Family Pityococcidae


Cancerococcus Koteja

NOMENCLATURE:

Cancerococcus Koteja, 1988b: 412. Type species: Cancerococcus apterus Koteja, by original designation.

Cancerococcus; Miller & Gimplel, 1999: 215. Notes: Transferred the genus to the Pityococcidae.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters (of the adult male only) by Koteja (1988b).

SYSTEMATICS: The type species is fossil male insect embedded in Baltic amber. Originally it was assigned (Koteja, 1988b) to the Eriococcidae. Miller & Gimpel (1999) transferred it to the Pityococcidae. Koteja (1998b; 2000c: 198-199) confirmed the placement in Pityococcidae.

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, catalogue: 26]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 197]; Koteja1988b [taxonomy, description: 412-414]; MillerGi1999 [taxonomy, description: 215-216].



Cancerococcus apterus Koteja

NOMENCLATURE:

Cancerococcus apterus Koteja, 1988b: 412. Type data: BALTIC AMBER: wingless adult male, embedded in amber, presumably collected in Jutland. Holotype male. Type depository: Copenhagen: Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen, Department of Entomology, Denmark; type no. Cocc43. Described: male. Illust.

GENERAL REMARKS: A fossil species, embedded in Baltic amber, known from the adult male only (Koteja, 1988b). Description and illustration of adult male by Koteja (1988b).

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 26]; Koteja1988b [taxonomy, description, illustration, distribution: 412]; MillerGi1999 [taxonomy: 215-216]; VeaGr2015 [distribution, taxonomy: 68].



Desmococcus McKenzie

NOMENCLATURE:

Desmococcus McKenzie, 1942: 7. Type species: Desmococcus captivus McKenzie, by original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and definition by McKenzie (1942).

SYSTEMATICS: The adult female of the type species is characterised mainly in antennae reduced to small oval disks; absence of legs; and three-segmented labium (McKenzie, 1942). Koteja (2000: 171) discussed the history of family placement of this genus and concluded " It is certainly logical that a genus, such as the two [Desmococcus and Pityococcus] considered here, which cannot be satisfactorily affliated with any family should be considered as a distinct family [Pityococcidae]".

KEYS: Gill 1993: 34-35 (female) [USA, California]; McKenzie 1942: 10 (female) [Margarodidae, Coelostomidiina, Pityococcini].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, catalogue: 32]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 199]; Gill1993 [taxonomy, description: 34, 36]; GullanCo2007 [taxonomy: 413-425]; Koteja2000 [taxonomy: 171]; McKenz1942 [taxonomy, description: 7-8, 10]; Miller1971b [taxonomy: 66]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy: 56].



Desmococcus captivus McKenzie

NOMENCLATURE:

Desmococcus captivus McKenzie, 1942: 8. Type data: USA: California, Mono County, near Mono Lake, on Pinus monophylla; August 14, 1939, collected G.F. Ferris. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

COMMON NAME: captive pine scale [Gill1993].



HOST: Pinaceae: Pinus monophylla [McKenz1942, Gill1993].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (California [McKenz1942, Gill1993]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring in cells beneath the bark of branches and trunks of mature trees (McKenzie, 1942).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by McKenzie (1942) and by Gill (1993).

STRUCTURE: Colour photograph of adult female by Gill (1993).

KEYS: McKenzie 1942: 10-11 (female, larva) [Species of Desmococcus].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 32]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 199]; Gill1993 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 36, 52]; GullanCo2007 [taxonomy: 413-425]; McKenz1942 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 8-11, 15].



Desmococcus sedentarius McKenzie

NOMENCLATURE:

Desmococcus sedentarius McKenzie, 1942: 9. Type data: USA: Arizona, Gila County, near Cienega, on Pinus monophylla; July 17, 1940, collected G.F. Ferris. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Pinaceae: Pinus edulis [McKenz1942], Pinus monophylla [McKenz1942].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Arizona [McKenz1942]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring in cells deep beneath the bark scales on the larger branches and trunk of mature pines (McKenzie, 1942).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by McKenzie (1942).

KEYS: McKenzie 1942: 10-11 (female, larva) [Species of Desmococcus.].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 32-33]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 199]; McKenz1942 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 9-11, 17].



Pityococcus McKenzie

NOMENCLATURE:

Pityococcus McKenzie, 1942: 3. Type species: Pityococcus ferrisi McKenzie, by original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by McKenzie (1942).

STRUCTURE: The adult female of the type species of this genus has well-developed antennae (7-segmented) and legs; 3-segmented labium (McKenzie, 1942).

SYSTEMATICS: Koteja (2000c: 206) assigned this genus to the family Pityococcidae. Hodgson & Foldi (2006) accepted Koteja (2000c) interpretation and regraded this genus as a non-Margarodid taxon. Gullan & Cook (2007 regarded this genus among the archaeococcoid families. Pityococcus differs from the fossil Cancerococcus apterus with the following combination of characters: ocular sclerite with five pairs of simple eyes (vs. four in Cancerococcus), wings present (vs. absent in Cancerococcus).

KEYS: Gill 1993: 36, (female) [USA, California]; McKenzie 1942: 10 (female) [Margarodidae, Coelostomidiinae, Pityococcini].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, catalogue: 38]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 213]; Gill1993 [taxonomy, description: 36,]; GullanCo2007 [taxonomy: 413-425]; GullanSj2001 [taxonomy: 257-278]; HodgsoFo2005 [taxonomy, phylogeny: 35-48]; HodgsoFo2006 [taxonomy: 212]; Koteja2000 [taxonomy: 166,170-171]; Koteja2000c [taxonomy: 206]; McKenz1942 [taxonomy, description: 1-5, 10]; Miller1971b [taxonomy: 66]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy: 156].



Pityococcus deleoni McKenzie

NOMENCLATURE:

Pityococcus deleoni McKenzie, 1942: 5. Type data: USA: California, San Diego County, one mile east of Mt. Laguna, Cleveland National Forest, on Pinus quadrifolia; March 19, 1941, collected D. DeLeon. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Pinaceae: Pinus quadrifolia [McKenz1942, Gill1993].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (California [McKenz1942, Gill1993]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by McKenzie (1942) and by Gill (1993).

STRUCTURE: Colour photograph of adult female given by Gill (1993).

KEYS: McKenzie 1942: 10 (female, larva) [Species of Pityococcus].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 38]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 213]; Gill1993 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 46, 63]; McKenz1942 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 5-6,10].



Pityococcus ferrisi McKenzie

NOMENCLATURE:

Pityococcus ferrisi McKenzie, 1942: 4. Type data: USA: California, Mariposa County, Miami, on Pinus lambertiana; paratype from Mariposa County, near Tenaya Lake, on Pinus monticola. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA; type no. 32194. Described: female. Illust.

COMMON NAMES: Ferris' pine scale [Gill1993].



HOSTS: Pinaceae: Pinus cembroides [McKenz1942], Pinus edulis [McKenz1942, Gill1993], Pinus flexilis [McKenz1942], Pinus lambertiana [McKenz1942], Pinus monticola [McKenz1942].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Arizona [McKenz1942], California [McKenz1942], New Mexico [McKenz1942], Texas [McKenz1942], Utah [McKenz1942]).

BIOLOGY: In California on Pinus lambertiana occurs under the bark scales of the trunk of saplings; on other hosts occurs either under bark scales or in cracks of the trunk and twigs (McKenzie, 1942).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female and nymphs by McKenzie (1942) and by Gill (1993).

KEYS: McKenzie 1942: 10 (female, larva) [Species of Pityococcus].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 38-39]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 213]; Gill1993 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 46,47,64]; GullanCo2007 [taxonomy: 413-425]; McKenz1942 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 4-5,10-13].



Pityococcus moniliformalis Vea & Grimaldi

NOMENCLATURE:

Pityococcus moniliformalis Vea & Grimaldi, 2015: 31-34. Type data: RUSSIA: Baltic amber, Palmnicken mines in Yantaryni, on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. Holotype male (examined), by original designation. Type depository: New York: American Museum of Natural History, Department of Entomology Collection, New York, USA; type no. BaVe762. Described: male. Illust.

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Russia [VeaGr2015].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and photograph in Vea & Grimaldi, 2015.

STRUCTURE: Male small, total length 1.13 mm long, widest at mesothorax, 315 Ám. Head: Almost round, 205 Ám wide, 145 Ám long. Dorsal median crest absent, postoccipital suture absent, setae not observed. Ocular sclerite broad, extending as a wide lateral band and meeting ventrally; ocular sclerite with five pairs of simple eyes along anterior margin; ventral and dorsal eyes larger than lateral eyes (30 Ám and 20 Ám wide respectively), ventral eyes not joining medially; ocelli present laterally. Ventral part of epicranium with wide ventral medial crest, with ca. 10 setae. Setae also present on the rest of ventral part of epicranium, anteriorly. Ventral midcranial ridge present, extending to posterior end of head. Antenna 9-segmented. (Vea & Grimaldi, 2015)

SYSTEMATICS: Pityococcus moniliformalis differs from Pityococcus sp. in Hodgson and Foldi (2006) by the following characters: length of antennal segments proportionally shorter than Pityococcus sp. (Hodgson and Foldi, 2006); large bristle on antennal segment VIII absent (vs. present); tarsal digitule finely clavate and long (vs. absent). (Vea & Grimaldi, 2015)

CITATIONS: VeaGr2015 [description, distribution, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 31-34].



Pityococcus rugulosus McKenzie

NOMENCLATURE:

Pityococcus rugulosus McKenzie, 1942: 6. Type data: USA: Arizona, Coconino County, near Sedona, on Pinus edulis; July 2, 1940, collected G.F. Ferris. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Pinaceae: Pinus edulis [McKenz1942].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Arizona [McKenz1942]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring under the bark scales on the trunk of mature pines (McKenzie, 1942).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by McKenzie (1942).

KEYS: McKenzie 1942: 10 (female, larva) [Species of Pityococcus].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 39]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 213]; McKenz1942 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 6-7,10,14].