elongate oval, 1.51–1.76 mm long, 0.75–0.98 mm wide. Eye marginal, 35–38 µm wide. Antenna 9 segmented.

SYSTEMATICS: Peliococcus agriensis Kaydan can be distinguished from other species in the genus in having: (i) only 1 size of oral collar tubular duct in each cluster and each cluster with 1-6 (usually 3) multilocular disc pores, and (ii) quinquelocular pores present medially on the venter. P. agriensis is most similar to P. calluneti in having 1 size of oral collar tubular duct on dorsum, but P. agriensis differs from P. calluneti in having (data for P. calluneti in brackets): (i) 9 segmented antennae (7 or 8 segmented antennae), and (ii) no clusters medially on venter of head (clusters present on venter of head). (Kaydan, 2015) Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin (2014) used the name "Peliococcus agriensis" before it was made available in Kaydan, 2015. According to Article 16 (specifically 16.1 and 16.4) of the ICZN (1999), this name must be considered unavailable from their work.

KEYS: Kaydan 2015: 214 (female) [Key to species of Peliococcus in the Palaearctric region].



Peliococcus balteatus (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus balteatus Green, 1928a: 20. Type data: ENGLAND: Somerset, Cheddar Gorge, on Arrhenatherum elatius. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Phenacoccus venustus Green, 1931: 265. Type data: ICELAND: Seydisfordur, on Festuca rubra. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK, and NHGS. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Danzig, 2001: 125.

Phenacoccus saratogensis Rau, 1937: 198. Type data: U.S.A.: New York, Saratoga Springs, on Hystrix patula. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Danzig, 2001: 125.

Peliococcus balteatus; Borchsenius, 1949: 244. Change of combination.

Peliococcus saratogensis; Ferris, 1950b: 116. Change of combination.

Peliococcus venustus; Ossiannilsson, 1955: 5. Change of combination.

COMMON NAMES: girdled mealybug [KosztaKo1988F]; Saratoga mealybug [Koszta1996].



HOSTS: Poaceae: Agropyron repens [Danzig1959, BenDov1994], Agrostis alba [Schmut1956b, BenDov1994], Arrhenatherum elatius [Green1928a, BenDov1994], Brachypodium [Gavril2010], Dactylis glomerata [Danzig1959, BenDov1994], Deschampsia flexuosa [Ossian1959, BenDov1994], Festuca pratensis [Koteja1972, BenDov1994], Festuca rubra [Green1931, BenDov1994], Hystrix patula [Rau1937, Ferris1950b, BenDov1994], Melica [Koteja1972, BenDov1994], Sieglingia decumbens [Koteja1972, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Greenland [Gertss2005a]; United States of America (New York [Rau1937, BenDov1994]). Palaearctic: Bulgaria [Gavril2010]; Czech Republic [Zahrad1956, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994]; Germany [Schmut1956b, Schmut1980, BenDov1994]; Iceland [Green1931, Ossian1955, BenDov1994]; Poland [Koteja1972, Koteja1974b, BenDov1994, Lagows1996]; Russia (Kuril Islands [Danzig1978, BenDov1994], Sakhalin Oblast [Danzig1978, BenDov1994], St. Petersburg (=Leningrad) Oblast [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994]); Sweden [Ossian1959, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994, Gertss2001]; Ukraine (Krym (=Crimea) Oblast [Borchs1949, Danzig1980b, BenDov1994]); United Kingdom (England [Green1928a, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the undersurface of the leaves and in the leaf sheaths of the host plant.The species has been collected in Dryas-healths, in meadows, among grass in birch scrub, under stones, and in fell-fields, always in more or less dry localities. Lindroth (1931) found it on a slope with a luxuriant vegetation of grass and other herbs. Adults were found in July and August (Ossiannilsson, 1955).Occurring on the under side of the leaves.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ferris (1950b), Williams (1962), Tereznikova (1975), Danzig (1980b), Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F), Kosztarab (1996) and by Danzig (2001). Description and illustration of adult male by Hodgson (2005). Ossiannilsson (1955) provided supplementary notes on the taxonomic characters of this species.

KEYS: Hodgson 2005: 3-4 (male) [Coccoidea species of Greenland]; Danzig 2001: 124-125 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Kosztarab 1996: 148 (female) [Northeastern North USA]; Tang 1992: 514 (female) [China]; Kosztarab & Kozar 1988F: 119 (female) [Central Europe]; Danzig 1980b: 120 (female) [Russia]; Tereznikova 1975: 201 (female) [Ukraine]; Borchsenius 1949: 242 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 291,298,301]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 244]; Danzig1959 [host, distribution: 445]; Danzig1978 [host, distribution: 9]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 122-123]; Danzig2001 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 125, 126]; Ferris1950b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 116-117]; Gavril2010 [host, distribution: 36-37]; Gertss2001 [distribution: 123-130]; Gertss2005a [host, distribution: 331-337]; Green1928a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 20-21]; Green1931 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 263-269]; Hodgso2005 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 14-19]; HodgsoHa2013 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 797]; Koszta1996 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 148-149]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 119-120]; KosztaRh1995 [distribution: 111]; Koteja1972 [host, distribution: 569]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy, distribution: 73]; LagowsKo1996 [host, distribution: 31, 33]; Ossian1955 [host, distribution, life history: 5-6]; Ossian1959 [host, distribution: 201]; Rau1937 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 198-201]; Schmut1956b [host, distribution: 65-66]; Schmut1980 [host, distribution: 50]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 201-202]; Willia1962 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host. distribution: 32-33]; WilliaMa2012 [distribution: 83]; Zahrad1956 [host, distribution: 51].



Peliococcus bantu (Brain)

NOMENCLATURE:

Pseudococcus bantu Brain, 1915: 137. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Natal, Pietermaritzburg, on crowns of grass. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female. Illust.

Peliococcus bantu; De Lotto, 1964: 364. Change of combination.



HOST: Poaceae [Brain1915, DeLott1964, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [Brain1915, DeLott1964, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Living on the roots and in the crowns of grass.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description of the adult female given by Brain (1915).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 291]; Brain1915 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 138-139]; DeLott1964 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 364].



Peliococcus calluneti (Lindinger)

NOMENCLATURE:

Pseudococcus calluneti Lindinger, 1912b: 90. Type data: GERMANY: on Calluna vulgaris. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Notes: Type material probably lost (Weidner & Wagner, 1968).

Parapedronia calluneti; Balachowsky, 1953j: 230. Change of combination.

Spinococcus calluneti; Zahradnik, 1959a: 537. Change of combination.

Peliococcus calluneti; Trjapitzin, 1989: 126. Change of combination.

Peliococcus calluneti; Danzig, 2001: 139. Revived combination.

COMMON NAME: heather mealybug [KosztaKo1988F].



FOES: HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Anagyrietta pantherina Ferričre [Schmut1955b, Trjapi1989], Leptomastix epona (Walker) [Trjapi1989], Leptomastix histrio Mayr [Schmut1955b], Prochiloneurus bolivari Mercet [Trjapi1989].

HOSTS: Empetraceae: Empetrum nigrum [Danzig1959, BenDov1994]. Ericaceae: Arctostaphylos uvae-ursi [Danzig1959, BenDov1994, MatilePe2002], Calluna vulgaris [Goux1931, BenDov1994], Erica cinerea [Willia1962, BenDov1994], Erica tetralix [Goux1931, BenDov1994], Oxycoccus quadripetalus [Danzig1959, BenDov1994], Vaccinium myrtillus [Danzig1959, BenDov1994], Vaccinium uliginosum [Danzig1959, BenDov1994], Vaccinium vitis-idaea [Danzig1959, BenDov1994]. Pyrolaceae: Orthilia secunda [Danzig1960, BenDov1994]. Rosaceae: Fragaria vesca [Danzig1960, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Greenland [Gertss2005a]. Palaearctic: Czech Republic [Zahrad1959a, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994]; Denmark [KozarzRe1977, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994]; France [Goux1931, BenDov1994, Foldi2001]; Germany [Lindin1912b, Schmut1980, BenDov1994]; Latvia [Rasina1959, BenDov1994]; Netherlands [Reyne1951, BenDov1994]; Poland [Koteja1974b, KotejaZa1983, BenDov1994, Lagows1996, Koteja2000a]; Romania [FetykoKoDa2010]; Russia (St. Petersburg (=Leningrad) Oblast [Danzig1959, BenDov1994]); Sweden [Ossian1959, KosztaKo1988F, Gertss2001]; Ukraine [Terezn1975, BenDov1994]; United Kingdom (England [Willia1962, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the roots and underground stems of its host plants. Life history, natural enemies and associated ants discussed by Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F). Parasites in Palaearctic region discussed by Trjapitzin (1989).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Schmutterer (1952), Danzig (1960), Williams (1962), Tereznikova (1975) and by Danzig (2001). Good description of the adult female given by Schmutterer (1952) and by Tang (2001). Intraspecific variation in taxonomic characters studied by Danzig (1960).

KEYS: Kaydan 2015: 214 (female) [Key to species of Peliococcus in the Palaearctric region]; Danzig 2001: 124-125 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Tang 1992: 554 (female) [China]; Kosztarab & Kozar 1988F: 154 (female) [Central Europe]; Tereznikova 1975: 257 (female) [Ukraine].

CITATIONS: Balach1953j [taxonomy: 230]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 494]; Danzig1959 [host, distribution: 445]; Danzig1960 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 176-177]; Danzig2001 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 139, 141]; FetykoKoDa2010 [host, distribution: 300]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Gertss2001 [distribution: 123-130]; Gertss2005a [host, distribution: 331-337]; Gertss2011 [distribution: 40]; Goux1931 [host, distribution: 4]; Jansen2001 [host, distribution: 197-206]; Kaydan2015 [taxonomy: 214]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 154-155]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy, distribution: 74]; Koteja2000a [distribution: 172]; KotejaZa1983 [host, distribution: 473-474]; KozarzRe1977 [host, distribution: 378-379]; Lagows1996 [host, distribution: 31]; Lindin1912b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 90]; MatilePe2002 [host, distribution: 351]; Ossian1959 [host, distribution: 195]; Podsia1981a [biological control: 159-162]; PolavaDaMi2000 [host, distribution: 558]; Rasina1955 [host, distribution: 68]; Rasina1959 [host, distribution: 108-109]; Reyne1951 [host, distribution: xxxix]; Sassce1915 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 29]; Schmut1952 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 390-391]; Schmut1955b [host, distribution, biological control: 515,517]; SimonKa2011 [distribution: 236]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 557-558]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 259-260]; Trjapi1989 [taxonomy, biological control: 126, 153, 315]; Willia1962 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 56-58]; WilliaMa2012 [distribution, taxonomy: 83, 86]; Zahrad1959a [host, distribution: 537].



Peliococcus chersonensis (Kiritshenko)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus chersonensis Kiritshenko, 1931: 314. Nomen nudum.

Phenacoccus chersonensis Kiritshenko, 1936a: 138. Type data: UKRAINE: Odessa Oblast, Odessa, on roots of Artemisia austriaca and A. maritima. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female.

Peliococcus chersonensis; Borchsenius, 1948a: 954. Change of combination.

Spinococcus artemisiae Tereznikova, 1968: 281. Type data: UKRAINE: Kherson, on Artemisia austriaca. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Tereznikova, 1975: 203.

Peliococcus lycicola Tang, 1992: 598. Type data: CHINA: Zhongning, Ningxia, on roots of Lycium chinense. Holotype female. Type depository: Shanxi: Entomological Institute, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, China. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Kaydan, 2015: 213.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Ajania trifida [Danzig1974, BenDov1994], Artemisia argyi [TangLi1988, BenDov1994], Artemisia austriaca [Kiritc1936a, BenDov1994], Artemisia fragrans [Bodenh1953a, BenDov1994], Artemisia frigida [Danzig1974, BenDov1994], Artemisia maritima [Kiritc1936a, BenDov1994], Artemisia marschalliana [Mateso1968, BenDov1994], Artemisia schrenkiana [Mateso1968, BenDov1994], Artemisia scoparia [Mateso1968, BenDov1994], Artemisia sublessingiana [Mateso1968, BenDov1994], Chrysanthemum indicum [KwonDaPa2003], Seriphidium compactum [Mateso1968, BenDov1994], Tanacetum achilleaoides [Terezn1975, BenDov1994], Tanacetum achilleifolium [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994], Tragopogon [KaydanUlEr2007]. Brassicaceae: Cardaria draba [KaydanKiKo2005, KaydanUlEr2007], Sinapis arvensis [KaydanKiKo2005, KaydanUlEr2007]. Chenopodiaceae: Kochia prostrata [Mateso1968, BenDov1994]. Convolvulaceae: Convolvulus arvensis [Kaydan2014]. Cyperaceae: Carex [Mateso1968, BenDov1994]. Globulariaceae: Globularia [KaydanUlEr2007]. Lamiaceae: Mentha sp. [Kaydan2014]. Rosaceae: Spiraea salicifolia [TangLi1988, BenDov1994]. Scrophulariaceae: Veronica [KaydanKiKo2005, KaydanUlEr2007]. Solanaceae: Lycium chinense [Tang1992, BenDov1994], Solanum tuberosum [KaydanUlEr2007].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [TerGri1973, BenDov1994]; China [Tang1992, TangHaTa1992, BenDov1994] (Nei Monggol (=Inner Mongolia) [TangLi1988, BenDov1994]); Italy [Pelliz2003]; Kazakhstan [Mateso1968, BenDov1994]; Lithuania [MalumpOsPy2010]; Mongolia [Danzig1972b, BenDov1994]; Russia (Primor'ye Kray [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994]); South Korea [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994, KwonDaPa2003]; Turkey [Bodenh1953a, BenDov1994, KaydanKoYa2001, KaydanUlZe2004, KaydanKiKo2005, KaydanUlEr2007]; Ukraine [Kiritc1936a, BenDov1994] (Krym (=Crimea) Oblast [Kiritc1936a, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Living on roots of its host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ter-Grigorian (1973), Tereznikova (1975), Danzig (1980b), Tang & Li (1988), Tang (1992), Danzig (2001) and by Kwon et al. (2003).Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

SYSTEMATICS: According to Danzig (2001), P. chersonensis is common on a range of herbaceous plants throughout the Palaearctic region and varies morphologically quite significantly throughout it’s range in the following characters: i) number of oral collar tubular ducts on dorsum, ii) number of clusters on dorsum and venter, iii) size and number of enlarged dorsal setae, and iv) number of dorsal cerarii. Because of this variation, Kaydan, 2015 felt that this species may represent a species complex. However, Peliococcus lycicola Tang was considered by Tang (1992) as close to P. chersonensis, only differing in the form of the circulus. As the shape of the circulus is considered a very variable character in mealybugs, even between individuals in one population, Kaydan, 2015 considered it to be a junior synonym of P. chersonensis.

KEYS: Kaydan 2015: 214 (female) [Key to species of Peliococcus in the Palaearctric region]; Danzig 2001: 124-125 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Tang 1992: 513 (female) [China]; Danzig 1980b: 120 (female) [Russia]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 176 (female) [Armenia]; Borchsenius 1949: 243 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 292, 294]; Bodenh1953a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 123]; Borchs1948a [taxonomy: 954]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 249-250]; CebeciAr2006 [host, distribution: 138]; Danzig1972b [host, distribution: 332]; Danzig1974 [host, distribution: 68]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 120-122]; Danzig2001 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 139-140]; Kaydan2015 [distribution, host, molecular data, taxonomy: 205, 213-214]; KaydanKiKo2005 [host, distribution: 88]; KaydanKo2010a [distribution: 30]; KaydanKoYa2001 [host, distribution: 380]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 100]; KaydanUlZe2004 [host, distribution: 220]; Kiritc1931 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 314]; Kiritc1936 [host, distribution: 72]; Kiritc1936a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 138-139]; KwonDaPa2003 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 114-115]; MalumpOsPy2010 [host, distribution: 255]; Mateso1968 [host, distribution, biological control: 111]; Pelliz2003 [host, distribution: 100]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 515-516,598-599,739]; TangHaTa1992 [host, distribution: 8]; TangLi1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 61-62]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 22]; Terezn1968 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 281-283]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 203-205]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 181-182].



Peliococcus courzius Goux

NOMENCLATURE:

Peliococcus courzius Goux, 1989a: 304. Type data: FRANCE: Rhone, Courzieu, on Thymus serpyllum. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Lamiaceae: Thymus serpyllum [Goux1989a, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: France [Goux1989a, BenDov1994, Foldi2001].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Goux (1989a). Redescription and illustration in Kaydan, 2015.

STRUCTURE: Body elongate oval, 1.92–2.58 mm long, 1.28–1.58 mm wide. Eye marginal, 40–45 ěm wide. Antennae 9 segmented. (Kaydan, 2015)

SYSTEMATICS: Peliococcus courzius differs from all other Peliococcus species in having the following combination of features: (i) 2 sizes of oral collar tubular ducts on the dorsum, (ii) no circulus, and (iii) quinquelocular pores throughout venter. (Kaydan, 2015)

KEYS: Kaydan 2015: 214 (female) [Key to species of Peliococcus in the Palaearctric region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 292]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Goux1989a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 304-306]; Kaydan2015 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 214,216-218].



Peliococcus drabae (Savescu)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eupeliococcus drabae Savescu, 1985: 118. Type data: ROMANIA: Constanza District, Basarabi, on Lepidium draba. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Bucarest: Academie des Sciences Agricoles et Forestieres, Romania. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Brassicaceae: Lepidium draba [Savesc1985, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Romania [Savesc1985, BenDov1994].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 153]; Savesc1985 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 118-119].



Peliococcus flaveolus (Cockerell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Ripersia flaveola Cockerell, 1896m: 224. Type data: U.S.A.: Massachusetts, Methuen, with Lasius claviger. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Ripersia cockerelli King & Tinsley, 1898: 297. Type data: U.S.A.: Massachusetts, Andover, in nests of Lasius flavus under stone. Syntypes, female. Type depository: New York: American Museum of Natural History, Department of Entomology Collection, New York, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Ferris, 1953a: 398.

Ripersia minimus Tinsley & King, 1899: 57. Type data: U.S.A.: Massachusetts, South Lawrence, from nests of Lasius americanus. Syntypes, female. Type depository: New York: American Museum of Natural History, Department of Entomology Collection, New York, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Ferris, 1953a: 398.

Pseudococcus cockerelli; Fernald, 1903b: 100. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus flaveolus; Ferris, 1953a: 398. Change of combination.

Peliococcus flaveolus; Kosztarab, 1996: 146. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: myrmecophile mealybug [Koszta1996].



HOST: Ericaceae: Vaccinium [Koszta1996].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Massachusetts [Cocker1896m, BenDov1994], Michigan [Koszta1996], New Mexico [Cocker1901g, BenDov1994], New York [Koszta1996], Ohio [Koszta1996], Pennsylvania [Koszta1996], Virginia [Koszta1996]).

BIOLOGY: Commonly collected from roots with associated ants, Lasius americanus, L. flavus and L. claviger.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Ferris (1953a) and by Kosztarab (1996).

KEYS: Kosztarab 1996: 146 (female) [Northeastern North USA]; McKenzie 1967: 215 (female) [U.S.A., California]; McKenzie 1964: 239 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1961: 26 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1960: 714 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1953a: 395 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 318-319]; Cocker1896m [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 224]; Cocker1897c [taxonomy, host, distribution: 240]; Cocker1901g [description, host, distribution: 53]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 100]; Ferris1953a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 398-399]; KingTi1898 [taxonomy: 297]; Koszta1996 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 146-148]; KosztaRh1995 [distribution: 111]; TinsleKi1899 [taxonomy: 57].



Peliococcus globulariae (Goux)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus globulariae Goux, 1937b: 231. Type data: FRANCE: Marseille, on Globularia alypum. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

Peliococcus globulariae; Kozár & Walter, 1985: 70. Change of combination.



HOST: Globulariaceae: Globularia alypum [Goux1937b, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: France [Goux1937b, BenDov1994, Foldi2001].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Goux (1937b). Redescription and illustration in Kaydan, 2015.

STRUCTURE: Body elongate oval, 0.81–0.84 mm long, 1.34–1.44 mm wide. Eye marginal, 37–45 ěm wide. Antenna 9 segmented.

SYSTEMATICS: Peliococcus globulariae can be distinguished from other species in the genus in having only 1 size of oral collar tubular duct in each cluster and each dorsal cluster with 3-12 multilocular disc pores. P. globulariae is closest to P. rosae but differs in having well-defined dorsal clusters on the abdominal segments, each with 8-12 multilocular disc pores, whereas clusters on P. rosae are in ill-defined, fusing into rather wide bands. (Kaydan, 2015)

KEYS: Kaydan 2015: 214 (female) [Key to species of Peliococcus in the Palaearctric region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 294]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Goux1937b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 231-236]; Kaydan2015 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 214, 218-220]; KozarWa1985 [taxonomy: 70].



Peliococcus latitubulatus Danzig

NOMENCLATURE:

Peliococcus latitubulatus Danzig, 2001: 145. Type data: ARMENIA: Azizbekov [now Vaik] Distr., Gerger, forest, roots of wild grasses, 23.V.1953, M. Ter-Grigorian. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 294-53. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Asteraceae [Danzig2001]. Papaveraceae: Papaver rhoeas [Kaydan2014].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [Danzig2001]; Uzbekistan (Bukhara Oblast [Danzig2001]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Danzig (2001).

KEYS: Kaydan 2015: 214 (female) [Key to species of Peliococcus in the Palaearctric region]; Danzig 2001: 124-125 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: Danzig2001 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 145, 150]; Kaydan2015 [distribution, host, molecular data, taxonomy: 205,214].



Peliococcus lavandulae (Signoret)

NOMENCLATURE:

Dactylopius lavandulae Signoret, 1875c: 318. Type data: FRANCE: Alpes-Maritimes, Cannes, on roots of Lavandula stoechas. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Type material probably lost according to Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero (1995).

Pseudococcus lavandulae; Fernald, 1903b: 104. Change of combination.

Peliococcus lavandulae; Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero, 1995: 249. Change of combination.



HOST: Lamiaceae: Lavandula stoechas [Signor1875c, BenDovMa1995].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: France [Signor1875b, BenDov1994, BenDovMa1995, Foldi2001].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description of the adult female given by Signoret (1875c).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 396]; Cocker1897 [host, distribution: 201]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 104]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Signor1875c [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 318].



Peliococcus loculatus Danzig

NOMENCLATURE:

Peliococcus loculatus Danzig, 2001: 142. Type data: RUSSIA: Karachaevo-Cherkesia, W. Caucasus, 10 km S of Arkhyz, Kazgach river, 1600 m, from Ribes sp., 4.VIII.1976 (E. Danzig). Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 44-76. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Grossulariaceae: Ribes [Danzig2001].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Russia (Karachay-Cherkessia AR [Danzig2001]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Danzig (2001).

KEYS: Kaydan 2015: 214 (female) [Key to species of Peliococcus in the Palaearctric region]; Danzig 2001: 124-125 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: Danzig2001 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 142, 146]; Kaydan2015 [taxonomy: 214].



Peliococcus locustus (James)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus locustus James, 1936: 204. Type data: KENYA: Kericho, on Hyparrhenia ruprechtii. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Peliococcus locustus; De Lotto, 1964: 364. Change of combination.



HOST: Poaceae: Hyparrhenia ruprechtii [James1936, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Kenya [James1936, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Living on the roots of its host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by De Lotto (1957b).

KEYS: De Lotto 1964: 364 (female) [Africa].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 294]; DeLott1957b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 188-191]; DeLott1964 [taxonomy: 294]; James1936 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 204-206].



Peliococcus marrubii (Kiritchenko)

NOMENCLATURE:

Spinococcus marrubii Kiritchenko, 1931: 314. Nomen nudum.

Acanthococcus marrubii Kiritchenko, 1936a: 156. Type data: UKRAINE: Odessa Oblast, Odessa, on Marrubium praecox. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 2001: 145. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female.

Phenacoccus multispinosus Borchsenius, 1937: 55. Type data: REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA: on grass. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Synonymy by Borchsenius, 1949: 204.

Phenacoccus marrubii; Kiritshenko, 1940a: 188. Change of combination.

Spinococcus marrubii; Borchsenius, 1949: 204. Change of combination.

Peliococcus marrubii; Danzig, 2001: 145. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: hoarhound mealybug [KosztaKo1988F].



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Artemisia dracunculus [Mateso1968, BenDov1994]. Chenopodiaceae: Kochia prostrata [KozarTzVi1979, BenDov1994]. Euphorbiaceae: Euphorbia [KozarWa1986, BenDov1994], Euphorbia seguieriana [KozarWa1986, BenDov1994]. Lamiaceae: Hyssopus ambiguus [Mateso1968, BenDov1994], Marrubium goktschaicum [TerGri1973, BenDov1994], Marrubium praecox [Kiritc1936a, BenDov1994], Thymus marschallianus [Mateso1968, TerGri1973, BenDov1994], Thymus pulegioides [KozarTzVi1979, BenDov1994], Thymus serphyllum [KozarTzVi1979, BenDov1994], Thymus serpillum [KozarGuBa1994], Thymus vulgaris [MatilePe2002], Ziziphora clinopodioides [Mateso1968, BenDov1994]. Poaceae [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994], Marribium [TerGri1966, BenDov1994], Stipa sabulosa [KozarWa1986, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [TerGri1966, TerGri1973, BenDov1994]; Bulgaria [KozarTzVi1979, BenDov1994]; Georgia (Georgia [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]); Hungary [KozarWa1986, BenDov1994, KozarKiSa2004]; Italy [MatilePe2002]; Kazakhstan [Mateso1968, BenDov1994]; Russia (Voronoezh Oblast [Gavril2003a]); Switzerland [KozarGuBa1994]; Ukraine [Kiritc1936a, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the roots and at the bases of its host plant. Life history discussed by Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Ter-Grigorian (1973), Tereznikova (1975), Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F) and by Danzig (2001). Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949) and by Tang (1992). Good description and illustration of the second instar female given by Ter-Grigorian (1973).

KEYS: Kaydan 2015: 214 (female) [Key to species of Peliococcus in the Palaearctric region]; Danzig 2001: 124-125 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Tang 1992: 554 (female) [China]; Kosztarab & Kozar 1988F: 154 (female) [Central Europe]; Tereznikova 1975: 257 (female) [Ukraine]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 128 (female) [Armenia]; Borchsenius 1949: 204 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 495]; Borchs1937 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 54-55]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 204-206]; Danzig2001 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 145,148]; Gavril2003a [host, distribution: 111]; GavrilKu2005 [taxonomy, distribution: 17-34]; Kaydan2015 [taxonomy: 214]; Kiritc1931 [taxonomy: 314]; Kiritc1936a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 156-158]; Kiritc1940a [taxonomy: 187]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 155-156]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 58]; KozarTzVi1979 [host, distribution: 130]; KozarWa1986 [host, distribution: 115]; Mateso1968 [host, distribution: 109]; MatilePe2002 [host, distribution: 351-352]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 562]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 257-259]; TerGri1966 [host, distribution: 87]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 128-130].



Peliococcus martinezi Gavrilov & Matile-Ferrero

NOMENCLATURE:

Peliococcus martinezi Gavrilov & Matile-Ferrero, 2008: 441. Type data: FRANCE: Hérault, Grabels, on twigs of Rosmarinus officinalis; collected 21.v.2007, I.A. Gavrilov. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Lamiaceae: Rosmarinus officinalis [GavrilMa2008].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: France [GavrilMa2008].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Gavrilov & Matile-Ferrero (2008).

SYSTEMATICS: Gavrilov & Matile-Ferrero (2008) indicated that this species belongs to the Spinococcus group of genera. It is related to P. marrubi and to P. spinigerus.

KEYS: Kaydan 2015: 214 (female) [Key to species of Peliococcus in the Palaearctric region].

CITATIONS: GavrilMa2008 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 441-443]; Kaydan2015 [taxonomy: 214].



Peliococcus mathisi (Balachowsky)

NOMENCLATURE:

Parapedronia mathisi Balachowsky, 1953j: 227. Type data: TUNISIA: Sidi Daoud (Cap Bon), on Plantago carinata. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

Spinococcus mathisi; Kozár & Walter, 1985: 73. Change of combination.

Peliococcus mathisi; Kaydan, 2015: 214. Change of combination.



HOST: Plantaginaceae: Plantago carinata [Balach1953j, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: France [Foldi2001]; Tunisia [Balach1953j, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Infesting the subterranean parts of its host.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Balachowsky (1953j).

KEYS: Kaydan 2015: 214 (female) [Key to species of Peliococcus in the Palaearctric region].

CITATIONS: Balach1953j [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 227-230]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 495]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Kaydan2015 [taxonomy: 214]; KozarWa1985 [taxonomy: 73].



Peliococcus morrisoni (Kiritshenko)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus morrisoni Borchsenius, 1934: 13. Nomen nudum.

Phenacoccus morrisoni Kiritshenko, 1936a: 141. Type data: GEORGIA: Adzhar AR, Batum, on Carpinus sp. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 2001: 142. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female.

Spinococcus morrisoni; Borchsenius, 1949: 206. Change of combination.

Peliococcus morrisoni; Danzig, 2001: 142. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: Morrison's mealybug [KosztaKo1988F].



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Artemisia [KaydanUlZe2004, KaydanUlEr2007]. Berberidaceae: Berberis vulgaris [KozarWa1986, BenDov1994]. Carpinaceae: Carpinus [Kiritc1936a, BenDov1994], Carpinus caucasicus [TerGri1962, TerGri1973, BenDov1994], Carpinus orientalis [TerGri1962, TerGri1973, BenDov1994]. Rosaceae: Rosa canina [Kiritc1936a, BenDov1994]. Scrophulariaceae: Veronica officinalis [Danzig1962, BenDov1994]. Umbelliferae: Pimpinella saxifraga [Danzig1962, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]; Azerbaijan [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]; Georgia [Yasnos2001] (Adzhar ASSR [Kiritc1936a, Borchs1949, BenDov1994]); Hungary [KozarWa1986, BenDov1994, KozarKiSa2004]; Poland [Lagows2005]; Russia (St. Petersburg (=Leningrad) Oblast [Danzig1962, BenDov1994]); Turkey [KaydanUlZe2004, KaydanUlEr2007]; Ukraine (Krym (=Crimea) Oblast [Kiritc1936a, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the trunks and brances of its host plant. Life history discussed by Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Ter-Grigorian (1973) and by Tereznikova (1975). Good description and illustration of the female last-instar nymph given by Ter-Grigorian (1973). Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949) and by Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F).

SYSTEMATICS: Danzig (2001: 139, 142) found that the original type material of Phenacoccus morrisoni Kiritshenko, 1936: 141, included specimens of two species, namely Phenacoccus morrisoni Kiritshenko, 1936 (taken off Carpinus, Batumi, Georgia) and Peliococcus rosae Danzig, 2001 (taken off Rosa in Crimea.

KEYS: Kaydan 2015: 214 (female) [Key to species of Peliococcus in the Palaearctric region]; Danzig 2001: 124-125 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Tang 1992: 555 (female) [China]; Kosztarab & Kozar 1988F: 154 (female) [Central Europe]; Tereznikova 1975: 257 (female) [Ukraine]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 128 (female) [Armenia]; Borchsenius 1949: 204 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 495-496]; Borchs1934 [taxonomy: 13]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 206-207]; CebeciAr2006 [host, distribution: 143]; Danzig1962 [host, distribution: 22]; Hadzib1957a [distribution: 100-102]; Kaydan2015 [taxonomy: 214]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 103]; KaydanUlZe2004 [host, distribution: 219-224]; KaydanUlZe2004 [host, distribution: 223]; Kiritc1936a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 141-144]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history: 157]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 58]; KozarWa1986 [host, distribution: 115]; Lagows2005 [host, distribution: 39-42]; TerGri1962 [host, distribution, life history: 128]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 130-134]; Yasnos2001 [host, distribution, biological control: 435-440].



Peliococcus multispinus (Siraiwa)

NOMENCLATURE:

Synacanthococcus multispinus Siraiwa, 1939: 66. Type data: RUSSIA: Sakhalin Oblast, Odomari, on stems of Rosa rugosa. Syntypes, female. Described: female.

Spinococcus tuberculus Borchsenius, 1949: 207. Type data: RUSSIA: Amur Oblast, on poplar. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 1980b: 120. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Synonymy by Danzig, 1978: 12.

Spinococcus multispinus; Danzig, 1978: 12. Change of combination.

Peliococcus multispinus; Danzig, 1980b: 120. Change of combination.

Spinococcus multispinus; Marotta & Tranfaglia, 1995: 274. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Caprifoliaceae: Lonicera [Danzig2001], Lonicera glehnii [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994]. Ericaceae: Ledum [Danzig1978, BenDov1994]. Lamiaceae: Thymus serpillum [KozarGuBa1994]. Poaceae [MarottTr1995]. Rosaceae: Rosa [Danzig2001], Rosa acicularis [Danzig1978a, BenDov1994], Rosa rugosa [Siraiw1939, BenDov1994], Spiraea hipericifolia [Mateso1968, BenDov1994]. Salicaceae: Populus [Danzig2001]. Saxifragaceae: Saxifraga [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994, Danzig2001].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Italy [MarottTr1995, LongoMaPe1995]; Kazakhstan [Mateso1968, BenDov1994]; Russia (Primor'ye Kray [Borchs1949, BenDov1994], Sakhalin Oblast [Siraiw1939, BenDov1994], Yakutia-Sakha (=Yakut) AR [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994]); Sicily [RussoMa1997]; Switzerland [KozarGuBa1994]; Ukraine (Krym (=Crimea) Oblast [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Danzig (1980b). Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949) and by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Kaydan 2015: 214 (female) [Key to species of Peliococcus in the Palaearctric region]; Danzig 2001: 124-125 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Tang 1992: 555 (female) [China]; Danzig 1980b: 120 (female) [Russia]; Borchsenius 1949: 204 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 295]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 207-208]; Danzig1978 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 12]; Danzig1978a [host, distribution: 76]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 120-122]; Danzig2001 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 145, 147]; Kaydan2015 [taxonomy: 214]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 120]; Mateso1968 [host, distribution: 109]; RussoMa1997 [distribution: 48]; Siraiw1939 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 66-67, 73]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 564-565].



Peliococcus ocanae Goux

NOMENCLATURE:

Peliococcus ocanae Goux, 1990a: 86. Type data: FRANCE: Corsica, Ocana, on Lavandula stoechas. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

Seyneria porticcia; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 469. Incorrect synonymy; discovered by Kaydan, 2015: 222.



HOST: Lamiaceae: Lavandula stoechas [Goux1990a, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Corsica [Goux1990a, BenDov1994, Foldi2003].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female by Goux (1990a). Redescription and illustration in Kaydan, 2015.

STRUCTURE: Body elongate oval, 1.94 mm long, 1.35 mm wide. Eye marginal, 37.5–40.0 µm wide. Antenna 9 segmented (pseudosegmentation on segment 3). (Kaydan, 2015)

SYSTEMATICS: Peliococcus ocanae can be distinguished from all other species in the genus in having each dorsal cluster with only 1 size of oral collar duct and 1-5 multilocular disc pores. P. ocanae is most similar to P. rosae, P. morrisoni and P. phyllobius but differs in the absence of quinquelocular pores on the venter and in having translucent pores on the hind tibia (absent on the other three species). Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin (2014) regarded this species as a junior synonym of Seyneria porticcia Goux, but there are two sizes of oral collar tubular ducts on the dorsum of S. porticcia, whereas there is only one size of oral collar tubular duct on P. ocanae. In addition, Seyneria is diagnosed by having oral collar tubular ducts with enlarged collars that protrude slightly from derm surface but P. ocanae does not have such oral collar tubular ducts. Therefore, Kaydan, 2015 reversed the synonymy and generic placement of P. ocenae proposed by Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin (2014).

KEYS: Kaydan 2015: 214 (female) [Key to species of Peliococcus in the Palaearctric region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 296]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Foldi2003 [host, distribution: 148]; Goux1990a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 86-88]; Kaydan2015 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 214, 220-222].



Peliococcus orophilus De Lotto

NOMENCLATURE:

Peliococcus orophilus De Lotto, 1964: 365. Type data: TANZANIA: Mount Kilimanjaro, on Senecio sp. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Asteraceae: Senecio [DeLott1964, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Tanzania [DeLott1964, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by De Lotto (1964).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 296]; DeLott1964 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 365].



Peliococcus phyllobius (Goux)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus phyllobius Goux, 1938: 451. Type data: FRANCE: Toulon, on Bromus. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

Peliococcus phyllobius; Kozár & Walter, 1985: 70. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Bromus [Goux1938, BenDov1994], Koeleria villosa [Goux1938, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: France [Goux1938, BenDov1994, Foldi2001].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Goux (1938). Redescription and illustration in Kayday, 2015.

STRUCTURE: Adult female. Body elongate oval, 2.74–3.72 mm long, 1.54–1.94 mm wide. Eye marginal, 60–80 ěm wide. Antenna 9 segmented. (Kaydan, 2015)

SYSTEMATICS: Peliococcus phyllobius can be distinguished from other species in the genus in having the following combination of characters: (i) 15 pairs of marginal cerarii; (ii) only 1 size of oral collar tubular duct in each cluster, and (iii) each dorsal cluster with only 1-3 multilocular disc pores. P. phyllobius is most similar to P. agriensis but it differs in having only 15 pairs of marginal cerarii (P. agriensis has 17 pairs). (Kaydan, 2015)

KEYS: Kaydan 2015: 214 (female) [Key to species of Peliococcus in the Palaearctric region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 296-297]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Goux1938 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 296-297]; Kaydan2015 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 214, 222-224]; KozarWa1985 [taxonomy: 70].



Peliococcus plurimus De Lotto

NOMENCLATURE:

Peliococcus plurimus De Lotto, 1969: 18. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Transvaaal, Elandshoek, on Rhus pentheri. Holotype female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Anacardiaceae: Rhus pentheri [DeLott1969, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [DeLott1969, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by De Lotto (1969).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 297]; DeLott1969 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 19-20]; Millar2002 [illustration: 212].



Peliococcus rosae Danzig

NOMENCLATURE:

Peliococcus morrisoni; Tereznikova, 1975: 261. Misidentification; discovered by Danzig, 2001: 142.

Peliococcus rosae Danzig, 2001: 139. Type data: UKRAINE: Crimea, southern coast, Yalta, on Rosa canina; 16.x.1932, Skorkin. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Rosaceae: Rosa [Danzig2001].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Hungary [Danzig2001]; Ukraine (Krym (=Crimea) Oblast [Danzig2001]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Danzig (2001).

SYSTEMATICS: Danzig (2001: 139, 142) found that the original type material of Phenacoccus morrisoni Kiritshenko, 1936: 141, included specimens of two species, namely, Phenacoccus morrisoni Kiritshenko, 1936 (taken off Carpinus, Batumi, Georgia) and Peliococcus rosae Danzig, 2001 (taken off Rosa in Crimea).

KEYS: Kaydan 2015: 214 (female) [Key to species of Peliococcus in the Palaearctric region]; Danzig 2001: 124-125 (female) [Palearctic region].

CITATIONS: Danzig2001 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 139-143]; Kaydan2015 [taxonomy: 214]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration: 261-262].



Peliococcus schmuttereri Savescu

NOMENCLATURE:

Peliococcus schmuttereri Savescu, 1984: 154. Type data: ROMANIA: Bucarest, Snagov, on Ulmus foliacea. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Bucarest: Academie des Sciences Agricoles et Forestieres, Romania. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Ulmaceae: Ulmus foliacea [Savesc1984, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Romania [Savesc1984, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Savescu (1984).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 298]; Savesc1984 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 154-155].



Peliococcus serratus (Ferris)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus serratus Ferris, 1925: 231. Type data: CANADA: Ontario, Port Colborne, on Fagus americana. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

COMMON NAME: beech mealybug [Koszta1996].



HOSTS: Corylaceae: Corylus avellana [Tranfa1976, Marott1987a , Marott1992a, BenDov1994]. Fagaceae: Fagus [Koszta1996], Fagus americana [Ferris1925, BenDov1994], Fagus grandifolia [Ferris1950b, Russel1987, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Canada (Ontario [Ferris1925, BenDov1994]); United States of America (Connecticut [Koszta1996], District of Columbia [Koszta1996], Maryland [Ferris1950b, Russel1987, BenDov1994, Koszta1996], New Hampshire [Koszta1996], New Jersey [Koszta1996], New York [Ferris1925, BenDov1994], Ohio [Ferris1925, BenDov1994], Pennsylvania [Koszta1996], Tennessee [Koszta1996], Virginia [Koszta1996], West Virginia [Koszta1996]). Palaearctic: Italy [Tranfa1976, Marott1987a, Marott1992a, BenDov1994, LongoMaPe1995].

BIOLOGY: In USA, Maryland it lives on Fagus grandifolia, where it develops two generations a year. Adult females settle on the bark of tree trunks and form a covering ovisac in which eggs are deposited from June until August and October through November. Eggs laid in in summer hatch in about 7-14 days while those deposited in the fall overwinter (Russell, 1987).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Ferris (1950b), Tranfaglia (1976) and by Kosztarab (1996). Good description of the adult female given by Marotta (1992a) and by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Kosztarab 1996: 150 (female) [Northeastern North USA]; Tang 1992: 513 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 298]; Ferris1925 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 231-232]; Ferris1950b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 118-119]; Koszta1996 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 150-151]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 119]; Marott1987a [host, distribution: 110]; Marott1992a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 82-83]; Russel1987 [host, distribution, life history: 359-362]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 521-522]; Tranfa1976 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 134-136].



Peliococcus slavonicus (Laing)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus latipes slavonicus Laing, 1929a: 475. Type data: UKRAINE: Odessa Oblast, Odessa, on Hordeum distychum. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Peliococcus slavonicus; Borchsenius, 1949: 255. Change of combination and rank.

COMMON NAMES: slavonic mealybug; Slavonic mealybug.



HOST: Poaceae: Hordeum distychum [Laing1929a, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Ukraine [Laing1929a, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949), Tereznikova (1975), Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F) and by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Tang 1992: 513 (female) [China]; Kosztarab & Kozar 1988F: 119 (female) [Central Europe]; Tereznikova 1975: 201 (female) [Ukraine]; Borchsenius 1949: 243 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 298]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 255-256]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 121-122]; Laing1929a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 475]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 522-523]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 206-208].



Peliococcus spiniger (Goux)

NOMENCLATURE:

Pedronia spinigera Goux, 1938: 455. Type data: FRANCE: Bessenay (Rhone), on Thymus serpyllum. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

Parapedronia spinigera; Balachowsky, 1953: 283. Change of combination.

Spinococcus spinigerus; Danzig, 1960: 178. Change of combination.

Parapedronia spinigera; Kozár & Walter, 1985: 73.

Peliococcus spinigerus; Danzig, 2001: 123. Change of combination.

Peliococcus spiniger; Pellizzari & Williams, 2013: 413. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.

Peliococcus marrubii; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 425. Incorrect synonymy.

Peliococcus spinigerus; Kaydan, 2015: 214. Misspelling of species name.



HOST: Lamiaceae: Thymus serphyllum [Goux1938, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: France [Goux1938, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female by Goux (1938). Redescription and illustration in Kaydan, 2015.

STRUCTURE: Adult female. Body elongate oval, 1.08–1.43 mm long, 0.54–0.78 mm wide. Eye marginal, 37.5–45 ěm wide. Antenna 8 segmented. (Kaydan, 2015)

SYSTEMATICS: Peliococcus spinigerus is most similar to P. marrubii in lacking: (i) multilocular disc pores on dorsum, and (ii) a circulus, but differs in having: (i) 12-16 dorsal oral collar tubular ducts on each abdominal segment, in an almost continuous row (P. marrubii has more than 18 dorsal oral collar tubular ducts on each abdominal segment), and (ii) 15 pairs of marginal cerarii (P. marrubii has 18 pairs). Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin (2014) regarded P. spinigerus as a junior synonym of P. marrubii, but Kaydan, 2015 regarded then as separate because of the differences mentioned above.

KEYS: Kaydan 2015: 214 (female) [Key to species of Peliococcus in the Palaearctric region].

CITATIONS: Balach1953 [taxonomy: 83]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 282]; Danzig2001 [taxonomy: 123]; Goux1938 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 455-458]; Kaydan2015 [description, distribution, host, illustration, physiology, taxonomy: 214, 224-226].



Peliococcus subcorticicola Williams

NOMENCLATURE:

Peliococcus subcorticicola Williams, 1985: 257. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Western Australia, Mullaloo, on Casuarina sp. Holotype female. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Casuarinaceae: Casuarina [Willia1985, BenDov1994]. Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus [Willia1985, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Western Australia [Willia1985, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Living under the bark of its host plants.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Williams (1985).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 299]; Willia1985 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 257-259].



Peliococcus tbilisiensis Hadzibejli nomen nudum

NOMENCLATURE:

Peliococcus tbilisiensis Hadzibejli, 1957a: 102. Nomen nudum.



Peliococcus tragopogoni (Savescu)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eupeliococcus tragopogoni Savescu, 1985: 117. Type data: ROMANIA: Mures District, Iernut, on Tragopogon orientalis. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Bucarest: Academie des Sciences Agricoles et Forestieres, Romania. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Asteraceae: Tragopogon orientalis [Savesc1985, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Romania [Savesc1985, BenDov1994].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 153]; Savesc1985 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 117, 118].



Peliococcus trispinosus (James)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus trispinosus James, 1936: 206. Type data: KENYA: Kabete, on Solanum tuberosum. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Peliococcus trispinosus; De Lotto, 1964: 365. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Panicum maximum [DeLott1964, BenDov1994]. Solanaceae: Solanum tuberosum [James1936, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Kenya [James1936, DeLott1964, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the roots and rhizomes of its host plants.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by De Lotto (1957b).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 299]; DeLott1957b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 190-191]; DeLott1964 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 365]; James1936 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 206-207].



Peliococcus turanicus (Kiritshenko)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus latipes; Kiritshenko, 1931: 313. Misidentification; discovered by Borchsenius, 1949.

Phenacoccus ilarius Kiritshenko, 1931: 314. Nomen nudum.

Phenacoccus turanicus Kiritshenko, 1932: 137. Type data: UZBEKISTAN: Samarkand, on roots of Stenophragma (= Arabidopsis) sophia and Astragalus bactrianus and ARMENIA: Kalahjrn, on Gossypium. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 2001: 133. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female.

Phenacoccus hilarius Kiritshenko, 1936a: 136. Type data: UKRAINE: Krym, near Kekeneiz, on Seseli gummiferum and S. dichotomum. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 2001: 133. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Synonymy by Borchsenius, 1949: 256.

Peliococcus terrestris Borchsenius, 1949: 254. Type data: GEORGIA: Tbilisi, on Euphorbia sp. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 2001: 136. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Synonymy by Danzig, 2001: 136.

Peliococcus turanicus; Borchsenius, 1949: 256. Change of combination.

Peliococcus perfidiosus Borchsenius, 1949: 257. Type data: UKRAINE: Krym and RUSSIA: North Caucasus, on 9 species of host-plants. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 2001: 133. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Synonymy by Danzig, 2001: 133.

Peliococcus unispinus Borchsenius & Ter-Grigorian, 1956: 23. Type data: ARMENIA: Aginskii Region, on Tragopogon sp., Taraxacum sp., Centaurea sp. and Triticum vulgare var. delfi. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 2001: 136. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Danzig, 2001: 136.

COMMON NAME: malicious mealybug [KosztaKo1988F].



HOSTS: Descuvaria saptia [KaydanKiKo2005]. Apiaceae [Kaydan2014]. Asteraceae: Achilea millefolium [MatilePe2002, KaydanKiKo2005], Achillea [Borchs1949, BenDov1994], Achillea distans [Kozar1985, BenDov1994], Artemisia [Borchs1949, TerGri1966, BenDov1994, KaydanKiKo2005, Gavril2006], Artemisia frigida [Mateso1968, BenDov1994], Centaurea [BorchsTe1956, TerGri1973, BenDov1994], Cichorium intybus [KaydanKiKo2005], Crepis [KaydanKiKo2005], Jurinea [Borchs1949, BenDov1994], Scorzenera [KaydanKiKo2005], Scorzonera tau-saghyz [Borchs1949, BenDov1994], Senecio [KaydanKiKo2005], Seriphidium compactum [Mateso1968, BenDov1994], Taraxacum [BorchsTe1956, TerGri1966, BenDov1994], Tragopogon [BorchsTe1956, TerGri1966, TerGri1973, BenDov1994, KaydanKiKo2005], Xanthium strumarianum [KaydanKiKo2005], Xeranthemum squarrosum [TerGri1973, BenDov1994]. Brassicaceae: Arabidopsis sophia [Kiritc1932, BenDov1994], Cardaria draba [KaydanKiKo2005], Descurainia sophia [Moghad2013a], Diplotaxis tenuifolia [KaydanKiKo2005], Isatis [Borchs1949, BenDov1994], Lepidium [Borchs1949, BenDov1994], Lepidium sativum [TerGri1966, BenDov1994], Rhaphanus sativus [Moghad2013a], Sisymbrium [Borchs1949, BenDov1994, KaydanKiKo2005], Sisymbrium sophia [Moghad2013], Sonchus arvensis [KaydanKiKo2005]. Cistaceae: Helianthemum [Pelliz1991, BenDov1994]. Convolvulaceae: Convolvulus [KozarOs1987, BenDov1994], Convolvulus arvensis [KaydanKiKo2005]. Dipsacaceae: Cephalaria [MatilePe2002]. Euphorbiaceae: Euphorbia [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]. Fabaceae: Astragalus bactrianus [Kiritc1932, BenDov1994], Astragalus sp. [Moghad2013], Medicago [KaydanKiKo2005], Melilotus [Borchs1949, BenDov1994], Psoralea [Borchs1949, BenDov1994], Trigonella [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]. Lamiaceae: Dracocephalum [Borchs1949, BenDov1994], Dracocephalum multicaule [TerGri1973, BenDov1994], Lamium [Borchs1949, BenDov1994], Mentha [Borchs1949, BenDov1994], Salvia [Borchs1949, TerGri1973, BenDov1994, KaydanKiKo2005]. Malvaceae: Althaea [Borchs1949, BenDov1994], Gossypium [Kiritc1932, TerGri1966, BenDov1994], Malva [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]. Papaveraceae: Papaver sp. [Kaydan2014]. Poaceae: Cynodon dactylon [Kozar1985, BenDov1994], Triticum [TerGri1966, BenDov1994], Triticum vulgare [BorchsTe1956, TerGri1973, BenDov1994], Triticum vulgare delfi [BorchsTe1956, BenDov1994]. Polygonaceae: Atraphaxis [Mateso1968, BenDov1994]. Rosaceae: Rosa canina [Bazaro1971c, BenDov1994]. Scrophulariaceae: Verbascum [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]. Solanaceae: Nicotiana tabacum [Borchs1949, BenDov1994], Solanum tuberosum [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]. Umbelliferae: Daucus carota [TerGri1973, BenDov1994], Falcaria vulgaris [KaydanUlEr2007], Seseli dichotomum [Kiritc1936a, BenDov1994], Seseli gummiferum [Kiritc1936a, BenDov1994], Turgenia latifolia [KaydanUlEr2007]. Vitaceae: Vitis vinifera [Borchs1949, TerGri1966, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [Kiritc1932, BorchsTe1956, TerGri1966, TerGri1973, BenDov1994]; Bulgaria [Kozar1985, BenDov1994]; Crete [Kozar1985, BenDov1994]; Croatia [MilekŠi2013]; Georgia (Georgia [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]); Iran [Moghad2009]; Italy [Pelliz1991, BenDov1994, LongoMaPe1995, Pelliz2005]; Kazakhstan [Borchs1949, Mateso1968, BenDov1994]; Moldova [KozarOs1987, BenDov1994]; Russia (Astrakhan' Oblast [Gavril2006], Caucasus [Borchs1949, Terezn1975, BenDov1994]); Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]; Turkey [KaydanKoYa2001, KaydanKiKo2005, KaydanUlEr2007]; Ukraine (Krym (=Crimea) Oblast [Kiritc1936a, Borchs1949, Terezn1975, BenDov1994]); Uzbekistan [Kiritc1932, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Living usually on roots of the host plant; recorded from the trunk of grapevine. Lives on roots of the host plant (Pellizzari Scaltriti, 1991). Danzig (2001) reported that this species lives on the roots of different perennial herbs and bushes (Achillea, Artemisia, Centaurea, Tragopogon, Euphorbia, Lamium, Astragalus, Atraphaxis, Physalis); also recorded from Nicotiana, cotton, potato tubers and roots of wheat and wild grasses.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Borchsenius (1949), Ter-Grigorian (1973), Tereznikova (1975), Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F), Tang (1992) and by Danzig (2001). Description and illustration of adult female third-instar nymph and female second-instar nymph by Ter-Grigorian (1973). Description of adult female given by Borchsenius (1949).

STRUCTURE: Colour photograph by Pellizzari (2005).

SYSTEMATICS: The extensive study by Danzig (2001) indicates that this species is widely distributed in the Palaearctic region (from Kazakhstan in the east to Italy and the west) where it exhibits a remarkable range of intraspecific variation in several taxonomic features.

KEYS: Kaydan 2015: 214 (female) [Key to species of Peliococcus in the Palaearctric region]; Moghaddam 2013: 39 (female) [Key to species of Peliococcus Borchsenius in Iran]; Danzig 2001: 124-125 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Tang 1992: 513 (female) [China]; Tang 1992: 513 (female) [China]; Tang 1992: 513 (female) [China]; Kosztarab & Kozar 1988F: 119 (female) [Central Europe]; Tereznikova 1975: 201 (female) [Ukraine]; Tereznikova 1975: 201 (female) [Ukraine]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 177 (female) [Armenia]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 177 (female) [Armenia]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 177 (female) [Armenia]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 177 (female) [Armenia]; Bazarov 1971b: 91 (female) [Central Asia]; Borchsenius 1949: 243 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Borchsenius 1949: 243 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Borchsenius 1949: 243 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: Bazaro1971c [host, distribution: 89]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 296, 299, 300]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 300]; Borchs1937 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 53]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 254-258]; BorchsTe1956 [host, distribution: 17-27]; BorchsTe1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 23-27]; CebeciAr2006 [host, distribution: 139]; Danzig2001 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 136-137]; Gavril2006 [host, distribution: 787]; HardyGuHo2008 [taxonomy, phylogeny, molecular data: 51-71]; Kaydan2015 [distribution, host, molecular data, taxonomy: 205, 214]; KaydanKiKo2005 [host, distribution: 89]; KaydanKo2010a [distribution: 30]; KaydanKoYa2001 [host, distribution: 380]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 101]; Kiritc1931 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 313-314]; Kiritc1936a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 136-138]; Kiritc1940 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 120-121]; Kiritc1940a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 186]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 121]; Kozar1985 [host, distribution: 204]; Kozar1985 [host, distribution: 204]; KozarOs1987 [host, distribution: 92]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 119]; Mateso1968 [host, distribution, life history: 111-112]; MatilePe2002 [host, distribution: 352]; MilekŠi2013 [description, economic importance, host, structure, ecology, taxonomy: 375-378]; Moghad2009 [host, distribution: 23]; Moghad2013 [distribution, host, illustration, physiology, structure: 44-45, 99]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 67]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 70]; Pelliz1991 [host, distribution: 765]; Pelliz2005 [host, distribution, economic importance, taxonomy: 20-25]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 520, 523-525]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 208, 209-210]; TerGri1966 [host, distribution: 90]; TerGri1966 [host, distribution: 89, 90]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 186-188, 191-193]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 188-191].



Peliococcus unitubulatus Borchsenius & Ter-Grigorian

NOMENCLATURE:

Peliococcus unitubulatus Borchsenius & Ter-Grigorian, 1956: 25. Type data: ARMENIA: Aginskii Region, on Triticum compactum var. erinaceum. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Tricium [TerGri1966, BenDov1994], Triticum compactum erinaceum [BorchsTe1956, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [BorchsTe1956, TerGri1966, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ter-Grigorian (1973).

KEYS: Ter-Grigorian 1973: 177 (female) [Armenia].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 301]; BorchsTe1956 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 25-27]; TerGri1966 [host, distribution: 90]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 195-196].



Peliococcus vivarensis Tranfaglia

NOMENCLATURE:

Peliococcus vivarensis Tranfaglia, 1981: 9. Type data: ITALY: Napoli, Vivara, on Inula viscosa. Holotype female. Type depository: Portici: Dipartimento de Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria di Portici, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Italy. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Centaurea [MazzeoRuLo1997], Inula viscosa [Tranfa1981, Marott1987a, BenDov1994], Picris echioides [MazzeoRuLo1997], Senecio [MazzeoRuLo1997]. Boraginaceae: Borago [MazzeoRuLo1997].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Italy [Tranfa1981, Marott1987a, BenDov1994, LongoMaPe1995]; Sicily [MazzeoRuLo1997, RussoMa1997].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Tranfaglia (1981). Good description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Kaydan 2015: 214 (female) [Key to species of Peliococcus in the Palaearctric region]; Tang 1992: 513 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 301]; Kaydan2015 [taxonomy: 214]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 119]; Marott1987a [host, distribution: 110]; MazzeoRuLo1997 [host, distribution: 20]; RussoMa1997 [distribution: 52]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 525-526]; Tranfa1981 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 9-11].



Peliococcus zillae (Hall)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus zillae Hall, 1926a: 5. Type data: EGYPT: Fayed (Suez), on Zilla spinosa. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Phenacoccus zygophylli Archangelskaya, 1937: 130. Nomen nudum.

Peliococcus zillae; Borchsenius, 1949: 246. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Centaurea [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]. Brassicaceae: Zilla spinosa [Hall1926, BenDov1994]. Fabaceae: Glycyrrhiza [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]. Rutaceae: Haplophyllum [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]. Verbenaceae: Avicennia marina [BenDov1991, BenDov1994]. Zygophyllaceae: Zygophyllum [Borchs1949, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Egypt [Hall1926, BenDov1991, BenDov1994]; Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]; Turkmenistan [Borchs1949, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Ezzat (1960d). Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949) and by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Tang 1992: 514 (female) [China]; Bazarov 1971b: 91 (female) [Central Asia]; Ezzat 1960d: 57 (female) [Egypt]; Borchsenius 1949: 243 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: AbdRab2001d [distribution: 1362]; Archan1937 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 130]; BenDov1991 [host, distribution: 11]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 301]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 246-247]; Ezzat1960d [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 54-57]; EzzatNa1987 [distribution: 89]; Hall1926 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 5-7]; MohammGh2008 [distribution: 155]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 526-527].



Pelionella Kaydan

NOMENCLATURE:

Pelionella Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 449. Type species: Peliococcus manifectus Borchsenius. Unavailable name.

Pelionella Kaydan, 2015: 226-227.

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Kaydan, 2014.

STRUCTURE: Pelionella has: (i) multilocular disc pores, each with two rings of loculi, in clusters on dorsum, differing from those on venter which have only a single ring of loculi; (ii) dorsal setae spine-like and lacking trilocular pores near their base, thus different from cerarian setae, and (iii) dorsal oral collar tubular ducts of one or two sizes; where there are two sizes, a smaller duct is present in the centre of each cluster and the larger ducts lie among the disc pores towards the outside of the cluster; when there is just one size of duct, it lies in the middle of the cluster. (Kaydan, 2015)

SYSTEMATICS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin (2014) used the name "Pelionella" before it was made available in Kaydan, 2015. According to Article 16.1 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN, 1999), this name must be considered unavailable from their work. The name is published in a way that meets the criteria of availability as specified by the ICZN (1999) in Kaydan, 2015. All 11 species of Pelionella can be separated from species in other related genera by the presence of: (i) multilocular disc pores in each dorsal cluster each with two rings of 11 loculi (all multilocular disc pores on other species have a single ring of 12 loculi) (the presence of two types of multilocular pores was noticed also by Danzig (2001) in P. balteatus and P. manifectus); (ii) dorsal setae not similar to cerarian setae, each without a trilocular pore near basal socket, and each not on an elevated area (in Peliococcus some dorsal setae are similar to cerarian setae, each with a trilocular pore near basal socket, and each on an elevated area), and (iii) dorsal oral collar tubular ducts present in clusters and of one or two sizes, each cluster with a smaller duct in the middle and with larger ducts clustered around it and generally along with multilocular disc pores (in Peliococcus and Erimococcus oral collar tubular ducts are also of one size or two sizes but they are never in the middle of the clusters). (Kaydan, 2015)

KEYS: Kaydan 2015: 209 (female) [Key to the genera of the Peliococcus species-group].

CITATIONS: Kaydan2014 [description, distribution, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 209].



Pelionella cycliger (Leonardi)

NOMENCLATURE:

Pseudococcus cycliger Leonardi, 1908a: 168. Type data: ITALY: Sambiase (Calabria), on Olea europaea. Neotype female, by subsequent designation Longo et al., 1989: 167. Type depository: Calabria: Istituto di Difesa delle Piante, Reggio Calabria, Italy. Described: female. Illust.

Phenacoccus oleae Marchal, 1910: 245. Type data: TUNISIA: Sousse, on Olea europaea. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Longo et al., 1989: 164.

Peliococcus deserticola Ben-Dov & Gerson in Furth et al., 1983: 106. Type data: ISRAEL: Wadi Qilt, on Rhus tripartita. Holotype female. Type depository: Bet Dagan: Department of Entomology, The Volcani Center, Israel. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Kaydan, 2015: 228.

Peliococcus cycliger; Kozár & Walter, 1985: 70. Change of combination.

Peliococcus oleae; Longo & Russo, 1988: 514. Change of combination.

Peliococcus cycliger; Longo et al., 1989: 164. Revived combination.

Pelionella cycliger Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 453. Unavailable name.

Pelionella cycliger; Kaydan, 2015: 228. Change of combination.

Pelionella cycligera; Kaydan, 2015: 229. Misspelling of species name.



FOE: HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Anagyrus [PorcelPi1995].

HOSTS: Anacardiaceae: Rhus tripartita [FurthBeGe1984, BenDov1994]. Boraginaceae: Onosma aleppica [FurthBeGe1984, BenDov1994], Onosma sp. [BenDov2012]. Oleaceae: Olea europaea [GomezM1946, LongoMaRu1989, Martin1985, BenDov1994, PorcelPi1995]. Poaceae: Cynodon dactylon [LongoMaRu1989, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Algeria [Vayssi1927, BenDov1994]; France [Goux1931, BenDov1994, Foldi2001]; Israel [FurthBeGe1984, BenDov2012]; Italy [Leonar1908, Marott1987a , LongoMaRu1989, BenDov1994, LongoMaPe1995, PorcelPi1995]; Sicily [LongoMaPe1995, RussoMa1997]; Spain [GomezM1946, Martin1985, SancheBe2010]; Tunisia [Marcha1910, BenDov1994, HalimaGeMd2014].

BIOLOGY: Leonardi (1908) collected the syntypes from nest of the ant Aphenogaster testaceo-pilosus. Longo et al. (1989) observed this species in association with Crematogaster scutellaris (Oliv.) and with Tapinoma nigerimum (Nyl.). Develops three annual generations on olive in Apulia, Italy. The first instars of the third generation overwinters under the wax cocoon (Porcelli & Pizza, 1995).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Leonardi (1920) and by Longo et al. (1989). Redescription and illustration in Kaydan, 2015.

STRUCTURE: Adult female body elongate oval, 1.2-2.5 mm long, 0.7-0.9 mm wide. Antennae 9 segmented. Anterior spiracles larger than posterior spiracles, each 65 µm long, 35 µm wide across atrium. Circulus large. Legs well developed; posterior legs: trochanter + femur 210-250 µm, tibia + tarsus 250-280 µm, claw 21-25 µm long. Both pairs of ostioles present. Cerarii slightly sclerotized, numbering 18 marginal pairs, dorsal absent; anal lobe cerarii each with 2 slender conical setae plus a group of trilocular pores and 2 or 3 spine-like auxiliary setae. (Kaydan, 2015)

SYSTEMATICS: Longo et al. (1989) presented sound reasons for the designation of the Neotype. The synonymy of P. deserticola with P. cycliger was based on a comparison of the type material of P. deserticola with the drawings of the P. cycliger by Longo et al., (1989). Pelionella cycliger, currently only known from countries around the Mediterranean, is very similar to P. balteata in having: (i) clusters with only 1 small oral collar tubular duct in the centre, and (ii) 1 size of oral collar tubular duct on dorsum. However, P. cycliger differs from P. balteata in having a much larger number of multilocular pores in each cluster on the dorsum and venter.P. deserticola paratype, adult female: Israel, Wadi Qilt, on Rhus tripartita (Anacardiaceae), deposited in Department of Entomology, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel. (Kaydan, 2015)

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Porcelli & Pizza (1995) noted that no damage was observed on olive.

KEYS: Tang 1992: 513 (female) [China]; Leonardi 1920: 382 (female) [Italia].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 292-293]; BenDov2012 [catalogue, distribution, host: 36, 42]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; FurthBeGe1984 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 106-108]; GomezM1946 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 94-95]; Goux1931 [host, distribution: 4]; HalimaGeMd2014 [distribution, host: 1-2]; Kaydan2015 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 228-229]; KozarWa1985 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 70]; Leonar1908a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 168-170]; Leonar1920 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 394-397]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 119]; LongoMaRu1989 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 164-170]; LongoRu1988 [host, distribution: 514]; MansouMkGr2011 [distribution, economic importance: 315-322]; Marcha1910 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 244-246]; Marott1987a [host, distribution: 109]; Martin1985 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 95]; PorcelPi1995 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 99-105]; RussoMa1997 [distribution: 49]; SancheBe2010 [host, distribution: 320]; Sassce1911 [catalogue: 64]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 516-517]; Vayssi1927 [host, distribution: 109].



Pelionella glandulifer (Borchsenius)

NOMENCLATURE:

Peliococcus glandulifer Borchsenius, 1949: 259. Type data: AZERBAIJAN: Ordubat and ARMENIA: Erevan, on Euphorbia sp. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 2001: 133. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female.

Erimococcus glandulifer; Tang, 1992: 517. Change of combination.

Peliococcus glanduliferus; Kaydan, 2014: 205. Misspelling of species name.

Erimococcus glandulifer; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 359. Change of combination.

Pelionella glandulifer; Kaydan, 2015: 227. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Euphorbiaceae: Euphorbia [Borchs1949, TerGri1973, BenDov1994], Euphorbia seguieriana [Kaydan2015].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [Borchs1949, TerGri1973, BenDov1994]; Azerbaijan [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]; Turkey [Kaydan2015].

BIOLOGY: Living on roots of its host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration given by Ter-Grigorian (1973) and by Danzig (2001). Good description and illustration of the female third-instar nymph given by Ter-Grigorian (1973). Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949) and by Tang (1992).

SYSTEMATICS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin (2014) regarded Peliococcus glandulifer Borchsenius as Erimococcus glandulifer. However, according to DNA analysis, P. glandulifer falls into the Pelionella clade and also this species have different kinds of multilocular disc pores on the dorsum and venter and therefore differ from other species of Erimococcus. (Kaydan, 2015)

KEYS: Danzig 2001: 124-125 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Tang 1992: 513 (female) [China]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 177 (female) [Armenia]; Borchsenius 1949: 244 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 293]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 259-260]; Danzig2001 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 133, 134]; DanzigGa2014 [taxonomy: 389-390]; Kaydan2015 [description, distribution, host, molecular data, phylogenetics, taxonomy: 205, 209-210]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 517-518]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 193-195].



Pelionella grassiana (Goux)

NOMENCLATURE:

Peliococcus grassianus Goux, 1989a: 306. Type data: FRANCE: Grasse (A-M), on an undetermined Labiatae. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

Pelionella grassiana Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 454. Unavailable name.

Pelionella grassiana; Kaydan, 2015: 230-231. Change of combination.



HOST: Lamiaceae [Goux1989a, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: France [Goux1989a, BenDov1994, Foldi2001].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Goux (1989a).

SYSTEMATICS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin (2014) used the combination "Pelionella grassiana" before the genus name was made available in Kaydan, 2015 where it was made available in a manner that satisfies the requirements in the Code (ICZN, 1999). In lacking a circulus, P. grassiana is similar to P. proeminens and P. sablia. P. grassiana differs from P. proeminens in having: (i) clusters on dorsum in distinct rows on each segment, and (ii) each hind femur without translucent pores (P. proeminens has clusters on dorsum sparsely distributed on each segment; and each hind femur has translucent pores). P. grassiana differs from P. sablia in having 14-17 pairs of marginal cerarii whereas P. sablia has fewer than 4 pairs. (Kaydan, 2015)

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 294]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Goux1989a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 306-309]; Kaydan2015 [description, distribution, host, host, structure, taxonomy: 230-231].



Pelionella kansui Kaydan

NOMENCLATURE:

Pelionella kansui Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 457. Unavailable name.

Pelionella kansui Kaydan, 2015: 232-234. Type data: TURKEY: Van-Baskale road, N: 38°06’188’’, E: 044°06’494’’, on Euphorbia seguieriana, 5/25/2007, by M.B. Kaydan. Holotype female (examined). Type depository: Turkey: Kaydan's Personal Collection. Described: female. Illust. Notes: at 2074 m elevation.

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Turkey [Kaydan2015].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Kaydan, 2015.

STRUCTURE: Adult female. Body elongate oval, 1.54-1.92 mm long, 0.78-1.09 mm wide. Eyes marginal, 37-45 µm wide. Antenna 9 segmented, 390-455 µm long; apical segment 50-60 µm long, 22-25 µm wide; apical setae 27-33 µm long, plus 3 fleshy setae each 22-28 µm long. Tentorium 170-190 µm long, 175-185 µm wide. Labium 155 µm long, 100-113 µm wide. Anterior spiracles 60-65 µm long, 30-35 µm wide across atrium; posterior spiracles 70-80 µm long, 40-45 µm wide. Circulus large, oval, 120-180 µm wide. Legs well developed; posterior legs: coxa 170-200 µm long; trochanter + femur 260-270 µm long; tibia + tarsus 285-290 µm long; claw 28 µm long. (Kaydan, 2015)

SYSTEMATICS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin (2014) used the name "Pelionella kansui" before it was made available in Kaydan, 2015. According to Article 16 (specifically 16.1 and 16.4) of the ICZN (1999), this name must be considered unavailable from their work. .Pelionella kansui Kaydan can be readily distinguished from other species in the genus in having the following combination of features: (i) 2 sizes of oral collar tubular ducts in each cluster on dorsum; (ii) each dorsal cluster with 1–5 (usually 2) multilocular disc pores, each with 2 rings of 11 loculi; and (iii) no quinquelocular pores on venter. Pelionella kansui is most similar to P. manifecta in having 2 of sizes oral collar tubular duct on the dorsum but it differs in having: (i) no quinquelocular pores on the venter, and (ii) in having fewer than 7 marginal cerarii. Pellionella kansui is also similar to P. glandulifer but differs in having (characters for P. glandulifer in brackets): (i) clusters on dorsum with 1–5 multilocular disc pores (0–2, generally 0 in clusters on posterior abdominal segments), (ii) no quinquelocular pores on venter (a few around mouthparts) and (iii) multilocular disc pores in a compact band on dorsum of abdominal segment VII (few or none on dorsum of abdominal segment VII).

CITATIONS: Kaydan2015 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 232-234].



Pelionella manifecta (Borchsenius)

NOMENCLATURE:

Peliococcus manifectus Borchsenius, 1949: 245. Type data: AZERBAIJAN: Geok-Tapa and ARMENIA: Megri, on Chrysanthemum sp. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 2001: 125. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female.

Peliococcus albertaccius Goux, 1990a: 83. Type data: FRANCE: Corsica, Albertacce, on Helichrysum sp. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Kaydan, 2015: 234.

Pelionella manifecta Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 457. Unavailable name.

Pelionella manifecta; Kaydan, 2015: 234. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Ancathia igneria [Mateso1968, BenDov1994], Artemisia vulgaris [KaydanKo2010a], Centaurea solsititialis [KaydanKiKo2005], Chrysanthemum [Borchs1949, BenDov1994], Helichrysum angustifolium [Kaydan2015], Helichrysum sp. [Goux1990a, Marott1992a, BenDov1994], Sonchus [KaydanKiKo2005]. Boraginaceae: Echium [KaydanKiKo2005]. Lamiaceae: Thymus [Danzig2001].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]; Azerbaijan [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]; Corsica [Goux1990a, BenDov1994, Foldi2001, Foldi2003]; France [Kaydan2015]; Italy [Marott1992, LongoMaPe1995, BenDov1994, Pelliz2003]; Kazakhstan [Mateso1968, BenDov1994]; Russia [Kaydan2015]; Sardinia [Pelliz2011]; Sweden [Ossian1959, BenDov1994, Gertss2001]; Turkey [KaydanKoYa2001, KaydanKiKo2005, KaydanUlEr2007].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Ter-Grigorian (1973), Marotta (1992a) and by Danzig (2001). Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949) and by Tang (1992).Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Goux (1990a).

STRUCTURE: Adult female body elongate oval, 1.36–1.88 mm long, 0.86–1.10 mm wide. Eyes marginal, 47.5–60.0 µm wide. Antenna 9 segmented.

SYSTEMATICS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin (2014) used the name "Pelionella manifecta" before the genus name was made available in Kaydan, 2015. Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin (2014) listed Pelionella manifecta without citing "Kaydan 2014?" (due to a typographical error) and without suggesting that this was a new combination. Kaydan, 2015 made the name available in a manner that satisfied the requirements on the Code (ICZN, 1999). Pelionella manifecta is most similar to P. multipora in having: (i) dorsal clusters with multilocular disc pores, (ii) 18 pairs of marginal cerarii, and (iii) 2 sizes of oral collar tubular ducts on the dorsum. However, P. manifecta differs from P. multipora in having 2-6 multilocular disc pores in each cluster (5-16 pores in P. multipora). P. manifecta is also similar to P. balteata and P. cycliger in having multilocular disc pores in clusters, but differs from both of these species in having 2 sizes of oral collar tubular duct in each cluster. There are some differences between the French and Azerbaijan specimens, namely: (i) number of clusters on dorsum (fewer in Azerbaijan population); (ii) number of clusters on midventer (fewer in Azerbaijan population); (iii) shape and number of cerarian setae (three cerarian setae on C3 in French population, two cerarian setae on C3 in Azerbaijan population); and (iv) number of trilocular pores in mid-venter (fewer in Azerbaijan population). Nonetheless, it is considered that these differences represent geographical variation. (Kaydan, 2015)

KEYS: Danzig 2001: 124-125 (female) [as Peliococcus manifectus; Palaearctic region]; Tang 1992: 513 (female) [China]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 176 (female) [as Peliococcus manifectus; Armenia]; Borchsenius 1949: 242 (female) [as Peliococcus manifectus; Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 291, 294-295]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 245-246]; CebeciAr2006 [host, distribution: 139]; Danzig2001 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 125, 127]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Foldi2003 [host, distribution: 148]; Gertss2001 [distribution: 123-130]; Goux1990a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 83-86]; KaydanKiKo2005 [host, distribution: 89]; KaydanKo2010a [distribution, host: 35]; KaydanKoYa2001 [host, distribution: 380]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 100]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 119]; Marott1992a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 80-82]; Mateso1968 [host, distribution: 111]; Ossian1959 [host, distribution: 195]; Pelliz2003 [host, distribution: 100]; Pelliz2011 [distribution: 313]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 518-519]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 177-179].



Pelionella multipora Kaydan

NOMENCLATURE:

Pelionella multipora Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 460. Unavailable name.

Pelionella multipora Kaydan, 2015: 238. Type data: TURKEY: Van-Koçet road, N: 37°56’019’’, E: 042°59’343’’, on roots of undetermined plant, 7/19/2005 by M.B. Kaydan. Holotype female (examined). Type depository: Turkey: Kaydan's Personal Collection; type no. 2037. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Holotype in a black circle on the right side next to the collection data. Paratypes: 1 adult female: same data as holotype, on same slide; also 5 adult females (on two slides), Van- Koçet road, N: 37°56’019’’, E: 042°59’343’’, 1846 m, on undetermined plant, 19.vii.2005, coll: M. Bora Kaydan (KPCT: 2022).



HOSTS: Lamiaceae: Salvia sp. [Kaydan2015]. Poaceae: Elytrigia repens [Kaydan2015].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Turkey [Kaydan2015].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Kaydan, 2015.

STRUCTURE: Body elongate oval, 1.88-3.36 mm long, 0.84-1.94 mm wide. Eyes marginal, 40-55 µm wide. Antenna 9 segmented, 450-610 µm long; apical segment 60-68 µm long, 25.0-30.0 µm wide; apical setae 35-40 µm long plus 3 fleshy setae 27-35 µm long. (Kaydan, 2015)

SYSTEMATICS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin (2014) used the name "Pelionella multipora" before it was made available in Kaydan, 2015. According to article 16 (specifically 16.1 and 16.4) of the ICZN (1999), this name must be considered unavailable from their work. Kaydan, 2015 meets the criteria of availability as specified by the ICZN (1999). Pelionella multipora can be readily distinguished from other Pelionella species in having the following combination of features: (i) 2 sizes of oral collar tubular ducts in each cluster; (ii) each dorsal cluster with 5-16 (usually 8-10) multilocular disc pores; and (iii) few quinquelocular pores on venter. Pelionella multipora is most similar to P. manifecta in having 2 sizes of oral collar tubular duct on dorsum, but differs in having many more multilocular disc pores in each cluster (only 2-6 in P. manifecta). P. multipora is also similar to P. balteata and P. cycliger in having some dorsal clusters with 5 or more multilocular disc pores, but differs from both species in having 2 sizes of oral collar tubular duct in each cluster (P. balteata and P. cycliger have only 1 small oral collar tubular duct in each cluster). (Kaydan, 2015)



Pelionella proeminens (Goux)

NOMENCLATURE:

Peliococcus proeminens Goux, 1989a: 309. Type data: FRANCE: Bouche du Rhone, Bouc-Bel-Air, on Thymus vulgaris. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

Peliococcus proemineus; Ben-Dov, 1994: 297. Misspelling of species name.

Pelionella proeminens; Kaydan, 2015: 240. Change of combination.



HOST: Lamiaceae: Thymus vulgaris [Goux1989a, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: France [Goux1989a, BenDov1994, Foldi2001].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Goux (1989a). Redescription and illustration in Kaydan, 2015.

STRUCTURE: Adult female body elongate oval, 1.78-1.96 mm long, 1.24-1.38 mm wide. Eyes marginal, 35-40 µm wide. Antenna 9 segmented, 310-350 µm long; apical segment 50-55 µm long, 22.5-25.0 µm wide; apical setae 32-35 µm long plus 3 fleshy setae 27-35 µm long. (Kaydan, 2015)

SYSTEMATICS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin (2014) regarded P. proeminens as a junior synonym of P. grassiana but, Kaydan, 2015 these two species are regarded as distinct. The two species are similar and share: (i) the absence of a circulus, and (ii) 14-17 pairs of marginal cerarii, but P. proeminens differs in having: (i) fewer dorsal clusters across each abdominal segment, with only about 8 on abdominal segment I (much more abundant on P. grassiana - about 12 on abdominal segment I), and (ii) each metafemur with translucent pores (metafemur of P. grassiana without translucent pores). (Kaydan, 2015)

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 297]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Goux1989a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 309-311].



Pelionella sablia (Goux)

NOMENCLATURE:

Peliococcus sablius Goux, 1989a: 302. Type data: FRANCE: Marseille (Marseille Veyre), on Helianthemum polifolium. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

Pelionella sablia Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 462. Unavailable name.

Pelionella sablia; Kaydan, 2015: 242. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.



HOST: Cistaceae: Helianthemum polifolium [Goux1989a, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: France [Goux1989a, BenDov1994, Foldi2001].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Goux (1989a).

STRUCTURE: Adult female elongate oval, 1.40-2.20 mm long, 0.75-1.48 mm wide. Eyes marginal, 55-65 µm wide. Antenna 8 segmented, 360-380 µm long; apical segment 50-55 µm long, 25-35 µm wide; apical setae 35µ40 ěm long and 3 fleshy setae 30µ35 ěm long. (Kaydan, 2015)

SYSTEMATICS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin (2014) used the name "Pelionella sablia" before the genus name was made available in Kaydan, 2015 when the new combination was made available in a manner that satisfies the requirements on the Code (ICZN, 1999). Pelionella sablia is most similar to P. grassiana and P. proeminens in lacking a circulus but differs in having fewer than 4 pairs of marginal cerarii (14-17 pairs in the other two species). P. sablia is also similar to P. glandulifer and P. kansui in having fewer than 7 marginal pairs of cerarii but differs in having: (i) quinquelocular pores throughout most of venter (restricted to around mouthparts in P. glandulifera, absent in P. kansui) and (ii) no circulus (present in both of the other species). (Kaydan, 2015)

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 297]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Goux1989a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 302-304].



Pelionella stellarocheae (Goux)

NOMENCLATURE:

Peliococcus stellarocheae Goux, 1990a: 80. Type data: FRANCE: Rhone, Bessenay, on Mentha sp. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

Pelionella stellarocheae Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 465. Unavailable name.

Pelionella stellarocheae; Kaydan, 2015: 244. Change of combination.



HOST: Lamiaceae: Mentha [Goux1990a, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: France [Goux1990a, BenDov1994, Foldi2001].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Goux (1990a).

STRUCTURE: Adult female elongate oval, 1.56-1.75 mm long, 1.02-1.15 mm wide. Eyes marginal, 37.5-47.5 ěm wide. Antenna 9 segmented, 310-350 µm long; apical segment 47.5-55.0 µm long, 20-25 µm wide; apical setae 25-35 µm long plus 3 fleshy setae, each 22.5-35.0 µm long. (Kaydan, 2015)

SYSTEMATICS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin (2014) used the name "Pelionella stellarocheae" before the genus name was made available in Kaydan, 2015 where the new combination was made available in a manner that satisfies the requirements on the Code (ICZN, 1999). P. stellarocheae differs from all other species in the genus in having a reduced number of marginal cerarii. Cerarii are present on head and abdomen but are reduced or absent on the pro- and mesothorax. (Kaydan, 2015

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 298]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Goux1990a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 80-83].



Pelionella tritubulatus (Kiritshenko)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus tritubulatus Kiritshenko, 1940a: 190. Type data: UKRAINE: Krym, Yalta district, on Genista albida. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female.

Peliococcus tritubulatus; Borchsenius, 1949: 250. Change of combination.

Peliococcus darvasicus Nurmamatov & Bazarov, 1990: 606. Type data: TADZHIKISTAN: Darvas Range, near Tavildara, on roots of Leguminosae. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Danzig, 2001: 130.

Spinococcus tritubulatus; Tang, 1992: 569. Change of combination.

Pelionella tritubulatus; Kaydan, 2014: 209. Change of combination.

Erimococcus tritubulatus; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 398. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Asteraceae [KaydanKiKo2005], Scorzonera criosperma [Danzig2001]. Chenopodiaceae: Suaeda [Danzig2001]. Euphorbiaceae: Euphorbia [KaydanUlEr2007], Euphorbia sequieriana [KaydanKo2010a]. Fabaceae [NurmamBa1990, BenDov1994], Astragalus [Borchs1949, BenDov1994], Genista albida [Kiritc1940a, BenDov1994, Danzig2001]. Lamiaceae: Thymus [KozarTrPe1984, Marott1987a, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Azerbaijan [Danzig2001]; Georgia [Danzig2001]; Italy [KozarTrPe1984, Marott1987a, BenDov1994, LongoMaPe1995]; Russia (Dagestan AR [Danzig2001]); Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [NurmamBa1990, BenDov1994]; Turkey [KaydanKiKo2005, KaydanUlEr2007]; Ukraine (Krym (=Crimea) Oblast [Kiritc1940a, BenDov1994, Danzig2001]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the roots of the host plant.Lives on roots of the host plant (Nurmamatov & Bazarov, 1990).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Tereznikova (1975), Nurmamatov & Bazarov (1990) and by Danzig (2001). Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949) and by Tang (1992).

SYSTEMATICS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin (2014) regarded Peliococcus tritubulata Borchsenius as Erimococcus tritubulata. However, according to DNA analysis, P. tritubulata falls into the Pelionella clade and also this species have different kinds of multilocular disc pores on the dorsum and venter and therefore differ from other species of Erimococcus. (Kaydan, 2015)

KEYS: Danzig 2001: 124-125 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Tang 1992: 555 (female) [China]; Tereznikova 1975: 201 (female) [Ukraine]; Borchsenius 1949: 243 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 293,299-300]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 250-251]; DanzigGa2014 [taxonomy: 398]; Kaydan2015 [description, molecular data, phylogenetics, taxonomy: 209-210]; KaydanKiKo2005 [host, distribution: 89]; KaydanKo2010a [distribution, host: 35]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 100]; Kiritc1940a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 190-191]; KozarTrPe1984 [host, distribution: 4-5]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 119]; Marott1987a [host, distribution: 110]; NurmamBa1990 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 606-607]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 569]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 206].



Pellizzaricoccus Kozár

NOMENCLATURE:

Pellizzaricoccus Kozár, 1991a: 40. Type species: Pellizzaricoccus gabrielis Kozar, by original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good definition and characters given by Kozár (1991a).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 302]; Kozar1991a [taxonomy, description: 40].



Pellizzaricoccus gabrielis Kozár

NOMENCLATURE:

Pellizzaricoccus gabrielis Kozár, 1991a: 40. Type data: ITALY: Firenze (Park Boboli), on Compositae. Holotype female. Type depository: Budapest: Hungarian Natural History Museum, Zoological Department, Hungary. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Asteraceae [Kozar1991a, BenDov1994]. Poaceae: Cynodon dactylon [Kozar1991a, BenDov1994], Poa [Kozar1991a, BenDov1994]. Urticaceae: Parietaria officinalis [Kozar1991a, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Greece [Kozar1991a, BenDov1994]; Italy [Kozar1991, LongoMaPe1995].

BIOLOGY: The insect was found on roots, leaves and leafsheath of the host plants (Kozár , 1991a).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Kozár (1991a).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 302]; Kozar1991a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 39-44]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 119].



Perystrix Gavrilov

NOMENCLATURE:

Perystrix Gavrilov, 2004: 524. Type species: Perystrix ulmaria Gavrilov, by original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and description by Gavrilov (2004).

STRUCTURE: Legs well developed, without translucent pores; claw with ; claw digitules with clavate apex. Anal apparatus complete or complicaed (with 2 outer rows of spinulae). Both pair of ostioles well developeed. Multilocular pores present on both dorsal and ventral sides of body. Quinquelocular pores present or absent. Trilocular pores evenly scattered on entire body surface; tubular ducts of simple type. Most cerari demonstrate a replacement of conical setae by flagellate setae (pseudocerarii). Dorsal surface of body covered by small conical setae and flagellate setae of different sizes. (Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014)

SYSTEMATICS: The presence of pseudocerarii instead of usual cerarii is the main diagnostic character of Perystrix. (Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014)

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin 2014: 183-185 (female) [Key to general of Phenacoccinae].

CITATIONS: DanzigGa2014 [description, taxonomy: 245-246]; Gavril2004 [taxonomy, description: 524-526].



Perystrix monieri (Balachowsky)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus monieri Balachowsky, 1939: 264. Type data: MADEIRA ISLANDS: Canical, on Cynara cardunculus var. ferocissima. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

Perystrix monieri; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 246. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Cynara cardunculus ferocissima [Balach1939, BenDov1994]. Fabaceae: Medicago [Balach1939, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Madeira Islands [Balach1939, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Living on root neck and roots of host plants.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Balachowsky (1939).

SYSTEMATICS: A combination of pseudocerarii with the presence of both conical and flagellate setae on the dorsum (as in the type species of Perystrix) lead Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014 to transfer Phenacoccus monieri to Perystrix.

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin 2014: 246 (female) [Key to species of Perystrix].

CITATIONS: Balach1939 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 264-265]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 333]; DanzigGa2014 [description, distribution, host, host, taxonomy: 247-249]; FrancoRuMa2011 [distribution: 19,25].



Perystrix ulmaria Gavrilov

NOMENCLATURE:

Perystrix ulmaria Gavrilov, 2004: 524. Type data: RUSSIA: Volgogradskaya Oblast, Sovkhoz Balka, on trunk of Ulmus sp.; collected N. Burnashova, 9.viii.1950. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Ulmaceae: Ulmus [Gavril2004].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Russia (Volgograd Oblast [Gavril2004]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Gavrilov (2004).

KEYS: Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin 2014: 246 (female) [Key to species of Perystrix].

CITATIONS: Gavril2004 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 524-526].



Phenacoccus Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus Cockerell, 1893ee: 318. Type species: Pseudococcus aceris Signoret.

Phenacoccus (Paroudablis) Cockerell, 1900f: 87. Type species: Boisduvalia piceae Low.

Phaenacoccus; Kiritchenko, 1932a: 260, 261. Misspelling of genus name.

Ampelocecis; Lindinger, 1932f: 199. Misspelling of genus name.

Phaenacoccus Lindinger, 1935: 142. Unjustified emendation.

Phaenococcus Lindinger, 1937: 192. Unjustified emendation; discovered by Morrison & Morrison, 1966: 152.

Peukinococcus Šulc, 1944a: 2. Type species: Boisduvalia piceae Low, by monotypy. Synonymy by Ferris, 1950b: 120. Notes: Synonymy by community of type-species.

Paroudablis Borchsenius, 1949: 88. Type species: Boisduvalia piceae Low. Subsequently designated by Fernald, 1903b. Synonymy by Ben-Dov, 1994: 287. Notes: A subjective synonym of Phenacoccus.

Phenococcus; Schmutterer, 1952: 396. Misspelling of genus name. Notes: Mis-spelling of Phenacoccus.

Paroudables; Hadzibejli, 1959: 575. Misspelling of genus name.

Caulococcus Borchsenius, 1960e: 47. Type species: Phenacoccus angustatus Borchsenius, by original designation. Synonymy by Ben-Dov, 1994: 74.

Densispina Ter-Grigorian, 1964a: 861. Type species: Densispina graminea Ter-Grigorian, by original designation. Synonymy by Danzig, 2003: 327.

Phenacococcus; Bytinski-Salz & Sternlicht, 1967: 126. Misspelling of genus name.

Birendracoccus Ali, 1975: 279. Type species: Dactylopius saccharifolii Green, by monotypy and original designation. Synonymy by Williams, 2004a: 589.

Phenococcus; Danzig, 1994: 46. Misspelling of genus name.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by Kanda (1943a), Ferris in Zimmerman (1948), Borchsenius (1949), Ferris (1950b), McKenzie (1967), Ter-Grigorian (1964a, 1973), Tereznikova (1975), Ali (1975), Danzig (1980b, 1988), Williams (1985), Cox (1987), Avasthi & Shafee (1987), Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F), Williams & Watson (1988a), Tang (1992), Williams & Granara de Willink (1992), Kosztarab (1996), Wu (2000a) and by Williams (2004a),

SYSTEMATICS: Paroudablis is generally accepted as a subjective synonym of Phenacoccus. Borchsenius (1960b) assigned 8 species to Caulococcus. Tang (1992) accepted Caulococcus as valid and placed in it a total of 24 species. Other students, e. g. Williams & Miller (1985), Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F), did not accept its separation from Phenacoccus. Until the characters upon which these genera have been distinguished, will be critically evaluated in a comprehensive revision, Caulococcus is regarded a subjective synonym of Phenacoccus (Ben-Dov, 1994).

KEYS: Kaydan 2015: 209 (female) [Key to the genera of the Peliococcus species-group]; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin 2014: 183-185 (female) [Key to general of Phenacoccinae]; González 2011: 70 (female) [Key to the genera of Pseudococcidae of primary importance to export fruit.]; Abd-Rabou et al. 2010: 509 (female) [Phenacoccus species in Egypt]; Moghaddam & Alikhani 2010: 16 (female) [Phenacoccus species of Iran]; Moghaqddam 2010: 67 (female) [Phenacoccus species of Iran]; Hodgson {et al.} 2008: 3 (female) [Phenacoccus species of southern Asia]; Granara de Willink & Szumik 2007: 38 (female) [Phenacoccinae genera of South America]; Danzig 2004: 532 (female) [Phenacoccus species of firs]; Williams 2004a: 42,44 (female) [Genera of southern Asia]; Williams 2004a: 590-591 (female) [Phenacoccus species of southern Asia]; Danzig 2003: 328-329 (female) [Russia]; Kwon et al. 2003: 114 (female) [Korea]; Millar 2002: 189-195 (female) [Pseudococcidae genera of South Africa]; Wu, S.A. 2000a: 69-70 (female) [Phenacoccus species of China]; Marotta, Russo & Matile-Ferrero 1997: 438 (female) [Italy]; Kosztarab 1996: 152-153 (female) [Northeastern North America]; Tang 1992: 320,384,528 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental region]; Williams & Granara de Willink 1992: 347-349 (female) [Central and South America]; Williams & Granara de Willink 1992: 43 (female) [Central and South America]; Danzig 1988: 697 (female) [Far East of Russia]; Kosztarab & Kozar 1988F: 63 (female) [Central Europe]; Williams & Watson 1988a: 19 (female) [Tropical South Pacific Region]; Avasthi & Shafee 1987: 2 (female) [India]; Avasthi & Shafee 1987: 2 (female) [India]; Cox 1987: 13 (female) [New Zealand]; Williams 1985: 266 (female) [Australia]; Williams 1985: 36, 37 (female) [Australia]; Wang 1982TC: 21 (female) [China]; Danzig 1980b: 124 (female) [Far East Russia]; Kawai 1980: 92 (female) [Japan]; Bazarov & Nurmamatov 1975b: 54 (female) [Tajikistan]; Tereznikova 1975: 160, 211 (female) [Ukraine]; Tereznikova 1975: 160 (female) [Ukraine & Palaearctic region]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 37,38,135 (female) [Armenia]; McKenzie 1967: 46 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1967: 214-216 (female) [North America]; Beardsley 1966: 405 (female) [Federated States of Micronesia]; McKenzie 1964: 238 (female) [North America]; Williams 1962: 34 (female) [Britain]; McKenzie 1961: 26 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1960: 713 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1953a: 395-396 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1953a: 282 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1950b: 21 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1950b: 120-122 (female) [North America]; Borchsenius 1949: 88 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Borchsenius 1949: 210-211 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Zimmerman 1948: 161 (female) [Hawaii]; Kanda 1943a: 42 (female) [Japan].

CITATIONS: AbdRabGeMa2010 [taxonomy: 509-510]; Ali1975 [taxonomy, description: 279-280]; AvasthSh1987 [taxonomy, description: 7]; Beards1966 [taxonomy: 432]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 62,74,114,287,303]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description: 208-211]; BytinsSt1967 [taxonomy: 126]; Cocker1893ee [taxonomy, description: 318]; Cox1987 [taxonomy, description: 72-73]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description: 109, 122-124]; Danzig1988 [taxonomy: 699]; Danzig1994 [taxonomy: 46]; Danzig2003 [taxonomy: 327-329]; Danzig2004 [taxonomy, description: 530-532]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 89]; Ferris1950b [taxonomy, description: 120-122]; Ferris1953a [taxonomy: 395-396]; Gavril2010 [taxonomy: 33]; Gavril2011a [cytogenetics: 278]; Gonzal2011 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 70, 154]; GranarScTe1997 [taxonomy, economic importance: 97]; GranarSz2007 [taxonomy, description, cladistic, phylogeny: 29-129]; Hodgso2012 [description, taxonomy: 62]; HodgsoAbAr2008 [taxonomy: 1-35]; HodgsoLa2011 [taxonomy: 8]; Kanda1943a [taxonomy, description: 42]; Kawai1972 [taxonomy: 7-8]; Kaydan2014 [taxonomy: 209]; Kiritc1932a [taxonomy: 260, 261]; Koszta1996 [taxonomy, description: 77, 150-153]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 122]; Koteja2001 [taxonomy: 48]; KotejaZa1979 [taxonomy: 673]; KwonDaPa2003 [taxonomy: 114]; Lawson1917 [taxonomy, description: 180]; Lindin1935 [taxonomy: 142]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 192]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 551]; McKenz1967 [taxonomy, description: 213-216]; Millar2002 [taxonomy: 185-233]; Moghad2010 [taxonomy: 67-68]; Moghad2013 [distribution, taxonomy: 8, 46]; MoghadAl2010 [taxonomy: 11-12,16]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 30, 149, 152-154]; Schmut1952 [taxonomy: 396]; TanakaUe2012 [taxonomy: 414]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description: 323-324,386-387,527]; Tao1999 [taxonomy: 10,22]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description: 210-211]; TerGri1964a [taxonomy, description: 861]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description: 119,134]; Willia1962 [taxonomy, description: 7, 32-34]; Willia1985 [taxonomy, description: 35, 37, 265-266]; Willia2004a [taxonomy, description: 589-591]; WilliaGr1992 [taxonomy, description: 43, 345-349]; WilliaGu2010 [taxonomy: 66-68]; WilliaWa1988a [taxonomy, description: 157]; Wu2000a [taxonomy, description: 59-72]; Xie1998 [taxonomy: 83]; Zimmer1948 [taxonomy, description: 148, 161].



Phenacoccus acericola King

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus acericola King, 1902e: 211. Type data: U.S.A.: Massachusetts, Springfield, on maple. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Notes: Type material not located, see Ferris, 1950b.

Phenacoccus acericus; Ferris, 1953a: 395. Misspelling of species name.

COMMON NAME: maple mealybug [Koszta1996].



FOES: COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Hyperaspis binotata [Koszta1996], Hyperaspis signata [Koszta1996]. ENCYRTIDAE Apheliniidae: Coccophagus lycimnia [Koszta1996]. HYMENOPRTERA Encyrtidae: Blastothrix sericea [Koszta1996]. HYMENOPTERA Coccinellidae: Tetrastichus minutus [Koszta1996]. Encyrtidae: Acerophagus coccois [Koszta1996].

HOSTS: Aceraceae: Acer [Koszta1996], Acer platanoides [Koszta1996], Acer saccharinum [Ferris1950b, Koszta1996], Acer saccharum [Koszta1996].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Connecticut [Koszta1996], Illinois [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994], Indiana [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994], Kentucky [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994], Maine [Koszta1996], Maryland [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994], Massachusetts [King1902e, BenDov1994], New Jersey [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994], New York [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994], Ohio [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994], Pennsylvania [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994], Rhode Island [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994], Tennessee [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994], Virginia [Koszta1996], Wisconsin [Koszta1996]).

BIOLOGY: The females and their ovisacs are usually found on the underside of leaves. Rau (1942) reported that eggs overwinter in Northeastern North USA. Miller (1985b) reported on two or three annual generations on sugar maple in USA, Ohio; nymphs overwinter in bark crevices; in early spring they move to the leaves, and the adults migrate to bark to mate; oviposition takes place on underside of leaves.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Ferris (1950b) and by Kosztarab (1996).

STRUCTURE: Colour photograph given by Johnson & Lyon (1988).

SYSTEMATICS: Some early records of P. acericola from North America were probably misidentifications of P. aceris Signoret.

KEYS: Kosztarab 1996: 153 (female) [Northeastern North USA]; McKenzie 1967: 215 (female) [U.S.A., California]; McKenzie 1964: 239 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1961: 26 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1960: 714 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1953a: 395 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1950b: 121 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 304]; Ferris1950b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 123-125]; Ferris1953a [taxonomy: 397]; JohnsoLy1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration]; King1902e [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 211-212]; Koszta1996 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history, biological control: 153-155].



Phenacoccus aceris (Signoret)

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus farinosus alni De Geer, 1776: 442. Unavailable name.

Coccus farinosus Gmelin, 1790: 2220. Unavailable name.

Gossyparia farinosus Signoret, 1875b: 21. Unavailable name.

Pseudococcus mespili Signoret, 1875b: 333. Type data: FRANCE: Paris, on Mespilus germanica. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero, 1995: 251. Type depository: Vienna: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero, 1995: 251.

Pseudococcus aceris Signoret, 1875c: 329. Type data: FRANCE: Chambery (Savoie) on Carpinus, Tilia and Aesculus; on 'sycomore' or 'erable' (= Acer pseudoplatanus), no locality indicated. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Vienna: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria. Described: female. Illust.

Pseudococcus aesculi Signoret, 1875c: 330. Type data: FRANCE: Paris, on Aesculus hippocastanum. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero, 1995: 251. Type depository: Vienna: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero, 1995: 250.

Pseudococcus hederae Signoret, 1875c: 332. Type data: FRANCE: Herault, Montpellier, on 'lierres' (= Hedera helix). Syntypes, female. Type depository: Vienna: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero, 1995: 251.

Pseudococcus platani Signoret, 1875c: 334. Type data: FRANCE: Haute-Savoie, Annecy, on Platanus orientalis. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero, 1995: 252. Type depository: Vienna: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero, 1995: 251.

Pseudococcus aceris; Comstock, 1881a: 345. Notes: This name has been used incorrectly by most authors since 1758, until De Lotto (1958) clarified that it was wrongly applied and associated with the longtailed mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti).

Pseudococcus ulicis Douglas, 1888a: 88. Type data: ENGLAND: Exeter, probably on furze [= Ulex]. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Synonymy by Newstead, 1903: 176. Notes: Type material probably lost, see Ben-Dov, 1994. Cited as Pseudococcus vitis (Niediel.) - Unavailabale Name.

Pseudococcus ulmi Douglas, 1888b: 124. Type data: ENGLAND: London, on Ulex europaeus. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Synonymy by Newstead, 1903: 176.

Pseudococcus quercus Douglas, 1890a: 154. Type data: ENGLAND: Hereford, on Quercus robur. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Synonymy by Newstead, 1903: 176.

Pulvinaria ribesiae; Douglas, 1890b: 240. Misidentification; discovered by Newstead, 1903.

Pseudococcus socius Newstead, 1892: 144. Type data: ENGLAND: Yorkshire, Wakefield, on black currant. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Synonymy by Newstead, 1903: 177.

Phenacoccus aceris; Cockerell, 1896b: 324. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus aesculi; Cockerell, 1896b: 324. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus hederae; Cockerell, 1896b: 324. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus platani; Cockerell, 1896b: 324. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus quercus; Cockerell, 1896b: 324. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus socius; Cockerell, 1896b: 325. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus ulicis; Cockerell, 1896b: 325. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus ulmi; Cockerell, 1896b: 325. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus mespili; Cockerell, 1899j: 264. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus ? farinosus Cockerell, 1899j: 264. Unavailable name. Notes: Author incorrectly cited.

Phenacoccus (Paroudablis) socius; Cockerell, 1900f: 87.

Dactylopius vagabundus Reh, 1903: 305. Type data: GERMANY: on apple. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Synonymy by Lindinger, 1912b: 366.

Phenacoccus ? farinosus Fernald, 1903b: 91. Unavailable name.

Dactylopius vagabundus; Reh, 1904: 36.

Phaenacoccus aceris; Kiritchenko, 1932a: 260. Misspelling of genus name.

Phenacoccus polyphagus Borchsenius, 1949: 213. Type data: RUSSIA: Primor'ye Kray, Vladivostok, on ash tree [= Fraxinus excelsior]. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 1980b: 124. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Synonymy by Danzig, 1970: 1016.

Phenacoccus mespili; Borchsenius, 1949: 220.

Phenacoccus aceris; Ter-Grigorian, 1956: 35.

Phenacoccus mespili; Ter-Grigorian, 1956: 35. Notes: Incorrect citation of author.

Phenacoccus gorgasalicus Hadzibejli, 1960b: 304. Type data: GEORGIA: Tbilisi, Botanical Gardens, on Quercus hartwissiana and Q. iberica. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia, and Tbilisi: Plant Protection Institute, Republic of Georgia. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Danzig, 2003: 331.

Phenacoccus prunicola Borchsenius, 1962a: 232. Type data: CHINA: Yunnan Province, Dali, on Armeniaca sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Danzig, 1970: 1016.

Phenacoccus aceris; Schmutterer, 1980: 50.

Spinococcus gorgosalicus; Tang, 1992: 554. Misspelling of species name.

Spinococcus gorgasalicus; Tang, 1992: 559. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus gorgasalicus; Ben-Dov, 1994: 320. Revived combination.

Phenacoccus mespili; Ben-Dov, 1994: xxx.

COMMON NAMES: apple mealybug [Bartle1978e, Koszta1996]; polyphagous tree mealybug [KosztaKo1988F].



ASSOCIATES: VIRUS Closteroviridae: Ampelovirus GLRaV-1 [LeMaguBeHe2012], Ampelovirus GLRaV-3 [LeMaguBeHe2012], Ampelovirus LChV-2 [LeMaguBeHe2012].

FOES: COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Exochomus quadripustulatus [Tsalev1972, BenDov1994]. DIPTERA Cecidomyidae: Leucospis sileciaca [Tsalev1972]. HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Anagyrus fujikona [Trjapi1989], Anagyrus shoenherri [Tsalev1972, Hadzib1983], Aphycus apicalis (Dalman) [Hadzib1983, Trjapi1989, Yasnos2001], Aphycus hazibejliae Trjapitzin [KosztaKo1988F, Trjapi1989, Yasnos2001], Aphycus shutovae [Trjapi1989], Cerapteroceroides japonicus [Trjapi1989], Cheiloneurus phenacocci [Trjapi1989], Encyrtus chalcostomus [Tsalev1972, BenDov1994], Leptomastidea bifasciata [Trjapi1989], Microterys chalcostomus (Dalman) [Schmut1955b], Prochiloneurus nagasakiensis [Trjapi1989], Pseudaphycus clavatus [Trjapi1989], Pseudaphycus phenacocci Yasnosh [KosztaKo1988F, Trjapi1989, Yasnos2001]. Platygasteridae: Allotropa utilis Muesebeck [MarshaPi1944, Moore1988].

HOSTS: Aceraceae: Acer [Tsalev1968, Marott1987a, Hadzib1983, KozarHuFo1989, BenDov1994, Koszta1996, UygunSeEr1998], Acer campestre [TerGri1962, BenDov1994, KaydanKiKo2005], Acer negundo [Paik1978, Komosi1986a, BenDov1994, KaydanKiKo2005], Acer platanoides [Schmut1952, Danzig1959, KotejaZa1969, Komosi1986, BenDov1994], Acer pseudoplatanus [Schmut1952, Komosi1986, BenDov1994], Acer saccharinum [Komosi1986, BenDov1994]. Actinidiaceae: Actinidia [Danzig1978, BenDov1994]. Araliaceae: Aralia [Danzig1978, BenDov1994], Hedera [Tranfa1976], Hedera colhica [Hadzib1983], Hedera helix [Signor1875b, Marott1987a, BenDov1994, BenDovMa1995], Hedera pastuchovi [Hadzib1983]. Asteraceae: Echinops ritro [Moghad2010]. Betulaceae: Alnus glutinosa [Schmut1952, Danzig1959, BenDov1994], Alnus incana [Danzig1959, BenDov1994], Betula [Koszta1996, KaydanKiKo2005], Betula pendula [TerGri1962, BenDov1994], Betula pubescens [Danzig1959, BenDov1994], Betula verucosa [Danzig1959, BenDov1994]. Buxaceae: Buxus sempervirens [Willia1962, BenDov1994]. Caprifoliaceae: Lonicera caprifolium [TerGri1962, BenDov1994], Lonicera tatarica [Danzig1959, BenDov1994]. Carpinaceae: Carpinus betulus [Schmut1952, Willia1962, Hadzib1983, BenDov1994], Carpinus caucasicus [TerGri1973, BenDov1994]. Celastraceae: Euonymus [Danzig1978a, BenDov1994, KaydanKiKo2005]. Cornaceae: Cornus [Koszta1996], Cornus mas [TerGri1962, BenDov1994], Thelycrania australis [TerGri1962, BenDov1994]. Corylaceae: Corylus avellana [Schmut1952, KotejaZa1966, Marott1987a, BenDov1994]. Ebenaceae: Diospyros kaki [Paik1978, BenDov1994]. Ericaceae: Arbutus unedo [PellizFo1996, Foldi2000]. Fabaceae: Caragana [Tsalev1968], Caragana arborescens [Danzig1959, BenDov1994], Cytisus [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994], Laburnum [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994], Robinia pseudacacia [Kozar1980, BenDov1994, KaydanKiKo2005], Ulex minor. Fagaceae: Castanea sativa [Goux1931a, Willia1962, BenDov1994], Fagus sylvatica [Willia1962, BenDov1994], Quercus [Dougla1890a, Hadzib1983, BenDov1994], Quercus cerris [Kozar1999a], Quercus chrysolepis [Essig1909a], Quercus hartwissiana [Hadzib1960b, BenDov1994], Quercus iberica [Hadzib1960b, BenDov1994], Quercus ilex [PellizFo1996], Quercus pubescens [LongoMaRu1989, BenDov1994], Quercus robur [Schmut1952, Komosi1986, BenDov1994, KozarGuBa1994], Quercus suber [MazzeoLoRu1994], Quercus turneri [KozarGuBa1994]. Grossulariaceae: Ribes nigrum [Kozar1980, BenDov1994]. Grossulariaveae: Ribes rubrum [MalumpOsPy2010]. Hippocastanaceae: Aesculus hippocastanum [Signor1875b, Marcha1908, Schmut1952, KozarOrKo1977, Komosi1986, BenDov1994, KozarGuBa1994], Pavia rubra [Schmut1952]. Juglandaceae: Juglans regia [TerGri1962, BenDov1994, KaydanKiKo2005]. Moraceae: Ficus carica [KaydanKiKo2005], Ficus sycomorus [BenDov1994], Morus alba [Moghad2010]. Myricaceae: Myrica gale [Willia1962, BenDov1994]. Oleaceae: Fraxinus [Tsalev1968, TerGri1969, BenDov1994], Fraxinus americana [KaydanKiKo2005], Fraxinus excelsior [Schmut1952, Tsalev1968, Koteja1971a, Komosi1986, BenDov1994], Fraxinus pennsylvanica [Komosi1986, BenDov1994], Fraxinus rhynchophylla [Paik1978, BenDov1994]. Platanaceae: Platanus orientalis [Bodenh1943, BenDov1994, KaydanKiKo2005]. Rosaceae: Amygdalus communis [Kozar1980, BenDov1994], Armeniaca [Borchs1962b, BenDov1994], Cerasus vulgaris [Marcha1908, BenDov1994], Cotoneaster [TerGri1973, BenDov1994, Koszta1996, KaydanKiKo2005], Crataegus [Tsalev1968, KaydanKiKo2005], Crataegus azarolus [Moghad2010, MoghadTa2010], Crataegus oxyacantha [Schmut1952, Danzig1959, BenDov1994], Cydonia [Tsalev1968], Cydonia japonica [Tsalev1968, KaydanKiKo2005], Cydonia sinensis [Paik1978, BenDov1994], Malus [Koszta1996], Malus communis [KaydanKiKo2005], Malus domestica [Danzig1959, Kozar1980, Hadzib1983, BenDov1994], Malus orientalis [TerGri1973, Hadzib1983, BenDov1994], Malus pumila [Paik1978, BenDov1994, KozarGuBa1994], Malus sylvestris [Willia1962, BenDov1994], Mespilus germanica [Signor1875b, TerGri1973, BenDov1994, KaydanKiKo2005], Padus [Kozar1985a, BenDov1994], Persica vulgaris [Willia1962, BenDov1994], Prunus [KozarHuFo1989], Prunus [Schmut1952], Prunus communis [Schmut1952, KaydanKiKo2005], Prunus domestica [KotejaZa1966, BenDov1994, KozarGuBa1994, KaydanKiKo2005], Prunus persica [Schmut1952, KaydanKiKo2005], Prunus spinosa [TerGri1973, BenDov1994, KaydanKiKo2005], Pyrus communis [KaydanKiKo2005], Rosa [Koszta1996], Rubus [Danzig1978, BenDov1994], Sorbaria [Danzig1978, BenDov1994], Sorbus aucuparia [Willia1962, Komosi1986, BenDov1994], Spiraea [Danzig1978, BenDov1994]. Salicaceae: Salix [Danzig1978a], Salix arenaria [Koteja1971a, BenDov1994], Salix caprea [Schmut1952], Salix pentandra [KozarDr1991, BenDov1994]. Theaceae: Eurya japonica montana [Paik1978, BenDov1994]. Tiliaceae: Tilia [Kozar1985a, BenDov1994, KaydanKiKo2005], Tilia caucasica [TerGri1962, BenDov1994], Tilia cordata [Danzig1959, Komosi1986, Koteja1971a, BenDov1994], Tilia euchlora [Komosi1986, BenDov1994], Tilia platyphyllos [Schmut1952, KotejaZa1966, Komosi1986, BenDov1994, KozarGuBa1994]. Ulmaceae: Celtis willdenowiana [Paik1978, BenDov1994], Ulmus [KozarHuFo1989, Koszta1996], Ulmus campestris [Schmut1952], Ulmus laevis [KozarDr1991, BenDov1994]. Vitaceae: Vitis adoratissima [Schmut1952], Vitis vinifera [Schmut1952, Kozar1980, BenDov1994, Foldi2000]. HYMENOPTERA Platygasteridae: Allotropa ashmeadi [Mueseb1939].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Canada (British Columbia [Ferris1950b, KozarHuFo1989, BenDov1994], Nova Scotia [Gillia1935, Ferris1950b, BenDov1994]); United States of America (California [Essig1909a, BenDov1994], Maine [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994]). Oriental: China (Zhejiang (=Chekiang) [Wu2001b]). Palaearctic: Afghanistan [KozarFoZa1996]; Armenia [TerGri1956, TerGri1969, BenDov1994]; Austria [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994]; Bulgaria [Grigor1964, Tsalev1968, KosztaKo1988F]; China [Borchs1962a, BenDov1994, Wu2000a] (Shanxi (=Shansi) [Xie1998]); Corsica [Foldi2003]; Czech Republic [Sulc1943, BenDov1994]; Denmark [KozarzRe1975, BenDov1994]; France [Signor1875b, Goux1931, Goux1933a, BenDov1994, Foldi2000, Foldi2001]; Georgia (Georgia [Hadzib1960b, BenDov1994, Yasnos2001, Hadzib1983]); Germany [Schmut1952, Schmut1980, BenDov1994]; Hungary [KozarOrKo1977, KozarDr1991, BenDov1994, Kozar1999a, KozarKiSa2004]; Iran [KozarFoZa1996, Moghad2009, Moghad2010, MoghadTa2010]; Iraq [Bodenh1943, BenDov1994]; Italy [Tranfa1976, Marott1987a, LongoMaRu1989, LongoRuMa1991, BenDov1994, LongoMaPe1995, PellizFo1996]; Kazakhstan [Mateso1968, BenDov1994]; Latvia [Rasina1955, Rasina1959, BenDov1994]; Lithuania [MalumpOsPy2009, MalumpOsPy2010]; Moldova [KozarOs1987, BenDov1994]; Netherlands [Reyne1957, BenDov1994]; North Korea [Kanda1941a, Danzig1978, BenDov1994]; Poland [KotejaZa1966, Koteja1974b, KotejaZa1979, KotejaZa1983, Komosi1986, Komosi1986a, Komosi1987]; Romania; Russia (Kuril Islands [Danzig1978, BenDov1994], Primor'ye Kray [Danzig1978, BenDov1994], Sakhalin Oblast [Danzig1978, BenDov1994], Tatarstan (=Tatar) AR [Kozar1985a, BenDov1994], Voronoezh Oblast [Gavril2003a], Yakutia-Sakha (=Yakut) AR [Danzig1978a, BenDov1994]); Sardinia [PellizFo1996]; Sicily [LongoMaPe1995, RussoMa1997]; Slovenia [Janezi1954, Seljak2010]; South Korea [KwonDaPa2003]; Sweden [Ossian1959, BenDov1994, Gertss2000, Gertss2001]; Switzerland [KosztaKo1988F, KozarGuBa1994]; Turkey [Bodenh1953a, BenDov1994, UygunSeEr1998, KaydanUlZe2004, KaydanKiKo2005, KaydanUlEr2007]; Ukraine [Terezn1975, BenDov1994]; United Kingdom (England [Dougla1888a, BenDov1994], Scotland [Willia1962, BenDov1994]); Yugoslavia [Masten2007].

BIOLOGY: Green (1915a) observed fully developed females (with their conspicuous ovisacs) in England at June; the reproducing female were observed to migrate from the host plant, upon which they developed, to surrounding plants. Life history, natural enemies and associated ants discussed by Kosztarab & Kozar (1988F). Natural enemies discussed by Bartlett (1978). Parasites in the Palaearctic region discussed by Trjapitzin (1989). Biology discussed by Kozarzhevskaya (1992). Kosztarab (1996) reported that in Northeastern North America it is a bisexual species; develops one annual generation; second instar nymphs overwinter in bark crevices; migrate to leaves in early spring; adults appear in late spring to early summer; first instars appear in July, feed and leaves; second instar nymphs migrate in fall to the bark. Occuring on the bark of trunk and branches of the host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Marchal (1908), Ferris (1950b), Ter-Grigorian (1973), Tereznikova (1975), Paik (1978), Danzig (1980b), Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F), Kosztarab (1996) and by Danzig (2003). Good description and illustration of the first-instar nymph, female second-instar nymph and female third-instar nymph given by Ter-Grigorian (1973). Good description of the adult female given by Sulc (1943), Borchsenius (1949) and by Tang (1992). Records of this species prior to 1902 from North America probably refer to P. acericola King (see Ferris, 1950b). Fernald (1903b:93) indicates that Douglas' (1890b) record of Pulvinaria ribesiae Signoret (family Coccidae), is a misidentification of P. aceris. De Geer (1776: 442, Plate 28, Figs. 16-22) described Coccus farinosus alni from alder in Europe. Subsequent authors (Signoret, 1875a; Cockerell, 1898c) accepted it as mealybug, but disputed its identity. However, De Geer (1776) contains many polynominals, and is hence an unvailable work for nomenclatural purposes. Lindinger (1912) suggested that De Geer's species is conspecific with Ph. aceris Signoret. Signoret attributed Pseudococcus mespili to Geoffroy, but Opinion 228 (1954) placed the book by Geoffroy (1762) on the Official List of invalid works in zoology. Consequently, Chermes mespili Geoffroy is an unvailable name, and Pseudococcus mespili Signoret is the senior synonym of this species. In addition, Cockerell (1899j) noted that Geoffroy's description refers to a Coccidae.Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Hadzibejli (1960b). Good description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

SYSTEMATICS: Reh (1903: 305) introduced the binomen Dactylopius vagabundus for the description of a scale insect named 'Zottenschildlausen' by Schilling, 1897: 248.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: This mealybug is supposed to be of European origin where occasionally becomes a pest on ornamental or fruit trees (Newstead, 1903; Kosztarab & Kozár, 1988F). Has been introduced into North America at the beginning of the 20th century, and became established as a pest of rosaceous fruit trees in Maine, British Columbia, Nova Scotia and California (Turnbull & Chant, 1961; Bartlett, 1978). Komosinska (1986a, 1986b, 1987a, 1987b) quantified the distribution and occurence on various ornamental and forest trees in Warsaw, Poland. Occasionally a pest of Malus and Fraxinus (Kosztarab & Kozár, 1988).The Apple mealybug Phenacoccus aceris was verified as the vector of the Little Cherry Virus 2 (LChV-2) in Baden-Wuerttemberg. (Petruschke, et al., 2011) Recent experiments have demonstrated that P. aceris efficiently transmits six distinct GLRaV species, Grapevine virus A and Grapevine virus B (GVA and GVB). (Le Maguet, et al., 2013)

KEYS: Moghaddam 2013: 46 [Key to species of Phenacoccus Cockerell in Iran]; Malumphy 2011: 168 (female) [Key to adult female Phenacoccus native to Britain]; Moghaddam 2010: 67 (female) [Phenacoccus species of Iran]; Moghaddam & Alikhani 2010: 16-17 (female) [Phenacoccus species of Iran]; Danzig 2006a: 197-200 (female) [A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus]; Kwon et al. 2003: 114 (female) [Korea]; Wu 2000a: 69-70 (female) [PHenacoccus species of China]; Marotta & Russo & Matile-Ferrero 1997: 438 (female) [Italy]; Kosztarab 1996: 155 (female) [Northeastern North USA]; Tang 1992: 529, 530 (female) [China]; Tang 1992: 554 (female) [China]; Kosztarab & Kozar 1988F: 123 (female) [Central Europe]; Danzig 1980b: 124 (female) [Far East of Russia]; Bazarov & Nurmamatov 1975b: 55 (female) [Tajikistan]; Tereznikova 1975: 211 (female) [Ukraine]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 135 (female) [Armenia]; McKenzie 1967: 214 (female) [U.S.A., California]; McKenzie 1964: 238 (female) [North America]; Williams 1962: 34 (female) [England]; McKenzie 1961: 26 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1960: 713 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1953a: 395 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1950b: 120 (female) [North America]; Borchsenius 1949: 210 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BahderPoAl2013 [economic importance: 1293]; Baird1958 [host, distribution, biological control: 483-485]; Bartle1978e [economic importance, biological control, host, distribution: 148-149]; Beirne1975 [biological control, host, distribution: 225-236]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 304-306,320,332]; Bodenh1943 [host, distribution: 16-17]; Bodenh1953 [host, distribution: 122]; Borchs1937a [taxonomy: 137, 173, 175, 178]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history: 212-214, 219-221]; Borchs1962a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 232-233]; CebeciAr2006 [host, distribution: 139]; Chacho1967 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 728-730]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 324, 325]; Cocker1899j [taxonomy: 264]; Cocker1900b [taxonomy: 87]; Comsto1881a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 345]; Danzig1959 [host, distribution: 445]; Danzig1970 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 1016-17]; Danzig1978 [host, distribution: 9-10]; Danzig1978a [host, distribution: 74]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 124-126]; Danzig1995 [taxonomy, life history, structure: 19-24]; Danzig2003 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 331-333]; Danzig2006a [taxonomy: 198]; DeGeer1776 [taxonomy: 442]; Demeye2004 [distribution, disease transmission: 18-19]; Dougla1888a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 88]; Dougla1888b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 124]; Dougla1890a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 154]; Dougla1890b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 240]; Essig1909a [host, distribution: 36]; FengChYe1999 [economic importance, chemistry: 515-518]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 91]; Ferris1950b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 126-128]; Foldi2000 [host, distribution: 78]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Foldi2003 [host, distribution: 149]; Gavril2003a [host, distribution: 109]; Gavril2004 [host, distribution: 523]; GavrilKu2005 [taxonomy, distribution: 17-34]; GavrilTr2008a [taxonomy, karyology: 74]; Germai2011 [distribution, economic importance: 31-34]; Germai2011a [distribution, economic importance: 8]; Gertss2000 [host, distribution: 149]; Gertss2001 [distribution: 123-130]; Gillia1935 [host, distribution, economic importance: 161-164]; Gillia1936 [host, distribution: 133]; Gmelin1790 [taxonomy: 2220]; GolanLaJa2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 229-249]; Goux1931 [host, distribution: 4]; Goux1933a [host, distribution: 235]; Green1915a [host, distribution, life history: 180]; Grigor1964 [host, distribution: 28-33]; Hadzib1960b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 304-306]; Hadzib1983 [host, distribution, biological control: 77-78, 78-79]; HakkonPi1984 [biological control: 1109-1121]; HardyGuHo2008 [taxonomy, phylogeny, molecular data: 51-71]; Hawkin1994 [biological control: 3]; Hoffma2002 [life history, ecology, host, distribution, biological control: 1-164]; HosseiHa2011 [molecular data: 46]; Janezi1954 [host, distribution: 126]; Jansen2001 [host, distribution: 197-206]; Kaweck1935 [host, distribution: 75]; KaydanKi2007 [host, distribution, life history: 224-230]; KaydanKi2008 [life history, host, distribution: 274]; KaydanKiKo2005 [host, distribution: 89]; KaydanKo2010a [distribution: 30]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 101]; KaydanUlZe2004 [host, distribution: 221]; Kiritc1932a [taxonomy: 260-261]; Kiritc1936 [host, distribution: 72]; Kobakh1965 [biological control: 323-330]; Kohler2009a [host, distribution: 24]; KohlerEi2005 [host, distribution: 161]; Komosi1986 [host, distribution: 4]; Komosi1986a [host, distribution: 14]; Komosi1987 [host, distribution: 96]; Komosi1987a [host, distribution: 106]; Koszta1996 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, economic importance: 155-157]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, biological control: 123-125, 130-131]; Koteja1971a [host, distribution: 321]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy, distribution: 73]; Koteja2000a [distribution: 172]; KotejaZa1966 [host, distribution: 317]; KotejaZa1969 [host, distribution: 361]; KotejaZa1979 [distribution: 673]; KotejaZa1983 [host, distribution: 473]; Kozar1980 [host, distribution: 67]; Kozar1999a [host, distribution: 138]; KozarDr1991 [host, distribution: 362]; KozarFoZa1996 [host, distribution: 64]; KozarHuFo1989 [host, distribution: 72]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 57]; KozarOrKo1977 [host, distribution: 71]; KozarOs1987 [host, distribution: 93]; KozarzRe1975 [host, distribution: 11]; KwonDaPa2003 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 114-116]; Lagows1996 [host, distribution: 31]; LeMaguBeHe2012 [ecology, economic importance, host, life history: 717-723]; LeMaguFuCh2013 [distribution, ecology, economic importance, host, life history: 416-427]; Lindin1912b [taxonomy: 366]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 119]; LongoMaRu1989 [host, distribution: 170]; LongoRu1990 [host, distribution: 114]; LongoRuMa1991 [host, distribution: 183-184]; MacPheCaVa1976 [biological control: 337-358]; Malump2011 [taxonomy: 168]; Malump2011a [distribution, host, illustration: 49,52-53]; MalumpBa2012 [distribution: 19]; MalumpKa2011a [distribution, host, illustration: 49,53]; MalumpOs2008 [host, distribution: 108]; MalumpOsPy2009 [host, distribution: 121]; MalumpOsPy2010 [host, distribution: 255]; Marcha1908 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 239-242]; Marott1987a [host, distribution: 110]; Marott1992a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 85-89]; MarottTr1995a [taxonomy: 70-71]; Marsha1942 [host, distribution, chemical control: 727-732]; Marsha1952 [host, distribution, economic importance: 25-31]; Marsha1953 [host, distribution, economic importance: 7-11]; MarshaPi1944 [host, distribution, economic importance, chemical control, biological control: 91]; Masten2007 [host, distribution, taxonomy: 1-242]; Mateso1968 [host, distribution: 109-110]; MazzeoLoRu1994 [host, distribution: 203]; McLeod1954 [host, distribution, biological control: 19-27]; McLeod1962 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 1-33]; MekuriSmBe2013 [economic importance: 851]; Moghad2009 [host, distribution: 23]; Moghad2010 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 67]; Moghad2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 6, 46-47, 99]; Moghad2013 [distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 46-47, 99]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 68]; MoghadAl2010 [taxonomy: 16]; MoghadTa2010 [host, distribution: 40]; Moore1988 [biological control: 213]; Mueseb1939 [host, distribution, biological control: 158-160]; Newste1892 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 144-145]; Newste1903 [taxonomy: 176]; Paik1978 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution]; Patter1966 [host, distribution, chemical control: 1430-1435]; Pelliz2011 [distribution: 313]; PellizFo1996 [host, distribution: 125]; PetrusRiSc2011 [ecology, host: 11-13]; PicketPuLe1958 [host, distribution, biological control, chemical control: 169-174]; Podsia1981a [biological control: 159-162]; Rasina1955 [host, distribution: 68-69]; Rasina1959 [host, distribution: 110]; Reh1903 [taxonomy: 305]; Reh1904 [taxonomy: 36]; Reyne1957 [host, distribution: 18]; RossHaOk2012 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 199]; RussoMa1997 [distribution: 48]; Schmut1952 [host, distribution: 396]; Schmut1955b [host, distribution, biological control: 517]; Schmut1980 [taxonomy: 50]; Seljak2010 [host, distribution: 101]; SentenKu2003 [host, distribution, biological control: 247-252]; SforzaBoGr2003 [economic importance, disease transmission, host, distribution: 975-981]; SforzaGr2000 [host, distribution, economic importance: 46-50]; Signor1869 [taxonomy: 852, 861]; Signor1875b [taxonomy: 21]; Signor1875c [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 329-330, 333-334]; SimonKa2011 [distribution: 235]; Sulc1943 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 1-52]; Szulcz1926 [host, distribution: 137-143]; Szulcz1949 [distribution: 219-224]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 530-531,559]; TangHaTa1992 [host, distribution: 9]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 22-23]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 214-217, 216-219]; TerGri1956 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 35, 36]; TerGri1962 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 128-130]; TerGri1969 [host, distribution: 53]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 136-140, 140-143]; Tranfa1976 [host, distribution: 137]; Trjapi1989 [biological control: 53, 55, 134, 135, 14]; Tsalev1968 [host, distribution: 207]; Tsalev1972 [host, distribution, biological control: 81]; TurnbuCh1961 [economic importance, biological control: 697-753]; UlgentCa2004 [host, distribution: 79-84]; UlubasKaKi2007 [molecular data,: 232-238]; UygunSeEr1998 [host, distribution: 183-191]; Walker1852 [taxonomy: 1082]; Willia1962 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 34-35]; WilliaMa2012 [distribution: 83]; Wu2000a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 59-72]; Wu2001b [ecology: 252]; Xie1998 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 88-89]; Yasnos2001 [host, distribution, biological control: 435-440]; YasumaNa1957 [life history, ecology: 203-219].



Phenacoccus alienus De Lotto

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus alienus De Lotto, 1961: 217. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Middleburg, on roots of grass. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae [DeLott1961, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [DeLott1961, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the roots of the host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by De Lotto (1961).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 306]; DeLott1961 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 217-218].



Phenacoccus alleni McKenzie

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus alleni McKenzie, 1964: 243. Type data: U.S.A.: California, San Bernardino County, East Morongo Valley, on Hymenocloa salsola. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Phenacoccus nonarius McKenzie, 1964: 253. Type data: U.S.A.: California, San Bernardino County, East Morongo Valley, on Hymenoclea salsola. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by McKenzie, 1967: 216.

COMMON NAME: Allen mealybug [McKenz1964, McKenz1967].



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Franseria dumosa [McKenz1967, BenDov1994], Hymenoclea salsola [McKenz1964, BenDov1994]. Loasaceae: Petalonyx thurberi [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Malvaceae: Sphaeralcea orcutii [McKenz1967, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (California [McKenz1964, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Occuring on the leaves and twigs of its host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by McKenzie (1964, 1967).

KEYS: Williams 1987c: 338 (female) [North and South America]; McKenzie 1967: 214-215 (female) [U.S.A., California]; McKenzie 1964: 239 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 306]; McKenz1964 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 243-245]; McKenz1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 216-219].



Phenacoccus alonim Ben-Dov

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus alonim Ben-Dov, 1991: 11. Type data: ISRAEL: Alone Aba Nature Reserve, on Quercus ithaburensis. Holotype female. Type depository: Bet Dagan: Department of Entomology, The Volcani Center, Israel. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Fagaceae: Quercus ithaburensis [BenDov1991, BenDov1994, SpodekBeMe2014].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Israel [BenDov1991, BenDov1994, SpodekBeMe2014].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Ben-Dov (1991).

CITATIONS: BenDov1991 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 11-13]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 307]; BenDov2012 [catalogue, distribution, host: 36, 42]; SpodekBeMe2014 [distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 111, 116, 118].



Phenacoccus alticola Bazarov

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus alticola Bazarov, 1967a: 61. Type data: TADZHIKISTAN: Pamir, Zor-Kul, on Elymus sp. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Euripersia alticola; Tang, 1992: 447. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus alticola; Ben-Dov, 1994: 307. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Elymus [Bazaro1967a, BenDov1994], Elymus mutans [Danzig2006a], Leymus secalinus [Danzig2006a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Bazaro1967a, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Living on roots and underground stems of its host plant. (Danzig, 2006a)

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Bazarov (1967a). Good description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

STRUCTURE: Body elongate; 2.5 mm long. Antennae 7-segmented. Legs with comparatively short segments; hind tibiae with translucent pores. Spiracles as in Ph. phenacoccoides, with compact groups of trilocular pores. Circulus absent. Multilocular pores present on two posterior abdominal sternites only. Quinquelocular pores absent. Tubular ducts present on ventrum only, not numerous, of two sizes. (Danzig, 2006a)

SYSTEMATICS: Ph. alticola differs from similar species of the genus Phenacoccus in the presence of large ventral tubular ducts not only in the marginal zone, but also in the middle part of abdomen. (Danzig, 2006a)

KEYS: Danzig 2006a: 197-200 (female) [A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus]; Tang 1992: 446 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions].

CITATIONS: Bazaro1967a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 61-63]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 307]; Danzig2006a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 200, 225]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 447-448].



Phenacoccus americanus King & Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus americanae King & Cockerell, 1897: 91. Type data: U.S.A.: Massachusetts, Andover, under a stone in nest of Lasius americanus. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Massachusetts [KingCo1897, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Living under rocks in nest of ants, Lasius americanus.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description of the adult female given by King & Cockerell (1897).

SYSTEMATICS: No material of this species is available in major collections of scale insects (Kosztarab, 1996). Nevertheless, this is a valid species.

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 307]; KingCo1897 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 91]; Koszta1996 [taxonomy: 157].



Phenacoccus angophorae Williams

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus angophorae Williams, 1985: 266. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Cowan, on Angophora sp. Holotype female. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Angophora [Willia1985, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Willia1985, BenDov1994]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Williams (1985).

KEYS: Williams 1985: 266 (female) [Australia].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 307]; Willia1985 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 266-267].



Phenacoccus angustatus Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus angustatus Borchsenius, 1949: 222. Type data: KYRGYZSTAN and TADZHIKISTAN: on Sorghum sp. and Cynodon dactylon. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female.

Caulococcus angustatus; Borchsenius, 1960c: 47. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus angustatus; Ben-Dov, 1994: 307. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Cynodon dactylon [Borchs1949, BenDov1994], Phleum phleoides [Mateso1968, BenDov1994], Poa sp. [KaydanKo2010a], Sorghum [Borchs1949, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kazakhstan [Mateso1968, BenDov1994]; Kyrgyzstan (=Kirgizia) [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]; Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]; Turkey [KaydanKo2010a]; Turkmenistan [Danzig2006a].

BIOLOGY: Living under the leaf sheaths of sorghum. (Danzig, 2006a)

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949) and by Tang (1992). Good illustration of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1960c).

STRUCTURE: Body elongate, 3 mm long. Antennae 9-segmented. Legs long; hind coxa and tibia with translucent pores. Circulus absent. Multilocular pores present on five posterior abdominal sternites. Quinquelocular pores numerous everywhere on body, but rare on two posterior abdominal segments. (Danzig, 2006a)

SYSTEMATICS: The species is characterized by a great number of quinquelocular pores, which are present even on two posterior sternites. Females from Aktyubinsk Province and Turkmenia differ from the type material in the presence of singular small tubular ducts (along with large ducts) on posterior sternites. Danzig (2006a) suggested that this material is not Ph. angustatus. Matesova (1968) recorded a species from eastern Kazakhstan and named it "Ph. prope angustatus;" it was collected from leaves of Phleum. It is not clear whether this species is Ph. angustatus or not.

KEYS: Danzig 2006a: 197-200 (female) [A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus]; Bazarov & Nurmamatov 1975b: 55 (female) [Tajikistan]; Borchsenius 1949: 210 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 307]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 222-223]; Borchs1960c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 47-49]; Danzig2006a [illustration, taxonomy: 199, 209]; KaydanKo2010a [distribution, host: 35]; Mateso1968 [host, distribution: 109]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 422-423].



Phenacoccus arambourgi Balachowsky

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus arambourgi Balachowsky, 1954b: 110. Type data: LEBANON: Barrouk, on Cedrus libanotica ssp. libani. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Pinaceae: Cedrus libanotica libani [Balach1954b, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Lebanon [Balach1954b, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Balachowsky (1954b).

KEYS: Russo 1994: 282 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: Balach1954b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 110-114]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 308].



Phenacoccus arctophilus (Wang)

NOMENCLATURE:

Paroudablis arctophilus Wang, 1979a: 460. Type data: CHINA: Beijing, on Rehmannia glutinosa and R. glutinosa var. huaichingensis. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Beijing: Institute of Entomology, Academy of Sciences, China. Described: female. Illust.

Phenacoccus arctophilus; Tang, 1992: 532. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Scrophulariaceae: Rehmannia glutinosa [Wang1979a, BenDov1994], Rehmannia glutinosa huaichingensis [Wang1979a, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China [Wang1979a, Tang1992, TangHaTa1992, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Wang (1979a). Good description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Wu 2000a: 69-70 (female) [PHenacoccus species of China]; Tang 1992: 529 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 308]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 532]; TangHaTa1992 [host, distribution: 9]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 22]; Wang1979a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 460-461]; Wu2000a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 60-61, 69-70].



Phenacoccus argentinus Granara de Willink in: Granara de Willink & Szumik

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus argentinus Granara de Willink in: Granara de Willink & Szumik, 2007: 43. Type data: ARGENTINA: Tucuman, Taff, Taff de Valle, Dique La Angostura, on Eupatorium sp.; collected M. Granara de Willink, i-1995. Holotype female. Type depository: Tucuman: Fundacion e Instituto Miguel Lillo, Universidade Nactional de Tucuman, Argentina. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Asteraceae: Eupatorium [GranarSz2007].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina (Tucuman [GranarSz2007]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Granara de Willink & Szumik (2007).

KEYS: Granara de Willink & Szumik 2007: 41-43 (female) [Phencoccus species of South America].

CITATIONS: GranarSz2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 43-44].



Phenacoccus artemisiae Ehrhorn

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus artemisiae Ehrhorn, 1900: 313. Type data: U.S.A.: California, Santa Clara County, near Mountain View, on Artemisia californica. Syntypes, both sexes. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

COMMON NAMES: artemisia mealybug [McKenz1967]; Artemisia mealybug [McKenz1967].



HOSTS: Asteraceae [GranarSz2007], Artemisia californica [Ehrhor1900, BenDov1994], Artemisia tridentata [GranarSz2007], Chrysothamnus [GranarSz2007], Tessaria absinthoides [GranarSz2007]. Fabaceae: Lotus [McKenz1967, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (California [Ehrhor1900, BenDov1994], Idaho [GranarSz2007], Nevada [GranarSz2007], Oregon [GranarSz2007]). Neotropical: Argentina (Mendoza [GranarSz2007]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the leaves and small twigs of the host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female by Ferris (1950b), McKenzie (1967) and by Granara de Willink & Szumik (2007).

KEYS: Granara de Willink & Szumik 2007: 41-43 (female) [Phencoccus species of South America]; Williams 1987c: 338 (female) [North and South America]; McKenzie 1967: 214 (female) [U.S.A., California]; McKenzie 1964: 239 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1960: 713 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1960: 26 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1953a: 395 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1950b: 121 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 308]; Ehrhor1900 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 313, 317]; Ferris1950b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 129-130]; GranarSz2007 [pp. 44-45,48]; McKenz1967 [taxonomy, description, illustation, host, distribution: 219-221].



Phenacoccus arthrophyti Archangelskaya

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus arthrophytoni Archangelskaya, 1930: 78. Type data: TURKMENISTAN: Repetek, on Arthrophytum ammodendron. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female.

Phenacoccus arthrophyti; Archangelskaya, 1931: 74. Justified emendation.

Euripersia arthrophyti; Tang, 1992: 449. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus artophyti; Tang, 1992: 449. Misspelling of species name.



ASSOCIATES: HEMIPTERA Psyllidae: Caillardia notata Log. [Danzig2006a], Caillardia robusta Log. [Danzig2006a].

FOES: HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Anagyrus diversicornis Mercet [Trjapi1989], Anagyrus haloxyli Sugonjaev [Trjapi1989], Echthroplexiella gallarum Sugonjaev [Trjapi1989], Eremophasma eremobium Sugonjaev [Trjapi1989], Prochiloneurus bolivari Mercet [Trjapi1989], Rhopus olgae Myartseva [Trjapi1989].

HOSTS: Chenopodiaceae: Anabasis salsa [Danzig2006a], Camphorosma lessingi [Danzig2006a], Halostachys begangerianum [Danzig2006a], Haloxylon [Moghad2010], Haloxylon ammodendron [Archan1930, BenDov1994], Haloxylon aphyllum [Danzig1969, BenDov1994], Haloxylon persicum [Danzig1968b, BenDov1994], Kochia prostrata [Danzig2006a], Salsola [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]. Compositae: Artemisia cina [Danzig2006a], Artemisia sp. [Danzig2006a], Artemisia terrae-albae [Danzig2006a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Iran [Moghad2009, Moghad2010]; Kazakhstan [Danzig2006a]; Mongolia [Danzig1969, Danzig1972b, Danzig1974, BenDov1994]; Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Danzig1968b, BenDov1994, Danzig2006a]; Turkmenistan [Archan1930, BenDov1994, Danzig2006a]; Uzbekistan [Danzig2006a].

BIOLOGY: This mealybug lives as an inquiline insect in galls of leafhoppers of the genus Caillardia (C. notata, C. robusta) on Haloxylon spp. (Danzig, 1968b, 1969).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949).

STRUCTURE: Body elongate-oval or elongate, yellowish, 2.5 mm long. Antennae 9-segmented. Legs well developed. Circulus absent. Multilocular pores forming transverse rows on tergites IV-VII and rows and bands on sternites IV-VIII, some pores also present on thoracic sternites. (Danzig, 2006a) Ovisac friable. Eggs and larvae yellow. (Danzig, 2006a)

SYSTEMATICS: The name arthrophytoni had been used only once (Archangelskaya, 1930); on the contrary, the name arthrophyti has prevailing usage and can be saved (ICZN, Article 33.3.1). (Danzig, 2006a)

KEYS: Moghaddam 2013: 46 [Key to species of Phenacoccus Cockerell in Iran]; Moghaddam 2010: 67 (female) [Phenacoccus species of Iran]; Danzig 2006a: 197-200 (female) [A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus]; Tang 1992: 447 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Borchsenius 1949: 211 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: Archan1930 [host, distribution, economic importance: 78]; Archan1931 [taxonomy: 74]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 308]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 232-233]; Danzig1968 [host, distribution: 844]; Danzig1969 [host, distribution: 1579]; Danzig1972b [host, distribution: 332]; Danzig1974 [host, distribution: 68]; Danzig2006a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 200, 212-213]; Moghad2009 [host, distribution: 23]; Moghad2010 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 67]; Moghad2013 [distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 48-49, 99]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 68]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 449]; Trjapi1989 [biological control: 132, 137, 141, 160,].



Phenacoccus atubulatus Wu, S.A.

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus atubulatus Wu, S.A., 2000a: 61, 71. Type data: CHINA: Ningxia Hui, Daba Forest area, on Cynanchum komarovii; collected Wang, J.Y., 11.viii.1989. . Holotype female. Type depository: Shanxi: Entomological Institute, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, China. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Apocynaceae: Cynanchum komarovii [Wu2000a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China (Ningxia (=Ningsia)).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Wu (2000a).

KEYS: Wu, S.A. 2000a: 69-70 (female) [Phenacoccus species of China.].

CITATIONS: Wu2000a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 61-62,71].



Phenacoccus avenae Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus avenae Borchsenius, 1949: 217. Type data: ARMENIA: on oats. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Williams & Miller, 1985: 672. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female.

Caulococcus avenae; Borchsenius, 1960c: 49. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus avenae; Ben-Dov, 1994: 309. Revived combination.

COMMON NAME: oat mealybug [KosztaKo1988F].



HOSTS: Amaryllidaceae: Galanthus elwesii [WilliaMi1985, BenDov1994], Leucojum [WilliaMi1985, BenDov1994], Narcissus [WilliaMi1985, BenDov1994], Pancratium sp. [BenDov2012], Sternbergia [WilliaMi1985, BenDov1994]. Apiaceae: Bifora radians [KaydanKiKo2005]. Asteraceae: Carduus pycnophelus [KaydanKiKo2005], Centaurea [KaydanKiKo2005], Lactuca [KaydanKiKo2005]. Boraginaceae: Echium [KaydanKiKo2005]. Brassicaceae: Diplotaxis tenuifolia [KaydanKiKo2005], Sisymbrium [KaydanKiKo2005]. Iridaceae: Crocus [WilliaMi1985, BenDov1994], Freesia [WilliaMi1985, BenDov1994], Gladiolus [WilliaMi1985, BenDov1994], Iris germanica [WilliaMi1985, BenDov1994]. Lamiaceae: Lamium [KaydanKiKo2005], Stachys [KaydanKiKo2005]. Liliaceae: Fritillaria [WilliaMi1985, BenDov1994], Hyacinthus azureus [WilliaMi1985, BenDov1994], Scilla bifolia [WilliaMi1985, BenDov1994], Scilla luciliae [WilliaMi1985, BenDov1994], Tulipa [WilliaMi1985, BenDov1994], Urginea maritima [BenDov1987, BenDov1994]. Poaceae: Agrostis [Marott1992a, BenDov1994], Agrostis fenius [KaydanUlEr2007], Avena [Borchs1949, TerGri1966, KaydanKiKo2005], Avena fatua [Marott1992a, BenDov1994], Avena sterilis [KaydanKo2010a], Bromus inermis [KaydanKiKo2005], Cynodon dactylon [Marott1992a, BenDov1994, KaydanKiKo2005], Hordeum murinum [Marott1992a, BenDov1994, KaydanKiKo2005], Lolium [KaydanUlEr2007], Poa bulbosa [TerGri1966, TerGri1973, BenDov1994]. Resedaceae: Reseda [KaydanUlEr2007]. Rubiaceae: Galium [KaydanKiKo2005].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [TerGri1966, TerGri1973, BenDov1994]; Hungary [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994, KozarKiSa2004]; Israel [BenDov1987, BenDov1994]; Italy [MarottTr1990, Marott1992a, BenDov1994, LongoMaPe1995]; Netherlands [WilliaMi1985, BenDov1994]; Turkey [WilliaMi1985, BenDov1994, KaydanKiKo2005, KaydanUlEr2007]; Ukraine (Krym (=Crimea) Oblast [Danzig2003]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the roots, corms and rhizomes of various ornamental plants and inside the leaf sheaths of grasses.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ter-Grigorian (1973), Williams & Miller (1985) and by Danzig (2003). Description of adult female by Borchsenius (1949) and by Tang (1992). Description of female third-instar nymph by Ter-Grigorian (1973).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Occuring on plants of economic importance to horticulture. Frequenly intercepted on corms and rhizomes imported into Britain and the U.S.A. (Williams & Miller, 1985).

KEYS: Danzig 2006a: 197-200 (female) [A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus]; Marotta & Russo & Matile-Ferrero 1997: 438 (female) [Italy]; Tang 1992: 530 (female) [China]; Kosztarab & Kozar 1988F: 123 (female) [Central Europe]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 136 (female) [Armenia]; Borchsenius 1949: 210 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1987 [host, distribution: 115]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 309]; BenDov2012 [catalogue, distribution, host: 36]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 217-219]; Borchs1960c [taxonomy: 49]; CebeciAr2006 [host, distribution: 139]; Danzig2003 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 345-347]; Danzig2006a [taxonomy: 198]; KaydanKiKo2005 [host, distribution: 89]; KaydanKo2010a [distribution, host: 35-36]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 101]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 125-126]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 57]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 119]; MalumpBa2012 [distribution, host: 32-33]; Marott1992a [host, distribution: 83-84]; MarottTr1990 [host, distribution: 109]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 532-533]; TerGri1966 [host, distribution: 87]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 168-170]; WilliaMa2012 [distribution, host: 89]; WilliaMi1985 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 671-674].



Phenacoccus avetianae Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus avetianae Borchsenius, 1949: 230. Type data: ARMENIA: on unidentified plant. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female.



HOSTS: Fabaceae: Medicago [TerGri1966, TerGri1973, BenDov1994], Trifolium [TerGri1966, TerGri1973, BenDov1994]. Poaceae: Agropyron [TerGri1973, BenDov1994], Festuca [TerGri1973, BenDov1994], Poa bulbosa [TerGri1973, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [Borchs1949, TerGri1966, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Ter-Grigorian (1973). Good description and illustration of the first-instar nymph, female second-instar nymph and female third-instar nymph given by Ter-Grigorian (1973). Good description given by Borchsenius (1949) and by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Tang 1992: 528 (female) [China]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 135 (female) [Armenia]; Borchsenius 1949: 211 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 309]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, illustration: 230-231]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 533-534]; TerGri1966 [host, distribution: 89]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 153-157].



Phenacoccus azaleae Kuwana

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus azaleae Kuwana, 1914: 1. Type data: JAPAN: Locality not indicated, on Azalea. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Ibaraki-ken: Insect Taxonomy Laboratory, National Institute of Agricultural Environmental Sciences, Kannon-dai, Yatabe, Tsukuba-shi, (Kuwana), Japan. Described: female.

Phenacoccus viburnae Kanda, 1931: 25. Type data: JAPAN: on Viburnum dilatatum. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Yokohama: S. Kanda Collection, Asano Senior High School, Kanagawa-ku, Japan. Described: female. Synonymy by Wu, 2000a: 69.

Phenacoccus vibrni; Kanda, 1943a: 43. Misspelling of species name.

Phenacoccus viburni Kanda, 1943a: 45. Unjustified emendation; discovered by Kawai, 1980: 94.

Phenacoccus viburni Kawai, 1972: 8. Unjustified emendation.



FOES: COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Coccinella septempunctata L. [XieZhGu2001], Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) [XieZhGu2001]. HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Anagyrus schoenherri Westwood [XieZhTa2004], Cheiloneurus phenacocci [Trjapi1989], Syrphophagus aphidivorus (Mayr) [XieZhTa2004].

HOSTS: Caprifoliaceae: Viburnum dilatatum [Kanda1931, BenDov1994]. Ericaceae: Azalea [Kuwana1914, BenDov1994], Rhododendron [Paik1978, BenDov1994]. Rosaceae: Prunus salicina [TangLi1988, BenDov1994], Spiraea salicifolia [TangLi1988, BenDov1994]. Ulmaceae: Ulmus macrocarpa [TangLi1988, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China (Gansu (=Kansu) [XieLiMi1998], Hebei (=Hopei) [XieLiMi1998], Nei Monggol (=Inner Mongolia) [TangLi1988, BenDov1994], Shandong (=Shantung) [XieLiMi1998], Shanxi (=Shansi) [Xie1998, XieLiMi1998]); Japan [Kuwana1914, Kanda1931, BenDov1994]; South Korea [Kanda1941a].

BIOLOGY: Develops one annual generation in China (Xie et al., 1998)

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Kuwana (1917), Kanda (1935), Paik (1978), Tang & Li (1988) and by Tang (1992). Good description of the adult female given by Kawai (1980).Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Kanda (1931, 1935), Tang & Li (1988) and by Tang (1992). Good description of the adult female given by Kawai (1980).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Reported as a destructive pest in Bunge Pricklyash forest in China (Xie et al. 1998).

KEYS: Kwon et al. 2003: 114 (female) [Korea]; Wu 2000a: 69-70 (female) [PHenacoccus species of China]; Tang 1992: 529 (female) [China]; Tang 1992: 529 (female) [as Phenacoccus viburnae; China]; Kanda 1943a: 43 (female) [Japan].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 309-310]; Kanda1931 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 25-28]; Kanda1935 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 276-288]; Kanda1941a [host, distribution: 300-301]; Kawai1972 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 8]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 94-95]; Kuwana1914 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 1-2]; Kuwana1917a [taxonomy: 170]; KwonDaPa2003 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 116]; Paik1978 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution]; Sassce1915 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 29]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 534-535,552,741,744]; TangLi1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 45-49, 54-56]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 23]; Trjapi1989 [biological control: 305]; Wu2000a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 61, 69-70]; WuLuNa2012 [distribution, economic importance: 27]; Xie1998 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 89-92]; XieLiMi1998 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 420-423]; XieXuTa2004 [host, distribution: 116-122]; XieZhGu2001 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history, biological control: 377-382]; XieZhTa2004 [host, distribution, biological control: 28-31].



Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, 1987c: 338. Type data: BRAZIL: Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, on Baccharis dracunculifolia. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Pheanacoccus baccharidis; Pacheco da Silva &, 2014: 6. Misspelling of genus name.



HOST: Asteraceae: Baccharis dracunculifolia [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, GranarSz2007]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Williams (1987c), Williams & Granara de Willink (1992) and by Granara de Willink & Szumik (2007).

KEYS: Granara de Willink & Szumik 2007: 41-43 (female) [Phencoccus species of South America]; Williams & Granara de Willink 1992: 348 (female) [Central and South America]; Williams 1987c: 338 (female) [North and South America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 310]; GranarSz2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 44-45,50]; PachecBeBl2014 [molecular data: 5-9]; Willia1987c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 338-340]; WilliaGr1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 349-351].



Phenacoccus balachowskyi Savescu

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus balachowskyi Savescu, 1984: 150. Type data: ROMANIA: Tulcea District, Badabag, on Agropyron intermedium. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Bucarest: Academie des Sciences Agricoles et Forestieres, Romania. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae: Agropyron intermedium [Savesc1984, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Romania [Savesc1984, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Savescu (1984).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 310]; Savesc1984 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 150-153].



Phenacoccus balagnus Balachowsky

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus (Trionymus) balagnus Balachowsky, 1933a: 42. Type data: FRANCE: Corsica, Ile Rousse, on Ammophila arenaria. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

Erium balagnum; Lindinger, 1935a: 122. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus balagnus; Ben-Dov, 1994: 310. Revived combination.



HOST: Poaceae: Ammophila arenaria [Balach1933a, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Corsica [Balach1933a, BenDov1994, Foldi2001].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Balachowsky (1933a).

CITATIONS: Balach1933a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 42-43]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 310]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Foldi2003 [host, distribution: 149]; Lindin1935a [taxonomy: 122].



Phenacoccus basorae Bodenheimer

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus basorae Bodenheimer, 1943: 17. Type data: IRAQ: Basra, on Cynodon dactylon. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Bet Dagan: Department of Entomology, The Volcani Center, Israel. Described: female.



HOST: Poaceae: Cynodon dactylon [Bodenh1943, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Iraq [Bodenh1943, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Bodenheimer (1943).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 310]; Bodenh1943 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 17].



Phenacoccus bengalensis Pramanik & Ghose

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus bengalensis Pramanik & Ghose, 1999: 49. Type data: INDIA: West Bengal, Barasat, on Cestrum nocturnum. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Calcutta: Department of Zoology, Calcutta University, West Bengal, India. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Solanaceae: Cestrum nocturnum [PramanGh1999, Willia2004a].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: India (West Bengal [PramanGh1999, Willia2004a]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Pramanik & Ghose (1999).

KEYS: Williams 2004a: 590-591 (female) [Phenacoccus species of southern Asia].

CITATIONS: MishraMuPr2004 [host, distribution, life history: 155-159]; PramanGh1999 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 49-52]; Willia2004a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 591].



Phenacoccus berberis Granara de Willink in: Granara de Willink & Szumik

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus berberis Granara de Willink in: Granara de Willink & Szumik, 2007: 45. Type data: ARGENTINA: Neuquen, near Chapelco, on Berberis buxifolia; collected Gonzales, 20.xi.1996. Holotype female. Type depository: Tucuman: Fundacion e Instituto Miguel Lillo, Universidade Nactional de Tucuman, Argentina. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Berberidaceae: Berberis buxifolia [GranarSz2007].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina (Neuquen [GranarSz2007]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Granara de Willink & Szumik (2007).

KEYS: Granara de Willink & Szumik 2007: 41-43 (female) [Phencoccus species of South America].

CITATIONS: GranarSz2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 45-46,52].



Phenacoccus betae Moghaddam

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus betae Moghaddam, 2010: 65-67. Type data: IRAN: Kermanshah Province, Kermanshah, on Beta vulgaris; collected May, 1973. Holotype. Type depository: IRIP. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Amaranthaceae: Amaranthus blitoides [Moghad2013]. Chenopodiaceae: Beta vulgaris [Moghad2010].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Iran [Moghad2010].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Moghaddam (2010).

SYSTEMATICS: Phenacoccus betae is similar to P. pumilus in having: (i) dorsal multilocular disc pores present on posterior abdominal segments, (ii) circulus absent, (iii) and cerarii present on head. P. betae differs from P. pumilusin having (character states on P. pumilus in brackets): (i) quinquelocular pores present on venter around mouthparts (quinquelocular pores absent from venter). (Moghaddam, 2013)

KEYS: Moghaddam 2013: 46 [Key to species of Phenacoccus Cockerell in Iran]; Moghaddam 2010: 67 (female) [Phenacoccus species of Iran].

CITATIONS: Moghad2010 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 65-67]; Moghad2013 [distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 49-50, 99]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 68].



Phenacoccus borchsenii (Matesova)

NOMENCLATURE:

Paroudablis borchsenii Matesova, 1957: 167. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: Zailisk Ala-Tay Forest, on Picea schrenkiana. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Phenacoccus borchsenii; Danzig, 1980: 130. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Pinaceae: Picea [Wu2000a], Picea schrenkiana [Mateso1957, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China (Xingiang Uygur (=Sinkiang) [Wu2000a]); Kazakhstan [Mateso1957, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Matesova (1957). Good description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Danzig 2006a: 197-200 (female) [A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus]; Danzig 2004: 532 (female) [Phenacoccus species on firs]; Wu 2000a: 69-70 (female) [PHenacoccus species of China]; Russo 1994: 281 (female) [World]; Tang 1992: 529 (female) [China]; Danzig 1971: 376 (female) [Group of Phenacoccus piceae].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 311]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy: 130]; Danzig2004 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 536]; Danzig2006a [taxonomy: 197]; Mateso1957 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 167-168]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 535]; Wu2000a [hosr, distribution, taxonomy: 63,72].



Phenacoccus caillardi (Balachowsky)

NOMENCLATURE:

Pseudococcus (Phenacoccus) caillardi Balachowsky, 1930c: 120. Type data: ALGERIA: Oued-Smar, on Daucus carota. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Umbelliferae: Daucus carota maximus [Balach1930c, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Algeria [Balach1930c, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Infesting the flowers of the host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description of the adult female given by Balachowsky (1930c).

CITATIONS: Balach1930c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 120-122]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 311-312].



Phenacoccus cajonensis McKenzie

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus cajonensis McKenzie, 1967: 221. Type data: U.S.A.: California, San Bernardino County, near Cajon, on Eriogonum fasciculatum var. foliolosum. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

COMMON NAME: cajon mealybug [McKenz1967].



HOST: Polygonaceae: Eriogonum fasciculatum [McKenz1967].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (California [McKenz1967]).

BIOLOGY: Living under rocks and on the roots of its host plants, sometimes associated with ants.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by McKenzie (1967).

KEYS: Williams 1987c: 338 (female) [North and South America]; McKenzie 1967: 214 (female) [U.S.A., California].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 312]; McKenz1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 221-225].



Phenacoccus capensis Ferris

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus capensis Ferris, 1950b: 131. Type data: MEXICO: Baja California, La Laguna, on Phyllanthus sp. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Euphorbiaceae: Phyllanthus [Ferris1950b, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]. Rosaceae: Spiraea douglasii [KozarHuFo1989, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Canada (British Columbia [KozarHuFo1989, BenDov1994]); Mexico [Ferris1950b, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, GranarSz2007].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Ferris (1950b), Williams & Granara de Willink (1992) and by Granara de Willink & Szumik (2007).

KEYS: Granara de Willink & Szumik 2007: 41-43 (female) [Phencoccus species of South America]; Williams & Granara de Willink 1992: 348 (female) [Central and South America]; McKenzie 1967: 216 (female) [U.S.A., California]; McKenzie 1964: 240 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1961: 27 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1960: 714 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1953a: 396 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1950b: 121 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 312]; Ferris1950b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 131-132]; GranarSz2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 46,54]; KozarHuFo1989 [host, distribution: 72]; WilliaGr1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 351, 352].



Phenacoccus cassiniae Williams

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus cassiniae Williams, 1985: 268. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Victoria, Loer Plenty, on Cassinia arcuata. Holotype female. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Asteraceae: Cassinia arcuata [Willia1985, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Victoria [Willia1985, BenDov1994]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Williams (1985).

KEYS: Williams 1985: 266 (female) [Australia ].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 312]; Willia1985 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 268-269].



Phenacoccus celtisifoliae Hollinger

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus celtisifoliae Hollinger, 1917a: 269. Type data: U.S.A.: Missouri, on Celtis occidentalis. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Phenacoccus picrospinus Ferris, 1950b: 156. Type data: U.S.A.: California, Orange County, Orange County Park, on Photinia arbutifolia. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Ferris, 1953a: 397.

COMMON NAMES: celtis mealybug [McKenz1967]; Celtis mealybug [McKenz1967].



HOSTS: Fabaceae: Lotus [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994]. Rosaceae: Photinia arbutifolia [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994]. Ulmaceae: Celtis occidentalis [Hollin1917a, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (California [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994], Missouri [Hollin1917a, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the leaves and stems of its host plants.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Ferris (1950b) and by McKenzie (1967). This species was redescribed as if new by Hollinger (1923). Adult female redescribed and illustrated by Fe

STRUCTURE: Colour photograph given by McKenzie (1967).

KEYS: McKenzie 1967: 216 (female) [U.S.A., California]; McKenzie 1964: 240 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1961: 27 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1960: 715 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1953a: 396 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1950b: 122 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 312]; Ferris1950b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 156-157]; Ferris1953a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 397]; Hollin1917a [taxonomy, illustration, host, distribution: 269]; Hollin1923 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 47, 48]; McKenz1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 225-227].



Phenacoccus cerasi Savescu

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus cerasi Savescu, 1985: 111. Type data: ROMANIA: Bucarest, Otopeni, on Prunus avium. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Bucarest: Academie des Sciences Agricoles et Forestieres, Romania. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Rosaceae: Prunus avium [Savesc1985, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Romania [Savesc1985, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Savescu (1985).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 312-313]; Savesc1985 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 111-112].



Phenacoccus chatakicus Kaydan & Kozar

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus chatakicus Kaydan & Kozar, 2010a: 30-32. Type data: TURKEY: Van Province, Çatak-Narlý, 37°55.258´N, 42°59.138´E, on undetermined herbaceous plant, 7/3/2007, by M.V. Kaydan. Holotype female (examined). Type depository: Van: Plant protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Yüzüncü Yil University, Van, Turkey; type no. 3903. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Paratypes. 5 adult females; same data as for holotype

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Turkey [KaydanKo2010a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Kaydan & Kozár, 2010a.

STRUCTURE: Phenacoccus chatakicus (adult female) can be diagnosed by the following combination of characters: one size of oral collar tubular duct (larger) on dorsum and two sizes of oral collar tubular ducts on venter (larger tubular ducts two times wider than smaller oral collar tubular ducts); multilocular pores on both venter and dorsum; 4-5 pairs of cerarii present (two on the last two abdominal segments and 2-3 pairs on head; circulus present; anal lobe cerarii each with 2 conical setae; abdominal and thoracic ostioles present; antennae 9 segmented, 320-370 µm long (apical segment 52.5-60.0 µm long).

SYSTEMATICS: Phenacoccus chatakicus is most similar to Phenacoccus hordei (Lindeman, 1886) as both species have a high number of multilocular pores on the dorsum. Phenacoccus chatakicus can be readily distinguished from P. hordei by having only 4-5 pairs of cerarii (vs. 18 pairs), a small rounded circulus (vs. no circuli), and by the absence of quinquelocular pores on the venter (vs. present at least around the mouth part). Phenacoccus chatakicus is also similar to Phenacoccus madeirensis Green, 1923 by having a circulus on the venter and multilocular pores on the dorsum of abdominal segments, but differs from the latter species by the absence of quinquelocular pores (vs. present), and by a small number of cerarii (4-5 vs. 18). (Kaydan & Kozár, 2010a)

CITATIONS: KaydanKo2010a [distribution, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 30-32].



Phenacoccus chilindrinae Granara de Willink in: Granara de Willink & Szumik

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus chilindrinae Granara de Willink in: Granara de Willink & Szumik, 2007: 46. Type data: MEXICO: Veracruz, 20 miles south of Tecolutla, on Distichlis sp.; collected Miller & Parker, 27-ii-1972. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae: Distichlis [GranarSz2007].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico (Veracruz [GranarSz2007]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Granara de Willink & Szumik (2007).

KEYS: Granara de Willink & Szumik 2007: 41-43 (female) [Phencoccus species of South America].

CITATIONS: GranarSz2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 46-49,55].



Phenacoccus chubutensis Granara de Willink in: Granara de Willink & Szumik

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus chubutensis Granara de Willink in: Granara de Willink & Szumik, 2007: 49. Type data: ARGENTINA: Neuquen, P.N. Nahuel Huapi camino provincial a Pichi Laufen, on Maytenus chubutensis; collected P. Gonzalez, 23.xi.1996. Holotype female. Type depository: Tucuman: Fundacion e Instituto Miguel Lillo, Universidade Nactional de Tucuman, Argentina. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Helianthus [GranarSz2007]. Celastraceae: Maytenus chubutensis [GranarSz2007].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina (Mendoza [GranarSz2007], Neuquen [GranarSz2007]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Granara de Willink & Szumik (2007).

KEYS: Granara de Willink & Szumik 2007: 41-43 (female) [Phencoccus species of South America].

CITATIONS: GranarSz2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 49-51,56].



Phenacoccus colemani Ehrhorn

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus colemani Ehrhorn, 1906: 332. Type data: U.S.A.: California, Santa Clara County, Palo Alto, on Rubus sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Phenacoccus tibiaegracilis McKenzie, 1960: 723. Type data: U.S.A.: California, Ventura County, Cuyama, on Garrya sp. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by McKenzie, 1967: 227.

COMMON NAMES: Coleman mealybug [McKenz1967]; garrya mealybug [McKenz1960].



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Arctium lappa [McKenz1967, BenDov1994], Encelia farinosa [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Caprifoliaceae: Symphoricarpos albus [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994], Symphoricarpos racemosus [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Crassulaceae: Dudleya [Miller1973, BenDov1994]. Ericaceae: Arctostaphylos rudis [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Garryaceae: Garrya [McKenz1960, McKenz1967, Miller1971a, BenDov1994]. Hydrophyllaceae: Phacelia [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Polygonaceae: Eriogonum [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Rosaceae: Holodiscus discolor [KozarHuFo1989, BenDov1994], Rubus [Ehrhor1906, BenDov1994], Rubus vitifolius [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994]. Scrophulariaceae: Castilleia [McKenz1967, BenDov1994], Pedicularis densiflora [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994]. Verbenaceae: Lantana camara [McKenz1967, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Canada (British Columbia [KozarHuFo1989, BenDov1994]); United States of America (California [Ehrhor1906, Miller1971a, Miller1973, BenDov1994, DownieGu2004], Florida [McKenz1967, BenDov1994], Oregon [McKenz1967, BenDov1994], Utah [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]). Neotropical: Puerto Rico & Vieques Island (Puerto Rico [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Commonly found beneath rocks, on roots and associated with ants. Glass (1944) described the stylet penetration and feeding habits.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Ferris (1950b) and by McKenzie (1967).

KEYS: McKenzie 1967: 216 (female) [U.S.A., California]; McKenzie 1964: 240 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1961: 27 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1960: 715 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1953a: 396 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 313]; DownieGu2004 [host, distribution, phylogeny, molecular data: 258-259]; Ehrhor1906 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 332]; Ferris1950b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 133-134]; Glass1944 [life history: 3-16]; HardyGuHo2008 [taxonomy, phylogeny, molecular data: 51-71]; KozarHuFo1989 [host, distribution: 72]; McKenz1960 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 722-725]; McKenz1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 227-230]; Miller1971a [host, distribution: 299]; Miller1973 [host, distribution: 266].



Phenacoccus convolvuli Savescu

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus convolvuli Savescu, 1985: 112. Type data: ROMANIA: Constanza District, Traian, on Convolvulus cantabrica. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Bucarest: Academie des Sciences Agricoles et Forestieres, Romania. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Convolvulaceae: Convolvulus cantabrica [Savesc1985, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Romania [Savesc1985, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Savescu (1985).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 112]; Savesc1985 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 112-114].



Phenacoccus cornicirculus Granara de Willink in: Granara de Willink & Szumik

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus cornicirculus Granara de Willink in: Granara de Willink & Szumik, 2007: 51. Type data: MEXICO: Michoacan, 10 km S. al de Arteaga, on Desmodium sp.; collected R. MacGregor, 6.vii.1967. Holotype female. Type depository: Mexico: Coleccion Entomologica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Fabaceae: Desmodium [GranarSz2007]. Verbenaceae: Lantana camara [GranarSz2007].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico (Michoacan [GranarSz2007], Morelos [GranarSz2007]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Granara de Willink & Szumik (2007).

KEYS: Granara de Willink & Szumik 2007: 41-43 (female) [Phencoccus species of South America].

CITATIONS: GranarSz2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution].



Phenacoccus cotyledonis De Lotto

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus cotyledonis De Lotto, 1964: 366. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Pretoria, on Cotyledon sp. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Crassulaceae: Cotyledon [DeLott1964, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [DeLott1964, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by De Lotto (1964).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 313]; DeLott1964 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 366].



Phenacoccus crassus Granara de Willink

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus crassus Granara de Willink, 1983a: 59. Type data: ARGENTINA: Province of Tucuman, Zone of Trancas, Tapia, on Flaveria bidentis. Holotype female. Type depository: Tucuman: Fundacion e Instituto Miguel Lillo, Universidade Nactional de Tucuman, Argentina. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Flaveria bidentis [Granar1983a, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]. Euphorbiaceae: Croton sarcopetalus [Granar2003]. Lamiaceae: Leonurus sibiricus [Granar2003].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina (Cordoba [Granar2003], Tucuman [Granar1983a, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Found on roots of the host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female given by Granara de Willink (1983a), Williams & Granara de Willink (1992) and by Granara de Willink & Szumik (2007).

KEYS: Granara de Willink & Szumik 2007: 41-43 (female) [Phencoccus species of South America]; Williams & Granara de Willink 1992: 349 (female) [Central and South America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 313]; Granar1983a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 59-61]; Granar2003 [host, distribution: 80]; GranarSz2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 57,62]; WilliaGr1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 351, 353, 354].



Phenacoccus cyrenaicus Ferris

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus cyrenaicus Ferris, 1922a: 209. Type data: LIBYA: El Garib, on undetermined host plant. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Libya [Ferris1922a, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Ferris (1922a).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 314]; Ferris1922a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 209-210].



Phenacoccus daganiae (Bodenheimer)

NOMENCLATURE:

Pseudococcus daganiae Bodenheimer, 1926a: 191. Type data: ISRAEL: Deganya, on Cynodon dactylon. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Ben-Dov, 1991: 11. Type depository: Bet Dagan: Department of Entomology, The Volcani Center, Israel. Described: female.

Peliococcus armeniacus Borchsenius, 1949: 253. Type data: ARMENIA: Erevan, on Cynodon dactylon. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 2001: 136. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Synonymy by Danzig, 2001: 136.

Euripersia daganiae; Kozár & Walter, 1985: 68. Change of combination.

Peliococcus daganiae; Ben-Dov, 1991a: 11. Change of combination.

Peliococcus daganae; Danzig, 2001: 136. Misspelling of species name.

Phenacoccus daganiae; Kaydan, 2015: 213. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Cynodon dactylon [Bodenh1926a, Borchs1949, TerGri1966, BenDov1991, BenDov1994], Cynodon dactylon [Bodenh1926a, BenDov1991, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [Borchs1949, TerGri1966, BenDov1994]; Israel [Bodenh1926a, BenDov1991, BenDov1994]; Italy [LongoMaPe1995]; Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Danzig2001].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description of the adult female given by Ter-Grigorian (1973), Ben-Dov (1991) and by Danzig (2001). Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949) and by Tang (1992).

SYSTEMATICS: This species lacks the diagnostic character states of the genus Peliococcus as rediagnosed by Kaydan, 2015, They lack: (i) clusters of multilocular disc pores and/or oral collar tubular ducts, (ii) enlarged setae on dorsum, similar to cerarian setae, (iii) trilocular pores near the basal socket of all dorsal setae, which are not on elevated areas, and (iv) cerarii on elevated areas. Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin (2014) listed P. daganiae under Phenacoccus citing "Kaydan 2014?", without suggesting that these were new combinations. In Kaydan, 2015 these two new combinations were made available in a manner that satisfies the requirements on the Code (ICZN, 1999).

KEYS: Danzig 2001: 124-125 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Tang 1992: 513 (female) [China]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 177 (female) [Armenia]; Borchsenius 1949: 243 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1991 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 11]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 291, 293]; BenDov2012 [catalogue, distribution, host: 36, 43]; Bodenh1926a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 191-192]; Bodenh1937 [host, distribution: 219]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 253-254]; Danzig2001 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 136-138]; Kaydan2015 [taxonomy: 213]; KozarWa1985 [taxonomy: 68]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 119]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 514]; TerGri1966 [host, distribution: 89]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 184-186]; Trjapi1989 [biological control: 320].



Phenacoccus dearnessi King

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus dearnessi King, 1901e: 180. Type data: CANADA: Ontario, on Crataegus sp. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Miller & Appleby, 1971: 1342. Type depository: New York: American Museum of Natural History, Department of Entomology Collection, New York, USA. Described: female.

Phenacoccus cockerelli King, 1903b: 195. Type data: U.S.A.: Colorado, Steamboat Springs, on Amelanchier sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Ferris, 1950: 135.

Phenacoccus betheli Cockerell, 1912: 301. Type data: U.S.A.: Arizona, Grand Canon, on Amelanchier. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Ferris, 1950: 135.

Phenacoccus regnillhoi Hollinger, 1917a: 269. Type data: U.S.A.: Missouri, Boone County, near Columbia, on Ostra virginiana. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Synonymy by Ferris, 1953a: 397. Notes: Type material probably lost, see Miller & Appleby, 1971.

COMMON NAME: two-circuli mealybug [McKenz1967, Koszta1996].



HOSTS: Carpinaceae: Ostrya virginiana [Hollin1917a, BenDov1994]. Rosaceae: Amelanchier pallida [McKenz1967, BenDov1994], Cotoneaster apiculata [MillerAp1971, BenDov1994], Crataegus [King1901e, MillerAp1971, BenDov1994], Cydonia [Koszta1996], Prunus havardi [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Canada (Ontario [King1901e, BenDov1994]); United States of America (Arizona [Cocker1912, BenDov1994], California [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994], Colorado [King1903b, BenDov1994], Illinois [MillerAp1971, BenDov1994], Indiana [Koszta1996], Kansas [Koszta1996], Maine [Koszta1996], Maryland [Koszta1996], Michigan, Michigan [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994], Missouri [Hollin1917a, BenDov1994, Koszta1996], New Jersey [Koszta1996], North Dakota [Koszta1996], Ohio [Koszta1996], Pennsylvania [Koszta1996], Texas [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994, Koszta1996], Virginia [Koszta1996], Wisconsin [Koszta1996]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the twigs and stems of its host plants.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Ferris (1950b) and by McKenzie (1967) and by Miller & Appleby (1971). Good description and illustration of the adult male given by Miller & Appleby (1971). Good description and illustration of the immature stages of female and male given by Miller & Appleby (1971). Hollinger (1923) redescribed the same species, as if a new species. Miller & Appleby (1971) question the synonymy of P. regnillhoi with P. dearnessi.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: This species may cause disfiguration of nursery plants (Miller & Appleby, 1971).

KEYS: Kosztarab 1996: 157 (female) [Northeastern North USA]; McKenzie 1967: 214 (female) [U.S.A., California]; McKenzie 1964: 238 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1961: 26 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1960: 713 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1953a: 395 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1950b: 120 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 314]; Cocker1912 [host, distribution: 301]; CranshJeSc2000 [life history, economic importance, control: 225-229]; Ferris1950b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 135-136]; Ferris1953a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 397]; HodgsoHa2013 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 797]; Hollin1917a [taxonomy, illustration, host, distribution: 269]; Hollin1923 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 49-51]; King1901e [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 180]; King1903b [taxonomy, host, distribution: 195]; Koszta1996 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 157-159]; McKenz1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 231-232]; MillerAp1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 1342-1357]; Sassce1915 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 29].



Phenacoccus defectus Ferris

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus defectus Ferris, 1950b: 137. Type data: U.S.A.: California, Santa Clara County, Permanente Creek, on Eriophyllum confertiflorum. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

COMMON NAMES: imperfect mealybug; nasu-kona-kaigaramusi [TanakaUe2012].



ASSOCIATES: HYMENOPRTERA Formicidae: Anoplolepis gracilipes [TanakaUe2012], Pheidole megacephala [TanakaUe2012], Technomyrmex brunneus [TanakaUe2012].

HOSTS: Asteraceae: Ambrosia [McKenz1967, BenDov1994], Eriophyllum confertiflorum [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994], Helianthus [McKenz1967, BenDov1994], Tetradymia spinosa [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Chenopodiaceae [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Crassulaceae: Echeveria [McKenz1967, BenDov1994], Sedum palmeri [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Sempervivum tectorum [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Euphorbiaceae: Euphorbia [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Fabaceae: Lupinus [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Hydrophyllaceae: Phacelia [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Lamiaceae: Monardella [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994]. Poaceae [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Polygonaceae: Eriogonum umbellaatum [McKenz1967, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]; United States of America (California [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994]). Palaearctic: France [new]; Japan [TanakaUe2012]; United Kingdom (England [WilliaMa2012]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the foliage, crowns and roots of its host plants.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Ferris (1950b) and by Williams & Granara de Willink (1992).

SYSTEMATICS: (Phenacoccus defectus
is closely related to the Solanum mealybug, Ph. solani Ferris, in its general morphology, and it is difficult to separate the former from the latter strictly by morphology of adult females. However, Ph. defectus differs from Ph. solani in that it lacks MDP on ventral abdominal segments IV and V. P. defectus also resembles Ph. parvus Morrison, but the former lacks quinquelocular pores on the ventral surface; on the other hand, the latter frequently has quinquelocular pores on the venter. Ph. defectus also resembles Ph. solenopsis Tinsley and is also difficult to separate from the latter from adult female morphology alone. At least, however, typical individuals of the species have a relatively small circulus, and fewer MDP on ventral abdominal segment VII. (Ph. solenopsis usually has a relatively large circulus and more abundant MDP on abdominal segment VII). (Tanaka & Uesato, 2012) Hodgson et al. (2008) reviewed the morphological differences between Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, P. solani Ferris and P. defectus Ferris, and, based on the morphological variation found in the Asian material, considered that there was some support for the suggestion that these three species might be environmentally-induced variants of a single species.

KEYS: Tanaka & Uesatio 2012: 414 (female) [Key to separate four new invasive mealybug species: Dysmicoccus neobrevipes, Ph. defectus, Ph. parvus and P. solenopsis from other mealybugs occurring in the Ryukyu Archipelago]; Granara de Willink & Szumik 2007: 41-43 (female) [Phencoccus species of South America]; Williams & Granara de Willink 1992: 349 (female) [Central and South America]; McKenzie 1967: 215 (female) [U.S.A., California]; McKenzie 1964: 240 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1961: 27 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1960: 714 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1953a: 396 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1950b: 121 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 315]; Ferris1950b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 137-138]; GermaiMa2006 [host, distribution: 402]; GranarSz2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 57,64]; LaflinGuPa2004 [host, distribution: 475-477]; McKenz1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 231, 233, 234]; TanakaUe2012 [biological control, description, distribution, economic importance, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 413-419]; WilliaGr1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 354, 355]; WilliaMa2012 [distribution: 85].



Phenacoccus desertus (Bazarov & Nurmamatov)

NOMENCLATURE:

Heterococcopsis desertus Bazarov & Nurmamatov, 1975: 63. Type data: TADZHIKISTAN: East Pamir, near Tsetsekt, on Artemisia demissa. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Phenacoccus desertus; Kaydan, 2011: 60-61. Change of combination.



HOST: Asteraceae: Artemisia demissa [BazaroNu1975, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [BazaroNu1975, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Kaydan, 2011.

STRUCTURE: Adult female body oval. Eyes marginal; antenna 9 segmented with apical setae and 3 fleshy setae. Translucent pores present on femur and tibia of hind legs, totalling 16-24. Both pairs of ostioles present, posterior ostioles each with 9 trilocular pores and 1 setae, anterior ostioles each with 4 trilocular pores and 2 or 3 setae.

SYSTEMATICS: Species in the Heterococcus-group differ from those in Phenacoccus Cockerell in having: (i) quinquelocular pores on the dorsum and either no trilocular pores or trilocular pores restricted to around each spiracle. Because Heterococcopsis desertus lacks both of these character states, it is not congeneric with Heterococcopsis lonicerae Borchsenius, the type species of the genus Heterococcopsis but does appear to be congeneric with Phenacoccus aceris Signoret, the type species of the genus Phenacoccus. H. desertus shares the following important features with P. aceris: (i) presence of many trilocular pores on dorsum and venter, (ii) very few quinquelocular pores (only 3 were found) on dorsum, and (iii) a long labium. Based on the morphological affinities of H. desertus with P. aceris, Therefore, Kaydan (2011) transferred H. desertus to Phenacoccus, as Phenacoccus desertus (Bazarov & Nurmamatov). This species is very close to Phenacoccus tergrigorianae Borchsenius & Ter-Grigorian, and P. pumilus Kiritshenko in having multilocular pores on dorsum, but differs from both in having many quinquelocular pores on the venter.

KEYS: Tang 1992: 576 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Nurmamatov & Bazarov 1975: 63 (female) [East Pamir].

CITATIONS: BazaroNu1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 63-65]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 190]; Kaydan2011 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 60-61]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 577, 578].



Phenacoccus destitutus McKenzie

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus destitutus McKenzie, 1967: 235. Type data: U.S.A.: California, Modoc County, near Cedarville, on Eriogonum latifolium var. saxicola. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

COMMON NAME: destitute mealybug [McKenz1967].



HOST: Polygonaceae: Eriogonum latifolium [McKenz1967, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (California [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the roots of its host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by McKenzie (1967).

KEYS: McKenzie 1967: 214 (female) [U.S.A., California].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 314-315]; McKenz1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 235-236].



Phenacoccus dicoriae McKenzie

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus dicoriae McKenzie, 1961: 28. Type data: U.S.A.: California, Riverside County, near Garnet, on Dicoria canescens. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

COMMON NAMES: dicoria mealybug [McKenz1961, McKenz1967]; Dicoria mealybug [McKenz1967].



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Dicoria canescens [McKenz1961, BenDov1994], Franseria dumosa [McKenz1967, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (California [McKenz1961, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Living on the leaves and stems of the host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by McKenzie (1961, 1967).

KEYS: McKenzie 1967: 216 (female) [U.S.A., California]; McKenzie 1964: 240 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1961: 27 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 315]; McKenz1961 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 28-30]; McKenz1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 235, 237, 238].



Phenacoccus discadenatus Danzig

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus discadenatus Danzig, 1978b: 128. Type data: RUSSIA: Yakutia-Sakha (= Yakut) AR, Batagay, on Poa sp. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Euripersia discadenatus; Tang, 1992: 450. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus discadentatus; Ben-Dov, 1994: 315. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Agropyron cristatum [Danzig1978b, BenDov1994], Poa [Danzig1978b, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Russia (Yakutia-Sakha (=Yakut) AR [Danzig1978b, BenDov1994, Danzig2006a]).

BIOLOGY: Eggs yellow. Living on the roots of Poa and Agropyron cristatum in the steppe and in pine forests. Oviposition in July near Verkhoyansk. (Danzig, 2006a)

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Danzig (1978b). Good description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

STRUCTURE: Female body oval, light, up to 3 mm long. Antennae 7-segmented. Legs short. Circulus absent. Multilocular pores present on both sides of body; dorsal multilocular pores forming transverse rows on all terfites; ventral ones abundant everywhere on body.

KEYS: Tang 1992: 447 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions]; Danzig 1988: 700 (female) [Far East of Russia].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 315]; Danzig1978b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 128-132]; Danzig2006a [behaviour, description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 202-203]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 450].



Phenacoccus divaricatus Williams

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus divaricatus Williams, 2004a: 592. Type data: PAKISTAN: Ghari, Duppatta, on Olea cuspidata; collected 12.v.1968. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Oleaceae: Olea cuspidata [Willia2004a].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: India (Karnataka [Willia2004a]); Pakistan [Willia2004a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Williams (2004a).

KEYS: Williams 2004a: 590-591 (female) [Phenacoccus species of southern Asia].

CITATIONS: Willia2004a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 592-594].



Phenacoccus echeveriae McKenzie

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus echeveriae McKenzie, 1960: 715. Type data: U.S.A.: California, Riverside County, near Hemet, on Echeveria sp. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

COMMON NAMES: echeveria mealybug [McKenz1960]; Echeveria mealybug [McKenz1967].



HOSTS: Crassulaceae: Echeveria [McKenz1960, BenDov1994]. Fabaceae: Lupinus [McKenz1967, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (California [McKenz1960, BenDov1994], Nevada [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the roots of its host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by McKenzie (1961, 1967).

KEYS: McKenzie 1967: 215 (female) [U.S.A., California]; McKenzie 1964: 240 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1961: 27 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1960: 714 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 315]; McKenz1960 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 715-717]; McKenz1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 238-240].



Phenacoccus ejinensis Tang in Tang & Li

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus ejinensis Tang in Tang & Li, 1988: 50. Type data: CHINA: Inner Mongolia, Ejin Banner, on Oxytropis glabra. Holotype female. Type depository: Shanxi: Entomological Institute, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, China. Described: female. Illust.

Caulococcus ejinensis; Tang, 1992: 425. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus ejinensis; Ben-Dov, 1994: 315. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Brassicaceae: Matthiola incana [Wu2000a]. Fabaceae: Oxytropis glabra [TangLi1988, BenDov1994, Wu2000a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China (Nei Monggol (=Inner Mongolia) [TangLi1988, BenDov1994, Wu2000a]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Tang & Li (1988). Good description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Wu 2000a: 69-70 (female) [PHenacoccus species of China].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 315-316]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 425-426]; TangHaTa1992 [host, distribution: 7]; TangLi1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 50-53]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 10]; Wu2000a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 63,69-70].



Phenacoccus eleabius Silvestri

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus eleabius Silvestri, 1915: 249. Type data: ERITREA: Nefasit, on Olea chrysophylla. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Portici: Dipartimento de Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria di Portici, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Italy. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Oleaceae: Olea chrysophylla [Silves1915, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Eritrea [Silves1915, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Silvestri (1915).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 314]; Silves1915 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution].



Phenacoccus emansor Williams & Kozarzhevskaya

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus emansor Williams & Kozarzhevskaya, 1988: 760. Type data: NETHERLANDS: (intercepted at Russia, Moscow), on Iris sp. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Asteraceae [KaydanKo2010a]. Iridaceae: Gladiolus sp. [BenDov2012], Iris [WilliaKo1988, BenDov1994]. Liliaceae [WilliaKo1988, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America [Danzig2006a]. Palaearctic: Israel [BenDov2012]; Netherlands [WilliaKo1988, BenDov1994, Danzig2006a]; Turkey [WilliaKo1988, BenDov1994]; Turkmenistan [Danzig2006a]; United Kingdom (England [Danzig2006a]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the bulbs of its host plants.

GENERAL REMARKS: The records from the Netherlands and Turkey are based on material intercepted in quarantine in the Russia, U.S.A. and England.

SYSTEMATICS: The species is very similar to Ph. tergrigorianae but differs in the number of cerarii (6–8 pairs; in addition to C3, C17 and C18, C1, C2 and other cerarii often present on thorax and abdomen), 9-segmented antennae, and presence of translucent pores on hind femur and tibia. Circulus occasionally present. (Danzig, 2006a)

KEYS: Danzig 2006a: 197-200 (female) [A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 316]; BenDov2012 [catalogue, distribution, host: 36, 43]; CebeciAr2006 [host, distribution: 140]; Danzig2006a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 200, 214-215]; KaydanKo2010a [distribution, host: 36]; WilliaKo1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 760-762].



Phenacoccus eremicus Ferris

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus eremicus Ferris, 1950b: 139. Type data: U.S.A.: California, San Bernardino County, near Mojave, on Franseria dumosa. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

COMMON NAME: eremicus mealybug [McKenz1967].



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Encelia farinosa [McKenz1967, BenDov1994], Franseria dumosa [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994], Pluchea sericea [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Lamiaceae: Marrubium vulgare [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994]. Malvaceae: Sida hederacea [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Polygonaceae: Eriogonum fasciculatum [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]. Ranunculaceae: Clematis [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]. Solanaceae: Cestrum [GranarSz2007].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]; United States of America (California [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994]). Neotropical: Argentina (Tucuman [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, GranarSz2007]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the crowns and roots of its host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ferris (1950b), McKenzie (1967), Williams & Granara de Willink (1992) and by Granara & Szumik (2007).

KEYS: Granara de Willink & Szumik 2007: 41-43 (female) [Phencoccus species of South America]; Williams & Granara de Willink 1992: 348 (female) [Central and South America]; Williams 1987c: 338 (female) [North and South America]; McKenzie 1967: 215 (female) [U.S.A., California]; McKenzie 1964: 239 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1961: 27 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1960: 714 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1953a: 395 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1950b: 121 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 316]; Ferris1950b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 139-140]; GranarSz2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 57,66]; McKenz1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 240-242]; WilliaGr1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 356, 357].



Phenacoccus eriogoni Ferris

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus eriogoni Ferris, 1918d: 58. Type data: U.S.A.: California, Santa Clara County, Stevens Creek, on Eriogonum nudum. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

COMMON NAME: cerarii mealybug [McKenz1967].



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Baccharis [McKenz1967, BenDov1994], Peucephyllum [McKenz1967, BenDov1994], Pluchea sericea [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Fabaceae: Lotus scoparius [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Hydrophyllaceae: Phacelia sericea [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Polygonaceae: Eriogonum deflexum [McKenz1967, BenDov1994], Eriogonum latifolium [McKenz1967, Miller1971a, BenDov1994], Eriogonum nudum [Ferris1918d, BenDov1994]. Rosaceae: Purshia glandulosa [McKenz1967, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (California [Ferris1918d, Miller1971a, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Living on the roots, crown and foliage of its host plants.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by McKenzie (1967). Adult female redescribed and illustrated by Ferris (1950a) and by McKenzie (1967).

KEYS: McKenzie 1967: 214 (female) [U.S.A., California]; McKenzie 1964: 238 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1960: 713 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1960: 26 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1953a: 396 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1950b: 121 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 316-317]; Ferris1918d [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 58]; Ferris1950b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 141-142]; McKenz1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 242-244]; Miller1971a [host, distribution: 299].



Phenacoccus erythrinus Granara de Willink in: Granara de Willink & Szumik

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus erythrinus Granara de Willink in: Granara de Willink & Szumik, 2007: 57. Type data: BRAZIL: Sao Paulo, Parque do Estado, on [Erythrina reticulata; collected Hambleton, 30.vii.1935. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA; type no. 93N5033. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Fabaceae: Banisteria oxyclada [GranarSz2007], Erythrina [GranarSz2007], Erythrina reticulata [GranarSz2007].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina (Tucuman [GranarSz2007]); Brazil (Sao Paulo [GranarSz2007]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Granara de Willink & Szumik (2007).

KEYS: Granara de Willink & Szumik 2007: 41-43 (female) [Phencoccus species of South America].

CITATIONS: GranarSz2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 57-61,67].



Phenacoccus eschscholtziae McKenzie

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus eschscholtziae McKenzie, 1961: 30. Type data: U.S.A.: California, Riverside County, Box Springs Canyon, near Shavers Well, on Eschscholtzia sp. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Phenacoccus advena McKenzie, 1964: 241. Type data: MEXICO: State of Queretaro, Cadereyta, on Echeveria sp. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by McKenzie, 1967: 244.

Phenacoccus milleri McKenzie, 1964: 251. Type data: U.S.A.: California, San Bernardino County, Joshua Tree, on Salvia columbariae. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by McKenzie, 1967: 244.

COMMON NAME: California poppy mealybug [McKenz1961, McKenz1967].



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Coreopsis californica [McKenz1967, BenDov1994], Haplopappus venetus [Miller1971a, BenDov1994], Layia glandulosa [McKenz1967, BenDov1994], Malacothrix glabrata [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Boraginaceae: Amsinckia [McKenz1967, BenDov1994], Cryptantha augustifolia [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Cistaceae: Helianthemum scoparium [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Crassulaceae: Echeveria [McKenz1964, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]. Fabaceae: Lotus argophyllus [Miller1974a, BenDov1994]. Geraniaceae: Erodium cicutarium [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Hydrophyllaceae: Nama demissum [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Lamiaceae: Salvia columbariae [McKenz1964, McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Papaveraceae: Eschscholtzia [McKenz1961, BenDov1994]. Plantaginaceae: Plantago [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Poaceae: Ammophila arenaria [Marott1987a, BenDov1994]. Polygonaceae: Eriogonum [McKenz1967, BenDov1994], Rumex hymenopsepalus [McKenz1967, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico [McKenz1964, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, GranarSz2007]; United States of America (California [McKenz1961, McKenz1964, Miller1971a, BenDov1994]). Palaearctic: Italy [Marott1987a, LongoMaPe1995, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the crowns or underground portion of its host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by McKenzie (1967), Williams & Granara de Willink (1992) and by Granara & Szumik (2007).

STRUCTURE: Colour photograph given by McKenzie (1967).

KEYS: Granara de Willink & Szumik 2007: 41-43 (female) [Phencoccus species of South America]; Williams & Granara de Willink 1992: 349 (female) [Central and South America]; McKenzie 1967: 216 (female) [U.S.A., California]; McKenzie 1964: 241 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1961: 28 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 317]; GranarSz2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 61,68]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 119]; Marott1987a [host, distribution: 110]; McKenz1961 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 30-31]; McKenz1964 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 251-253]; McKenz1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 244-247]; Miller1971a [host, distribution: 299]; Miller1974a [host, distribution: 196]; WilliaGr1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 356, 358, 359].



Phenacoccus eurotiae Danzig

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus eurotiae Danzig, 1975: 52. Type data: MONGOLIA: Vostok-Gobai Aymak, Say-Shanda, on Eurotia ceratoides. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Chenopodiaceae: Eurotia ceratoides [Danzig1975, BenDov1994]. Lamiaceae: Labiatae sp. [KaydanKo2010a], Thymus sp. [KaydanKo2010a]

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Mongolia [Danzig1975, BenDov1994]; Turkey [KaydanKo2010a].

BIOLOGY: Occurring on roots of the host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Danzig (1975, 2003).

KEYS: Danzig 2006a: 197-200 (female) [A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus]; Tang 1992: 528 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 317]; Danzig1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 52-54]; Danzig2003 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 343-345]; Danzig2006a [taxonomy: 199]; KaydanKo2010a [distribution, host: 36]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 535-536].



Phenacoccus evelinae (Tereznikova)

NOMENCLATURE:

Paroudablis graminis Tereznikova, 1968d: 472. Type data: UKRAINE: Koryukov region, on Setaria glauca and Triticum vulgare. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Phenacoccus evelinae Tereznikova, 1975: 211. Replacement name for Phenacoccus graminis (Tereznikova).

Phenacoccus graminis; Tereznikova, 1975: 211. Change of combination. Homonym of Phenacoccus graminis (Reuter, 1904a).

Phenacoccus evelinae; Ben-Dov, 1994: 318. Revived combination.

Phenacoccus evelynae; Gavrilov, 2004: 524. Misspelling of species name.

COMMON NAME: Evelyna's mealybug.



FOE: DIPTERA Cecidomyidae: Leucopis szepligeti [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994].

HOSTS: Poaceae: Agropyron repens [Kozar1980, KozarWa1986, BenDov1994, Kozar1999a], Cynodon dactylon [KaydanUlEr2007], Lolium [KaydanUlZe2004], Setaria glauca [Terezn1968d, BenDov1994], Triticum vulgare [Terezn1968d, BenDov1994]. Saxifragaceae: Julia major [KozarOrKo1977, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [TerGri1973, BenDov1994]; Georgia [Danzig2006a]; Hungary [Koteja1974b, KozarOrKo1977, KozarWa1986, BenDov1994, Kozar1999a, KozarKiSa2004]; Italy [KozarPe1989, BenDov1994, LongoMaPe1995]; Poland [Koteja1974b, KotejaZa1979, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994, GolanLaJa2001]; Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast [Danzig2006a], Krasnodar Kray [Danzig2006a], St. Petersburg (=Leningrad) Oblast [Danzig2006a], Volgograd Oblast [Danzig2006a]); Turkey [KaydanUlZe2004, KaydanUlEr2007]; Ukraine [Terezn1968d, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the upper leaf surface, inside leaf sheaths and more rarely on the roots of the host plant. Life cycle and natural enemy discussed by Kosztarab & Kozár (1988).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Ter-Grigorian (1973), Tereznikova (1975) and by Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F). Good description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

SYSTEMATICS: The species is very similar to Ph. interruptus and differs in the presence of circulus, numerous dorsal tubular ducts, and large dorsal conical setae. Danzig (2006a) suggested that Ph. evelinae is an intraspecific form of Ph. interruptus.

KEYS: Danzig 2006a: 197-200 (female) [A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus]; Marotta & Russo & Matile-Ferrero 1997: 438 (female) [Italy]; Kosztarab & Kozar 1988F: 122 (female) [Central Europe]; Tereznikova 1975: 211 (female) [Ukraine]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 172 (female) [Armenia].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 318]; CebeciAr2006 [host, distribution: 140]; Danzig2006a [description, distribution, taxonomy: 199, 208]; Gavril2004 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 524]; GolanLaJa2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 229-249]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 101]; KaydanUlZe2004 [host, distribution: 219-224]; KaydanUlZe2004 [host, distribution: 222]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, biological control: 126-128]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy: 73]; KotejaZa1979 [distribution: 673]; Kozar1980 [host, distribution: 66]; Kozar1999a [host, distribution: 138]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 57]; KozarKoSc1999 [host, distribution: 111-114]; KozarOrKo1977 [host, distribution: 71]; KozarPe1989 [host, distribution: 200]; KozarWa1986 [host, distribution: 115]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 119]; SimonKa2012 [structure, taxonomy: 589]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 426-427]; Terezn1968d [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 472]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 211-214]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 174-175].



Phenacoccus ferulae Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus ferulae Borchsenius, 1949: 219. Type data: UZBEKISTAN: Samarkand, on roots of Ferula sp.; collected A. Archangelskaya, 2.v.1928. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 2003: 352. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 183-38. Described: female.



HOSTS: Caryophyllaceae: Gypsophila [KozarTrPe1984, Marott1987a, BenDov1994]. Poaceae: Cynodon dactylon [KaydanKiKo2005], Dactylis [KaydanUlEr2007], Festuca [KozarWa1986, BenDov1994], Poa [KozarWa1986, BenDov1994]. Umbelliferae: Ferula [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]. Zygophyllaceae: Zygophyllum [Borchs1949, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Hungary [KozarWa1986, BenDov1994, KozarKiSa2004]; Italy [KozarTrPe1984, Marott1987a, BenDov1994, LongoMaPe1995]; Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]; Turkey [KaydanKiKo2005, KaydanUlEr2007]; Uzbekistan (Samarkand Oblast [Borchs1949, BenDov1994, Danzig2003]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Danzig (2003).

KEYS: Danzig 2006a: 197-200 (female) [A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus]; Marotta & Russo & Matile-Ferrero 1997: 438 (female) [Italy]; Tang 1992: 530 (female) [China]; Bazarov & Nurmamatov 1975b: 55 (female) [Tajikistan]; Borchsenius 1949: 210 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 318]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 219]; Danzig2003 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 352-355]; Danzig2006a [taxonomy: 200]; KaydanKiKo2005 [host, distribution: 89]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 101]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 57]; KozarTrPe1984 [host, distribution: 5]; KozarWa1986 [host, distribution: 115]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 119]; Marott1987a [host, distribution: 110]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 536].



Phenacoccus fistulatus Williams

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus fistulatus Williams, 2004a: 594. Type data: INDIA: Karnataka, Coorg (Kodagu), Mercara (now Medikari), on grasses; collected T.B. Fletcher, x.1915. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae [Willia2004a].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: India (Karnataka [Willia2004a]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Williams (2004a).

KEYS: Williams 2004a: 590-591 (female) [Phenacoccus species of southern Asia].

CITATIONS: Willia2004a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 594-595].



Phenacoccus formicarum Leonardi

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus formicarum Leonardi, 1908a: 162. Type data: ITALY: Corigliano (Calabria), in nest of the ant Pheidole pallidula. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Portici: Dipartimento de Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria di Portici, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Italy. Described: female. Illust.

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Italy [Leonar1908a, Marott1987a, BenDov1994, LongoMaPe1995].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Leonardi (1920).

KEYS: Leonardi 1920: 377 (female) [Italy].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 319]; Leonar1908a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 162-164]; Leonar1920 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 379-381]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 119]; Marott1987a [host, distribution: 110].



Phenacoccus franseriae Ferris

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus franseriae Ferris, 1921: 85. Type data: MEXICO: Baja California, San Jose del Cabo, on Franseria [= Ambrosia] sp. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Ambrosia [Ferris1921, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Encelia palmeri [Ferris1921, BenDov1994], Eupatorium adeophorum [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Hymenoclea monogyra [Ferris1921, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]. Euphorbiaceae: Cnidoscolus angustidens [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]. Zygophyllaceae: Kallstroemia [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico [Ferris1921, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, GranarSz2007].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ferris (1950b), Williams & Granara de Willink (1992) and by Granara de Willink & Szumik (2007).

KEYS: Granara de Willink & Szumik 2007: 41-43 (female) [Phencoccus species of South America]; Williams & Granara de Willink 1992: 348 (female) [Central and South America]; Williams 1987c: 338 (female) [North and South America]; McKenzie 1967: 215 (female) [U.S.A., California]; McKenzie 1964: 239 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1961: 26 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1960: 714 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1953a: 395 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1950b: 121 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 319]; Ferris1921 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 85-86]; Ferris1950b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 143-144]; GranarSz2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 61,70]; WilliaGr1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 359, 360].



Phenacoccus fraxinus Tang

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus fraxinus Tang, 1977: 36. Type data: CHINA: Shanxi Province, Taiyuan, on Fraxinus sinensis. Holotype female. Type depository: Shanxi: Entomological Institute, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, China. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Oleaceae: Fraxinus sinensis acuminata [Tang1977, BenDov1994, Wu2000a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China [Tang1977, Tang1992, TangHaTa1992, BenDov1994, Wu2000a] (Shanxi (=Shansi) [Xie1998], Xizang (=Tibet) [Wang1981TC, BenDov1994]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Tang (1977). Good description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Wu 2000a: 69-70 (female) [PHenacoccus species of China]; Tang 1992: 529 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 319]; FuXiZh2008 [structure, reproductive system: 362-372]; ShiXiXu2005 [chemistry, molecular data: 207-211]; Tang1977 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 36-37]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 537]; TangHaTa1992 [host, distribution: 9]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 23]; Wang1981TC [host, distribution: 287]; Wu2000a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 63-64,69-70]; Xie1998 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 87-88]; XieGaLi2010 [structure: 8-19]; XieXuLi1995 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history, ecology : 115-118]; ZhangWaBa2002 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 75-77]; ZhangXiXu2009 [structure, taxonomy: 59-68]; ZhangXiXu2009 [structure, wax glands, dermal glands: 59-68].



Phenacoccus giganteus McKenzie

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus giganteus McKenzie, 1964: 245. Type data: U.S.A.: California, Inyo County, near Shoshone, on Franseria dumosa. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

COMMON NAME: giant mealybug [McKenz1967].



HOST: Asteraceae: Franseria dumosa [McKenz1964, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (California [McKenz1964, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on crowns and underground parts of the host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by McKenzie (1967). See colour photograph in McKenzie (1967).

KEYS: McKenzie 1967: 215 (female) [U.S.A., California]; McKenzie 1964: 240 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 319]; McKenz1964 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 245-247]; McKenz1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 248-249].

Phenacoccus giuliae

No valid record found for this speciesNOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus giuliae; Kaydan, 2015: 210. Change of combination.



Phenacoccus gossypii Townsend & Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus gossypii Townsend & Cockerell, 1898: 170. Type data: MEXICO: on 'amistad' closely allied to cotton and probably a species of Gossypium. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Williams, 1987c: 340. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Phenacoccus helianthi gossypii; Cockerell, 1899a: 391. Change of status.

Phenacoccus gossypii; Ben-Dov, 1994: 320. Revived status.

COMMON NAMES: Mexican mealybug [McKenz1967, Bartle1978e]; mexican mealybug [McKenz1960].



FOES: COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Hyperaspis onerata Mulsant [BennetSi1964], Scymnus bilucernarius Mulsant [BennetSi1964], Scymnus ochroderus Mulsant [BennetSi1964]. HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Coccophagus gurneyi (Compere) [Blumbe1997]. Encyrtidae: Acerophagus pallidus Timberlake [Flande1935, Moore1988], Leptomastix dactylopii (Howard) [Blumbe1997].

HOSTS: Araliaceae: Aralia [Marott1987a, BenDov1994], Hedera helix [Marott1987a, BenDov1994]. Asteraceae: Borrichia arborescens [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Borrichia frutescens [Willia1987a, BenDov1994], Callistephus sinensis [Marott1987a, BenDov1994], Eupatorium [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Helianthus [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Pluchea [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Senecio kempferi [Marott1987a, BenDov1994], Trilisa odoratissima [Willia1987c, BenDov1994]. Cephalotaxaceae: Cephlotaxus [Marott1987a, BenDov1994]. Fabaceae: Erythrina [Marott1987a, BenDov1994], Phaseolus vulgaris [PerezGCa1987]. Geraniaceae: Geranium robertianum [Marott1987a, BenDov1994], Pelargonium [Marott1987a, BenDov1994]. Malvaceae: Gossypium [TownseCo1898, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Malva [GomezM1946, Martin1985]. Primulaceae: Primula [Marott1987a, BenDov1994]. Rosaceae: Mespilus japonica [Marott1987a, BenDov1994]. Scrophulariaceae: Veronica [Willia1987c, BenDov1994]. Solanaceae: Capsicum annuum [PerezGCa1987], Solanum lycopersicum [PerezGCa1987]. Verbenaceae: Lantana [Beards1975, BenDov1994]. Vitaceae: Ampelopsis arborea [Willia1987c, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico [TownseCo1898, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]; United States of America (Florida [PenaWa1982]). Neotropical: Bahamas [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]; Colombia [Kondo2001]; French Guiana [Remill1988]; Haiti [PerezG2008]; Puerto Rico & Vieques Island (Puerto Rico [Martor1976]). Palaearctic: Canary Islands [MatileOr2001]; Sicily [Marott1987a, BenDov1994]; Spain [GomezM1946, Martin1985].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ferris in Zimmerman (1948), Ferris (1950b), Williams (1987c), Williams & Granara de Willink (1992) and by Granara & Szumik (2007). Description and illustration of the adult male (of population in Hawaii) given by Beardsley (1960; 1962). Phenacoccus harbisoni was synonymized with P. gossypii by McKenzie (1967), but was later synonymized with P. madeirensis by Williams (1987c). Williams (1987c) indicated that many records in various publications under the binomen P. gossypii appear to be misindetification of P. madeirensis. Kondo, et al. 2002, confirmed that previous reports of the Mexican mealybug in Japan (Kawai 1990, Kinjo et al., 1996) were a misidentification of the Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis Green.

STRUCTURE: Colour photograph given by McKenzie (1967).

KEYS: Granara de Willink & Szumik 2007: 41-43 (female) [Phencoccus species of South America]; Williams & Granara de Willink 1992: 348 (female) [Central and South America]; McKenzie 1967: 215 (female) [U.S.A., California]; McKenzie 1964: 239 (female) [North America]; Beardsley 1960: 211 (male) [Hawaii]; Ferris 1953a: 395 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1950b: 121 (female) [North America]; Zimmerman 1948: 161 (female) [Hawaii].

CITATIONS: Aldric1996 [life history, physiology, chemistry, chemical ecology: 205-206]; Bartle1978e [economic importance, biological control, host, distribution: 149]; Beards1960 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 222-223]; Beards1962 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 87-88]; Beards1975 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 657]; BellotKa1980 [biological control: 312-335]; BellotSc1985 [host, distribution, economic importance: 341-392]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 320]; BennetSi1964 [biological control: 81-94]; Blumbe1997 [biological control, ecology: 225-236]; Boyce1948 [host, distribution, economic importance, control]; BoyceFa1947 [biological control: 702-705]; Cendan1937 [biological control: 337-339]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 391]; Comper1939 [biological control: 57-73]; Doutt1952 [taxonomy, structure: 391-397]; Ferris1950b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 145-147]; Flande1935 [biological control: 552]; GomezM1946 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 91-94]; GranarSz2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 61-63,71]; Greath1971 [host, distribution, biological control ]; HagenBoMc1976 [biological control, life history]; Heming1936 [biological control: 633]; IPMC1984 [economic importance: 1]; KinjoNaHi1996 [host, distribution: 126]; Kondo2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 37]; KondoEsKa2002 [distribution, taxonomy: 337-340]; LambdiJo2001 [structure, structure: 113-117]; Leach1940 [life history, disease transmission transmission: 1-3]; Lloyd1958 [biological control: 45-468]; Marott1987a [host, distribution: 110]; Martin1985 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 95]; Martor1976 [host, distribution: 10,35,82,126,163]; MatileOr2001 [host, distribution: 195]; McKenz1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 248-254]; McLeod1939 [host, distribution, biological control, economic importance: 62-68]; MetcalMe1993 [economic importance, host, distribution, control]; Moore1988 [biological control, distribution: 212]; PenaWa1982 [host, distribution, economic importance: 147]; PerezG2008 [distribution: 216]; PerezGCa1987 [host, distribution: 129]; Remill1988 [host, distribution: 69-70]; RotundGi1987 [chemistry, life history: 195-202]; Smith1958 [host, distribution, chemical control: 335-338]; TownseCo1898 [taxonomy, description, host, disrtibution: 170-171]; Willia1987c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 340-343]; WilliaGr1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 361, 362]; Zimmer1948 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 161-165].



Phenacoccus gossypiphilus Abbas & Arif, {in}: Abbas, Arif, Saeed & Karar

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus gossypiphilus Abbas & Arif, {in}: Abbas, Arif, Saeed & Karar, 2009: 56. Type data: PAKISTAN: Punjab, Faisalabad, University of Agriculture, on Gossypium hirsutum; collected G. Abbas, 24.ix.2006. Holotype female. Type depository: UAFP. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Malvaceae: Gossypium hirsutum [AbbasArSa2009].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Pakistan [AbbasArSa2009].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Abbas (et al.) (2009).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Since 2005, outbreaks of P. gossypiphilus have been recorded in most of the major cotton growing regions (Sindh & Punjab) of Pakistan, namely, Bahawal Pur, Dera Ghazi Khan, Faisalabad, Layyah, Lodhran, Multan, Muzaffar Garh, Rajan Pur, Toba Tek Sing and Khanewal, Rahim yar Khan, Bahawalanger, Vehari, Rajan pur, Jhang, Okara, Kasur, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Tando Allah Yar, Mir Pur Khas, Nawab Shah, Sanghar, Thatta, Badinand (Abbas et al. (2009).

CITATIONS: AbbasArSa2009 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 54-58].



Phenacoccus graminicola Leonardi

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus graminicola Leonardi, 1908a: 160. Type data: ITALY: Cantanzaro Sala (Cantabria) on undetermined Gramineae. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Marotta, 1992a: 85. Type depository: Portici: Dipartimento de Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria di Portici, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Italy. Described: female. Illust.

Phenacoccus graminosus McKenzie, 1960: 717. Type data: U.S.A.: California, Alameda County, Berkeley, on Lolium sp. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Tranfaglia, 1976: 137.

Caulococcus graminicola; Tang, 1992: 427. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus graminicola; Ben-Dov, 1994: 320. Revived combination.

Phenacoccus graminicola; Ben-Dov, 1994: 320. Revived combination.

COMMON NAME: ryegrass mealybug [McKenz1960].



HOSTS: Cactaceae: Opuntia [Willia1985, BenDov1994]. Fabaceae: Medicago sativa [McKenz1960, McKenz1967, Willia1985, BenDov1994], Trifolium fragiferum [McKenz1960, McKenz1967, Willia1985, BenDov1994], Trifolium repens [McKenz1960, McKenz1967, Willia1985, BenDov1994], Trifolium repens [McKenz1960, BenDov1994]. Lamiaceae: Thymus [KaydanUlEr2007]. Poaceae [Cox1987, Marott1987a, BenDov1994], Agropygrum [Balach1930a, BenDov1994], Avena fatua [McKenz1967, BenDov1994], Avena sterilix [LongoMaRu1989, BenDov1994, MazzeoLoRu1994], Bromus rigidus [McKenz1967, BenDov1994], Cynodon dactylon [MazzeoLoRu1994, KaydanUlEr2007], Ehrharta longiflora [Willia1985, BenDov1994], Hordeum [McKenz1960, BenDov1994], Hordeum vulgare [Willia1985, BenDov1994], Lolium [McKenz1960, BenDov1994], Lolium perenne [Willia1985, BenDov1994], Phalaris tuberosa [Willia1985, BenDov1994], Triticum aestivum [Willia1985, BenDov1994]. Rosaceae: Malus pumila [Willia1985, Cox1987, BenDov1994], Prunus persica [Ward1966, BenDov1994], Pyrus communis [Ward1966, Willia1985, Cox1987, BenDov1994]. Umbelliferae: Eryngium [KaydanUlEr2007], Foeniculum vulgare [Marott1992a, BenDov1994]. Zygophyllaceae: Porlieria microphylla [GranarSz2007].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [DeLott1964, BenDov1994]. Australasian: Australia (Queensland [Willia1985, BenDov1994], South Australia [Willia1985, BenDov1994], Victoria [Willia1985, BenDov1994]); New Zealand [Ward1966, Cox1987, BenDov1994]. Nearctic: United States of America (California [McKenz1960, BenDov1994]). Neotropical: Argentina (Tucuman [GranarSz2007]). Palaearctic: Corsica [Foldi2003]; France [Balach1930, BenDov1994, Foldi2001]; Italy [Leonar1908a, Marott1987a, LongoMaRu1989, Marott1992a, BenDov1994, MazzeoLoRu1994, LongoMaPe1995]; Sardinia [Pelliz2011]; Sicily [LongoMaPe1995, RussoMa1997]; Turkey [KaydanUlEr2007].

BIOLOGY: This species is usually found on grasses, but frequently the adult females move onto adjacent trees to oviposit.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by McKenzie (1967), Williams (1985), Cox (1987) and by Granara & Szumik (2007).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Although this species does not appear to cause any damage, its presence under the calyxes of apples and pears grown for export has caused concern in Australia and New Zealand (Ward, 1966). Pheromone lures are highly sensitive and selective, easy to use, and stable for extended periods under field conditions. There have been anecdotal reports of possible cross-attraction of rye grass mealybug, Phencoccus graminicola, to vine mealybug pheromone, but these have not been confirmed. (Zou, et al., 2013)

KEYS: Granara de Willink & Szumik 2007: 41-43 (female) [Phencoccus species of South America]; Marotta & Russo & Matile-Ferrero 1997: 438 (female) [World]; Williams 1987c: 338 (female) [North and South America]; Williams 1985: 266 (female) [Australia]; De Lotto 1974: 111 (female) [South Africa]; McKenzie 1967: 215 (female) [U.S.A., California]; McKenzie 1964: 239 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1961: 27 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1960: 714 (female) [North America]; Leonardi 1920: 377 (female) [Italy].

CITATIONS: Balach1930a [host, distribution: 180]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 320-321]; CebeciAr2006 [host, distribution: 140]; Cox1987 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 73, 192]; DeLott1964 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 367-368]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Foldi2003 [host, distribution: 149]; GranarSz2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 63-65,72]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 101]; Leonar1908a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 160-162]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 119]; LongoMaRu1989 [host, distribution: 170]; Marott1987a [host, distribution: 110]; Marott1992a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 84-85]; MazzeoLoRu1994 [host, distribution: 202]; McKenz1960 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 717-719, 721]; McKenz1967 [taxonomy, description, illustation, host, distribution: 255-257]; Pelliz2011 [distribution: 313]; RussoMa1997 [distribution: 51]; Ward1966 [host, distribution, economic importance: 454]; Willia1985 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 268]; ZouChMi2013 [biological control, chemistry: 140].



Phenacoccus grandicarpus Hollinger

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus grandicarpus Hollinger, 1917a: 269. Type data: U.S.A.: Missouri. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Notes: Type material probably lost, see Ferris, 1953a.



HOST: Aceraceae: Acer saccharum [Hollin1923, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Missouri [Hollin1917, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring under the outer bark of its host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Ferris (1953a). Redescribed as if a new species by Hollinger (1923). Ferris (1953a) gave some general notes, based on the original description, and indicated the unavailability of type material.

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 321]; Ferris1953a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 400]; Hollin1917a [taxonomy, illustration, host, distribution: 269]; Hollin1923 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 48, 49].



Phenacoccus gregosus Williams & Granara de Willink

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus gregosus Williams & Granara de Willink, 1992: 362. Type data: MEXICO: Colima, Bahia Santiago, on Manihot chloristica. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Arecaceae: Chamaedorea [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]. Euphorbiaceae: Manihot chloristica [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Manihot michaelis [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]. Fabaceae [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Bauhinia longifolia [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]. Neotropical: Costa Rica [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Williams & Granara de Willink (1992) and by Granara de Willink & Szumik (2007).

KEYS: Parsa et al. 2012: 8-10 (female, adult) [Key to mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) recorded on Manihot spp. (Euphorbiaceae) in the World]; Granara de Willink & Szumik 2007: 41-43 (female) [Phencoccus species of South America]; Williams & Granara de Willink 1992: 348 (female) [Central and South America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 321]; GranarSz2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 65,74]; ParsaKoWi2012 [taxonomy: 9]; WilliaGr1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 362-365].



Phenacoccus gypsophilae Hall

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus gypsophilae Hall, 1927d: 268. Type data: EGYPT: Khanka, on Gypsophila rokejeka. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Cichorium intybus [Rungs1934, BenDov1994]. Caryophyllaceae: Gypsophila rokejeka [Hall1927d, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Egypt [Hall1927d, EzzatNa1987, BenDov1994]; Morocco [Rungs1934, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Living on roots of its host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description of the adult female given by Hall (1927d).

CITATIONS: AbdRab2001d [distribution: 1362]; AbdRabGeMa2010 [distribution, taxonomy: 509]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 321]; EzzatNa1987 [distribution: 89]; Hall1927d [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 268-269]; MohammGh2008 [distribution: 155]; Rungs1934 [host, distribution: 23].



Phenacoccus hakeae Williams

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus hakeae Williams, 1985: 270. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Hornsby Heights, on Proteaceae. Holotype female. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Proteaceae: Hakea sericea [Willia1985, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Willia1985, BenDov1994]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Williams (1985).

KEYS: Williams 1985: 266 (female) [Australia].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 321]; Willia1985 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 270-271].



Phenacoccus halli Ezzat

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus halli Ezzat, 1962c: 164. Type data: EGYPT: Pyramids, on roots of Anthemis sp. Lectotype female and first instar, by subsequent designation Mohammad, Ezzat & Aly, 1995: 501. Type depository: Cairo: Plant Protection Department, Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt. Described: female.

Phenacoccus halli; Ezzat, 1962c: 164. Notes: Incorrect citation of Priesner & Hosny as authors.

Phenacoccus halli; Kozár & Walter, 1985: 71. Notes: Incorrect citation of Priesner & Hosny as authors.

Phenacoccus halli; Mohammad, Ezzat & Aly, 1995: 501. Notes: Correct citation of Ezzat as author.

Phenacoccus halli; Ben-Dov, Hodgson & Miller, 1997: 203.



HOST: Asteraceae: Anthemis [Ezzat1962c, MohammEzAl1995].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Egypt [Ezzat1962c, EzzatNa1987, MohammEzAl1995].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Mohammad et al. (1995). Good description of the adult female given by Ezzat (1962c).

KEYS: Abd-Rabou et al. 2010: 509 (female) [Key to the species of Phenacoccus in Egypt].

CITATIONS: AbdRabGeMa2010 [distribution, taxonomy: 509-510]; BenDovHoMi1997 [taxonomy: 203-204]; Ezzat1962c [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 163-164]; EzzatNa1987 [distribution: 89]; KozarWa1985 [list: 71]; MohammEzAl1995 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 501-504, 530]; MohammGh2008 [distribution: 155].



Phenacoccus hargreavesi (Laing)

NOMENCLATURE:

Pseudococcus hargreavesi Laing, 1925: 52. Type data: UGANDA: Kampala, on Bauhinia sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Pseudococcus bukobensis Laing, 1929a: 471. Type data: TANZANIA: Bukoba, on coffee. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Synonymy by Williams, 1958b: 22.

Phenacoccus hargreavesi; Williams, 1970DJ: 161. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Bromeliaceae: Ananas comosus [Strick1947a, BenDov1994]. Fabaceae: Bauhinia [Laing1925a, BenDov1994]. Moraceae: Ficus asperifolia [Strick1947a, BenDov1994]. Poaceae: Saccharum officinarum [Willia1970DJ, BenDov1994]. Rubiaceae: Coffea arabica [DeLott1967a, BenDov1994], Coffea canephora [DeLott1967a, BenDov1994]. Sterculiaceae: Sterculia tragacantha [Strick1947a, BenDov1994], Theobroma cacao [Willia1970DJ, Campbe1983, BenDov1994]. Ulmaceae: Trema guineensis [Strick1947a, Willia1970DJ, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Angola [DeLott1967a, Almeid1973, BenDov1994]; Cameroon [Willia1970DJ, BenDov1994]; Côte d'Ivoire (=Ivory Coast) [CouturMaRi1985, BenDov1994]; Ghana [Strick1947a, Willia1970DJ, Campbe1983, BenDov1994]; Nigeria [Willia1970DJ, BenDov1994]; Sudan [Willia1970DJ, BenDov1994]; Tanzania [Laing1929a, Willia1970DJ, BenDov1994]; Uganda [Laing1925a, DeLott1967a, Willia1970DJ, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Campbell (1983) assessed the presence and spatial distribution on cocoa trees in Ghana.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Williams (1958b).

CITATIONS: Almeid1973b [host, distribution: 19]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 322]; Campbe1983 [life history: 137-151]; Campbe1984 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 163-174]; CouturMaRi1985 [host, distribution: 280]; DeLott1967a [host, distribution: 119]; Donald1956 [host, distribution, biological control: 48-60]; Laing1925a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 52-53]; Laing1929a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 471-472]; LePell1968 [host, distribution, economic importance]; MealybSt1987 [life history, economic importance, control: 24-30]; Strick1947a [host, distribution: 504]; Willia1970DJ [host, distribution: 161].



Phenacoccus helianthi (Cockerell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Pseudococcus helianthi Cockerell, 1893z: 352. Type data: U.S.A.: New Mexico, Dona Ana County, Las Cruces, on Helianthus. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Phenacoccus helianthi; Cockerell, 1896b: 325. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: sunflower mealybug [McKenz1967].



FOES: COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Hyperaspis undulata [Cocker1894s]. DIPTERA Cecidomyidae: Leucopis near bellula [Cocker1894s]. HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Tetrastichus [Cocker1894s]. Eulophidae: Encyrtus [Cocker1894s].

HOSTS: Amaranthaceae: Celosia floribunda [Ferris1950b, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]. Asteraceae: Franseria dumosa [McKenz1967, BenDov1994], Gutierrezia [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994], Haplopappus [McKenz1967, BenDov1994], Helianthus [Cocker1893z, BenDov1994], Hymenoclea salsola [McKenz1967, BenDov1994], Pluchea sericea [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994], Ptiloria [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994], Stephanomeria [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Burseraceae: Bursera microphylla [McKenz1967, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]. Euphorbiaceae: Codiaeum [McKenz1967, BenDov1994], Manihot chloristica [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]. Fabaceae: Cassia [McKenz1967, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Parosela spinosa [McKenz1967, BenDov1994], Prosopis [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Hydrophyllaceae: Phacelia [Tinsle1898a, BenDov1994]. Lamiaceae: Salvia carnosa [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Lecythidaceae: Bertholletia sericea [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994]. Pinaceae: Pinus ponderosa [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994]. Poaceae: Bouteloua [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994]. Polemoniaceae [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994]. Rutaceae: Citrus sinensis [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Solanaceae: Solanum douglasii [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Zygophyllaceae: Kallstroemia [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994], Larrea [McKenz1967, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico [McKenz1967, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]; United States of America (Arizona [McKenz1967, BenDov1994], California [McKenz1967, BenDov1994], Colorado [McKenz1967, BenDov1994], New Mexico [Cocker1893z, BenDov1994], Texas [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the leaves of its host plants, attended by ants. Cockerell (1894s) discusses the natural enemies of this species.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ferris(1950b), McKenzie (1967), Williams & Granara de Willink (1992) and by Granara de Willink & Szumik (2007).

KEYS: Parsa et al. 2012: 8-10 (female, adult) [Key to mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) recorded on Manihot spp. (Euphorbiaceae) in the World]; Granara de Willink & Szumik 2007: 41-43 (female) [Phencoccus species of South America]; Williams & Granara de Willink 1992: 348 (female) [Central and South America]; Williams 1987c: 338 (female) [North and South America]; McKenzie 1967: 215 (female) [U.S.A., California]; McKenzie 1964: 239 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1960: 713 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1960: 26 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1953a: 395 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1950b: 121 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 322-323]; Cocker1893z [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 352]; Cocker1894s [biological control: 285-286]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 322-323]; Ferris1950b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 148-149]; GranarSz2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 65,75]; McKenz1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 257-260]; ParsaKoWi2012 [taxonomy: 9]; Tinsle1898a [host, distribution: 47-48]; WilliaGr1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 365-367].



Phenacoccus herbaceus Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus herbaceus Borchsenius, 1962: 591. Type data: CHINA: Yunnan Province, Kunming, on grass. Holotype female. Type depository: Beijing: Institute of Entomology, Academy of Sciences, China. Described: female. Illust.

Caulococcus herbaceus; Tang, 1992: 428. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus herbaceus; Ben-Dov, 1994: 323. Revived combination.



HOST: Poaceae [Borchs1962, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China [Borchs1962, Tang1992, TangHaTa1992, BenDov1994, Wu2000a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1962). Good description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Wu 2000a: 69-70 (female) [PHenacoccus species of China].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 323]; Borchs1962 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 591-592]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 428]; TangHaTa1992 [host, distribution: 7]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 10]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 23]; Wu2000a [host, distribution: 64,69-70].



Phenacoccus herreni Cox & Williams

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus herreni Cox & Williams, 1981: 251. Type data: GUYANA: Cane Grove, on cassava. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



FOES: COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Cleothera notata [CarrejBeGo1991]. HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Acerophagus coccois Smith [BertscTuBe1997, BentoDeBe1999, CalataAuTh2001], Aenasius vexans Kerrich [BentoDeBe1999, BertscTuBe2001, CalataAuTh2001], Apoanagyrus diversicornis Howard [BentoDeBe1999, BertscTuBe2001], Epidinocarsis diversicornis (Howard) [Blumbe1997].

HOSTS: Convolvulaceae: Stictocardia tiliifolia [LincanHoCa2010]. Euphorbiaceae: Manihot esculenta [CoxWi1981, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, FoldiKo2006, KondoRaVe2008].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina [GranarSz2007]; Bolivia [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, GranarSz2007]; Brazil [CoxWi1981, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994] (Amazonas [FoldiKo2006], Bahia [BentoDeBe1999], Paraiba [BentoDeBe1999], Pernambuco [BentoDeBe1999], Roraima [BentoDeBe1999]); Colombia [CoxWi1981, CarrejBeGo1991, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, Kondo2001, GranarSz2007, KondoRaVe2008]; French Guiana [CoxWi1981, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, GranarSz2007]; Galapagos Islands [CaustoPeSi2006, LincanHoCa2010]; Grenada [CoxWi1981, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, GranarSz2007]; Guadeloupe [MatileEt2006]; Guyana [CoxWi1981, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, GranarSz2007]; Trinidad and Tobago (Tobago [CoxWi1981, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, GranarSz2007]).

BIOLOGY: Living on stems, leaves and apices of cassava. The mealybug causes distortion to the growing tips (Cox & Williams, 1981). Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae), a plant species known to contain proteins toxic to insects, exhibited insecticidal properties to P. herreni. The toxic compounds consisting of proteins around 101.02 kDa appeared to be mostly located in the mature leaves. Further studies are needed to identify the proteins and to ensure that they are not toxic to mammals. (Calatayud, et al., 2011)

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Cox & Williams (1981), Williams & Granara de Willink (1992) and by Granara de Willink & Szumik (2007).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Bento et al. (1999) and Bento et al. (2000) discussed the danmage caused by Phenacoccus herreni to Manihot esculenta in north-eastern Brazil, and reported on successful introduction of three species of hymenopterous parasitoids. Hountondji et al. (2002) found that Phenacoccus herreni was not susceptible to Brazilian isolate of the entomopathogenic fungi Neozygites floridana.

KEYS: Parsa et al. 2012: 8-10 (female, adult) [Key to mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) recorded on Manihot spp. (Euphorbiaceae) in the World]; Granara de Willink & Szumik 2007: 41-43 (female) [Phencoccus species of South America]; Williams & Granara de Willink 1992: 349 (female) [Central and South America]; Cox & Williams 1981: 251 (female) [Phenacoccus manihoti group].

CITATIONS: BellotByHe1985 [host, distribution, economic importance: 417-439]; BellotHeVa1985 [host, distribution, economic importance: 441-470]; BellotReGu1985 [host, distribution, economic importance: 393-416]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 323]; Bento1997 [host, distribution, biological control: 24]; BentoDeBe1999 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 403-410]; BentoMoMa2000 [host, distribution, biological control: 355-359]; BertscTuBe1997 [host, life history, biological control: 383-395]; BertscTuBe2001 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 363-371]; Blumbe1997 [biological control, ecology: 225-236]; CalataAuTh2001 [biological control, host, distribution, economic importance: 2203-2217]; CalataMuCa2011 [chemical control: 649-654]; CalataPoSe2002 [host, distribution, life history, ecology, biological control: 163-175]; CalataRu2006 [economic importance, life history, control, host, distribution: 1-110]; CarrejBeGo1991 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 21-27]; CaustoPeSi2006 [distribution: 138]; CoxWi1981 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 251-253]; DornMaBe2001 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 331-339]; DornMaBe2003 [biological control: 1-10]; FoldiKo2006 [host, distribution: 308]; GranarSz2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 65,69,76]; HountoYaDe2002 [biological control: 61-66]; Kondo2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 37]; KondoRaVe2008 [host, distribution: 39]; LincanHoCa2010 [host, distribution: 6]; MarottTr1995a [taxonomy: 70-71]; MatileEt2006 [host, distribution: 181]; ParsaKoWi2012 [taxonomy: 8-10]; Remill1988 [host, distribution: 70-71]; Willia1986c [distribution, host, taxonomy: 50]; WilliaGr1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 367, 368]; WilliaMi1999 [taxonomy, ecology: 524].



Phenacoccus hirsutus Granara de Willink in: Granara de Willink & Szumik

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus hirsutus Granara de Willink in: Granara de Willink & Szumik, 2007: 69. Type data: PUERTO RICO: Faro de Cabo Rojo, on Corchorus hirsutus; collected Wolcott, 4.i.1946. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Malvaceae: Corchorus histutus [GranarSz2007].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Puerto Rico & Vieques Island (Puerto Rico [GranarSz2007]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Granara de Willink & Szumik (2007).

KEYS: Granara de Willink & Szumik 2007: 41-43 (female) [Phencoccus species of South America].

CITATIONS: GranarSz2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 69,73,78].



Phenacoccus hordei (Lindeman)

NOMENCLATURE:

Westwoodia hordei Lindeman, 1886: 367. Type data: UKRAINE: Odessa Oblast, Odessa, on barley. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female.

Trionymus hordei; Cockerell, 1904: 40. Change of combination.

Pseudococcus graminis Reuter, 1904: 66. Type data: FINLAND: Lofsdal, Pargas and Osterbotten, on Poa pratensis and Phleum pratense. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Helsinki: University of Helsinki, Finnish Museum of Natural History, Finland. Described: female. Synonymy by Borchsenius, 1949: 231. Homonym of Phenacoccus graminis (Maskell).

Pseudococcus elongatus Reuter, 1904a: 251. Replacement name for Phenacoccus graminis Reuter.

Phenacoccus cholodkovskyi Marchal, 1908: 245. Type data: RUSSIA: Southern Russia (locality not given), on Triticum vulgare. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Borchsenius, 1949: 231.

Erium hordei; Lindinger, 1935a: 122. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus hordei; Borchsenius, 1949: 231. Change of combination.

Caulococcus hordei; Tang, 1992: 429. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus hordei; Ben-Dov, 1994: 323. Revived combination.

COMMON NAME: barley mealybug [KosztaKo1988F].



FOES: ACARI Acaridae: Tyrophagus sachsi [KosztaKo1988F]. HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Coccidencyrtus phenacocci Ferriere [Schmut1955b, KosztaKo1988F].

HOSTS: Apiaceae: Eryngium [KaydanKiKo2005]. Apicaceae: Zozimia absinthifolia [Malump2011]. Brassicaceae: Sinapis sp. [Malump2011]. Crassulaceae: Orostachys spinosa [Danzig2006a]. Fabaceae: Medicago sativa [Malump2011], Trifolium sp. [Malump2011], Vicia [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994]. Iridaceae: Iris sp. [Malump2011], Iris uniflora [Malump2011]. Lamiaceae: Thymus [KaydanKiKo2005], Ziziphora clinopodioides [Malump2011], Ziziphora clinopodioides [Danzig2006a]. Poaceae [KotejaZa1979], Agropyron [TerGri1966, BenDov1994], Agropyron repens [Schmut1952, KozarTrPe1984, Marott1987a, BenDov1994], Anthoxanthum odoratum [Gertss2000], Arrhenatherum elatius [Schmut1952, BenDov1994], Bromus [Borchs1949, BenDov1994, KaydanUlEr2007], Festuca [Borchs1949, BenDov1994], Hordeum [Lindem1886, BenDov1994], Hordeum vulgare [KaydanUlEr2007], Phleum pratense [Reuter1904, BenDov1994], Poa bulbosa [TerGri1966, TerGri1973, BenDov1994], Poa pratensis [Reuter1904, BenDov1994], Secale cereale [Kozar1980, BenDov1994], Triticum vulgare [Marcha1908, BenDov1994, MilonaKo2008]. Umbelliferae: Zozimia absinthifolia [TerGri1973, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [TerGri1966, BenDov1994]; Finland [Reuter1904, BenDov1994]; France [Goux1933a, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994, Foldi2001]; Germany [Schmut1952, Schmut1980, BenDov1994]; Greece [MilonaKo2008, MilonaKoKo2008a]; Hungary [Kozar1980, BenDov1994, KozarKoSc1999, KozarKo2002b, KozarKiSa2004]; Iran [Moghad2013]; Italy [KozarTrPe1984, Marott1987a, BenDov1994, LongoMaPe1995]; Kazakhstan (Aktyubinsk Oblast [Danzig2003], Ural'sk Oblast [Danzig2003]); Moldova [KozarOs1987, BenDov1994]; Netherlands [Reyne1957, BenDov1994]; Poland [KotejaZa1979, KotejaZa1983, BenDov1994, Lagows1996]; Russia (Lipestsk Oblast [Gavril2003a], St. Petersburg (=Leningrad) Oblast [Danzig2003], Tambov Oblast [Danzig2003], Volgograd Oblast [Danzig2003]); Sweden [Gertss2000, Gertss2001]; Turkey [KaydanKiKo2005, KaydanUlEr2007]; Ukraine [Lindem1886, Borchs1949, BenDov1994] (Krym (=Crimea) Oblast [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]); United Kingdom (England [Malump2011]).

BIOLOGY: The biology of P. hordei has been studied in Germany (Schumutterer, 1952) where it was found to have two or three generations each year. It over-wintered as second instars, rarely as third instars, and adults developed by the end of March or beginning of April. Each female laid an average of 159 eggs by mid-May; eggs hatched after 10-14 days and developed into adults by the end of July. Eggs are laid again by the end of August and if climatic conditions are suitable they can develop into adults by the second half of September. Eggs are again laid to produce the over-wintering generation. Occurring on the roots of plants, especially grasses. Life cycle and natural enemies discussed by Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Schmutterer (1952), Tereznikova (1963a), Ter-Grigorian (1973), Tereznikova (1975) and by Danzig (2003).

STRUCTURE: All developmental stages occur on roots and surrounding substrate. Adult females are oval, pink and up to 3.3 mm in length. The white wax ovisacs are conspicuous and their shape varies according to the constraints of the oviposition site. The eggs are bright yellow, oval and up to 0.37 mm in length. (Malumphy, 2011)

SYSTEMATICS: Important diagnostic characters for adult female P. hordei are as follows: 18 pairs of cerarii (some on the thorax may be indistinct and it may appear that there are as few as 14 pairs); the posterior pair (C18) with 2-3 thick conical and 1-3 small setae and 7-16 triocular pores. P. hordei is morphologically similar to the spruce mealybug P. piceae (Löw), as both species have numerous multilocular pores on the dorsal surface of the abdomen and thorax. Phenacoccus piceae may be distinguished from P. hordei by the dorsal oral collar tubular ducts being twice as broad as the ventral ducts and it feeds on Picea spp.; the dorsal oral collar tubular ducts of P. hordei are either similar in size to the ventral ducts or about one and a half times as broad, and it does not feed on Picea. The dwarf mealybug P. pumilus Kiritshenko also has dorsal multilocular pores but they are less numerous and only form transverse rows on the 5th to 7th abdominal segments; the dorsal multilocular pores of P. hordei form transverse rows on all abdominal segments. (Malumphy, 2011)

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Rarely a minor pest of grasses (Kosztarab & Kozár , 1988F).

KEYS: Moghaddam 2013: 46 [Key to species of Phenacoccus Cockerell in Iran]; Malumphy 2011: 368 (female) [Key to adult female Phenacoccus native to Britain]; Danzig 2006a: 197-200 (female) [A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus]; Marotta & Russo & Matile-Ferrero 1997: 438 (female) [Italy]; Kosztarab & Kozar 1988F: 123 (female) [Central Europe]; Tereznikova 1975: 211 (female) [Ukraine]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 135 (female) [Armenia]; Borchsenius 1949: 211 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 323]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 231-232]; CebeciAr2006 [host, distribution: 140]; Danzig2003 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 329-331]; Danzig2006a [illustration, structure, taxonomy: 198, 201]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Gavril2003a [host, distribution: 111]; Gavril2004 [host, distribution: 524]; GavrilKu2005 [taxonomy, distribution: 17-34]; Gertss2000 [host, distribution: 149]; Gertss2001 [distribution: 123-130]; Goux1933a [host, distribution: 234-235]; Jansen2001 [host, distribution: 197-206]; KaydanKiKo2005 [host, distribution: 90]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 101]; Kiritc1936 [host, distribution: 71, 74, 75]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 129]; Koteja2000a [distribution: 172]; KotejaZa1979 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 673]; KotejaZa1983 [host, distribution: 473]; Kozar1980 [host, distribution: 67]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 57]; KozarKo2002b [host, distribution: 375]; KozarKoSc1999 [host, distribution: 111-114]; KozarOs1987 [host, distribution]; KozarTrPe1984 [host, distribution: 5]; LagowsKo1996 [host, distribution: 31, 34]; Lindem1886 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 367-373]; Lindin1935a [taxonomy: 122]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 119]; Malump2011 [distribution, economic importance, host, illustration, taxonomy: 165-171]; Marcha1908 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 245-248]; Marott1987a [host, distribution: 110]; MilonaKo2008 [host, distribution: 35-38]; MilonaKoKo2008a [distribution: 143-147]; Moghad2013 [distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 51-52]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 68]; Reyne1957 [host, distribution: 41]; Schmut1952 [taxonomy, description, illustation, host, distribution: 397-399]; Schmut1955b [host, distribution, biological control: 516]; SimonKa2011 [distribution: 235]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 429]; Terezn1963a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 45-46]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 222-225]; TerGri1966 [host, distribution: 89]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 157-159]; WilliaMa2012 [distribution: 85, 86].



Phenacoccus hortonarum Brachman & Kosztarab in Kosztarab

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus hortonarum Brachman & Kosztarab in Kosztarab, 1996: 159. Type data: U.S.A.: Virginia, Blacksburg, near Price Hall on VPI & SU campus, from Acer nigrum. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.

COMMON NAME: Hortons mealybug [Koszta1996].



HOSTS: Aceraceae: Acer nigrum [Koszta1996], Acer saccharum [Koszta1996].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (New Hampshire [Koszta1996], Virginia [Koszta1996]).

BIOLOGY: Found on bark. In USA, New Hampshire, the females of this species were reported to oviposit in August (Kosztarab, 1996).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Kosztarab (1996).

KEYS: Kosztarab 1996: 159 (female) [Northeastern North USA].

CITATIONS: Koszta1996 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 159-161].



Phenacoccus hurdi McKenzie

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus hurdi McKenzie, 1964: 247. Type data: U.S.A.: New Mexico, Catron County, Red Hill, on Gutierrezia lucida. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female.

COMMON NAME: hurd phenacoccus mealybug [McKenz1964].



HOSTS: Annonaceae: Annona muricata [FoldiKo2006]. Asteraceae: Gutierrezia lucida [McKenz1964, BenDov1994], Gutierrezia sarothrae [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Isocoma [Willia1987c, BenDov1994]. Scrophulariaceae: Mimulus [Willia1987c, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]; United States of America (Arizona [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], California [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], New Mexico [McKenz1964, BenDov1994], Texas [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Utah [Willia1987c, BenDov1994]). Neotropical: Brazil (Pernambuco [FoldiKo2006]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by McKenzie (1967), Williams (1987c), Williams & Granara de Willink (1992) and by Granara de Willink & Szumik (2007).

KEYS: Granara de Willink & Szumik 2007: 41-43 (female) [Phencoccus species of South America]; Williams & Granara de Willink 1992: 348 (female) [Central and South America]; Williams 1987c: 338 (female) [North and South America]; McKenzie 1967: 215 (female) [U.S.A., California]; McKenzie 1964: 239 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 324]; FoldiKo2006 [host, distribution: 308]; GranarSz2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 73,80]; McKenz1964 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 247-248]; WilliaGr1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 369, 370]; WilliaMa2012 [distribution, host: 89].



Phenacoccus hystrix (Baerensprung)

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus hystrix Baerensprung, 1849: 173. Type data: GERMANY: Berlin Zoological Gardens, under the bark of Scotch pine. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Notes: Type material depository unknown (Ben-Dov, 1994).

Phenacoccus hystrix; Lindinger, 1912b: 293. Change of combination.

Phaenacoccus histrix; Kiritchenko, 1932a: 261. Misspelling of genus and species names.

Phenacoccus (Heliococcus) hystrix; Balachowsky & Mesnil, 1935: 731. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus hyxtrix; Martin Mateo, 1985: 95. Misspelling of species name.



HOSTS: Hippocastanaceae: Aesculus hyppocastanum [Martin1985]. Pinaceae: Pinus sylvestris [Baeren1849, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Germany [Baeren1849, BenDov1994]; Spain [Martin1985].

GENERAL REMARKS: Although Barensprung (1849) gave a valid description of what appears to be a mealybug, the species is not recognizable. Fernald (1903) listed this species as unrecognizable. Kiritchenko (1931) regarded C. hystrix as the same species as Phenacoccus stachyos Ehrhorn.

CITATIONS: Baeren1849 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 174-175]; BalachMe1935 [taxonomy, economic importance: 731]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 324]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 326]; Kiritc1931 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 121]; Kiritc1932a [taxonomy: 261]; Lindin1912b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 293]; Martin1985 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 95]; Signor1869 [taxonomy: 857]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 27].



Phenacoccus incomptus McKenzie

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus incomptus McKenzie, 1964: 247. Type data: MEXICO: intercepted at U.S.A., San Francisco, on Escheveria sp. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.

COMMON NAME: unadorned mealybug [McKenz1964].



HOST: Crassulaceae: Echeveria [McKenz1964, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico [McKenz1964, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by McKenzie (1964), by Williams & Granara de Willink (1992) and by Granara de Willink & Szumik (2007).

KEYS: Granara de Willink & Szumik 2007: 41-43 (female) [Phencoccus species of South America]; Williams & Granara de Willink 1992: 349 (female) [Central and South America]; McKenzie 1967: 216 (female) [U.S.A., California]; McKenzie 1964: 241 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 325]; GranarSz2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 73,77,82]; McKenz1964 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 247-250]; WilliaGr1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distrbution: 369, 371, 372].



Phenacoccus indicus (Avasthi & Shafee)

NOMENCLATURE:

Peliococcus indicus Avasthi & Shafee, 1980: 905. Type data: INDIA: Mysore, Bangalore, Hebbel, on Prosopis spicigera. Holotype female. Type depository: Aligarh: Aligarh Muslim University, Department of Zoology, India. Described: female.

Phenacoccus indicus; Avasthi & Shafee, 1987a: 32. Change of combination.



HOST: Fabaceae: Prosopis spicigera [AvasthSh1987, BenDov1994, Willia2004a].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: India (Karnataka [AvasthSh1980, Varshn1992, BenDov1994, Willia2004a]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Avasthi & Shafee (1980, 1987). Good description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Williams 2004a: 590-591 (female) [Phenacoccus species of southern Asia]; Tang 1992: 530 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: AvasthSh1980 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 905-908]; AvasthSh1987 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 32-34]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 325]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 537-538]; Varshn1992 [host, distribution: 45]; Willia2004a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 596-599].



Phenacoccus infernalis McKenzie

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus infernalis McKenzie, 1962: 653. Type data: U.S.A.: Arizona, Cochise County, Tombstone, on Fouquieria splendens. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

COMMON NAME: infernal mealybug [McKenz1962, McKenz1967].



HOST: Fouquieriaceae: Fouquieria splendens [McKenz1962, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Arizona [McKenz1962, BenDov1994], California [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring between the leaves and stems of its host plants.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by McKenzie (1962, 1967).

KEYS: Williams 1987c: 338 (female) [North and South America]; McKenzie 1967: 215 (female) [U.S.A., California]; McKenzie 1964: 239 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 325]; McKenz1962 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 652-654]; McKenz1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 260-261].



Phenacoccus insularis Danzig

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus insularis Danzig, 1971: 378. Type data: RUSSIA: Kurile Islands, Sernovodsk, on Majanthemum dilatatum. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Phenacoccus kurilensis Danzig, 1986b: 75. Unjustified replacement name; discovered by Ben-Dov, 1994: 325.

Spinococcus insularis; Tang, 1992: 559. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Saussurea kurilensis [Danzig1971, BenDov1994]. Ericaceae: Vaccinium [PolavaDaMi2000], Vaccinium praestans [Danzig1971, BenDov1994]. Liliaceae: Majanthemum dilatatum [Danzig1971, BenDov1994]. Plantaginaceae: Plantago kamtschatica [Danzig1971, BenDov1994]. Polygonaceae: Polygonum sachalinense [Danzig1971, BenDov1994]. Rosaceae: Aruncus kamtschaticus [Danzig1971, BenDov1994], Filipendula kamtschatica [Danzig1971, BenDov1994], Fragaria iinumae [Danzig1971, BenDov1994], Rubus sachalinensis [Danzig1971, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Russia (Kuril Islands [Danzig1971, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on both aerial and underground parts of the host plant. Polyphagous, inhabits annual shoots of ribs and leaves of herbs. Constantly to be found on tall grasses, often in great numbers. Oviposition in July and at this time it was difficult to find mealybugs even on those plants where they were present in great numbers two weeks before. Probably, females migrate to secluded places for oviposition. (Danzig, 2006a)

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Danzig (1971, 1980b). Danzig (1986b) proposed Phenacoccus kurilensis as a replacement name for P.insularis Danzig, 1971, which she supposed to be a homonym of Phenacoccus insularis Morrison, 1924. However, the latter is in Pseudococcus.

STRUCTURE: Adult female cody oval, pink, up to 3.5 mm. Antennae 9-segmented. Circulus small, oval. Multilocular pores occasionally present of dorsum and anterior part of ventrum and forming rows and bands on abdominal sternites. (Danzig, 2006a) Ovisac white, narrow, friable. Eggs pink.

KEYS: Danzig 2006a: 197-200 (female) [A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus]; Tang 1992: 555 (female) [China]; Danzig 1980b: 124 (female) [Far East of Russia].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 325-326]; Danzig1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 378-380]; Danzig1986b [taxonomy: 75]; Danzig2006a [description, distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 199, 205-206].



Phenacoccus interruptus Green

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus interruptus Green, 1923d: 215. Type data: ENGLAND: Surrey, Camberley, on grass. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Phenacoccus assimilis Kiritshenko, 1940a: 188. Nomen nudum; discovered by Borchsenius, 1949: 240.

Phenacoccus elongatus Kanda, 1943a: 46. Type data: JAPAN: Honsyu, Yokohama, on Zoysia japonia. Holotype female. Type depository: Yokohama: S. Kanda Collection, Asano Senior High School, Kanagawa-ku, Japan. Described: female. Synonymy by Wu, 2000a: 64.

Paroudablis interruptus; Borchsenius, 1949: 240. Change of combination.

Caulococcus elongatus; Tang, 1992: 426. Change of combination.

Caulococcus interruptus; Tang, 1992: 430. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus interruptus; Ben-Dov, 1994: 326. Revived combination.

Phenococcus interruptus; Danzig, 1994: 46. Misspelling of genus name.

COMMON NAME: Green's mealybug [KosztaKo1988F].



HOSTS: Brassicaceae: Cardaria draba [KaydanUlEr2007]. Chenopodiaceae: Chenopodium album [KaydanUlEr2007]. Equisetaceae: Equisetum [Ossian1985, BenDov1994]. Poaceae [Rungs1948, BenDov1994, MazzeoRuLo1997], Agropyron [ZakOgaKo1964, TerGri1966, BenDov1994, Wu2000a], Agrostis [TerGri1966], Aneurolepidium chinense [TangLi1988, BenDov1994, Wu2000a], Arundinella hirta [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994], Bromus [KaydanKiKo2005], Calamagrostis epigejos [SimonKa2012], Corynephorus canescens [SimonKa2012], Cynodon dactylon [Kozar1985, BenDov1994, Wu2000a], Dactylis glomerata [Kozar1985, BenDov1994], Danthonia decumbens [SimonKa2012], Elymus angustus [Mateso1968, BenDov1994, Wu2000a], Elymus giganteus [Borchs1949, BenDov1994, Wu2000a], Festuca [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994], Festuca ovina [SimonKa2012], Festuca pratensis [SimonKa2012], Festuca ternifolia [SimonKa2012], Hordeum vulgare [KaydanKiKo2005], Leymus [TerGri1966], Poa alpina [Danzig1994], Sieglingia [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994], Triticum vulgare [KaydanUlEr2007], Zoysia japonica [Kanda1943a, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [Borchs1949, TerGri1966, BenDov1994]; China (Nei Monggol (=Inner Mongolia) [TangLi1988, BenDov1994], Ningxia (=Ningsia) [Wu2000a]); Crete [Kozar1985, BenDov1994]; France [Goux1935a, BenDov1994]; Germany [Schmut1980, BenDov1994]; Hungary [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994, KozarKoSc1999, KozarKiSa2004]; Italy [KozarPe1989, BenDov1994, LongoMaPe1995]; Japan [Kanda1943a, BenDov1994]; Kazakhstan [Mateso1968]; Mongolia [Danzig1980, Danzig1974]; North Korea [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994]; Poland [ZakOgaKo1964, KotejaZa1979, KotejaZa1983, Koteja1972, Lagows1996]; Russia (Irkutsk Oblast [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994], Primor'ye Kray [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994], Sakhalin Oblast [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994], St. Petersburg (=Leningrad) Oblast [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994], Yakutia-Sakha (=Yakut) AR [Danzig1978a, Danzig1980b, BenDov1994]); Sicily [RussoMa1997, MazzeoRuLo1997]; Sweden [Ossian1985, BenDov1994, Gertss2001]; Switzerland [Danzig1994]; Turkey [KaydanKiKo2005, KaydanUlEr2007]; Ukraine [Borchs1949, BenDov1994] (Krym (=Crimea) Oblast [Danzig1980b, BenDov1994]); United Kingdom (England [Green1923d, BenDov1994]); Yugoslavia [Masten2007].

BIOLOGY: Oligophagous on grasses; lives on leaves, prefers well sunlit habitats: pine forests, sphagnum marches, steppes and rocks. (Danzig, 2006a)

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Williams (1962), Tereznikova (1975) and by Danzig (1980b). Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949), Kosztarab & Kozár (1988F) and by Tang (1992). Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Tang & Li (1988) and by Tang (1992).

STRUCTURE: Body elongate-oval, green, with dark transverse bands, up to 4.5 mm long. Antennae 9-segmented, with slender segments. Circulus absent. Multilocular ducts present on posterior abdominal sternites only. Quinquelocular pores numerous. Tubular ducts present on both sides of body. (Danzig, 2006a)

SYSTEMATICS: The species is characterized by geographical variability in the number of cerarii and dorsal tubular ducts. (Danzig, 2006a) Simon & Kalandyk-Kolodziejczyk, 2012, described morphological variability that seemed to be attributed to feeding site, and included presence of little circulus, absence of sclerotized plates bearing cerarii on anterior parts of the body and 8 segmented antennae.

KEYS: Malumphy 2011: 168 (female) [Key to adult female Phenacoccus native to Britain]; Danzig 2006a: 199 (female) [A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus]; Kwon et al. 2003: 114 (female) [Korea]; Wu 2000a: 69-70 (female) [PHenacoccus species of China]; Marotta & Russo & Matile-Ferrero 1997: 438 (female) [Italy]; Danzig 1988: 700 (female) [Far East of Russia]; Kosztarab & Kozar 1988F: 122 (female) [Central Europe]; Danzig 1980b: 124 (female) [Far East of Russia]; Tereznikova 1975: 211 (female) [Ukraine]; Borchsenius 1949: 238 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Kanda 1943a: 43 (female) [Japan].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 316. 326]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 240-241]; Danzig1974 [host, distribution: 68]; Danzig1978a [host, distribution: 75]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 131-133]; Danzig2006a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 199, 207-208]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Gertss2001 [distribution: 123-130]; Goux1935a [host, distribution: 92]; Green1923d [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 215-216]; Kanda1943a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 46-49]; KaydanKiKo2005 [host, distribution: 90]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 101]; Kiritc1940a [taxonomy: 188]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 130]; Koteja1972 [host, distribution: 568]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy, distribution: 73]; Koteja2000a [distribution: 172]; KotejaZa1979 [distribution: 673]; KotejaZa1983 [host, distribution: 473]; Kozar1985 [host, distribution: 204]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 57]; KozarKoSc1999 [host, distribution: 111-114]; KozarPe1989 [host, distribution: 200]; KwonDaPa2003 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 116-117]; Lagows1996 [host, distribution: 31]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 119]; Malump2011 [taxonomy: 168]; Masten2007 [host, distribution, taxonomy: 1-242]; Mateso1968 [host, distribution: 110-111]; MatilePe2002 [host, distribution: 352]; MazzeoRuLo1997 [host, distribution: 20]; Ossian1985 [host, distribution: 145]; RussoMa1997 [distribution: 48]; SimonKa2011 [distribution: 235]; SimonKa2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration: 585-590]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 426, 700]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 430-431]; TangLi1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 49-51]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 218-219]; TerGri1966 [host, distribution: 89]; Willia1962 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 35-37]; WilliaMa2012 [distribution: 85]; ZakOgaKo1964 [host, distribution: 423].



Phenacoccus iranica Moghaddam

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus iranica Moghaddam, 2013: 54-55. Type data: IRAN: Kerman, Baft, Khabr National Park, on Acer cinerascens, 5/22/2011, by M. Moghaddam. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Tehran: Plant Pests and Diseases Research Institute, Iran. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Aceraceae: Acer cinerascens [Moghad2013].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Iran [Moghad2013].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Moghaddam, 2013,

STRUCTURE: Mounted adult female broadly oval, up to 2.88 mm long; anal lobes poorly or not developed, (Moghaddam, 2013)

SYSTEMATICS: Phenacoccus iranica is similar to P. aceris in possessing: (i) numerous oral collar ducts on both ventral and dorsal surfaces, (ii) 18 pairs cerarii, (iii) ventral quinqulocular pores, and (iv) multilocular disc pores medially on ventral abdominal segments. P. iranica differs from P. aceris in having (character states on P. aceris in brackets): (i) only 1 circulus (2 circuli); (ii) many more oral collar ducts on head, both ventrally and dorsally (sparse); (iii) quinquelocular pores smaller than trilocular ducts (larger), and (iv) C18 with only 2 lanceolate setae, no short setae and 5 or 6 trilocular pores, these located on a membranous area (with lanceolate and slender setae, plus about 4 or 5 short setae and a concentration of trilocular pores, these located on a sclerotized area). (Moghaddam, 2013) P. iranica is also similar to P. transcaucasicus Hadzibejli in having: (i) circulus, (ii) 18 pairs cerarii and (iii) absence of dorsal multilocular disc pores. However, P. iranica differs from P. transcaucasicusin possessing (character states on P. transcaucasicus in brackets): (i) dorsal oral collar ducts present in wide bands across head, thorax and abdominal segments (dorsal oral collar ducts either absent entirely or present only in median areas of segments VI and VII). (Moghaddam, 2013)

KEYS: Moghaddam 2013: 46 [Key to species of Phenacoccus Cockerell in Iran].

CITATIONS: Moghad2013 [distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 54-55]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 69].



Phenacoccus isadenatus Danzig

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus isadenatus Danzig, 1971: 378. Type data: RUSSIA: Kurile Islands, Sernovodsk, on Picea glehnii. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Pinaceae: Picea ajanensis [Danzig1971, BenDov1994, Danzig2004], Picea glehnii [Danzig1971, BenDov1994, Danzig2004].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Russia (Kuril Islands [Danzig1971, BenDov1994, Danzig2004], Sakhalin Oblast [Danzig1971, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Adult females overwinter and oviposit in July.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Danzig (1971, 1980b, 2004).

KEYS: Danzig 2006a: 197-200 (female) [A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus ]; Danzig 2004: 532 (female) [Phenacoccus species on firs]; Russo 1994: 282 (female) [World]; Tang 1992: 529 (female) [China]; Danzig 1988: 700 (female) [Far East of Russia]; Danzig 1980b: 124 (female) [Far East of Russia]; Danzig 1971: 376 (female) [Group of Phenacoccus piceae].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 326]; Danzig1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 378-379]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 129-130]; Danzig2004 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 198, 532-533]; Danzig2006 [taxonomy: 198]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 538].



Phenacoccus juniperi Ter-Grigorian

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus juniperi Ter-Grigorian, 1964: 186. Type data: ARMENIA: Babadazan region, on Juniperus sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Cupressaceae: Juniperus [TerGri1964, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [TerGri1964, TerGri1966a, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ter-Grigorian (1964, 1973) and by Danzig (2003).

KEYS: Danzig 2006a: 197-200 (female) [A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus]; Tang 1992: 529 (female) [China]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 135 (female) [Armenia].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 326]; Danzig2003 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 355-356]; Danzig2006a [taxonomy: 200]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 538-539]; TerGri1964 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution : 186-188]; TerGri1966a [host, distribution: 373]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 143-145].



Phenacoccus karaberdi Borchsenius & Ter-Grigorian

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus karaberdi Borchsenius & Ter-Grigorian, 1956: 20. Type data: ARMENIA: Aginskii Region, on wheat roots. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Phenacoccus affinis Ter-Grigorian, 1963: 123. Type data: ARMENIA: on roots of wheat. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Densispina graminea Ter-Grigorian, 1964a: 861. Type data: ARMENIA: Ashtarakski Region, Orgov, on roots of grass. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Phenacoccus sogdianicus Nurmamatov & Bazarov, 1987: 78. Type data: TADZHIKISTAN: Vakhshskaya Valley, near Aktau, on grass. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Spinococcus affinis; Tang, 1992: 555. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus affinis; Ben-Dov, 1994: 307. Revived combination.

Phenacoccus karaberdi; Ben-Dov, 1994: 327. Revived combination.

Phenacoccus gramineus; Danzig, 2003: 352. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Asteraceae [KaydanKiKo2005]. Brassicaceae: Cardaria draba [KaydanKiKo2005]. Chenopodiaceae: Chenopodium album [KaydanKiKo2005]. Poaceae [TerGri1964a, TerGri1966, TerGri1973, BenDov1994], Agropyron [TerGri1963, TerGri1966, BenDov1994], Agropyron caespitosum [TerGri1963, TerGri1973, BenDov1994], Avena fatua [TerGri1966, BenDov1994], Bromus [TerGri1963, TerGri1966, BenDov1994], Bromus commutatus [TerGri1963, TerGri1973, BenDov1994], Festuca [TerGri1963, TerGri1973, BenDov1994], Hordeum [TerGri1963, BenDov1994], Hordeum murinum [KaydanUlEr2007], Koeleria gracilis [TerGri1963, TerGri1973, BenDov1994], Poa [TerGri1966], Poa bulbosa [TerGri1963, TerGri1973, BenDov1994], Triticum [BorchsTe1956, TerGri1966, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [TerGri1964a, TerGri1966, TerGri1973, BenDov1994]; Austria [MatrahKo2008]; Kazakhstan (Turgay Oblast [Danzig2003]); Russia (Dagestan AR [Danzig2003]); Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [NurmamBa1987, BenDov1994]; Turkey [KaydanKoYa2001, KaydanKiKo2005, KaydanUlEr2007].

BIOLOGY: Living on roots of its host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ter-Grigorian (1963, 1964a, 1973), Nurmamatov & Bazarov (1987), and by Danzig (2003). Description and illustration of first-instar nymph, female second-instar nymph and female third-instar nymph given by Ter-Grigorian (1973). Description of adult female by Tang (1992). Description and illustration of female last-instar nymph by Ter-Grigorian (1973).

KEYS: Granara de Willink & Szumik 2007: 41-43 (female); Danzig 2006a: 197-200 (female) [A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus]; Tang 1992: 554 (female) [China]; Tang 1992: 554 (female) [China]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 135 (female) [Armenia]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 135 (female) [Armenia].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 115,306,327,343]; BorchsTe1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 20-23]; CebeciAr2006 [host, distribution: 140]; Danzig2003 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 352-355]; Danzig2006a [taxonomy: 199]; KaydanKiKo2005 [host, distribution: 90]; KaydanKoYa2001 [host, distribution: 380]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 101]; MatrahKo2008 [host, distribution: 155]; NurmamBa1987 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 78-80]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 195,324,555,560-561]; TerGri1963 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 123-128]; TerGri1964a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 861-863]; TerGri1966 [host, distribution: 88,90]; TerGri1966a [host, distribution: 373]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 119-122,147-153].



Phenacoccus kareliniae Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus kareliniae Borchsenius, 1949: 215. Type data: TADZHIKISTAN: near Melnikov Station, on Karelinia caspia; collected N.S. Borchsenius, 15.ix.1944. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 2003: 339. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 37-45. Described: female.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Artemisia [Danzig1977a, BenDov1994], Karelinia caspia [Borchs1949, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Mongolia [Danzig1977a, BenDov1994]; Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Borchs1949, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Danzig (2003). Description of adult female by Borchsenius (1949) and by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Danzig 2006a: 197-200 (female) [A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus]; Tang 1992: 530 (female) [China]; Bazarov & Nurmamatov 1975b: 55 (female) [Tajikistan]; Borchsenius 1949: 210 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 327]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 215]; Danzig1977a [host, distribution: 197]; Danzig2003 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 339-343]; Danzig2006a [taxonomy: 199]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 539-540].



Phenacoccus karkasicus Moghaddam

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus karkasicus Moghaddam, 2013: 46,52-53. Type data: IRAN: Esfahan, Kashan, Ghamsar, Sheikh Bahaii Dam, on Berberis vulgaris, 5/15/2011, by M. Moghaddam. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Tehran: Plant Pests and Diseases Research Institute, Iran. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Berberidaceae: Berberis vulgaris [Moghad2013].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Iran [Moghad2013].

BIOLOGY: On the leaf surface of Berberis vulgaris. (Moghaddam, 2013)

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Moghaddam, 2013.

STRUCTURE: Mounted adult female oval, margin of body parallel, membranous, up to 4 mm long. Anal lobes well developed

SYSTEMATICS: Phenacoccus karkasicus Moghaddam is similar to P. capensis Ferris (recorded in the Nearctic Region) in having: (i) medial and submedial dorsal cerarii, (ii) no dorsal multilocular disc pores, and (iii) ventral multilocular disc pores not reaching margins. P. karkasicus differs from P. capensis in having (character states on P. capensis in brackets): (i) oral collar ducts in wide bands across of all dorsal segments (distributed sparsely); (ii) ventral multilocular disc pores on anterior and posterior edges of abdominal segments V-VII (posterior edges of abdominal segments V-VII only); and (iii) anal lobe and preocular cerarii each with 4 lanceolate setae (2 lanceolate setae). (Moghaddam, 2013)

KEYS: Moghaddam 1999: 46 [Key to species of Phenacoccus Cockerell in Iran].

CITATIONS: Moghad2013 [distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 52-54, 99]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 68-69].



Phenacoccus kozari Williams

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus kozari Williams, 2004a: 599. Type data: INDIA: Tamil Nadu, Nigiri Hills, Coonoor, Black Bridge Forest Reserve, 2130 m, under stones; collected P. Topal, 14.iii.1980. Holotype female. Type depository: Budapest: Hungarian Natural History Museum, Zoological Department, Hungary. Described: female. Illust.

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: India (Tamil Nadu [Willia2004a]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Williams (2004a).

KEYS: Hodgson {et al}. 2008: 3 (female) [Species of Phenacoccus in southern Asia]; Williams 2004a: 590-591 (female) [Phenacoccus species of southern Asia].

CITATIONS: HodgsoAbAr2008 [taxonomy: 3]; Willia2004a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 598-599].



Phenacoccus larvalis Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus larvalis Borchsenius, 1949: 236. Type data: TADZHIKISTAN: Gissarsk Ridge, on Prangos sp.; collected N. Borchsenius, 15.vii.1944. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 2003: 355. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 30-45. Described: female.



HOSTS: Caryophyllaceae: Silene schunganica [Bazaro1971c, BenDov1994]. Clusiaceae: Hypericum [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]. Lamiaceae: Mentha [Borchs1949, BenDov1994], Salvia [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]. Umbelliferae: Prangos [Borchs1949, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kazakhstan [Danzig2003]; Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Borchs1949, Bazaro1971c, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Danzig (2003).

KEYS: Danzig 2006a: 197-200 (female) [A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus]; Tang 1992: 530 (female) [China]; Bazarov & Nurmamatov 1975: 56 (female) [Tajikistan]; Borchsenius 1949: 211 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: Bazaro1971c [host, distribution: 89]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 327]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 236-237]; Danzig2003 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 355-359]; Danzig2006a [taxonomy: 200]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 540].



Phenacoccus latipes Green

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus latipes Green, 1923b: 89. Type data: MADEIRA ISLANDS: Porto Santo, on underside of rocks on grass. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Caryophyllaceae: Silene [Rungs1934, BenDov1994]. Poaceae [Green1923b, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Madeira Islands [Green1923b, BenDov1994]; Morocco [Rungs1934, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description of the adult female given by Green (1923b). According to Borchsenius (1949), the records under this binomen by Kiritchenko (1931, 1932b, 1940, 1940a) and by Borchsenius (1937, 1937a) are misindentifications of Peliococcus perfidiosus Borchsenius.

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 328]; FrancoRuMa2011 [distribution: 19,25]; Green1923b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 89-90]; Rungs1934 [host, distribution: 23].



Phenacoccus loiki Danzig

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus loiki Danzig, 2001a: 109. Type data: RUSSIA: East Siberia [=Irkutsk Oblast], East Sajan Mountains, Tunkin Ridge, Arshan Rocks, on Dactylis glomeratus; collected E. Danzig, 23.vii.1970. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. N-5239. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Aegilops [KaydanUlEr2007], Dactylis glomeratus [Danzig2001a], Hordeum murinum [KaydanKiKo2005, KaydanUlEr2007].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Russia (Irkutsk Oblast [Danzig2001a]); Turkey [KaydanKiKo2005, KaydanUlEr2007].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Danzig (2001a).

KEYS: Danzig 2006a: 197-200 (female) [A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus].

CITATIONS: Danzig2001a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 109-110]; Danzig2003 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 347]; Danzig2006a [taxonomy: 198]; KaydanKiKo2005 [host, distribution: 90]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 101].



Phenacoccus longoi Russo

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus longoi Russo, 1994: 279. Type data: ITALY: Canzaro, Saint Mary Abbey (Serra San Bruno), on Abies alba. Holotype female. Type depository: Catania: Istituto di Entomologia Agraria, Italy. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Pinaceae: Abies alba [Russo1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Italy [Russo1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Russo (1994).

KEYS: Marotta & Russo & Matile-Ferrero 1997: 438 (female) [Italy]; Russo 1994: 282 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: Russo1994 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 279-281].



Phenacoccus lotearum McKenzie

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus lotearum McKenzie, 1960: 721. Type data: U.S.A.: California, Ventura County, Santa Susana Pass, on Lotus sp. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

COMMON NAMES: lotus mealybug [McKenz1960]; Lotus mealybug [McKenz1960].



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Anaphalis margaritacea [McKenz1967, BenDov1994], Centaurea melitensis [McKenz1967, BenDov1994], Chaenactis tenuifolia [McKenz1967, BenDov1994], Stephanomeria [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Fabaceae: Lotus [McKenz1960, BenDov1994]. Poaceae: Cynodon dactylon [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Polygonaceae: Eriogonum [McKenz1967, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (California [McKenz1960, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the crowns and roots of its host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by McKenzie (1960, 1967).

KEYS: McKenzie 1967: 216 (female) [U.S.A., California]; McKenzie 1964: 241 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1961: 28 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1960: 715 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 328]; McKenz1960 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 720, 721, 723]; McKenz1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 262-264].



Phenacoccus lycii (Ferris)

NOMENCLATURE:

Pseudococcus lycii Ferris, 1919a: 30. Type data: U.S.A.: Arizona, Yavapai County, Cottonwood, on Lycium sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Phenacoccus lycii; Ferris, 1950b: 150. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: desert thorn mealybug [McKenz1967].



HOST: Solanaceae: Lycium [Ferris1919a, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Arizona [Ferris1919a, BenDov1994], California [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the roots of its host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Ferris (1950b) and by McKenzie (1967).

KEYS: McKenzie 1967: 214 (female) [U.S.A., California]; McKenzie 1964: 238 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1961: 26 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1960: 713 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1953a: 395 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1950b: 120 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 328]; Ferris1919a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 30-31]; Ferris1950b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 150-151]; McKenz1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 264-265].



Phenacoccus madeirensis Green

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus madeirensis Green, 1923b: 90. Type data: MADEIRA: Funchal, on unidentified plant. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Williams, 1987c: 347. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Phenacoccus grenadensis Green & Laing, 1924: 416. Type data: GRENADA: on egg-plant [= Solanum melongena]. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Williams, 1987c: 347. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Williams, 1987b: 347.

Phenacoccus harbisoni Peterson, 1965: 96. Type data: U.S.A.: California, Imperial County, sand hills near Gray's Well, on Helianthus tephrodes. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Williams, 1987b: 347.

Phenacoccus gossypii; Tranfaglia, 1981: 11. Misidentification.

COMMON NAME: Madeira mealybug [MuniapShWa2011].



FOES: COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Clitostethus neuenschwanderi Fursch [Fursch1987], Diomus austrinus Green [ChongOeOs2005], Diomus hennesseyi Fursch [Fursch1987], Nephus phenacoccophagus Fursch [Fursch1987].

HOSTS: Acanthaceae: Acanthus mollis [Sinaco1995], Crossandra [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Hemigraphis repanda [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Jacobinia coccinea [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Pachystachys coccinea [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992]. Agavaceae: Agave [MazzeoLoRu1994, MazzeoSuRu2008]. Amaranthaceae: Amaranthus [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Iresine [Willia1987c, BenDov1994]. Amaryllidaceae: Narcissus [Willia1987c, BenDov1994]. Anacardiaceae: Mangifera indica [Willia1987c, BenDov1994, KondoEsKa2002]. Annonaceae: Annona montana Macfad. [KondoEsKa2002]. Apocynaceae: Dipladenia splendens [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Mandevilla laxa [Willia1987c, BenDov1994]. Araceae: Dieffenbachia maculata [Willia1987c, BenDov1994]. Araliaceae: Aralia [Tranfa1981, BenDov1994], Polyscias [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Schefflera actinophylla [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Schefflera arboricola [Willia1987c, BenDov1994]. Asclepiadaceae: Hoya carnosa [MazzeoLoRu1994, MazzeoSuRu2008]. Asteraceae: Ageratum houstonianum [Granar2003], Ambrosia artemisifolia [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Artemisia californica [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Aster [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Bidens pilosa radiata Sch. Bip [KondoEsKa2002], Bidens pilosa minor (Blume) Sherff [KondoEsKa2002], Bidens sp. [Willia1987c, BenDov1994, KondoEsKa2002], Calendula [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Chrysanthemum [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Chrysanthemum leucanthemum [Granar2003], Chrysopsis [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Cineraria [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Erigeron philadelphicus [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Eupatorium adenophorum [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Eupatorium capillifolium [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Eupatorium odoratum [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Eupatorium serotinum [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Gazania [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Gerbera jamesonii [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Gynura aurantiaca [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Haplopappus [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Helianthus annuus [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Helianthus tephrodes [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Helichrysum [Willia2004a], Ligularia tussilaginea [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Mikania micrantha [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Parthenium hysterophorus [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Pluchea odorata [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Solidago [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Stokesia [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Taraxacum officinale [MazzeoLoRu1994], Verbesina viginica [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Wedelia trilobata [Willia1987c, BenDov1994]. Begoniaceae: Begonia [Willia1987c, BenDov1994, MazzeoLoRu1994]. Bignoniaceae: Jacaranda [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]. Boraginaceae: Cordia curassavica [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Symphytum officinale [Willia1987c, BenDov1994]. Brassicaceae: Brassica campestris rapifera Metzg. [KondoEsKa2002], Brassica oleracea capitata L. [KondoEsKa2002]. Bromeliaceae: Ananas comosus [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Tillandsia [Granar2003]. Cactaceae: Hylocereus undatus [MazzeoLoRu1994, MazzeoSuRu2008]. Convolvulaceae: Ipomea setifera [MatileGe2004], Jacquemontia blanchetti [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Milhania micrantha [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]. Crassulaceae: Adromischus cristatus [Willia1987c, BenDov1994]. Cupressaceae: Juniperus chinensis [Willia1987c, BenDov1994]. Ebenaceae: Diospyros duclouxii [BeltraSo2011]. Ericaceae: Arbutus unedo [MazzeoLoRu1994]. Euphorbiaceae: Acalypha [GermaiSt2004], Acalypha bicolor [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Acalypha hispida [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Acalypha wilkesiana [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Acalypha wilkesiana Mull. Arg. cb. Willincki [KondoEsKa2002], Cnidoscolus [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Codiaeum [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Croton glandulosus [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Croton punctatus [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Euphorbia pulcherrima [DeLott1977, BenDov1994], Manihot aesculifolia [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Manihot diversifolia [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Manihot esculenta [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Manihot glaziovii [CouturMaRi1985, BenDov1994], Manihot michaelis [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Manihot rhomboidea [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Phyllanthus debilis Klein ex Willd. [KondoEsKa2002], Ricinus communis [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]. Fabaceae: Acacia flexuosa [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Cajanus cajan [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Cassia imperalis [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Coronilla sp. [BeltraSo2011], Desmodium tortuosum [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Erythrina bogotensis [BeltraSo2011], Erythrina caffra [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Erythrina viarum [Sinaco1995], Glycine max (L.) Merr. [KondoEsKa2002], Mimosa pudica [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Phaseolus aureus Zaccagni [KondoEsKa2002], Sophora secundiflora [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Sophora tomentosa [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]. Geraniaceae: Geranium [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Pelargonium [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, MazzeoLoRu1994], Pelargonium hortorum [Granar2003], Pelargonium zonale (L.) L'Her. ex Aiton [KondoEsKa2002]. Gesneriaceae: Chrysothemis pulchella [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Episcia decurrens [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Nematanthus wettsteinii [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Tussacia pulchella [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]. Lamiaceae [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Coleus [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Epimeredi indicus [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Mentha [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Ocimum basilicum [MazzeoLoRu1994, PapadoCh2012], Plectranthus nummularius [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Salvia coccinea [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Salvia spendens Sellow ex Roem & Schult. [KondoEsKa2002]. Loasaceae: Petalonyx thurberi [Peters1965, Willia1987c, BenDov1994]. Lobeliaceae: Lobelia cardinalis [Willia1987c, BenDov1994]. Malvaceae [MartinLa2011], Althaea [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Gossypium [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Hibiscus cannabinus [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Hibiscus esculentus [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Hibiscus mutabilis [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Hibiscus rosa-sinensis [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, MatileGe2004, JansenBeKa2011], Malva [MazzeoLoRu1994], Malvaviscus arboreus [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Sida [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Urena lobata [Willia1987c, BenDov1994]. Menispermaceae: Cyclea insularis (Makino) Hatsushima [KondoEsKa2002]. Moraceae: Artocarpus communis [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Ficus benghalensis [Willia2004a]. Oleaceae: Ligustrum japonicum [Willia1987c, BenDov1994]. Passifloraceae: Passiflora edulis Sims [KondoEsKa2002]. Polygonaceae: Rumex [Willia2004a]. Primulaceae: Primula [MarottTr1990, BenDov1994]. Ranunculaceae: Clematis tashiroi Maxim. [KondoEsKa2002]. Rosaceae: Malus domestica [MazzeoLoRu1994], Malus sylvestris [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Rosa [Willia1987c, BenDov1994]. Rubiaceae: Gardenia jasminoides [Granar2003]. Rutaceae: Citrus [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Citrus limonium [MazzeoLoRu1994]. Sapindaceae: Nephelium lappaceum [Willia2004a]. Scrophulariaceae: Leucophyllum [Willia1987c, BenDov1994]. Smilacaceae: Smilax [Willia1987c, BenDov1994]. Solanaceae: Capsicum annuum [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, MazzeoLoRu1994], Capsicum frutescens L. [KondoEsKa2002], Cestrum diurnum [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Cestrum nocturnum [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, HalimaGeMd2014], Datura metel [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Lycopersicon esculentum [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Solanum interifolium Poir. [KondoEsKa2002], Solanum lycopersici [MazzeoLoRu1994], Solanum melongena [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, MazzeoLoRu1994, Willia2004a], Solanum nigrum L. [KondoEsKa2002], Solanum pseudocapsicum [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Solanum tuberosum [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Solanum wendlandii [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]. Sterculiaceae: Theobroma cacao [Donald1956]. Taccaceae: Tacca [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]. Tiliaceae: Corchorus olitorius L. [KondoEsKa2002], Triumfetta subtriloba [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]. Umbelliferae: Petroselinum hortense [MazzeoLoRu1994]. Urticaceae: Parietaria floridana [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Pilea [Willia1987c, BenDov1994], Urera [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Urtica [Willia1987c, BenDov1994]. Verbenaceae: Citharexylum spinosum [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Lantana camara [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Lantana montevidensis [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Verbena hybrida [Willia1987c, BenDov1994]. Vitaceae: Vitis vinifera [MazzeoLoRu1994]. Zingiberaceae: Curcuma longa L. [KondoEsKa2002], Zingiber mioga (Thunb.) Roscoe [KondoEsKa2002].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Angola [Almeid1973, DeLott1977, BenDov1994, CABI2000]; Benin [CABI2000]; Cameroon [Willia1987c, BenDov1994, CABI2000]; Cape Verde [SchmutPiKl1978, Willia1987c, VanHarCoWi1990, BenDov1994, CABI2000]; Congo [CABI2000]; Côte d'Ivoire (=Ivory Coast) [Willia1987c, BenDov1994, CABI2000]; Gabon [CABI2000]; Gambia [Willia1987c, BenDov1994, CABI2000]; Ghana [CABI2000]; Liberia [Willia1987c, BenDov1994, CABI2000]; Mozambique [Willia1987c, BenDov1994, CABI2000]; Nigeria [Willia1987c, BenDov1994, CABI2000]; Reunion [GermaiMiPa2014]; Sao Tome and Principe [CABI2000]; Senegal [Willia1987c, BenDov1994, CABI2000]; Seychelles [GermaiAtBa2008]; Sierra Leone [Willia1987c, BenDov1994, CABI2000]; Togo [CABI2000]; Zimbabwe [Willia1987c, BenDov1994, CABI2000]. Australasian: Federated States of Micronesia [CABI2000]; Guam [CABI2000]. Nearctic: Mexico [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, CABI2000]; United States of America (Alabama [Willia1987c, BenDov1994, CABI2000], California [Peters1965, Willia1987c, BenDov1994, CABI2000, DownieGu2004], Florida [Willia1987c, BenDov1994, CABI2000], Illinois [Willia1987c, BenDov1994, CABI2000], Louisiana [CABI2000], Maryland [Willia1987c, BenDov1994, CABI2000], Minnesota [Willia1987c, BenDov1994, CABI2000], Mississippi [Willia1987c, BenDov1994, CABI2000], New York [Willia1987c, BenDov1994, CABI2000], North Carolina [Willia1987c, BenDov1994, CABI2000], Texas [Willia1987c, BenDov1994, CABI2000], Virginia [Willia1987c, BenDov1994, CABI2000], Wisconsin [Willia1987c, BenDov1994, CABI2000]). Neotropical: Antigua and Barbuda (Antigua [Willia1987c, BenDov1994, CABI2000], Barbuda [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, CABI2000]); Argentina (Tucuman [GranarCl2003, Granar2003, GranarSz2007]); Bahamas [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, CABI2000]; Bermuda [Willia1987c, HodgsoHi1991, HodgsoHi1990, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, CABI2000]; Bolivia [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, CABI2000]; Brazil [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, CABI2000] (Bahia [CABI2000], Espirito Santo [CulikMaVe2007], Minas Gerais [CABI2000], Rio de Janeiro [CABI2000], Sao Paulo [CABI2000]); British Virgin Islands [CABI2000]; Cayman Islands [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, CABI2000]; Colombia [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, CABI2000, Kondo2001]; Costa Rica [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, CABI2000]; Cuba [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, CABI2000]; Dominica [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, CABI2000]; Dominican Republic [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, CABI2000]; Ecuador [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, CABI2000]; Grenada [GreenLa1924, Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, CABI2000]; Guadeloupe [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, CABI2000, MatileEt2006]; Guatemala [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, CABI2000]; Guyana [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, CABI2000]; Haiti [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, CABI2000, PerezG2008]; Jamaica [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, CABI2000]; Martinique [GermaiSt2004, MatileEt2006]; Montserrat [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, CABI2000]; Panama [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, CABI2000]; Paraguay [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, CABI2000]; Peru [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, CABI2000]; Puerto Rico & Vieques Island (Puerto Rico [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, CABI2000]); Saint Kitts and Nevis Islands (Nevis [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, CABI2000], Saint Kitts [Willia1987c, BenDov1994]); Saint Lucia [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, CABI2000]; Trinidad and Tobago (Tobago [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, CABI2000], Trinidad [Willia1987c, BenDov1994, CABI2000]); U.S. Virgin Islands [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]; Venezuela [Willia1987c, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, CABI2000]. Oriental: China (Hainan [WuNaLu2010]); Pakistan [Willia2004a]; Philippines [Willia2004a]; Taiwan [YehLiCh2006]; Thailand [MuniapShWa2011]; Vietnam [Willia2004a]. Palaearctic: Crete [JansenBeKa2011]; France [MatileGe2004, MatileGePi2004]; Greece [PapadoCh2012]; Italy [MarottTr1990, BenDov1994, MazzeoLoRu1994, LongoMaPe1995, MazzeoSuRu2008]; Madeira Islands [Green1923b, BenDov1994, CABI2000]; Portugal [FrancoRuMa2011] (Specimens collected by Elisabete Figueiredo on Capsicum annuum under greenhouse, in Silveira (Torres Vedras) (30-7-2009).); Sicily [LongoMaRu1995, Sinaco1995, RussoMa1997, CABI2000]; Spain [BeltraSo2011]; Tunisia [HalimaGeMd2014].

BIOLOGY: Life history, under laboratory conditions, in Sicily studied by Longo et al. (1995). In Sicily it develops 5-6 generations per year (Sinacori, 1995). Ho et al. (2009) identified and synthesized the female sex pheromone.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Williams (1958, 1987c), Williams & Granara de Willink (1992), Williams (2004a) and by Granara de Willink & Szumik (2007). The redescriptions and illustrations of the adult female given by Ferris in Zimmerman (1948), Ferris (1950b) and by McKenzie (1967), and of the adult male by Beardsley (1960) (of Hawaiian population) and Beardsley (1962) (of Californian populations) under the name of P. gossypii probably represent P. madeirensis. Likewise, the records of P. gossypii from Hawaii by Ferris in Zimmerman (1948) and by Beardsley (1960), and from Guam by Beardsley (1975) are probably misidentifications of P. madeirensis.

STRUCTURE: Colour photograph of adult female by Matile-Ferrero et al. (2004). Phenacoccus madeirensis has a grey oval body covered by thin, white, mealy wax, with red legs and dark dorso-submedial bare spots on intersegmental areas of the thorax and abdomen. These areas form 1 pair of dark longitudinal lines on the dorsum. The ovisac covers the entire dorsum, with 18 pairs of lateral wax filaments, the posterior pairs being the longest. They were approximately the length of the body or a little shorter. (Papadopoulou & Chryssohoides, 2012)

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: This mealybug is common on cassava, causing, however, little damage. It is often injurious to potatoes in Peru. It is extremely common in Africa, probably been introduced there from Neotropical region (Williams & Granara de Willink, 1992). In 2010 and 2011, a serious mealybug infestation was observed on Ocimum basilicum (large leaf or sweet basil) in Greece. (Papadopoulou & Chryssohoides, 2012)

KEYS: Parsa et al. 2012: 8-10 (female, adult) [Key to mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) recorded on Manihot spp. (Euphorbiaceae) in the World]; Tanaka & Uesatio 2012: 414 (female) [Key to separate four new invasive mealybug species: Dysmicoccus neobrevipes, Ph. defectus, Ph. parvus and P. solenopsis from other mealybugs occurring in the Ryukyu Archipelago]; Williams & Matile-Ferrero 2009a: 97-101 (female) [Pseudococcidae species from Mauritius]; Granara de Willink & Szumik 2007: 41-43 (female) [Phencoccus species of South America]; Williams 2004a: 590-591 (female) [Phenacoccus species of southern Asia]; Marotta & Pagano 1997: 114 (female) [Italian mealybugs on Geranium sp.]; Marotta & Russo & Matile-Ferrero 1997: 438 (female) [World]; Williams & Granara de Willink 1992: 348 (female) [Central and South America]; Williams 1987c: 338 (female) [North and South America]; Beardsley 1960: 211 (male) [Hawaii].

CITATIONS: Almeid1973b [host, distribution: 18]; BellotReGu1985 [host, distribution, economic importance: 393-416]; BellotSc1977 [host, distribution, economic importance: 188-193]; BeltraSo2011 [distribution, host]; BeltraSoMa2012 [molecular data, phylogenetics: 167-171]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 328-330]; CABI2000 [host, distribution: 1-4]; ChongOe2006 [biological control, life history: 39-50]; ChongOe2006a [biological control]; ChongOe2006b [life history, biological control: 1188-1197]; ChongOe2006c [life history, biological control: 1198-1207]; ChongOe2006d [life history, biological control: 320-328]; ChongOe2007a [life history, biological control: 78-85]; ChongOe2008 [life history, biological control: 169-176]; ChongOeOs2005 [biological control, host, distribution, life history: 39-48]; ChongOeVa2003 [host, distribution, life history: 539-543]; ChongVaOe2004 [life history, ecology: 387-397]; CouturMaRi1985 [host, distribution: 280]; CulikMaVe2007 [host, distribution: 1-5]; DeLott1977 [host, distribution: 32]; Donald1956 [host, distribution, biological control: 48-60]; DownieGu2004 [host, distribution, phylogeny, molecular data: 258-259]; FrancoRuMa2011 [distribution: 19,25]; Fursch1987 [biological control: 387-394]; GermaiAtBa2008 [host, distribution: 129-135]; GermaiMiPa2014 [distribution, host: 24]; GermaiSt2004 [host, distribution: 223-224]; Granar2003 [host, distribution: 80-81]; GranarCl2003 [host, distribution: 625-637]; GranarSz2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 77,83]; Green1923b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 90-91]; GreenLa1924 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 416-417]; HalimaGeMd2014 [distribution, host, illustration, economic importance: 1-2]; HardyGuHo2008 [taxonomy, phylogeny, molecular data: 51-71]; HodgsoHi1990 [host, distribution: 2-22]; HodgsoHi1991 [host, distribution: 144]; HoKoCh2011 [chemistry, distribution, chemical control: 823-826]; HoSuKo2009 [chemistry, chemical ecology: 724-732]; JansenBeKa2011 [distribution, host: 483-484]; KaydanCaUl2013 [distribution: 169]; Kondo2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 37]; KondoEsKa2002 [distribution, host: 337-340]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 119]; LongoMaRu1995 [host, distribution, life history: 219-222]; LongoRu1990 [host, distribution: 114-115]; Malump2012b [distribution: 211]; MarottTr1990 [host, distribution: 109]; MartinLa2011 [catalogue, distribution, host: 47]; MatileEt2006 [host, distribution: 181]; MatileGe2004 [host, distribution: 191-192]; MatileGePi2004 [host, distribution: 35-37]; MazzeoLoRu1994 [host, distribution: 202-203]; MazzeoSuRu2008 [host, distribution: 149-152]; McKenz1967 [taxonomy, description, illustation, host, distribution]; MuniapShWa2011 [distribution: 168,170]; OettinCh2002 [biological control: 41-42]; PachecBeBl2014 [molecular data: 5]; PapadoCh2012 [description, distribution, economic importance, host, illustration, structure: 146-147]; ParsaKoWi2012 [taxonomy: 9]; PellizPoSe2011 [distribution, host: 293]; PerezG2008 [distribution: 216]; Peters1965 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 96-99]; RagusaTs1995 [host, distribution, biological control: 301-307]; RossHaOk2012 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 199]; RussoMa1997 [distribution: 51]; SchmutPiKl1978 [host, distribution, economic importance: 328]; Sinaco1995 [host, distribution, life history: 179-182]; TanakaUe2012 [taxonomy: 414]; UneliuElTw2011 [molecular data: 170]; VanHarCoWi1990 [host, distribution: 133]; Willia1958 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 230-232]; Willia1986c [distribution, host, taxonomy: 50-51]; Willia1987c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 347-353]; Willia2004a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 600-603]; WilliaGr1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 372-375]; WilliaMa2009a [taxonomy: 97-101]; WilliaMa2012 [distribution, host: 89]; WinotaGoTa2010 [distribution: 10N]; WuNaLu2010 [description, distribution, host, illustration, economic importance, structure: 8-12]; YehLiCh2006 [host, distribution, life history: 329-342]; ZouChMi2013 [chemistry: 136].



Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero, 1977: 146. Type data: PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CONGO: Niari valley, on Manihot esculenta. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

COMMON NAMES: cassava mealybug [Matile1977]; Cassava mealybug [Matile1977].



FOES: ACARI Phytoseiidae: Amblyseius aerialis [HerrenNe1991], Euseius concordis [HerrenNe1991], Galendromus annectens [HerrenNe1991], Galendromus helveolus [HerrenNe1991], Neoseiulus anonymus [HerrenNe1991], Neoseiulus californicus [HerrenNe1991], Neoseiulus idaeus [HerrenNe1991], Typlodromalus limonicus [HerrenNe1991]. COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Clitostethus neuenschwanderi Fursch [Fursch1987], Diomus [HerrenNe1991, ChakupMaNe1994], Diomus hennesseyi Fursch [NeuensAj1995, Neuens1996], Diomus hennesseyi Fursch [Fursch1987], Exochomus [GutierNeSc1988, NeuensHa1988, HerrenNe1991], Exochomus concavus Fursch [FabresMa1980, Fabres1980a, Fabres1981c, FabresKiEp1981], Exochomus flaviventris Mader [FabresMa1980, Fabres1980a, FabresKiEp1981, Fabres1981c, LeRuMi2000], Exochomus troberti Mulsant [CudjoeNeCo1992, NeuensAj1995], Hyperaspis [GutierNeSc1988, HerrenNe1991], Hyperaspis notata Mulsant [HerrenNe1991, ChakupMaNe1994, Staubl1995, Neuens1996, StaublBaNe1997], Hyperaspis raynevali [HerrenNe1991], Hyperaspis senegalensis Mulsant [Fabres1981c, FabresKiEp1981, Fabres1981d, HerrenNe1991], Hyperaspis senegalensis hottentotta [FabresMa1980, FabresKi1985], Lestodiplosis Kieffer [Fabres1981c], Nephus derroni Fursch [Fabres1981c], Nephus phenacoccophagus Fursch [Fursch1987], Scymnus couturieri Chazeau [MinkoFo1999], Scymnus plebejus Weise [Fabres1981c], Scymnus rufifrons Fursch [Fabres1981c], Serangium giffardi Grandi [Fabres1981c], Stethorus [HerrenNe1991], Sthetorus endruedi Fursch [Fabres1981c]. Staphylinidae: Holobus [HerrenNe1991]. DIPTERA Cecidomyidae: Arthroconodax [HerrenNe1991], Coccodiplosis citri Barnes [FabresMa1980, Fabres1980a, Fabres1981c], Dicrodiplosis Kieffer [FabresMa1980, Fabres1980a, Fabres1981c], Dicrodiplosis manihoti [NeuensHa1988, HerrenNe1991]. Drosophilidae: Cacoxenus (Gitonides) multidentatus Tsacas & Chassagnard [TsacasCh1999], Cacoxenus (Gitonides) perspicax Knab [TsacasCh1999], Cacoxenus (Gitonides) polyodous Tsacas & Chassagnard [TsacasCh1999]. FUNGI : Entomophthora [HerrenNe1991], Hirsutella [HerrenNe1991], Hirsutella thompsonii [HerrenNe1991], Neozygites fumosa [LeRuIz1990a, HerrenNe1991], Triplosporium [HerrenNe1991]. HOMOPTERA Anthocoridae: Cardiasthetus exiguus Poppius [FabresMa1980, Fabres1980a, Fabres1981c]. HUMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Anagyrus nyombae Boussienguet [Boussi1988]. HYMENOPRTERA Encyrtidae: Apoanagyrus lopezi De Santis [KondoGuPo2012]. HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Acerophagus coccois [DornMaBe2001], Aenasius vexans [DornMaBe2001], Apoanagyrus lopezi (De Santis) [Moore1988, HennesNeMu1990, HerrenNe1991, CudjoeNeCo1992, GoergeNe1992, ChakupMaNe1994, Neuens2001], Cheiloneurus cyanonotus Waterston [FabresMa1980, Fabres1980a, Fabres1981c], Epidinocarsis diversicornis [HerrenNe1991, ChakupMaNe1994], Epidinocarsis lopezi De Santis [Watson1997], Homalotylus flaminius Dalman [FabresMa1980, Fabres1980a, Fabres1981c], Parapyrus manihoti Noyes [Noyes1984], Prochiloneurus [NeuensHa1988, HerrenNe1991], Prochiloneurus insolitus Alam [GoergeNe1992, CudjoeNeCo1993], Prochiloneurus pulchellus Silvestri [FabresMa1980, Fabres1980a, Fabres1981c], Xyphigaster pseudococci Risbec [FabresMa1980, Fabres1980a]. Platygasteridae: Allotropa [HerrenNe1991, ChakupMaNe1994]. Signiphoridae: Chartocerus [NeuensHa1988, HerrenNe1991], Chartocerus hyalipennis Hayat [GoergeNe1992]. LEPIDOPTERA Lycaenidae: Spalgis lemolea Druce [FabresMa1980, Fabres1980a, Fabres1981c, HerrenNe1991]. NEUROPTERA Hemerobiidae: Hyperaspis jucunda Mulsant [NsiiamOdHe1984, ChakupMaNe1994, SheOd1984]. THYSANOPTERA : Scolothrips [HerrenNe1991].

HOSTS: Cyperaceae: Cyperus [Matile1977, BenDov1994]. Euphorbiaceae: Manihot esculenta [Matile1977, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, FoldiKo2006]. Fabaceae: Glycine max [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]. Lamiaceae: Ocimum [Matile1977, BenDov1994]. Malvaceae: Sida carpinifolia [Matile1977, BenDov1994]. Nyctaginaceae: Boerhavia diffusa [Matile1977, BenDov1994]. Portulacaceae: Talinum triangulare [Matile1977, BenDov1994]. Rutaceae: Citrus [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]. Solanaceae: Solanum [Granar2003].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Angola [CABI1984, BenDov1994]; Benin [HerrenNe1991, BenDov1994]; Burundi [HerrenNe1991, BenDov1994]; Congo [Matile1977, BenDov1994]; Côte d'Ivoire (=Ivory Coast) [NeuensHaGu1989, BenDov1994]; Gambia [HerrenNe1991, BenDov1994]; Ghana [NeuensHaGu1989, BenDov1994]; Guinea [CABI1984, BenDov1994]; Guinea-Bissau [CABI1984, BenDov1994]; Kenya [HerrenNe1991, BenDov1994]; Malawi [HerrenNe1991, BenDov1994]; Mali [MuniapWaVa2012]; Mozambique [HerrenNe1991, BenDov1994]; Nigeria [HerrenNe1991, BenDov1994]; Rwanda [HerrenNe1991, BenDov1994]; Senegal [HerrenNe1991, BenDov1994]; Sierra Leone [James1987, HerrenNe1991, BenDov1994]; Sudan [CABI1984, BenDov1994]; Tanzania [HerrenNe1991, BenDov1994]; Togo [CABI1984, BenDov1994]; Uganda [CABI1984, BenDov1994]; Zaire [Matile1977, BenDov1994]; Zambia [HerrenNe1991, BenDov1994]; Zanzibar [WilliaMa2005a]. Australasian: Indonesia (Java [MuniapShWa2011]). Neotropical: Argentina (Cordoba [Granar2003]); Bolivia [WilliaCoYa1981, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]; Brazil [Matile1977, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994] (Amazonas [FoldiKo2006]); Colombia [Kondo2001]; Paraguay [WilliaCoYa1981, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]. Oriental: Kampuchea (=Cambodia) [ParsaKoWi2012]; Thailand [MuniapShWa2011, WinotaGoTa2010]; Vietnam [ParsaKoWi2012].

BIOLOGY: Biology, life history and population dynamics in Congo were studied by Fabres (1981, 1981a, 1989) and by Fabres & Boussiengue (1981). Giordanengo & Nenon (1990a) studied the encapsulation respond to the encyrtid Epidinocarsis lopezi. Le Ru & Iziquel (1990) evaluated the effect of rains on population dynamics in Congo, under laboratory conditions. Associated with ants Camponotus, Crematogaster, Pheidole (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). (Cudjoe, Neuenschwander & Copland, 1993).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Matile-Ferrero (1977), Williams & Granara de Willink (1992) and by Granara de Willink & Szumik (2007).

STRUCTURE: In life, species pinkish, covered in a white mealy secretion, with tufts of flocculent waxy secretion at posterior end and around margins. (Parsa, et al., 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: The species is most similar in life to Phenacoccus herreni Cox & Williams which is yellowish and reproduces bi-parentally. However, P. manihoti always reproduces parthenogenetically. (Parsa, et al., 2012.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Several non-preferred host species can support P. manihoti reproduction, but only cassava is known to experience significant damage by this insect. When it feeds on cassava, P. manihoti causes severe distortion of terminal shoots, yellowing and curling of leaves, reduced internodes, stunting, and weakening of stems used for crop propagation. (Parsa, et al., 2012) The ants, Camponotus, Crematogaster, Pheidole (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), interfere in the biological control of the cassava mealybug in Ghana. (Cudjoe, Neuenschwander & Copland, 1993). The parasitoid Epidinocarsis lopezi (De Santis) - Encyrtidae is the most successful natural enemy that became established in 26 African countries (Neuenschwander, 2001). Predictions for invasion of Asia by P. manihoti, maps and models analysed in Parsa, et al., 2012.

KEYS: Parsa et al. 2012: 8-10 (female) [Key to mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) recorded on Manihot spp. (Euphorbiaceae) in the World]; Granara de Willink & Szumik 2007: 41-43 (female) [Phencoccus species of South America]; Williams & Granara de Willink 1992: 349 (female) [Central and South America].

CITATIONS: AgricoFi1991 [economic importance, biological control: 127-132]; AllardSkNe1994 [host, distribution, biological control]; AuamriSh1986 [biological control, physiology, ecology: 73-82]; Ayanru1987 [economic importance, ecology: 5-10]; BellotCaRe1983 [biological control: 82]; BellotHeVa1985 [host, distribution, economic importance: 441-470]; BellotKa1980 [biological control: 312-335]; BellotReGu1985 [host, distribution, economic importance: 393-416]; BellotReVa1984 [life history, economic importance, ecology, biological control: 21-26]; BellotSc1985 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-5]; BellotSc1985 [host, distribution, economic importance: 341-392]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 330]; BennetYa1978 [biological control: 59-69]; Bhatna1984 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 1-78]; Bin1991 [life history, biological control]; Blumbe1997 [biological control, ecology: 225-236]; BogranHeCi2002 [life history, ecology: 653-668]; BorowkHeHu2005 [host, distribution, economic importance: 18-26]; Boussi1988 [host, distribution, biological control: 277-283]; CABI1984 [distribution]; Calata2000 [life history, physiology, chemistry: 81-86]; CalataAuTh2001 [life history, chemistry, biological control: 2203-2217]; CalataBoNi1996 [life history, physiology, chemistry, structure: 242-245]; CalataDeGu1998 [life history, physiology, chemistry, host: 325-329]; CalataLe1996 [life history, physiology, chemistry, host: 391-398]; CalataLe1997 [economic importance, host, distribution, biological control, chemical control: 59-66]; CalataNaRa1996 [life history, physiology, control: 239-241]; CalataRaDe1994 [life history, physiology, chemistry, host: 45-57]; CalataRaTj1994 [life history, physiology, host: 219-232]; CalataRoLe1997 [life history, physiology, chemistry, host: 427-432]; CalataRu2006 [economic importance, life history, control, host, distribution: 1-110]; CalataSePo2001 [life history, physiology, biological control, host: 271-278]; CalataTeLe1992 [life history, physiology, chemistry, host: 255-257]; CalataTeLe1994 [life history, physiology, chemistry, host: 453-459]; ChakupMaNe1994 [biological control: 254-262]; ChakupMaNe1996 [host, distribution, biological control: 19-25]; CudjoeNeCo1992 [biological control: 77-82]; CudjoeNeCo1993 [biological control: 15-22]; DornMaBe2001 [life history, biological control: 331-339]; DornMaBe2003 [life history, biological control: 1-10]; DreyerNeBa1997 [biological control: 249-256]; DreyerNeBo1997 [biological control: 85-92]; EmehutEg1991 [life history, biological control, economic importance: 144-145]; EtzelLe1999 [biological control: 125-197]; Fabres1980a [biological control: 81-83]; Fabres1981 [life history: 483-486]; Fabres1981a [life history: 84-87]; Fabres1981c [biological control: 145-146]; Fabres1981d [biological control: 3-8]; Fabres1989 [life history: 35-42]; FabresBo1981 [biological control: 82-89]; FabresKi1985 [biological control, economic importance: 339-348]; FabresKiEp1981 [biological control, host, distribution: 3-8]; FabresLeKi1986 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history, ecology: 1-114]; FabresMa1980 [biological control: 509-515]; FoldiKo2006 [host, distribution: 308]; Fursch1987 [biological control: 387-394]; GiordaNe1990a [biological control: 155-163]; Goerge1992 [biological control, economic importance: 1-140]; GoergeNe1992 [biological control: 182-189]; Granar2003 [host, distribution: 81]; GranarSz2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 77,84]; Greath1986 [biological control: 289-318]; GreathGr1992 [biological control: 61-68]; GutierNeSc1988 [biological control: 921-940]; GutierWeSc1987 [economic importance, biological control: 919-925]; GutierWeSc1988 [biological control, chemical control: 901-920]; HammonNe1990 [biological control: 515-526]; HammonNeHe1987 [biological control, economic importance: 887-891]; HaugHeNa1987 [life history, biological control: 879-881]; Hawkin1994 [biological control: 3]; HennesNeMu1990 [host, distribution, biological control: 103-107]; Herren1981 [economic importance, biological control: 79-80]; Herren1981a [host, distribution, control, economic importance: 1-4]; Herren1982 [economic importance: 1]; HerrenLa1983 [economic importance, biological control: 87]; HerrenLe1982 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 185]; HerrenLeNe1983 [biological control: 782]; HerrenNe1991 [host, distribution, biological control: 257-283]; IITA1982a [host, distribution, economic importance, control: 1-128]; IITA1985a [host, distribution, biological control: 35-39]; IITA1986 [host, distribution, biological control: 25]; IITA1986a [host, distribution, biological control: 105-106]; IITA1986b [host, distribution, biological control: 107-109]; James1987 [economic importance, host, distribution: 61-66]; JervisCo1996 [biological control: 63]; Kampan1992 [host, distribution, chemical control, biological control]; KaydanCaUl2013 [economic importance: 169]; KoganGeMa1999 [biological control: 789-818]; Kondo2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 37]; KondoGuPo2012 [biological control: 13]; KraaijVa1986 [biological control, life history: 1986]; LangenVa1987 [biological control, physiology: 429-430]; LemaHe1982 [biological control: 68-69]; LemaHe1985a [life history, ecology: 165-169]; LeRiiMi2002 [host, life history, ecology: 175-182]; LeRuCa1994 [economic importance, host, distribution: 385-390]; LeRuIz1990 [life history: 741-754]; LeRuIz1990a [biological control: 173-183]; LeRuMa2001 [life history, physiology, biological control, economic importance: 557-572]; LeRuMi2000 [biological control: 209-212]; LohrVaSa1990 [biological control: 417-425]; LozanoNo1985 [host, distribution, economic importance: 595-609]; MarottTr1995a [taxonomy: 70-71]; Matile1977 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 145-152]; MinkoBe2005 [host, distribution: 136-140]; MinkoFo1999 [biological control: 171-174]; Moore1988 [biological control: 209-225]; MuniapShWa2011 [biological control, distribution, economic importance, host,: 168-171]; MuniapWaVa2012 [distribution: 1-5]; Neuens1993 [biological control: 143-177]; Neuens2001 [biological control: 214-229]; NeuensBoPh1991 [biological control: 297-310]; NeuensHa1988 [biological control: 894-902]; NeuensHaAj1989 [host, distribution, biological control: 409-420]; NeuensHaGu1989 [biological control: 579-594]; NeuensHaHe1991 [biological control: 120-127]; NeuensHe1988 [biological control: 319-333]; NeuensMa2001 [biological control: 127-146]; NeuensScMa1986 [distribution, biological control: 133-138]; NicoleBoVa1996 [life history, physiology, chemistry, host: 19-28]; Noyes1984 [host, distribution, biological control: 529-533]; NsiiamOdHe1984 [host, distribution, biological control, economic importance: 87-93]; Nweke1994 [host, distribution, economic importance: 407-417]; Nweke2004 [host, distribution, economic importance: 118]; OdebiyBo1986 [host, distribution, biological control, life history: 251-260]; Okonkw2002 [host, life history: 29-35]; OuvrarKoGu2013 [biological control, distribution, economic importance, illustration: 2]; ParsaKoWi2012 [description, distribution, economic importance, host, illustration, life history, structure, taxonomy: 1-11]; PolaniCaBe1999 [life history, physiology, host: 1-9]; RazafiDaDe1999 [life history, economic importance, chemical control, biological control: 127-136]; ReitzTr2002 [biological control, ecology: 435-465]; RenardCaPi1998 [life history, physiology, chemistry, host: 429-450]; RenardLeCa1996 [life history, physiology, chemistry, host: 59-62]; RossHaOk2012 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 199]; RueMa2001 [life history, biological control: 557-572]; RueMi2000 [life history, host, biological control: 209-212]; Samway1981a [biological control, host, distribution: 1]; SchultBaDe1991 [economic importance, life history: 155-165]; SchultChGo2004 [host, distribution, life history, ecology, biological control: 261-272]; SheOd1984 [life history, biological control: 87-93]; Singh1982 [host, distribution, economic importance, control: 70-72]; SinghLu1982 [host, ecology, biological control: 23-27]; SouissCaLe1996 [biological control, life history, physiology, chemistry, host: 65-67]; Staubl1995 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance, biological control: 1-95]; StaublBaNe1996 [host, distribution, biological control: 656]; StaublBaNe1997 [biological control: 21-28]; TertulCaLe1999 [life history, physiology, chemistry, host: 91-98]; TertulDoLe1993 [economic importance, biological control, life history: 657-665]; ThreshOtFa1994 [host, distribution, economic importance: 337-592]; ThreshOtFa1998 [life history, disease transmission: 670-677]; TsacasCh1999 [biological control: 107, 112, 114]; Umeh1988 [life history, biological control: 605-611]; VanAlpJe1996 [biological control: 1]; vandenHaVa1988 [biological control: 1063-1077]; VanDijVa1991a [life history, biological control: 195-201]; vanDijVaVa1988 [biological control: 1097-1108]; vanLen2003b [host, distribution, biological control: 167-179]; WaageGr1988 [biological control: 111-128]; Watson1997 [biological control, distribution, taxonomy: 3]; Willia1986c [distribution, economic importance, host, taxonomy: 49-50]; WilliaCoYa1981 [host, distribution, biological control: 88]; WilliaGr1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 375-377]; WilliaMa2005a [host, distribution: 147]; WilliaMa2012 [distribution, host: 89]; WilliaMi1999 [taxonomy, life history: 524]; WinotaGoTa2010 [biological control, distribution, economic importance: 10N-11N]; YanineSc1993 [economic importance, biological control: 305-324]; Yaseen1980a [host, distribution, biological control: 37-39]; Yaseen1980b [host, distribution, biological control: 41-49].



Phenacoccus maritimus Danzig

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus maritimus Danzig, 1971: 377. Type data: RUSSIA: Primor'ye Kray, on Picea ajanensis. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Pinaceae: Picea ajanensis [Danzig1971, BenDov1994, Danzig2004].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Russia (Primor'ye Kray [Danzig1971, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Oviposition begins in June.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Danzig (1971, 1980b, 2004).

KEYS: Danzig 2006a: 197-200 (female) [A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus]; Danzig 2004: 532 (female) [Phenacoccus species on firs]; Russo 1994: 282 (female) [World]; Tang 1992: 528 (female) [China]; Danzig 1988: 700 (female) [Far East of Russia]; Danzig 1980b: 124 (female) [Far East of Russia]; Danzig 1971: 376 (female) [Group of Phenacoccus piceae].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 330-331]; Danzig1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 377-378]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 130-131]; Danzig2004 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 535-536]; Danzig2006a [taxonomy: 198]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 541].



Phenacoccus matricariae Savescu

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus matricariae Savescu, 1984: 152. Type data: ROMANIA: Bihor District, Oradea, on Matricaria chamomilla. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Bucarest: Academie des Sciences Agricoles et Forestieres, Romania. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Asteraceae: Matricaria camomilla [Savesc1984, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Romania [Savesc1984, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Savescu (1984).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 331]; Savesc1984 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 152-153].



Phenacoccus megaulus McKenzie

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus megaulus McKenzie, 1967: 266. Type data: U.S.A.: California, Inyo County, near Big Pine, on Stephanomeria sp. prob. pauciflora. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

COMMON NAME: large-duct mealybug [McKenz1967].



HOST: Asteraceae: Stephanomeria [McKenz1967, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (California [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the foliage of its host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by McKenzie (1967).

KEYS: McKenzie 1967: 214 (female) [U.S.A., California].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 331]; McKenz1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 266-267].



Phenacoccus memorabilis Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus memorabilis Borchsenius, 1949: 235. Type data: UZBEKISTAN: Yeravshansk Ridge, on leaves of barley. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation danzig, 2003: 359. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 31-45. Described: female.

Caulococcus memorabilis; Tang, 1992: 431. Change of combination.



HOST: Poaceae: Hordeum [Borchs1949, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Danzig2003]; Uzbekistan [Borchs1949, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Danzig (2003).

KEYS: Danzig 2006a: 197-200 (female) [A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus]; Bazarov & Nurmamatov 1975b: 56 (female) [Tajikistan]; Borchsenius 1949: 211 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 331]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 235-236]; Danzig2003 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 358-359]; Danzig2006a [taxonomy: 200]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 431-432].



Phenacoccus meridionalis Gómez-Menor Ortega

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus meridionalis Gómez-Menor Ortega, 1948: 102. Type data: SPAIN: Aguilas, Lorca and Puerto Mazarron, on the roots of Salsolaceae. Syntypes, female. Type depository: IEEM. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Chenopodiaceae: Halogeton sativum [GomezM1965, Martin1985], Salsola [Martin1985]. Salsolaceae [GomezM1948, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Spain [GomezM1948, BenDov1994] [GomezM1948, GomezM1965, Martin1985, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Gomez-Menor Ortega (1948).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 331]; GomezM1948 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 102]; GomezM1965 [host, distribution: 113]; Martin1985 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 95].



Phenacoccus mexicanus (Miller & McKenzie)

NOMENCLATURE:

Cataenococcus mexicanus Miller & McKenzie, 1971: 566. Type data: MEXICO: Tlaxcala, Apizaco, on Compositae. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Paraputo mexicanus; Matile-Ferrero, 1978: 52. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus mexicanus; Williams & Granara de Willink, 1992: 377. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: densepored mealybug [MillerMc1971].



HOST: Asteraceae [MillerMc1971, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico [MillerMc1971, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the roots of the host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Miller & McKenzie (1971), Williams & Granara de Willink (1992) and by Granara de Willink & Szumik (2007).

KEYS: Von Ellenrieder & Stocks 2014: 35 (female) [Portion of Williams & Granara de Willink’s (1992) key to adult female Paracoccus species modified to incorporate P. gillianae]; Granara de Willink & Szumik 2007: 41-43 (female) [Phencoccus species of South America]; Williams & Granara de Willink 1992: 347 (female) [Central and South America]; Miller & McKenzie 1971: 566 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 332]; GranarSz2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 79,86]; Matile1978 [taxonomy: 52]; MillerMc1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 566-568]; WilliaGr1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 377-379].



Phenacoccus meymeryani Bodenheimer

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus meymeryani Bodenheimer, 1943: 18. Type data: IRAQ: Addaye, on Teucrium orientalis. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Bet Dagan: Department of Entomology, The Volcani Center, Israel. Described: female.



HOST: Lamiaceae: Teucrium orientalis [Bodenh1943, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Iraq [Bodenh1943, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Bodenheimer (1943).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 332-333]; Bodenh1943 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 18-19].



Phenacoccus minimus Tinsley

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus minimus Tinsley, 1898b: 223. Type data: U.S.A.: Colorado, Larimer County, Fort Collins, on Picea pungens. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Phenacoccus kuwanae Coleman, 1903: 62. Type data: U.S.A.: California, Siskiyou County, Salmon Mountains, on Picea breweriana. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Ferris, 1950: 152.

Phenacoccus minutus; Danzig, 1971: 376. Misspelling of species name.

COMMON NAME: minimus mealybug [McKenz1967].



HOSTS: Pinaceae: Picea breweriana [Colema1903, BenDov1994], Picea pungens [Tinsle1898b, BenDov1994], Picea rubens [Koszta1996]. Salicaceae: Populus tremuloides [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Canada (Alberta [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994]); United States of America (Arizona [Koszta1996], California [Colema1903, BenDov1994], Colorado [Tinsle1898b, BenDov1994], Montana [Koszta1996], New Mexico [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994, Koszta1996], Virginia [Koszta1996], Wyoming [Koszta1996]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the needles of spruce. Ferris (1950b) comments that the record of this species from Populus from Canada is probably based on stragglers from spruce.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Ferris (1950b), McKenzie (1967) and by Kosztarab (1996).

KEYS: Kosztarab 1996: 161 (female) [Northeastern North USA]; Russo 1994: 281 (female) [World]; Danzig 1971: 376 (female) [Group of Phenacoccus piceae]; McKenzie 1967: 216 (female) [U.S.A., California]; McKenzie 1964: 240 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1961: 27 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1960: 715 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1953a: 397 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 333]; Colema1903 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 62]; Ferris1950b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 152-153]; Koszta1996 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 161-163]; KosztaRh1995 [distribution: 110]; McKenz1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 268-269]; Tinsle1898b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 223].



Phenacoccus montanus (Hadzibejli)

NOMENCLATURE:

Paroudables montanus; Hadzibejli, 1959: 575. Misspelling of genus name.

Paroudables montanus Hadzibejli, 1959a: 575. Type data: REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA: on Abies nordmanniana and Picea orientalis. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia, and Tbilisi: Plant Protection Institute, Republic of Georgia. Described: female. Illust.

Phenacoccus montanus; Danzig, 1980: 130. Change of combination.

Paroudablis montanus; Kozár & Walter, 1985: 70.

Phenacoccus montanus; Ben-Dov, 1994: 333. Revived combination.



FOE: HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Aphycus sumavicus Hoffer [Trjapi1989, Yasnos2001].

HOSTS: Pinaceae: Abies nordmanniana [Hadzib1959a, BenDov1994], Picea orientalis [Hadzib1959a, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Georgia (Georgia [Hadzib1959a, BenDov1994, Yasnos2001]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Hadzibejli (1959a).

KEYS: Danzig 2006a: 197-200 (female) [A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus]; Danzig 2004: 532 (female) [Phenacoccus species on firs]; Russo 1994: 282 (female) [World]; Danzig 1971: 376 (female) [Group of Phenacoccus piceae].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 333]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy: 130]; Danzig2004 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 536]; Danzig2006a [taxonomy: 198]; Hadzib1959a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 575-582]; KozarWa1985 [taxonomy: 70]; Trjapi1989 [biological control: 216]; Yasnos2001 [host, distribution, biological control: 435-440].



Phenacoccus multicerarii Granara de Willink in: Granara de Willink & Szumik

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus multicerarii Granara de Willink in: Granara de Willink & Szumik, 2007: 79. Type data: VENEZUELA: Caracas, on undetermined plant; collected Macuzzi, 1949. Holotype female. Type depository: Tucuman: Fundacion e Instituto Miguel Lillo, Universidade Nactional de Tucuman, Argentina. Described: female. Illust.

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Venezuela [GranarSz2007].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Granara de Willink & Szumik (2007).

KEYS: Granara de Willink & Szumik 2007: 41-43 (female) [Phencoccus species of South America].

CITATIONS: GranarSz2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution].



Phenacoccus multisetosus McKenzie

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus multisetosus McKenzie, 1967: 268. Type data: U.S.A.: California, Inyo County, Westguard Pass, on Pteryxia petraea. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

COMMON NAME: multiple-setae mealybug [McKenz1967].



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Chrysothamnus [McKenz1967, BenDov1994], Tetradymia canescens [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]. Umbelliferae: Pteryxia petraea [McKenz1967, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (California [McKenz1967, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the roots of its host plants.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by McKenzie (1967).

KEYS: Williams 1987c: 338 (female) [North and South America]; McKenzie 1967: 215 (female) [U.S.A., California].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 334]; McKenz1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 268, 270-271].



Phenacoccus neimengulicus Wu, S.A.

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus neimengulicus Wu, S.A., 2000a: 64, 71. Type data: CHINA: INNER MONGOLIA, Alxa Youqi, on roots of Salsola passerina; collected by Li Jie, 15.vii.1990. Holotype female. Type depository: Shanxi: Entomological Institute, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, China. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Chenopodiaceae: Salsola passerina [Wu2000a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China (Nei Monggol (=Inner Mongolia) [Wu2000a]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Wu (2000a).

KEYS: Wu, S.A. 2000a: 68-69 (female) [Phenacoccus species of China].

CITATIONS: Wu2000a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 64,71].



Phenacoccus neohordei Marotta

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus neohordei Marotta, 1992a: 89. Type data: ITALY: Campania, Centola, Capo Palinuro, on Ferula communis. Holotype female. Type depository: Portici: Dipartimento de Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria di Portici, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Italy. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Centaurea parlatoris [MazzeoLoRu1994]. Crassulaceae: Sedum acre [Marott1992a, BenDov1994]. Fabaceae: Lotus maritimus [Marott1992a, BenDov1994]. Umbelliferae: Daucus carota [Marott1992a, BenDov1994, MazzeoLoRu1994], Ferula communis [Marott1992a, BenDov1994], Foeniculum vulgare [Marott1992a, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Italy [Marott1992a, BenDov1994, MazzeoLoRu1994, LongoMaPe1995]; Sicily [RussoMa1997].

BIOLOGY: Several collections of the original descriptions were taken on roots of the host plants.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Marotta (1992a).

KEYS: Marotta & Russo & Matile-Ferrero 1997: 438 (female) [Italy].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 334]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 119]; Marott1992a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 89-92]; MazzeoLoRu1994 [host, distribution: 203].



Phenacoccus nurmamatovi Bazarov

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus nurmamatovi Bazarov, 1979: 44. Type data: TADZHIKISTAN: Vakhshsk Valley near Gandschin, on Avena sp. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Caulococcus nurmamatovi; Tang, 1992: 432. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus nurmamatovi; Ben-Dov, 1994: 334. Revived combination.



HOST: Poaceae: Avena [Bazaro1979, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Bazaro1979, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: The species lives under the leaf sheaths of gramineans. (Danzig, 2006a)

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Bazarov (1979). Good description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

STRUCTURE: Female. Body elongate, parallelsided, pale green, up to 4 mm long. Antennae 8- or 9-segmented. Legs with slender segments. Circulus absent. Multilocular pores forming transverse rows on tergites V-VII, present on 4-5 posterior abdominal sternites and, occasionally, near spiracles. Quinquelocular pores numerous. Dorsal tubular ducts present on posterior abdominal segments only, in groups along margins and in medial part of tergites V-VII. (Danzig, 2006a)

KEYS: Danzig 2006a: 197-200 (female) [A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus].

CITATIONS: Bazaro1979 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 44-46]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 334]; Danzig2006a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 200, 214-215]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 432-433].



Phenacoccus orcinus De Lotto

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus orcinus De Lotto, 1964: 368. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Stellenbosch, on roots of grass. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae [DeLott1964, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [DeLott1964, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Living on the roots of grass.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by De Lotto (1964).

KEYS: De Lotto 1974: 111 (female) [South Africa].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 334]; DeLott1964 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 368-369].



Phenacoccus orientalis (Bazarov)

NOMENCLATURE:

Peliococcus orientalis Bazarov, 1971b: 93. Type data: TURKMENISTAN: Bamchskogo Ridge, on Cousinia sp. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Spinococcus orientalis; Tang, 1992: 565. Change of combination.

Peliococcus orientalis; Ben-Dov, 1994: 296. Revived combination.

Phenacoccus orientalis; Kaydan, 2014: 213. Change of combination.

Erimococcus orientalis; Danzig & Gavrilov-Zimin, 2014: 394-396. Change of combination.



HOST: Asteraceae: Cousinia [Bazaro1971b, BenDov1994, Danzig2001].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Turkmenistan [Bazaro1971b, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Bazarov (1971b). Good description of the adult female given by Tang (1992) and by Danzig (2001).

SYSTEMATICS: This species has oral collar tubular ducts of a different shape and structure from those of Erimococcus or Peliococcus, and Kaydan, 2015 transferred it to the genus Phenacoccus.

KEYS: Tang 1992: 555 (female) [China]; Bazarov 1971b: 91 (female) [Central Asia].

CITATIONS: Bazaro1971b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 93-95]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 296]; Danzig2001 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 136, 139]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 566].



Phenacoccus ornatus Granara de Willink in: Granara de Willink & Szumik

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus ornatus Granara de Willink in: Granara de Willink & Szumik, 2007: 81. Type data: ARGENTINA: La Rioja, Cuesta de Miranda, on Zuccagnia punctata; collected L. Claps, 21.ix.1991. Holotype female. Type depository: Tucuman: Fundacion e Instituto Miguel Lillo, Universidade Nactional de Tucuman, Argentina. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Chenopodiaceae: Suaeda divaricata [GranarSz2007]. Fabaceae: Zuccagnia punctata [GranarSz2007].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina (La Rioja [GranarSz2007], Salta [GranarSz2007]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Granara de Willink & Szumik (2007).

KEYS: Granara de Willink & Szumik 2007: 41-43 (female) [Phencoccus species of South America].

CITATIONS: GranarSz2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 81,85,90].



Phenacoccus palghaticus Williams

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus palghaticus Williams, 2004a: 603. Type data: INDIA: Kerala, Palghat District, Kollangad, near Sirvani, on grass (swept); Collected P. Topal, 27.iii.1980. Holotype female. Type depository: Budapest: Hungarian Natural History Museum, Zoological Department, Hungary. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae [Willia2004a].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: India (Kerala [Willia2004a]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Williams (2004a).

KEYS: Williams 2004a: 590-591 (female) [Phenacoccus species of southern Asia].

CITATIONS: Willia2004a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 602-603].



Phenacoccus parietariae (Lichtenstein)

NOMENCLATURE:

Boisduvalia parietariae Lichtenstein, 1881a: cxv. Type data: FRANCE: on Parietaria diffusa. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female.

Oudablis parietariae; Cockerell, 1899j: 265. Change of combination.

Pseudococcus parietariae; Fernald, 1903b: 107. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus parietariae; Goux, 1931: 333. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Tamaricaceae: Tamarix [Goux1931, BenDov1994]. Urticaceae: Parietaria [Martin1985], Parietaria diffusa [Lichte1881a, BenDov1994], Parietaria officinalis [Goux1931, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Corsica [Foldi2003]; France [Lichte1881a, Goux1931, BenDov1994, Foldi2001]; Spain [Martin1985]; Yugoslavia [Masten2007].

GENERAL REMARKS: Balachowsky (1931a) discussed with great detail account on the identity and morphology of this species.

CITATIONS: Balach1931a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 100-101]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 335]; Cocker1899j [taxonomy: 265]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 107]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Foldi2003 [host, distribution: 149]; Goux1931 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 333]; Lichte1881a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: cxv-cxvi]; Martin1985 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 96]; Masten2007 [host, distribution, taxonomy: 1-242].



Phenacoccus parietaricola Goux

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus parietaricola Goux, 1938b: 144. Type data: FRANCE: Marseille, on Parietaria officinalis. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Crassulaceae: Umbilicus pendulinus [Goux1938b]. Lamiaceae: Ajuga iva [Goux1938c]. Papaveraceae: Chelidonium majus [Goux1938b]. Urticaceae: Parietaria officinalis [Goux1938c].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Corsica [Foldi2003]; France [Goux1938b, Foldi2001].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Goux (1938b).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 335]; DanzigGa2014 [illustration: 13]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Foldi2003 [host, distribution: 149]; Goux1938b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 144-147].



Phenacoccus parvus Morrison

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, 1924a: 147. Type data: ECUADOR: Galapagos Islands, Tover, on bush near shore. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Phenacoccus surinamensis Green, 1933: 51. Type data: SURINAM: on Labiatae. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Williams & Cox, 1984: 139.

COMMON NAMES: Hime-nasu-kona-kaigaramusi [TanakaUe2012]; Lantana mealybug [SwarbrDo1991].



HOSTS: Actinidiaceae: Actinidia deliciosa [GonzalCu1994]. Amaranthaceae: Alternathera ficoidea [Granar2003], Amaranthus [WilliaWa1988a, BenDov1994, Willia2004a]. Anacardiaceae: Mangifera indica [SwarbrDo1991]. Apocynaceae: Rauwolfia serpentina [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]. Asclepiadaceae: Asclepias [WilliaCo1984, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]. Asteraceae: Callistephus chinensis L. [SridhaJoJh2012], Chrysanthemum [SwarbrDo1991, Willia2004a], Cichorium [WilliaBu1987, WilliaWa1988a, BenDov1994], Conyza bonariensis [SwarbrDo1991], Emilia sonchifolia [MartinLa2011], Helianthus annuus [SwarbrDo1991], Lecocarpus pinnatifidus [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Mikania micrantha [WilliaBu1987, BenDov1994], Mikania scandens [WilliaWa1988a, BenDov1994], Pluchea [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Sonchus oleraceus [SwarbrDo1991], Tagetes minuta [SwarbrDo1991], Vernonia amygdalis [BoussiMa1987, BenDov1994], Wedelia trilobata [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, BenDovGoSa2005]. Bignoniaceae: Macfadyena unguis-cati [SwarbrDo1991]. Chenopodiaceae: Beta vulgaris [SwarbrDo1991]. Convolvulaceae: Argyreia nervosa [MatileEt2006], Convolvulus [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, Willia2004a], Ipomoea arborescens [BoussiMa1987, BenDov1994]. Cucurbitaceae: Cucumis sativus [SwarbrDo1991]. Euphorbiaceae: Croton flavens [MatileEt2006], Euphorbia heterophylla [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Euphorbia pulcherrima [Willia2004a], Mallotus claoxyloides [SwarbrDo1991]. Fabaceae: Glycine max [SwarbrDo1991], Macroptilium atropurpureum [WilliaBu1987, BenDov1994, SwarbrDo1991], Phaseolus atropurpureum [WilliaWa1988a, BenDov1994]. Lamiaceae [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]. Liliaceae: Allium sativum [SwarbrDo1991], Protoasparagus africanus [SwarbrDo1991]. Malvaceae: Abelmoschus esculentus [SwarbrDo1991], Gossypium [SwarbrDo1991], Sida [WilliaWa1988a, BenDov1994], Sida acuta [WilliaBu1987, WilliaWa1988a, BenDov1994], Sida cordifolia [SwarbrDo1991], Sida rhombifolia [WilliaCo1984, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, SwarbrDo1991], Sida subapicata [SwarbrDo1991]. Musaceae: Musa [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]. Myrtaceae: Psidium guajava [WilliaCo1984, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]. Orchidaceae: Oncidium [Willia2004a]. Piperaceae: Piper nigrum [WilliaBu1987, WilliaWa1988a, BenDov1994]. Poaceae: Panicum maximum trichoglume [SwarbrDo1991], Saccharum officinarum [WilliaBu1987, BenDov1994]. Polygonaceae: Rheum rhababarum [SwarbrDo1991]. Rhamnaceae: Alphitonia excelsa [SwarbrDo1991], Scutia [Granar2003]. Rubiaceae: Gardenia [AbdRabGeMa2010]. Rutaceae: Murraya paniculata [Willia2004a]. Solanaceae: Capsicum annuum [GranarScTe1997, SwarbrDo1991, Granar2003, Willia2004a], Capsicum frutescens [BoussiMa1987, BenDov1994], Cestrum [BenDovGoSa2005], Cestrum diurnum [WilliaHa1994], Cestrum nocturnum [BenDov2012], Lycium ferocissimum [SwarbrDo1991], Lycopersicon esculentum [WilliaBu1987, WilliaWa1988a, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, SwarbrDo1991, Willia2004a], Solanum aethiopicum [Matile1986, BenDov1994], Solanum macranthum [Matile1986, BenDov1994], Solanum melongena [WilliaCo1984, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Solanum nigrum [BoussiMa1987, BenDov1994], Solanum stelligerum stelligerum [SwarbrDo1991], Solanum torvum [WilliaCo1984, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Solanum tuberosum [WilliaWa1988a, BenDov1994]. Umbelliferae: Apium graveolens [SwarbrDo1991], Daucus carota [SwarbrDo1991]. Verbenaceae: Clerodendrum philippinum [WilliaWa1988a, BenDov1994], Lantana [GranarCl2003], Lantana camara [WilliaCo1984, WilliaWa1988a, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, Granar2003, BenDovGoSa2005], Lippia nudiflora [Willia2004a], Priva laevis [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Congo [Matile1986, BenDov1994]; Gabon [BoussiMa1987, BenDov1994]; Reunion [GermaiMiPa2014]; Senegal [Matile1986, BenDov1994]; Seychelles [GermaiAtBa2008]. Australasian: Australia (Queensland [SwarbrDo1991]); Fiji [HodgsoLa2011]; New Caledonia [WilliaCo1984, WilliaWa1988a, BenDov1994]; Vanuatu (=New Hebrides) [WilliaBu1987, WilliaWa1988a, BenDov1994]; Western Samoa [WilliaWa1988a, BenDov1994]. Nearctic: Mexico [WilliaCo1984, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]; United States of America (Florida [WilliaHa1994]). Neotropical: Antigua and Barbuda (Antigua [WilliaCo1984, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994], Barbuda [WilliaCo1984, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]); Argentina [WilliaCo1984, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994] (Cordoba [Granar2003], Tucuman [GranarCl2003, Granar2003, GranarSz2007]); Belize [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]; Bermuda [HodgsoHi1991, HodgsoHi1990, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]; Cayman Islands [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]; Chile [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, GonzalCu1994]; Costa Rica [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]; Cuba [WilliaCo1984, BenDov1994]; Dominica [WilliaCo1984, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]; Galapagos Islands [Morris1924a, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, CaustoPeSi2006, LincanHoCa2010]; Guadeloupe [WilliaCo1984, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, MatileEt2006]; Guyana [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]; Martinique [WilliaCo1984, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, MatileEt2006]; Nicaragua [WilliaCo1984, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]; Panama [WilliaCo1984, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]; Paraguay [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]; Puerto Rico & Vieques Island (Puerto Rico [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]); Saint Kitts and Nevis Islands (Nevis [WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]); Saint Lucia [WilliaCo1984, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]; Suriname [Green1933, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]; Trinidad and Tobago (Trinidad [WilliaCo1984, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]); U.S. Virgin Islands [WilliaCo1984, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994]; Uruguay [GranarScTe1997]. Oriental: India (Karnataka [SridhaJoJh2012], Odisha [Willia2004a]); Indonesia (Sumatra [Willia2004a]); Maldives [WatsonOoGi1995, Willia2004a]; Singapore [Willia2004a]; Thailand [Willia2004a]. Palaearctic: Egypt [AbdRabGeMa2010]; France [AbdRabGeMa2010]; Israel [BenDovGoSa2005, BenDov2012]; Japan [TanakaUe2012].

BIOLOGY: Survival and development of the mealybug Phenacoccus parvus Morrison did not differ on Lantana camara L., Lycopersicon esculentum Miller, and Solanum melongena L., but Gossypium hirsutum L., Ageratum houstonianum Miller, and Clerodendrum cunninghamii Benth were less suitable hosts. (Qin, et al., 2011)

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Williams & Watson (1988a), Williams & Granara de Willink (1992), Williams (2004a) and by Granara de Willink & Szumik (2007).

STRUCTURE: See colour photograph in Gonzalez & Curkovic (1994).

SYSTEMATICS: This species resembles Ph. defectus, Ph. solani, and Ph. solenopsis in its general morphology. Ph. parvus has quinquelocular pores on its ventral surface; however, Ph. defectus, Ph. solani, and Ph. solenopsis do not have the pores on their venter (Hodgson et al. 2008)

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: In Australia, Queenslande, this mealybug developed heavy populations on Lantana camara and caused damage to this weed, to the extent that this mealybug species was considered a biological control agent. However, Swarbrick & Donaldson (1991) demonstrated its wide range of host plants. In India, P. parvus infested the roots and collar region of ornamental flower crops. About 25% of the plants were infested and showed stunted growth and did not bear flowers seen in healthy plants. (Sridhar, et al., 2012)

KEYS: Tanaka & Uesatio 2012: 414 (female) [Key to separate four new invasive mealybug species: Dysmicoccus neobrevipes, Ph. defectus, Ph. parvus and P. solenopsis from other mealybugs occurring in the Ryukyu Archipelago]; Abd-Rabou et al. 2010: 509 (female) [Phenacoccus species in Egypt]; Abd-Rabou et al. 2010: 509 (female) [Key to the species of Phenacoccus in Egypt]; Granara de Willink & Szumik 2007: 41-43 (female) [Phencoccus species of South America]; Williams 2004a: 590-591 (female) [Phenacoccus species of southern Asia]; Williams & Granara de Willink 1992: 348 (female) [Central and South America]; Williams & Watson 1988a: 159 (female) [Tropical South Pacific Region].

CITATIONS: AbdRabGeMa2010 [host, distribution, taxonomy: 509-510]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 335]; BenDov2012 [catalogue, distribution, host: 36, 44]; BenDovGoSa2005 [host, distribution: 325-326]; BoussiMa1987 [host, distribution: 8]; CaustoPeSi2006 [distribution: 138]; CostelWe2014 [host: 1194]; GermaiAtBa2008 [host, distribution: 129-135]; GermaiMiPa2014 [distribution, host: 24]; Gonzal2011 [description, host, illustration, taxonomy: 155-158]; GonzalVo2004 [host, distribution, economic importance: 41-62]; Granar2003 [host, distribution: 81]; GranarCl2003 [host, distribution: 625-637]; GranarScTe1997 [host, distribution, economic importance: 97, 98]; GranarSz2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 85,87,92]; Green1933 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 51]; HodgsoHi1990 [host, distribution: 10, 16, 20]; HodgsoHi1991 [host, distribution: 144]; HodgsoLa2011 [host, distribution: 8, 29]; LincanHoCa2010 [host, distribution: 6]; MalausFeWa2011 [distribution, molecular data , phylogeny: 142-155]; Malump2012b [distribution: 211]; Maroha1997 [behaviour, host, life history: 239-246]; MartinLa2011 [catalogue, distribution, host: 48]; Matile1986 [host, distribution: 212]; MatileEt2006 [host, distribution: 181]; Morris1924a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 147-148]; MuniapShWa2011 [distribution: 168]; PachecBeBl2014 [molecular data: 5-9]; QinWuQi2011 [host: 1127]; SridhaJoJh2012 [description, economic importance, host, illustration, life history, structure: 108-109]; SwarbrDo1991 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history: 68-69]; TanakaUe2012 [biological control, description, distribution, economic importance, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 413-419]; WatsonOoGi1995 [host, distribution: 45]; Willia2004a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 604-605]; WilliaBu1987 [host, distribution: 92]; WilliaCo1984 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 139]; WilliaGr1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 379-381]; WilliaHa1994 [host, distribution: 16]; WilliaMa2012 [distribution, host: 89]; WilliaMi1999 [taxonomy, life history: 524]; WilliaWa1988a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 158-159].



Phenacoccus pauculus De Lotto

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus pauculus De Lotto, 1964: 369. Type data: UGANDA: Kampala, on roots of grass. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae [DeLott1964, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Uganda [DeLott1964, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Living of the roots of grass.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by De Lotto (1964).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 336]; DeLott1964 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 369].



Phenacoccus pauperatus Ferris

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus pauperatus Ferris, 1950b: 154. Type data: U.S.A.: California, Riverside County, on Eriogonum sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

COMMON NAME: pauper mealybug [McKenz1967].



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Eriophyllum confertiflorum [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994]. Polygonaceae: Eriogonum [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (California [Ferris1950b, BenDov1994]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the roots of its host plants.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Ferris (1950b) and by McKenzie (1967).

KEYS: McKenzie 1967: 216 (female) [U.S.A., California]; McKenzie 1964: 240 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1961: 27 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1960: 315 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1953a: 395 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1950b: 121 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 336]; Ferris1950b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 154-155]; McKenz1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 271-273].



Phenacoccus pergandei Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus pergandei Cockerell, 1896i: 55. Type data: JAPAN: on 'Gumi'. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Phenacoccus pargandei; Kuwana, 1907: 185. Misspelling of species name.

Pseudococcus katsurae Shinji, 1935b: 773. Type data: JAPAN: Morioka, on Cercidiphyllum japonicum, Enkianthus japonicus, Taxus cuspidata and T. cuspidata var. depressa. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Synonymy by Kanda, 1941d: 24. Notes: Type material lost, S. Takagi, 1989, personal communication to Y. Ben-Dov.

Pseudococcus katsure; Tao, 1999: 23. Misspelling of species name.



FOES: HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Achrysopophagus nagasakiensis (Ishii) [Tachik1956f], Anagyrus pergandei Dang & Wang [DangWa2002], Cerapterocroides japonicus Ashmead [Tachik1984].

HOSTS: Araliaceae: Fatsia japonica [TakahaTa1956, BenDov1994]. Cercidiphyllaceae: Cercidiphyllum japonicus [Shinji1935b, BenDov1994]. Ebenaceae: Diospyros kaki [TakahaTa1956, BenDov1994]. Ericaceae: Enkianthus japonicus [Shinji1935b, BenDov1994]. Lauraceae: Laurus nobilis [TakahaTa1956, BenDov1994]. Moraceae: Ficus carica [TakahaTa1956, BenDov1994], Ficus erecta [TakahaTa1956, BenDov1994]. Rosaceae: Eriobotrya japonica [TakahaTa1956, BenDov1994], Prunus yedoensis [TakahaTa1956, BenDov1994]. Taxaceae: Taxus cuspidata [Shinji1935b, BenDov1994]. Ulmaceae: Celtis sinensis japonica [TakahaTa1956, BenDov1994], Zelkova serrata [TakahaTa1956, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China [Tang1992, TangHaTa1992, BenDov1994] (Shanxi (=Shansi) [Xie1998]); Japan [Cocker1896i, Shinji1935b, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Tang (1992). Danzig (1980b) synonymized this species with P. aceris, however, Takahashi & Tashikawa (1956), Kawai (1980) and Tang (1992) regarded it as a distinct species.

STRUCTURE: Colour photograph given by Kawai (1980).

SYSTEMATICS: GeneBank Accession No. AB439518 (Yokogawa & Yahara, 2009).

KEYS: Tang 1992: 529 (female) [China]; Kanda 1943a: 43 (female) [Japan].

CITATIONS: Cocker1896i [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 55-56]; Comper1961a [biological control: 17-71]; ComperAn1961 [host, distribution, biological control: 17]; DangWa2002 [host, distribution, biological control: 289-300]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy: 124]; HashimHiMu1971 [chemistry: 100-109]; Kanda1935a [host, distribution: 170]; Kanda1941e [taxonomy: 24]; Kawai1972 [host, distribution: 8]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 94]; Kuwana1907 [host, distribution: 185]; Shinji1935b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 773]; Tachik1956f [host, distribution, biological control: 146]; Tachik1984 [biological control: 41-44]; TakahaTa1956 [host, distribution: 4]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 543-544, 742]; Tang2001 [distribution: 3]; TangHaTa1992 [host, distribution: 9]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 23]; Xie1998 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 84-85]; YokogaYa2009 [molecular data, phylogeny, genebank: 57-66].



Phenacoccus perillustris Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus perillustris Borchsenius, 1949: 215. Type data: TAJIKISTAN: Gissarsk Ridge, on Lonicera sp.; collected N. Borchsenius, 16.vii.1944. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 2003: 337. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 215. Described: female.

Phenacoccus perilustris; Danzig, 2006a: 201. Misspelling of species name.



HOSTS: Berberidaceae: Berberis vulgaris [Moghad2010]. Caprifoliaceae: Lonicera tatarica [Borchs1949, BenDov1994, Wu2000a]. Oleaceae: Jasminum nudiflorum [Wu2000a]. Sapindaceae [Moghad2013]. Tiliaceae: Tilia mongolica [Wu2000a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China (Beijing (=Peking) [Wu2000a], Shaanxi (=Shensi) [Wu2000a]); Iran [Moghad2010]; Kazakhstan [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]; Kyrgyzstan (=Kirgizia) [Danzig2003]; Mongolia [Danzig2006a]; Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]; Turkmenistan [Danzig2003]; Uzbekistan (Tashkent Oblast [Danzig2003]).

BIOLOGY: Living on roots of Artemisia in Kazakhstan.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Danzig (2003). Description refined in Danzig (2006a). Description of adult female by Borchsenius (1949) and by Tang (1992).

STRUCTURE: Female: Conidcal setae short.

KEYS: Moghaddam 2013: 46 [Key to species of Phenacoccus Cockerell in Iran]; Moghaddam 2010: 67 (female) [Phenacoccus species of Iran]; Danzig 2006a: 197-200 (female) [A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus]; Wu 2000a: 69-70 (female) [PHenacoccus species of China]; Tang 1992: 530 (female) [China]; Bazarov & Nurmamatov 1975b: 55 (female) [Tajikistan]; Borchsenius 1949: 210 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 336]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 214-215]; Danzig2003 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 337-338]; Danzig2006a [taxonomy: 198]; Moghad2013 [distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 56-57, 99]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 69]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 544-545]; Wu2000a [host, distribution: 66,69-70].



Phenacoccus persimilis Granara de Willink in: Granara de Willink & Szumik

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus persimilis Granara de Willink in: Granara de Willink & Szumik, 2007: 87. Type data: ARGENTINA: Tucuman, Taff del Valle (altitude 2600 meters), on roots of undetermined plant; collected Granara de Willink, xi.2003. Holotype female. Type depository: Tucuman: Fundacion e Instituto Miguel Lillo, Universidade Nactional de Tucuman, Argentina. Described: female. Illust.

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina (Tucuman [GranarSz2007]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Granara de Willink & Szumik (2007).

KEYS: Granara de Willink & Szumik 2007: 41-43 (female) [Phencoccus species of South America].

CITATIONS: GranarSz2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 87-89,93].



Phenacoccus persimplex Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus persimplex Borchsenius, 1949: 221. Type data: TURKMENISTAN: on Artemisia sp.; collected N.S. Borchsenius, 2.vi.1940. Lectotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 59-71. Described: female.

Spinococcus persimplex; Tang, 1992: 566. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus persimplex; Ben-Dov, 1994: 336. Revived combination.



FOES: HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Aphycus slavai Myartseva [Trjapi1989], Mohelencyrtus phenacocci Myartseva [Trjapi1989].

HOSTS: Apiaceae [KaydanKo2010a]. Asteraceae: Artemisia sp. [Borchs1949, BenDov1994, KaydanKo2010a], Matricaria sp. [KaydanKo2010a]

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [TerGri1973, BenDov1994]; Azerbaijan [Danzig2003]; Hungary [KozarKiSa2004]; Kazakhstan (Alma Ata Oblast [Danzig2003], Dzhambul Oblast [Danzig2003], Semipaltinsk Oblast [Danzig2003]); Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Danzig2003]; Turkey [KaydanKo2010a]; Turkmenistan [Borchs1949, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Lives on roots of the host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ter-Grigorian (1973) and by Danzig (2003). Description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1949) and by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Danzig 2006a: 197-200 (female) [A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus]; Tang 1992: 555 (female) [China]; Bazarov & Nurmamatov 1975b: 55 (female) [Tajikistan]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 135 (female) [Armenia]; Borchsenius 1949: 210 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 336-337]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 221-222]; Danzig2003 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 347-349]; Danzig2006a [taxonomy: 198]; KaydanKo2010a [distribution, host: 36]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 57]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 566-567]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 145-147]; Trjapi1989 [biological control: 158, 217].



Phenacoccus peruvianus Granara de Willink in: Granara de Willink & Szumik

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus peruvianus Granara de Willink in: Granara de Willink & Szumik, 2007: 89. Type data: PERU: Lima, on Alternathera sp.; collected O. Oliveiras, vii.1975. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA; type no. 7510053. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Acanthaceae: Justicia suberecta [BeltraSoGe2010]. Amaranthaceae: Alternanthera [GranarSz2007]. Asclepiadaceae: Araujia sericifera [BeltraSoGe2010]. Asteraceae: Baccharis [GranarSz2007], Eupatorium [GranarSz2007]. Aucubaceae: Aucuba japonica [BeltraSoGe2010]. Myoporaceae: Myoporum laetum [BeltraSoGe2010]. Nyctaginaceae: Bougainvillea [BeltraSoGe2010], Bougainvillea glabra [BeltraSoGe2010]. Scrophulariaceae: Budleja [BeltraSoGe2010]. Solanaceae: Cestrum [GranarSz2007], Solanum vespertilio [BeltraSoGe2010].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina (Santiago del Estero [GranarSz2007], Tucuman [GranarSz2007]); Peru [GranarSz2007]. Palaearctic: Corsica [BeltraSoGe2010]; France [BeltraSoGe2010]; Greece [GkountMi2013]; Italy [BeltraSoGe2010]; Madeira Islands [FrancoRuMa2011] (First record for Madeira; collected on Bougainvillea sp. in Funchal, by A.M.F. Aguiar (29-05-2001; 12-06-2002), by the Phytossanitary Services (2-07-2001), and by A. Azevedo (30-08-2001); in Câmara de Lobos, by A.M.F. Aguiar (22-08-2002), and by V. Balmés (10-11-2010); and in Porto Santo, by A.M.F. Aguiar (25-07-2001). All specimens were identified by A.M.F. Aguiar, except those collected in 2010, whose identification was carried out by J.-F. Germain.); Monaco [BeltraSoGe2010]; Portugal [BeltraSoGe2010]; Sicily [MalumpEy2011]; Spain [BeltraSoGe2010]; United Kingdom (England [BeltraSoGe2010]).

BIOLOGY: Adult and nymph bougainvillea mealybugs mainly feed on the lower surfaces of the foliage, but are also found on the growing shoots, bark, and occasionally the upper leaf surfaces. The mealybug completed multiple overlapping generations within a year with intense ßuctuations in abundance. Mealybug density increased in spring and reached its peak at the end of this season or in early summer (June and July). Afterwards, populations decreased and the presence of the insect was almost undetectable in autumn and winter. There were no seasonal migrations between plant strata and the location of the mealybugs remained stable along the spring and summer. P. peruvianus shows a preference for settling on bracts. This distribution could play a significant role in its survival, because bracts offer good protection against climatic fluctuations and the action of contact pesticides.(Beltrá, et al., 2013)

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Granara de Willink & Szumik (2007). Colour photographs in Malumphy & Eyre, 2011.

STRUCTURE: Adult females are elongate oval, greyish with a green tinge, covered in a thin layer of mealy white wax, and attain a length of 3 mm. First instars are a pale-orange colour. (Malumphy & Eyre, 2011)

SYSTEMATICS: Based on molecular data, Beltra, et al., 2012 stated that Ph. pervianus appears to be more closely related to P. parvus than P. solani and P. madeirensis. However, Granara de Willink & Szumik (2007) placed Ph. peruvianus closer to P. madeirensis.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Phenacoccus peruvianus has caused significant damage to ornamental bougainvillea plants, ruining their aesthetic appearance and reducing their market value. Large mealybug populations cause necrosis of the foliage, leaf loss, die back and molds grow on the excreted honeydew. (Malumphy & Eyre, 2011)

KEYS: Granara de Willink & Szumik 2007: 41-43 (female) [Phencoccus species of South America].

CITATIONS: BeltraGaSo2013 [behaviour, distribution, ecology, economic importance, host, life history: 1486-1494]; BeltraSoGe2010 [host, distribution: 137-143]; BeltraSoMa2012 [molecular data, phylogenetics: 167-171]; CABI2014 [distribution: Map 783]; FrancoRuMa2011 [distribution, host: 19.25]; GkountMi2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 16-18]; GranarSz2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution]; HalimaGeMd2014 [distribution: 1]; KaydanCaUl2013 [distribution: 169]; MalumpEy2011 [description, distribution, economic importance, host, illustration, life history, structure: 1-4]; PachecBeBl2014 [molecular data: 6]; WilliaMa2012 [distribution: 85. 86].



Phenacoccus phenacoccoides gallicus (Goux)

NOMENCLATURE:

Trionymus phenacoccoides gallicus Goux, 1941a: 38. Type data: FRANCE: Tamaris, Var, on Brachypodium pinnatum. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae: Brachypodium pinnatum [Goux1941a, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: France [Goux1941a, BenDov1994, Foldi2001].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Goux (1941a).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 525]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Goux1941a [taxonomy, description: 38, 41].



Phenacoccus piceae (Löw)

NOMENCLATURE:

Boisduvalia piceae Löw, 1883b: 267. Type data: AUSTRIA: on Abietis excelsae. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Vienna: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria. Described: female.

Oudablis piceae; Cockerell, 1896b: 325. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus (Oudablis) piceae; Cockerell, 1900f: 86. Change of combination.

Paroudablis piceae; Fernald, 1903b: 89. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus piceae; Fernald, 1903b: 92. Revived combination.

Peukinococcus piceae; Šulc, 1944a: 2. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus piceae; Ben-Dov, 1994: 337. Revived combination.

Phenacoccus picaea; Gertsson, 2001: 125. Misspelling of species name.

COMMON NAME: spruce mealybug [KosztaKo1988F].



FOES: COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Exochomus quadripustulatus [KosztaKo1988F]. HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Allotropa mecrida [KosztaKo1988F], Anagyrus schmuttereri [KosztaKo1988F], Aphycus sumavicus Hoffer [KosztaKo1988F, Trjapi1989], Eunotus nigriclavis [KosztaKo1988F], Eusemon cornigerum (Walker) [Trjapi1989], Microterys subcupratus (Dalman) [KosztaKo1988F, Trjapi1989], Pseudaphycus austriacus Mercet [KosztaKo1988F, Trjapi1989], Tetracnemoidea piceae (Erdos) [KosztaKo1988F, Trjapi1989], Tetracnemus diversicornis Westwood [Schmut1955b, KosztaKo1988F]. Pteromalidae: Eunotus nigriclavis (Forster) [Schmut1955b].

HOSTS: Pinaceae: Abies [KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994], Picea abies [Ossian1985, Marott1987a, BenDov1994, Gertss2000, Kozar1999a, MalumpOsPy2010], Picea excelsa [Low1883b, Goux1931, Goux1933a, KotejaZa1966, Tsalev1968, BenDov1994], Picea obovata [Danzig1977a, BenDov1994], Picea orientalis [KozarGuBa1994]. Taxaceae: Taxus [Tang1984b, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Austria [Low1883b, BenDov1994]; Bulgaria [Tsalev1968, KosztaKo1988F, BenDov1994]; China [Tang1984b, BenDov1994]; Czech Republic [Sulc1944a, BenDov1994]; Estonia [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]; France [Goux1931, Goux1933a, BenDov1994]; Germany [Schmut1952, Schmut1980, BenDov1994]; Hungary [KozarOrKo1977, BenDov1994, Kozar1999a]; Italy [OlmiCuSa1979, Marott1987a, BenDov1994, LongoMaPe1995]; Latvia [Rasina1959, BenDov1994]; Lithuania [MalumpOsPy2009, MalumpOsPy2010]; Mongolia [Danzig1977a, BenDov1994]; Poland [KotejaZa1966, Koteja1974b, KotejaZa1979, KotejaZa1983, BenDov1994, Lagows1996]; Romania [Kozar1985, BenDov1994, FetykoKoDa2010]; Russia (St. Petersburg (=Leningrad) Oblast [Borchs1949, BenDov1994], Yakutia-Sakha (=Yakut) AR [Danzig1978a, BenDov1994]); Slovenia [Seljak2010]; Sweden [Ossian1985, BenDov1994, Gertss2000, Gertss2001]; Switzerland [Marcha1908, BenDov1994, KozarGuBa1994]; Ukraine [Terezn1975, BenDov1994]; Yugoslavia [Masten2007].

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the needles of the host plant. Natural enemies listed by Kosztarab & Kozar (1988F). Biology and ecology discussed by Kozarzhevskaya (1992).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Marchal (1908), Sulc (1944a), Tereznikova (1975) and by Danzig (2004).

KEYS: Danzig 2006a: 197-200 [A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus]; Danzig 2004: 532 (female) [Phenacoccus species on firs]; Marotta & Russo & Matile-Ferrero 1997: 438 (female) [Italy]; Russo 1994: 281 (female) [World]; Tang 1992: 529 (female) [China]; Danzig 1988: 700 (female) [Far East of Russia]; Kosztarab & Kozar 1988F: 122 (female) [Central Europe]; Tereznikova 1975: 211 (female) [Ukraine]; Danzig 1971: 376 (female) [Group of Phenacoccus piceae]; Borchsenius 1949: 238 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 337-338]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 238-239]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 325]; Cocker1900b [taxonomy: 85-87]; Danzig1977a [host, distribution: 197]; Danzig2004 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 534-535]; Danzig2006a [taxonomy: 197]; Fernal1903b [taxonomy: 89, 92]; FetykoKoDa2010 [host, distribution: 300]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; GavrilKu2005 [taxonomy, distribution: 17-34]; Gertss2000 [host, distribution: 149-150]; Gertss2001 [distribution: 123-130]; Gertss2011 [distribution: 40]; Goux1931 [host, distribution: 4]; Goux1933a [host, distribution: 235]; Kaweck1935 [host, distribution: 75]; Kiritc1936 [host, distribution: 72]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, biological control: 131-132]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy, distribution: 73]; Koteja2000a [distribution: 172]; KotejaZa1966 [host, distribution: 317]; KotejaZa1979 [distribution: 673]; KotejaZa1983 [host, distribution: 473]; Kozar1983a [host, distribution: 142]; Kozar1985 [host, distribution: 204]; Kozar1999a [host, distribution: 138]; KozarOrKo1977 [host, distribution: 71]; Lagows1996 [host, distribution: 31]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 119]; Low1883 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 267]; Malump2011a [distribution, economic importance, host, illustration: 49,52-53]; MalumpKa2011a [distribution, host, illustration: 49,53]; MalumpOsPy2009 [host, distribution: 121]; MalumpOsPy2010 [host, distribution: 255]; Marcha1908 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 243-245]; Marott1987a [host, distribution: 109]; Masten2007 [host, distribution, taxonomy: 1-242]; MatilePe2002 [host, distribution: 352]; OlmiCuSa1979 [host, distribution: 1-6]; Ossian1985 [host, distribution: 145]; Rasina1955 [host, distribution: 69]; Rasina1959 [host, distribution: 110]; Schmut1952 [host, distribution: 396-397]; Schmut1955b [host, distribution, biological control: 511,519]; Schmut1980 [host, distribution: 50]; Seljak2010 [host, distribution: 101]; SimonKa2011 [distribution: 235]; Sulc1944a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 2-50]; Tang1984b [host, distribution: 125]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 545-546]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 213-214]; Trjapi1989 [biological control: 159, 168, 216, 220]; Tsalev1968 [host, distribution: 207].



Phenacoccus pratti Takahashi

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus pratti Takahashi, 1951a: 20. Type data: MALAYSIA: West Malaya, Cameron Highlands, on Eucalyptus sp. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Williams, 2004a: 607. Type depository: Taichung: Entomology Collection, Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, Wu-feng, Taichung, Taiwan. Described: female.

Caulococcus pratti; Tang, 1992: 434. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus pratti; Ben-Dov, 1994: 338. Revived combination.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus [Takaha1951a, BenDov1994, Willia2004a].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Malaysia [Takaha1951a, BenDov1994, Willia2004a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Takahashi (1951a) and by Williams (2004a).

KEYS: Williams 2004a: 590=591 (female) [Phenacoccus species of southern Asia].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 338]; Takaha1951a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 19-21]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 434-435]; Willia2004a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 606-610].



Phenacoccus prope (near) schmelevi



HOSTS: Apiaceae [KaydanKo2010a]. Brassicaceae: Alyssum SP [KaydanKo2010a]. Poaceae [KaydanKo2010a]. Scrophulariaceae: Verbascum sp. [KaydanKo2010a]

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Turkey [KaydanKo2010a].

CITATIONS: KaydanKo2010a [distribution, host: 37].



Phenacoccus prosopidis Bodenheimer

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus prosopidis Bodenheimer, 1943: 20. Type data: IRAQ: Basra, on Prosopis stephaniana. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Bet Dagan: Department of Entomology, The Volcani Center, Israel. Described: female.



HOST: Fabaceae: Prosopis stephaniana [Bodenh1943, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Iraq [Bodenh1943, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Bodenheimer (1943).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 339]; Bodenh1943 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 20].



Phenacoccus proximus De Lotto

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus proximus De Lotto, 1974: 111. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Cape Province, Richtersveld, Numees Mine, on Pachypodium namaquanum. Holotype female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Apocynaceae: Pachypodium namaquanum [DeLott1974, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [DeLott1974, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by De Lotto (1974).

KEYS: De Lotto 1974: 111 (female) [South Africa].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 339]; DeLott1974 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 111-113].



Phenacoccus prunispinosi Savescu

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus prunispinosi Savescu, 1984: 152. Type data: ROMANIA: Constanta District, Ostrov, on Prunus spinosa. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Bucarest: Academie des Sciences Agricoles et Forestieres, Romania. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Rosaceae: Prunus spinosa [Savesc1984, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Romania [Savesc1984, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Savescu (1984).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 339]; Savesc1984 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 152-154].



Phenacoccus psidiarum Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus gossypii psidiarum Cockerell, 1903a: 164. Type data: MEXICO: Zapotlan, Jalisco, on wild guava [= Psidium guajava]. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Williams & Granara de Willink, 1992: 381. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Phenacoccus psidiarum; Ferris, 1953a: 400. Change of status.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Psidium guajava [Cocker1903a, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico [Cocker1903a, WilliaGr1992, BenDov1994, GranarSz2007].

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the leaves and bark of the host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Williams & Granara de Willink (1992) and by Granara de Willink & Szumik (2007).

KEYS: Granara de Willink & Szumik 2007: 41-43 (female) [Phencoccus species of South America]; Williams & Granara de Willink 1992: 348 (female) [Central and South America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 339]; Cocker1903a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 164]; Ferris1953a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 400]; GranarSz2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 91,95,98]; WilliaGr1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 381-384].



Phenacoccus pumilus Kiritshenko

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus latus Kiritshenko, 1931: 314. Nomen nudum.

Phenacoccus pumilus Kiritshenko, 1931: 314. Nomen nudum.

Phenacoccus latus Kiritshenko, 1936a: 132. Type data: UKRAINE: Odessa Oblast, Odessa, from various host plants. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Synonymy by Borchsenius, 1949: 233.

Phenacoccus pumilus Kiritshenko, 1936a: 134. Type data: GEORGIA: Tbilisi, on Inula conyza; collected Koenig, 15.vii.1927. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 2003: 349. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 230-39. Described: female.

Phenacoccus pseudopumilus Hadzibejli, 1960: 62. Type data: REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA: Vashlovan reserve, on Artemisia meyeriana and A. eldarica. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia, and Tbilisi: Plant Protection Institute, Republic of Georgia. Described: female. Illust.

Phenacoccus pumilus; Ben-Dov, 1994: 339. Revived combination.

Phenacoccus pseudopumilus Danzig, 2006a: 202-203. Synonymy by Danzig, 2006a: 202-203.

COMMON NAME: dwarf mealybug [KosztaKo1988F].



HOSTS: Amaranthaceae: Amaranthus retroflexus [TerGri1973, BenDov1994, KaydanKiKo2005], Amaranthus viridis [KaydanKiKo2005], Halocharis sulpurea [Moghad2013]. Apiaceae: Falcaria [KaydanKiKo2005], Prangos odontalgica [Gavril2006], Sium [KaydanKiKo2005], Turgenia [KaydanKiKo2005], Zosima absinthifolia [KaydanKiKo2005]. Asteraceae: Achillea [KaydanKiKo2005], Achillea herberi [Kiritc1940, BenDov1994], Achillea millefolium [TerGri1973, BenDov1994], Anthemis [KaydanKiKo2005], Artemisia eldarica [Hadzib1960, BenDov1994], Artemisia frigida [Mateso1968, BenDov1994], Artemisia marschalliana [Mateso1968, BenDov1994], Artemisia meyeriana [Hadzib1960, BenDov1994], Centaurea depressa [KaydanKiKo2005], Centaurea parlatoris [MazzeoRuLo1997], Centaurea solstitialis [KaydanKiKo2005], Centaurea virgata [Moghad2013], Chondrilla juncea [KaydanKiKo2005], Cichorium intybus [KaydanKiKo2005], Circium arvense [KaydanKiKo2005], Crepis [KaydanKiKo2005], Crupina crupinastrum [KaydanKiKo2005], Eryngium campestre [KaydanKiKo2005], Inula conyza [Kiritc1936, BenDov1994], Inula ensifolia [Kiritc1936, BenDov1994], Lactuca seriole [KaydanKiKo2005], Matricaria [KaydanKiKo2005], Scorzonera pusilla [Bazaro1971c, BenDov1994], Sonchus arvensis [KaydanKiKo2005], Sonchus asper [Kiritc1936, BenDov1994], Taraxacum [Borchs1949, BenDov1994], Tragopogon [Borchs1949, BenDov1994, KaydanKiKo2005], Tripleurospermum [KaydanKiKo2005], Xanthium strumanianum [KaydanKiKo2005], Xeranthemum squarrosum [TerGri1973, BenDov1994]. Boraginaceae: Echium [KaydanKiKo2005], Lithospermum [KaydanKiKo2005]. Brassicaceae: Alyssum calycinum [TerGri1973, BenDov1994], Alyssum tortuosum [TerGri1973, BenDov1994], Descuriana sophia [Moghad2013], Diplotaxis tenuifolia [KaydanKiKo2005], Erysimum [KaydanKiKo2005], Euclidium syriacum [KaydanKiKo2005], Hirschfeldia incana [KaydanKiKo2005], Isatis tinctoria, Lepidium draba [Kiritc1936, BenDov1994], Lepidium latiforium [Moghad2013], Matthiola longipetala [KaydanKiKo2005], Sinapis arvensis [KaydanKiKo2005], Sisymbrium loeselii [TerGri1973, BenDov1994], Sisymbrium officinalis [KaydanKiKo2005]. Caryophyllaceae: Dianthus capiatus [Kiritc1936, BenDov1994], Dianthus polymorphus [Kiritc1940, BenDov1994], Dianthus pumilis [Kiritc1940, BenDov1994], Silene [KaydanKiKo2005]. Chenopodiaceae: Atriplex [KaydanKiKo2005], Beta vulgaris [TerGri1973, BenDov1994, Wu2000a], Chenopodium album [TerGri1973, BenDov1994], Chenopodium btrys [KaydanKiKo2005]. Convolvulaceae: Convolvulus arvensis [Kiritc1936, BenDov1994], Convolvulus gallaticus [KaydanKiKo2005]. Dipsacaceae: Scabiosa [TerGri1973, BenDov1994, KaydanKiKo2005]. Fabaceae: Alhagi [Borchs1949, BenDov1994], Alhagi cameorum [Moghad2013], Lotus cornuculatus [KaydanKiKo2005], Medicago falcata [Kiritc1936, BenDov1994], Melilotus [KaydanKiKo2005], Melilotus officinalis [Kiritc1940, BenDov1994], Onobrychis [TerGri1973, BenDov1994], Trifolium [KaydanKiKo2005, Gavril2010], Trigonella [Borchs1949, BenDov1994], Vicia pannonica [TerGri1973, BenDov1994]. Geraniaceae: Erodium cicutarium [KaydanKiKo2005], Erodium neuradifolium [Moghad2013]. Lamiaceae: Ajuga [KaydanKiKo2005], Ajuga chia [TerGri1973, BenDov1994], Lallemantia [TerGri1973, BenDov1994], Marrubium [KaydanKiKo2005], Salvia bracteata [Moghad2013], Scutellaria sevanensis [TerGri1973, BenDov1994], Sideritis [KaydanKiKo2005], Teucrium polium [Kiritc1936, BenDov1994], Thymus marschallianus [Kiritc1936, BenDov1994], Ziziphora [TerGri1973, BenDov1994]. Malvaceae: Malva [KaydanKiKo2005]. Papaveraceae: Glaucium flavum [KaydanKiKo2005]. Plantaginaceae: Plantago [TerGri1973, BenDov1994]. Polygonaceae: Polygonum [KaydanKiKo2005]. Rubiaceae: Galium [KaydanKiKo2005], Galium verum [Kiritc1936, BenDov1994]. Salosolaceae: Salsola [KaydanKiKo2005]. Scrophulariaceae: Linaria [KaydanKiKo2005], Linaria vulgaris [Kiritc1936, BenDov1994]. Scrophullariaceae: Verbascum [KaydanKiKo2005], Veronica multifolia [KaydanKiKo2005]. Umbelliferae: Bupleurum [KaydanKiKo2005], Daucus carota [TerGri1973, BenDov1994], Echinophora tenuifolia [KaydanKiKo2005], Foeniculum officinale [Goux1948b, BenDov1994]. Valerianaceae: Valerianella [KaydanKiKo2005].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [TerGri1973, BenDov1994]; Bulgaria [Gavril2010]; China (Xingiang Uygur (=Sinkiang) [Wu2000a]); France [Goux1948b, BenDov1994, Foldi2001]; Georgia (Georgia [Kiritc1936, Hadzib1960, BenDov1994]); Hungary [KozarKiSa2004]; Iran [Moghad2013]; Kazakhstan [Mateso1968, BenDov1994]; Mongolia [Danzig1980, BenDov1994]; Russia (Astrakhan' Oblast [Gavril2006], Caucasus [Borchs1949, BenDov1994], Volgograd Oblast [Danzig2003]); Sicily [MazzeoRuLo1997, RussoMa1997]; Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Bazaro1971c, BenDov1994]; Turkey [KaydanUlTo2002, KaydanUlZe2004, KaydanKiKo2005, KaydanUlEr2007]; Turkmenistan [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]; Ukraine [Borchs1949, BenDov1994] (Krym (=Crimea) Oblast [Kiritc1936, BenDov1994]); Uzbekistan [Borchs1949, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the roots of a variety of dicotyledonous plants. Life cycle discussed by Ter-Grigorian (1973),

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ter-Grigorian (1973), Tereznikova (1975), Tang (1992) and by Danzig (2003). Good description and illustration of the first-instar nymph, female second-instar nymph and female third-instar nymph given by Ter-Grigorian (1973). Description of adult female by Borchsenius (1949). Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Hadzibejli (1960).

SYSTEMATICS: Although P. latus has page priority over P. pumilus, Article 24 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, The Principle of the First Reviser, applies to this case (see Borchsenius, 1949: 234).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Occasionally a pest on physiologically weakened ornamental spruce trees (Kosztarab & Kozár, 1988F).

KEYS: Moghaddam 2013: 46 [Key to species of Phenacoccus Cockerell in Iran]; Moghaddam 2013: 46 [as Phenacoccus pseudopumilus; Key to species of Phenacoccus Cockerell in Iran]; Danzig 2006a: 197-200 (female) [A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus]; Wu 2000a: 69-70 (female) [PHenacoccus species of China]; Tang 1992: 528 (female) [China]; Kosztarab & Kozar 1988F: 123 (female) [Central Europe]; Bazarov & Nurmamatov 1975b: 56 (female) [Tajikistan]; Tereznikova 1975: 211 (female) [Ukraine]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 136 (female) [Armenia]; Borchsenius 1949: 211 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: Bazaro1971c [host, distribution: 89]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 339-340]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 233-234]; CebeciAr2006 [host, distribution: 140]; Danzig1980 [host, distribution: 33]; Danzig2003 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 349-352]; Danzig2006a [taxonomy: 199, 202-203]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Gavril2004 [host, distribution: 524]; Gavril2006 [host, distribution: 787]; Gavril2010 [host, distribution: 38]; Goux1948b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 183-184]; Hadzib1960 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 62-63]; KaydanKiKo2005 [host, distribution: 90]; KaydanKo2010a [distribution: 30]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 102]; KaydanUlTo2002 [host, distribution: 253-257]; KaydanUlZe2004 [host, distribution: 222]; Kiritc1931 [host, distribution: 314]; Kiritc1936 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 134-136]; Kiritc1940 [host, distribution: 120]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 132]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 57]; Mateso1968 [host, distribution: 110]; MazzeoRuLo1997 [host, distribution: 29, 21]; Moghad2013 [distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 57-58, 99]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 69]; RussoMa1997 [distribution: 48]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 546-547, 743]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 224-225]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 159-163]; Wu2000a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 67,69-70].



Phenacoccus puncticulatus Williams

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus puncticulatus Williams, 2004a: 607. Type data: PAKISTAN: Kohala, on Arundo donax; collected 27.vii.1970. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Arundo donax [Willia2004a], Saccharum officinarum [Willia2004a].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Pakistan [Willia2004a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Williams (2004a).

KEYS: Williams 2004a: 590-591 (female) [Phenacoccus species of southern Asia].

CITATIONS: Willia2004a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 607-610].



Phenacoccus pyramidensis Ezzat

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus pyramidensis Ezzat, 1960: 26. Type data: EGYPT: Giza Pyramids, on undetermined host. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Caulococcus pyramidensis; Tang, 1992: 435. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus pyramidensis; Ben-Dov, 1994: 340. Revived combination.

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Egypt [Ezzat1960, EzzatNa1987, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Ezzat (1960). Good description of the adult female given by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Abd-Rabou et al. 2010: 509 (female) [Key to the species of Phenacoccus in Egypt].

CITATIONS: AbdRab2001d [distribution: 1362]; AbdRabGeMa2010 [distribution, taxonomy: 509]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 340]; Ezzat1960 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 26-28]; EzzatNa1987 [distribution: 89]; MohammGh2008 [distribution: 155]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 435].



Phenacoccus quadricaudatus (Signoret)

NOMENCLATURE:

Boisduvalia quadricaudata Signoret, 1875c: 339. Type data: FRANCE: Nice, on Agropyrum sp. Syntypes, male. Type depository: MHMW. Described: male.

Oudablis quadricaudata; Cockerell, 1896b: 325. Change of combination.

Pseudococcus quadricaudata; Fernald, 1903b: 108. Change of combination.

Pseudococcus quadricaudata; Ben-Dov, 1994: 409.

Phenacoccus quadricaudata; Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero, 1995: 250. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus quadricaudatus; Pellizzari & Williams, 2013: 413. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.



HOSTS: Poaceae [Signor1875c, BenDov1994], Agropyrum [BenDovMa1995].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: France [Signor1875c, BenDov1994, BenDovMa1995, Foldi2001].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description given by Signoret (1875c). Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero (1995) discussed several characters of the adult male as observed in the type series.

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 409]; BenDovMa1995 [taxonomy: 250]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 325]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 108]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Signor1875c [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 339].



Phenacoccus querculus (Borchsenius)

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus quercus; Borchsenius, 1949: 219. Misidentification; discovered by Danzig, 1980: 125.

Paroudablis querculus Borchsenius, 1949: 239. Type data: AZERBAIJAN: Talish, on Quercus macranthera; collected N.S. Borchsenius, 26.vi.1947. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 2003: 339. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 121-48. Described: female.

Phenacoccus querculus; Tang, 1992: 547. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Fagaceae: Quercus [TerGri1969, KaydanKo2010a], Quercus macranthera [Borchs1949, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [Borchs1949, TerGri1969, BenDov1994]; Azerbaijan [Borchs1949, BenDov1994]; Georgia [Yasnos2001]; Turkey [KaydanKo2010a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ter-Grigorian (1973) and by Danzig (2003). Description of adult female by Borchsenius (1949) and by Tang (1992).

KEYS: Danzig 2006a: 197-200 (female) [A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus]; Tang 1992: 530 (female) [China]; Ter-Grigorian 1973: 172 (female) [Armenia]; Borchsenius 1949: 210, 238 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 340-341]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 239-240]; Danzig2003 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 339-340]; Danzig2006a [taxonomy: 198]; KaydanKo2010a [distribution, host: 37]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 547-548]; TerGri1969 [host, distribution: 53]; TerGri1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 172-173]; Yasnos2001 [host, distribution, biological control: 435-440].



Phenacoccus radii Bodenheimer

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus radii Bodenheimer, 1943: 20. Type data: IRAQ: Basra, on Alhagi maurorum. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Bet Dagan: Department of Entomology, The Volcani Center, Israel. Described: female.



HOST: Fabaceae: Alhagi maurorum [Bodenh1943, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Iraq [Bodenh1943, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Bodenheimer (1943).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 341]; Bodenh1943 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 20-21].



Phenacoccus rehaceki Savescu

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus rehacekii Savescu, 1984: 151. Type data: ROMANIA: Constanta District, Basarabi, on Tragopogon pratensis. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Bucarest: Academie des Sciences Agricoles et Forestieres, Romania. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Asteraceae: Tragopogon pratensis [Savesc1984, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Romania [Savesc1984, BenDov1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Savescu (1984).

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 341]; Savesc1984 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 151-153].



Phenacoccus rubicola Kwon, Danzig & Park

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus rubicola Kwon, Danzig & Park, 2003: 117. Type data: KOREA: Daehyeon-ri, Bukhu, Andong, Gyeongsangbuk-do, on Rubus crataegifolius; collected G.M. Kwon, 6.5.2001. Holotype. Type depository: Suwon: National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Korea . Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Rosaceae: Rubus crataegifolius [KwonDaPa2003].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: South Korea [KwonDaPa2003].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Kwon et al. (2003).

KEYS: Kwon et al. 2003: 114 (female) [Korea].

CITATIONS: KwonDaPa2003 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 114,117-118].



Phenacoccus rubivorus Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus rubivorus Cockerell, 1901f: 215. Type data: U.S.A.: New Mexico, Beulah, on Rubus strigosus. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Phenacoccus ripersioides Cockerell & Cockerell, 1903: 112. Type data: U.S.A.: New Mexico, Beulah, with Lasius niger. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Ferris, 1953a: 401.

Phenacoccus ripersioides; Ferris, 1953a: 401. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus rubivorous; McKenzie, 1960: 714. Misspelling of species name.

Phenacoccus rubivorous; McKenzie, 1961: 27. Misspelling of species name.

COMMON NAMES: false Puto mealybug [Koszta1996]; false puto mealybug.



HOSTS: Ericaceae: Azalea [Ferris1953a, BenDov1994], Gaylussaica [Koszta1996], Rhododendron [Koszta1996], Rhododendron periclymoides [Koszta1996], Vaccinium [Ferris1953], Vaccinium vacillans [Koszta1996]. Fagaceae: Quercus [Koszta1996]. Rosaceae: Rubus strigosus [CockerCo1903].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (District of Columbia [Koszta1996], Maryland [Koszta1996], New Mexico [CockerCo1903, BenDov1994], New York [Koszta1996], North Carolina [Koszta1996], Virginia [Koszta1996], West Virginia [Koszta1996]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the roots of its host plant and in ants' nests, Lasius niger.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Ferris (1953a) and by Kosztarab (1996).

KEYS: Kosztarab 1996: 163 (female) [Northeastern North USA]; McKenzie 1967: 215 (female) [U.S.A., California]; McKenzie 1964: 240 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1961: 27 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1960: 714 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1953a: 395 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 341]; Cocker1901f [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 215]; CockerCo1903 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 112]; Ferris1953a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 401-402]; Koszta1996 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 163-164].



Phenacoccus ruellia Granara de Willink in: Granara de Willink & Szumik

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus ruellia Granara de Willink in: Granara de Willink & Szumik, 2007: 95. Type data: MEXICO: Baja California, Bahia Concepcion, on Ruelia peninsularis; collected I. Wiggins, 16.xi.1946. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Acanthaceae: Ruellia peninsularis [GranarSz2007].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico (Baja California Norte [GranarSz2007]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Granara de Willink & Szumik (2007).

KEYS: Granara de Willink & Szumik 2007: 41-43 (female) [Phencoccus species of South America].

CITATIONS: GranarSz2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 95,97,106].



Phenacoccus saccharifolii (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Dactylopius saccharifolii Green, 1908a: 23. Type data: INDIA: Bengal, Pusa [now Bihar], on sugar-cane leaves. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Williams, 2004a: 610. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Pseudococcus saccharifolii; Lindinger, 1910: 151. Change of combination.

Pseudococcus (Dactylopius) saccharifolii; Fletcher, 1917: 150. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus saccharifolii; Williams, 1970: 161. Change of combination.

Birendracoccus saccharifolii; Ali, 1975: 280. Change of combination.



FOES: HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Leptomastix [Ali1963], Xanthoencyrtus [Ali1963].

HOSTS: Poaceae: Saccharum arundinaceum [Ramakr1930, Willia1970DJ, BenDov1994, Willia2004a], Saccharum officinarum [Green1908a, AvasthSh1987, Tang1992, BenDov1994, Willia2004a], Sorghum halepense [Ali1970a, Willia1970DJ, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: India (Bihar [Green1908a, Maxwel1908, Ali1970a, Ali1975, Willia2004a], Madhya Pradesh [Willia2004a], Uttar Pradesh [AvasthSh1987, Willia2004a]); Nepal [Ali1970a, Willia1970DJ, Willia2004a]; Pakistan [Willia2004a].

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the inner surfaces of the leaves of the host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Williams (1970DJ), Ali (1975) and by Avasthi & Shafee (1987). Good description of the adult female given by Green (1908a), Maxwell (1908) and Ali (1970a).

KEYS: Williams 2004a: 590-591 (female) [Phenacoccus species of southern Asia]; Williams 1970: 114 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: AgarwaSi1964 [host, distribution, economic importance: 149]; Ali1958 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 181]; Ali1962 [description, host, distribution: 72-74]; Ali1963 [host, distribution, biological control: 131-132]; Ali1963a [host, distribution, disease transmission: 189-191]; Ali1967 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 213-214]; Ali1970a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 96]; Ali1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 280-282]; AvasthSh1987 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 7-9]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 62]; Box1953 [distribution: 53]; Green1908a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 23-24]; IsaacMi1933 [host, distribution: 315-324]; Lindin1910 [p. 151]; Maxwel1908 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 124-126]; Morris1925a [taxonomy: 497, 498]; Ramakr1921a [host, distribution: 343]; Ramakr1930 [host, distribution: 61]; Ramakr1941 [host, distribution: 107-113]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 387]; Varshn1992 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 39]; Willia1970DJ [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 160-163]; Willia2004a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 610-612].



Phenacoccus salsolae Danzig

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus salsolae Danzig, 1975: 54. Type data: MONGOLIA: Southern Gobi-Aimak, on Salsola gemascens passerina. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Euripersia solsolae; Tang, 1992: 447. Misspelling of species name.

Euripersia salsolae; Tang, 1992: 454. Change of combination.

Phenacoccus salsolae; Ben-Dov, 1994: 342. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Chenopodiaceae: Bassia sedoides [Danzig2006a], Salsola gemascens passerina [Danzig1975, BenDov1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Mongolia [Danzig1975, BenDov1994].

BIOLOGY: Occurring on roots of the host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description of the adult female given by Danzig (1975) and by Tang (1992).

STRUCTURE: Female. Body elongate-oval; 3 mm long. Antennae 9-segmented. Legs with comparatively short parts, of different thickness. Circulus absent. (Danzig, 2006a) Multilocular pores forming transverse rows on thoracic and abdominal tergites

SYSTEMATICS: The species is similar to Ph. arthrophyti, specialized pest of saxaul, rarely feeding on other saltworts. Ph. salsolae differs in the construction of C18: unusually thick conical, auxiliary slender seta, sclerotized plate, and also in small number of quinquelocular pores, which are occasionally absent. (Danzig, 2006a)

KEYS: Danzig 2006a: 197-200 (female) [A Key to Species of the Genus Phenacoccus]; Tang 1992: 447 (female) [Palaearctic & Oriental regions].

CITATIONS: BenDov1994 [catalogue: 342]; Danzig1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 52, 54]; Danzig2006a [taxonomy: 199]; Tang1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 454-455].



Phenacoccus salviacus Moghaddam {in} Moghaddam & Alikhani

NOMENCLATURE:

Phenacoccus salviacus Moghaddam {in} Moghaddam & Alikhani, 2010: 14-17. Type data: IRAN: Markazi province, Arak, Shazand, Suraneh, on leaves of Salvia bracteata; collected M. Alikhani, 10.x.2009. Holotype female. Type depository: IRIP. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Lamiaceae: Salvia bracteata [MoghadAl2010].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Iran [MoghadAl2010].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Moghaddam & Allikhani (2010)

KEYS: Moghaddam 2013: 46 [Key to species of Phenacoccus Cockerell in Iran]; Moghaddam & Alikhani 2010: 16-17 (female) [Phenacoccus species of Iran].

CITATIONS: Moghad2013 [distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 59-60, 99]; Moghad2013a