Family Margarodidae


Dimargarodes Silvestri

NOMENCLATURE:

Dimargarodes Silvestri, 1938a: 22.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by Silvestri (1938a), Jakubski (1965) and by Foldi (2005a).

SYSTEMATICS: Jakubski (1965) and Morrison & Morrison (1966) regarded this genus as distinct from Margarodes.

KEYS: Unruh & Gullan 2007: 169 (female) [genera of western USA]; Foldi 2005a: 121 (female) [genera of Margarodidae]; Vahedi 2002: 277-278 (female) [Genera of hypogaeic margarodids].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, catalogue: 47]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 199]; Foldi2005a [taxonomy, description: 91-93]; HodgsoFo2006 [taxonomy: 58]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description: 88-91]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy: 61]; Silves1938a [taxonomy, description: 21-22]; UnruhGu2007 [taxonomy: 166-169]; Vahedi2002 [taxonomy, description: 265-266].



Dimargarodes mediterraneus (Silvestri)

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes mediterraneus Silvestri, 1908: 140. Type data: ITALY: Umbria - Bevagna, Foggia - Cerignola, S. Vito dei Normanni - Brindisi; GREECE: Corfu, all on roots of Cynodon. Syntypes, female and first instar. Type depository: Portici: Dipartimento de Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria di Portici, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Italy. Described: female and first instar. Illust.

Dimargarodes mediterraneus; Silvestri, 1938a: 22. Change of combination.

Coccionella mediterraneus; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Change of combination.

Dimargarodes mediterraneus; Jakubski, 1965: 91. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Liliaceae: Asphodelus microcarpae [Foldi2005a]. Poaceae: Cynodon [Silves1908, Jakubs1965], Cynodon dactylon [Foldi2000].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: France [Jakubs1965, Foldi2000, Foldi2001, Foldi2005a]; Greece [Silves1908, Jakubs1965]; Hungary [KozarKoFe2013]; Italy [Silves1908, Jakubs1965, BarbagBiBo1995]; Spain [Foldi2005a]; Turkmenistan [Jashen1999]; Ukraine (Krym (=Crimea) Oblast [Borchs1950b]).

BIOLOGY: Females emerge in Crimea on June - July, and in Turkmenistan on mid-August (Jashenko, 1999).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female and nymphs by Silvestri (1908) and by Foldi (2005a). Description of adult female and nymphs given by Jakubski (1965).

CITATIONS: BarbagBiBo1995 [distribution: 39]; BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 47-48]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 36]; Buchne1966 [life history, structure: 332-333]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 421]; Foldi2000 [host, distribution: 77]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 199]; Foldi2005a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 91-93]; Green1912 [taxonomy, distribution: 65]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 91-94]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 44]; KozarKoFe2013 [distribution, taxonomy: 56]; Lindin1912b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 130, 384]; Lindin1935 [taxonomy: 141]; Morris1928 [taxonomy: 77, 225]; Silves1908 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 140-152]; Silves1920 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 482-486]; Silves1938a [taxonomy: 22]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 16-17]; Trembl1988a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 206]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20].



Dimargarodes meridionalis (Morrison)

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes meridionalis Morrison, 1927: 102. Type data: USA: Holotype and paratypes, Florida, Fort Myers, on ground, January 1918; collected by Geo. M. Lummis; paratypes from USA, Georgia, Chula, May 1918, collected by A.C. Lewis. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Coccionella meridionalis; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Change of combination.

Dimargarodes meridionalis; Jakubski, 1965: 102. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: centipede grass ground pearl [Gill1993].



HOSTS: Poaceae [Jakubs1965]. Vitaceae: Vitis vinifera [Gill1993].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Arizona [Jakubs1965], California [Gill1993], Florida [Morris1927, Kerr1957], Georgia [Morris1927]).

BIOLOGY: Found in Georgia, USA, on roots of various grasses, in great masses estimated to contain up to 1.5 million cysts in an area of 1000 square feet (Jakubski, 1965).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Morrison (1928), McDaniel (1965) and by Gill (1993).

STRUCTURE: Colour photograph of cyst by Gill (1993).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: In USA, Arizona it is a serious pest of lawns, golf courses and grass farms. A pest of grasses in California. Found to infest grape vineyards in California (Gill, 1993).

KEYS: McDaniel 1966: 239 (female) [North America]; McDaniel 1965: 22 (female) [North America]; Morrison 1928: 77-78 (female) [Species of Margarodes.].

CITATIONS: BarnesAsDe1954 [host, distribution, economic importance: 5]; BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue, economic importance: 48-49]; Foldi1984b [taxonomy: 265]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 206]; Frank1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 131-139]; Gill1993 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, economic importance: 39-40, 55]; HoffmaLaSm1980 [host, distribution, chemical control: 175]; HoffmaSm1991 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 1668-1671]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 102-105]; Kerr1957 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance, chemical control: 3-4]; Lindin1954 [taxonomy: 615]; McDani1965 [taxonomy, description, illustration: 19-20]; McDani1966 [taxonomy: 239]; Morris1927 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 77, 102]; Morris1928 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 72-78, 225]; SchmutKlLu1957 [host, distribution, economic importance: 421]; WeneTrSe1971 [chemical control, life history, host, distribution, economic importance: 1-8]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20].



Dimargarodes tanganyicus Jakubski

NOMENCLATURE:

Dimargarodes tanganyicus Jakubski, 1965: 97. Type data: TANZANIA: Old Shinyanga, host plant not specified; 9.xii.1954, collected E. Burtt. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Tanzania [Jakubs1965].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description of adult female and nymphs given by Jakubski (1965). Description and illustration of adult male by Hodgson & Foldi (2006).

KEYS: Hodgson & Foldi 2006: 94-95 (male) [Margarodidae males].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 49]; Foldi1984b [taxonomy: 265]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 199]; HodgsoFo2006 [taxonomy, description, illustration, distribution: 58-64,95]; HodgsoHa2013 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 796]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, distribution: 97-102]; Vahedi2002 [taxonomy, description: 266].



Eumargarodes Jakubski

NOMENCLATURE:

Eumargarodes Jakubski, 1950: 397.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by Jakubski (1950) and by Foldi (2005a).

KEYS: Unruh & Gullan 2007: 169 (female) [Genera of western USA]; Foldi 2005a: 121 (female) [genera of Margarodidae]; Vahedi 2002: 277-278 (female) [Genera of hypogaeic margarodids].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, catalogue: 49]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 201]; Foldi2005a [taxonomy, description, illustration: 105-106]; GullanSj2001 [taxonomy: 257-278]; Jakubs1950 [taxonomy, description: 397-399]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy: 49]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy: 73]; UnruhGu2007 [taxonomy: 166-169]; Vahedi2002 [taxonomy, description: 266-267].



Eumargarodes laingi Jakubski

NOMENCLATURE:

Eumargarodes laingi Jakubski, 1950: 397. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Queensland, Bundaberg, on roots of sugar-cane; 26 November 1938, by R.W. Mungomery. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Margarodes dactyloides McDaniel, 1966: 237. Type data: U.S.A.: Texas, Archer County, 4 miles north of Scotland on highway 281, on Buchloe dactyloides. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Unruh & Gullan, 2007: 178.

Margarodes dactyloide; Williams & Foldi, 2005: 20. Misspelling of species name.



HOSTS: Poaceae [Jakubs1965], Buchloe dactyloides [McDani1966], Saccharum officinalis [Jakubs1950, Jakubs1965].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Jakubs1950, Jakubs1965], Queensland [Jakubs1950, Jakubs1965]). Nearctic: United States of America (Florida [Jakubs1965, Kerr1957], Texas [McDani1966]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by McDaniel (1966) and by Foldi (2005a).

SYSTEMATICS: The original description was based on material collected from sugar-cane at Queensland, Australia, but later it was recorded from grasses in Florida, USA. Therefore, Jakubski (1965) assumed that it was accidentally introduced from Florida to Australia.

KEYS: McDaniel 1966: 230 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: AllsopHo2001 [host, distribution, life history, biological control, chemical control, taxonomy: 199-203]; AllsopMa1997 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 173-188]; AllsopMc1997 [host, distribution, behaviour, life history, biological control: 1702-1709]; AllsopMcSt2000 [host, distribution, life history, ecology, behaviour: 316-321]; BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 49-50, 61]; Buchne1966 [life history, structure: 337-338]; DeitzTo1980 [taxonomy: 51]; DominiAlCo1989 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history, chemical control, biological control: 110-115]; Egan1989 [host, distribution, economic importance]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 201, 206]; Foldi2005a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 105-106]; Frank1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 131-139]; GruwelVoPa2005 [taxonomy, endosymbionts: 79-114]; Jakubs1950 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 397-413]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 49-54]; Kerr1957 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance, chemical control: 3-4]; LaRive1967 [taxonomy: 6]; McDani1966 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 237-240]; SchmutKlLu1957 [host, distribution, economic importance: 421]; SpinkDo1961 [chemical control: 423-424]; UnruhGu2007 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 178-179]; Vahedi2002 [taxonomy, description: 266-267]; WalkerAl1993 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 362-367]; WalkerAl1993a [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 10-15]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20].



Eurhizococcus Silvestri

NOMENCLATURE:

Eurhizococcus Silvestri, 1936: 39.

Eurrhizococcus; Lindinger, 1943b: 219. Misspelling of genus name.

Eurchizococcus; Costa Lima, 1950: 241. Misspelling of genus name.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and definition by Silvestri (1936), Jakubski (1965) and by Foldi (2005a).

SYSTEMATICS: Silvestri (1936) placed this genus as closely related to Termitococcus.

KEYS: Foldi 2005a: 121 (female) [genera of Margarodidae]; Vahedi 2002: 277-278 (female) [Genera of hypogaeic margarodids]; Jakubski 1965: 185 (female) [Margarodidae].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, catalogue: 50]; CostaL1950 [taxonomy: 241]; daSilvCa2012 [description, taxonomy: 313-319]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 201]; Foldi2005a [taxonomy, description, illustration: 117-121]; GullanSj2001 [taxonomy: 257-278]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description: 172-174]; Lindin1943b [taxonomy: 219]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 74]; PicardBa1939 [taxonomy: 118]; Silves1936 [taxonomy, description: 39-40]; Vahedi2002 [taxonomy, description: 268-269].



Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille)

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes brasiliensis Wille, 1922: 84. Type data: BRAZIL: Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Maria, on roots of grapevine and Petroselinum, 1921. Syntypes. Described: female. Illust.

Margarodes brasiliensis; Costa Lima, 1924: 136. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Hempel" as author.

Eurhizococcus brasiliensis; Silvestri, 1936: 39. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Hempel" as author.

Eurhizococcus brasiliensis; Silvestri, 1936: 40. Change of combination.

Eurchizococcus brasiliensis; Costa Lima, 1950: 241. Misspelling of genus name.

Eurhizococcus brasiliensis; Jakubski, 1965: 174. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Hempel" as author.

Margarodes soria Foldi, 1987: 156. Type data: BRAZIL: Rio Grande do Sul, Veranopolis, on roots of Vitis vinifera; collected 19.11.1985, by I. Foldi. Holotype immature. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil. Described: immature. Illust. Synonymy by Foldi, 1989e: 320.

Eurhizococcus brasiliensis; Foldi, 1989e: 320. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Hempel" as author.



ASSOCIATE: HYMENOPTERA Formicidae: Linepithema micans Forel [EfromBoDe2012].

FOE: DIPTERA Asilidae: Prolepis lucifer [SoriaDe1998, SoriaMeOl2004, SoriaMeOl2004].

HOSTS: Amaryllidaceae: Amaryllis [Foldi2005a]. Asteraceae: Baccharis dracunculoides [Jakubs1965], Baccharis genistelloides [Foldi2005a], Baccharis trimera [Jakubs1965], Chaptalia nutans [Jakubs1965], Cichorium endivia [Jakubs1965], Cichorium intybus [Jakubs1965], Dahlia [Jakubs1965], Lactuca sativa [Jakubs1965], Matricaria [Foldi2005a], Solidago microglossa [Jakubs1965]. Cruciferae: Brassica campestris [Jakubs1965], Brassica napus [Jakubs1965], Raphanus sativus [Jakubs1965], Sinapis nigra [Jakubs1965]. Cucurbitaceae: Lagenaria vulgaris [Jakubs1965], Sechium edule [Jakubs1965]. Dricaceae: Vaccinium sp. [EfromBoDe2012]. Euphorbiaceae: Ipomoea batatas [Jakubs1965], Manihot palmata [Jakubs1965], Manihot utilissima [Jakubs1965]. Fabaceae: Arachis hypogaea [Jakubs1965], Medicago sativa [Kalvel1987]. Juglandaceae: Juglans regia [Jakubs1965]. Lamiaceae: Ocimum basilicum [Jakubs1965], Salvia officinalis [Jakubs1965], Salvia splendens [Jakubs1965]. Malvaceae: Hibiscus esculentus [Jakubs1965]. Myrtaceae: Feijoa sellowiana [HickelDu1995]. Onagraceae: Fuchsia [Jakubs1965]. Oxalidaceae: Oxalis articulata [Jakubs1965], Oxalis criorrhiza [Jakubs1965], Oxalis selloviana [Jakubs1965]. Phytolaccaceae: Phytolacca decandra [Jakubs1965]. Polygonaceae: Rumex sp. [EfromBoDe2012]. Portulacaceae: Talinum patens [Jakubs1965]. Punicaceae: Punica granatum [Jakubs1965]. Rosaceae: Cydonia oblonga [Jakubs1965], Cydonia vulgaris [Jakubs1965], Prunus domestica [Jakubs1965], Prunus persica [Jakubs1965], Pyrus communis [Jakubs1965], Pyrus malus [Jakubs1965], Rubus idaeus [EfromBoDe2012], Rubus sp. [EfromBoDe2012]. Rubiaceae: Gardenia [Jakubs1965]. Salicaceae: Salix babylonica [Jakubs1965], Salix humboldtiana [Jakubs1965]. Umbelliferae: Apium graveolens [Jakubs1965], Daucus carota [Jakubs1965], Petroselinum hortense [Wille1922, Jakubs1965], Petroselinum sativum [Jakubs1965]. Vitaceae: Vitis [Jakubs1965], Vitis vinifera [FoldiSo1989], Vitis vinifera [Wille1922, Foldi1987, Foldi1989e].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Parana [Jakubs1965], Pernambuco [EfromBoDe2012], Rio Grande do Sul [Wille1922, Jakubs1965, Foldi1987, Foldi1989e, FoldiSo1989], Santa Catarina [Kalvel1987], Sao Paulo [Jakubs1965]).

BIOLOGY: Soria & Braghini (1999) developed a method to rear this species in the laboratory on sprouting potato tubers. Sacchett et al. (2009 studied in Brazil the ants aassociated with (E. brasiliensis), that may account for its dispersal.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of nymphs and adult female by Silvestri (1936), Foldi & Soria (1989) and by Foldi (2005a). Description of nymphs and adult female by Jakubski (1965). Foldi (1990) described and illustrated all male instars, and Foldi (2005) described and illustrated all female instars.

SYSTEMATICS: Wille (1922) indicated that Adolpho Hemepl suggested the name Margarodes brasiliensis. However, Wille (1922) described the species and provided a photograph. Therefore, the species should be credited to Wille (1922). Foldi (1989e) concluded that the holotype and paratypes of Margarodes soria Foldi, 1987 were prepupae - not adult female as indicated in the original description - and were identical to the prepupae of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille, 1922).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Kalvelage (1987) recorded this species as a pest of alfalfa in Santa Catarina, Brazil. The species was also found to be present and contributing to a general decline in blackberry (Rubus spp.) (Rosaceae) and blueberry plants. Symptoms of E. brasiliensis attack included chlorotic leaves with gradual wasting, reduced production, and mortality, all of which combine to make the crop nonviable in infested areas. Controlling Brazilian ground pearl in berry plants is complicated by the fact that these crops are commonly grown on organic farms. In vineyards, neonicotinoid insecticides are currently used against the ground pearl (Efrom, et al, 2012)

KEYS: da Silva & Carvalho 2012: 212 (female) [Key to the species of Termitococcinae using characters of the adult female]; da Silva & Carvalho 2012: 212 (first instar) [Key to the species of Termitococcinae using characters of the first instar]; Hodgson & Foldi 2006: 94-95 (male) [Margarodidae males].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue, economic importance: 50-52]; BerndTrCa2007 [life history, biological control, host, distribution: 350-354]; BertelBa1966 [host, distribution, economic importance: 17-46]; Besson1986 [distribution, economic importance: 10]; BottonHiSo2000 [host, distribution, life history, ecology, economic importance, control: 1-23]; BottonKoBr1999 [economic importance, chemical control, host, distribution: 102-104]; BottonSoKo1997 [host, distribution, biological control: 159-162]; Buchne1966 [life history, structure: 288-295]; CarneiSoKu1994 [host, distribution, biological control: 345-348]; Carval1939JH [host, distribution, taxonomy, economic importance, control: 724-731]; CostaL1924 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 136-139]; CostaL1950 [taxonomy: 241]; DalBoCr1988 [host, distribution, economic importance, chemical control: 10-11]; daSilvCa2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 314-316]; EfromBoDe2012 [distribution, economic importance: 1545-1548]; EmpresAsTe2003 [host, distribution, chemical control: 1-67]; Figuer1946 [host, distribution: 216]; Foldi1987 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 155-159]; Foldi1989e [taxonomy, host, distribution: 320]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 201]; Foldi2005a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 117-121]; FoldiSo1989 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 414-418]; FraguaSoHo2000 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history, ecology: 339-354]; Gallot1989 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history: 19-21]; Gassen1989 [host, distribution: 49]; GomesC1937 [host, distribution, economic importance: 336-338]; HajiLiAl2004 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 1-5]; Hickel1993 [life history, ecology: 167-169]; HickelDu1995 [host, distribution: 665-668]; HickelPeSc2001 [host, distribution, economic importance, chemical control: 125-132]; HickelSc2005 [host, distribution, chemical control: 93-95]; HodgsoFo2006 [taxonomy: 94-95]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 174-179]; JuniorSo1999 [host, distribution, economic importance, chemical control: 11-22]; Kalvel1987 [host, distribution, economic importance: 445]; KotejaPyVo2003 [taxonomy, structure: 253]; LourenTePi2002 [life history, ecology: 57-64]; Maranh1939 [host, distribution, economic importance: 371-378]; MaricoZa1973 [host, distribution, taxonomy: 86-101]; MonteiSo1996 [life history, host, distribution: 563-566]; Morris1928 [taxonomy: 77, 222]; NondilFeLe2014 [behaviour, biological control, ecology: 1385]; OliveiPeSi1971 [host, distribution, biological control: 747-753]; ReisMe1984 [economic importance, host, distribution: 68-72]; SaccheBoDi2009 [life history, economic importance, ant associarion: 943-954]; SchmutKlLu1957 [host, distribution, economic importance: 421]; Secchi2001 [host, distribution, economic importance: 17-41]; Silves1936 [taxonomy, description, illustration: 39-40]; Soria1986 [life history, host, distribution: 15-16]; Soria1989 [host, distribution, chemical control: 16]; Soria1997 [host, distribution, control: 97-98]; SoriaBr1995 [host, distribution, life history: 51]; SoriaBr1999 [life history, economic importance: 65-67]; SoriaBr1999a [chemical control, economic importance: 555-561]; SoriaCaBr1994 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 61-62]; SoriaCaFa1999 [life history, biological control, economic importance: 19-23]; SoriaCaFr1997 [host, distribution, biological control: 50-59]; SoriaDe1998 [host, distribution, biological control: 279-294]; SoriaDeMo1997 [host, distribution, biological control, life history: 353]; SoriaFoDe1990 [host, distribution, life history: 527-529]; SoriaGa1986 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance, biological control, chemical control: 1-22]; SoriaLe1987 [life history, ecology: 218]; SoriaMeOl2004 [host, distributuion, life history, biological control: 323-331]; TeixeiBoEn2002 [host, distribution, chemical control: 457-461]; Vahedi2002 [taxonomy, description: 268-269]; WilkinSo1996 [life history, chemistry, biological control: 169-170]; Wille1922 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 83-85]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20].



Eurhizococcus brevicornis (Silvestri)

NOMENCLATURE:

Termitococcus brevicornis Silvestri, 1901: 5. Type data: PARAGUAY: Coxipo, (Cuyaba), in nest of termites, Capritermitis opaci parvi Silvestri. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Portici: Dipartimento de Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria di Portici, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Italy. Described: female.

Eurhizococcus brevicornis; Silvestri, 1936: 40. Change of combination.



ASSOCIATE: TERMITIDAE Blattodea: Capritermitis opaci parvi Silvestri [daSilvCa2012].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Paraguay [Silves1901].

BIOLOGY: Found in nest of termites, Capritermitis opaci parvi Silvestri (Silvestri, 1901).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Silvestri (1901). Description of first instar nymph by Jakubski (1965).

KEYS: da Silva & Carvalho 2012: 212 (female) [Key to the species of Termitococcinae using characters of the adult female]; da Silva & Carvalho 2012: 212 (first instar) [Key to the species of Termitococcinae using characters of the first instar].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 52]; Buchne1966 [life history, structure: 308-310]; daSilvCa2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 316]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 217]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, distribution: 169]; MaricoZa1973 [host, distribution, taxonomy: 86-191]; Silves1901 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 5-6]; Silves1936 [taxonomy: 40].



Eurhizococcus colombianus Jakubski

NOMENCLATURE:

Eurhizococcus brasiliensis; Figueroa Potes, 1946: 216. Misidentification; discovered by Jakubski, 1965: 179.

Eurhizococcus colombianus Jakubski, 1965: 179. Type data: COLOMBIA: Rionegro, on roots of raspberry, 13.xi.1944, E.J. Hambleton. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Eurhizococcus silvestri Jakubski, 1965: 181. Nomen nudum; discovered by Jakubski, 1965: 181.



HOSTS: Rosaceae: Rubus [Jakubs1965], Rubus flaucus Benth. [EfromBoDe2012]. Umbelliferae: Arracacia xanthorhiza [Jakubs1965]. Vitaceae: Vitis labrusca [KondoGo2008].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Colombia [Jakubs1965, KondoGo2008].

BIOLOGY: Found on roots of the host plants (Jakubski, 1965). Kondo & Gomez (2008) found that this scale insect is inducing gall formation on roots of grapevines.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description of adult female and nymphs by Jakubski (1965). Description and illustration of the adult female by The morphology of the insect is compared with E. brasiliensis (Wille), a species known as an important pest of grapevines in Brazil, and the only other species included in the genus Eurhizococcus Silvestri.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Kondo & Gomez (2008) reported this species as a new pest of grapevines, Vitis labrusca L. in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Brief notes on the biology and morphology of E. colombianus are given, and the induction of an insect gall by a ground pearl is for the first time reported. A key to separate the two known species of Eurhizococcus is provided. This is the first record of this species on grapevines.

KEYS: da Silva & Carvalho 2012: 212 (female) [Key to the species of Termitococcinae using characters of the adult female]; da Silva & Carvalho 2012: 212 (first instar) [Key to the species of Termitococcinae using characters of the first instar]; Kondo & Gomez 2008: 36 (female) [species of Eurhizococcus].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 53]; daSilvCa2012 [description, distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 316-319]; EfromBoDe2012 [distribution, host: 1546]; Figuer1946 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 216]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 201]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 179-181]; KondoGo2008 [host, distribution, economic importance, taxonomy, description: 34-40]; QuinonViTo2008 [taxonomy, morphology, chemistry: 190-194].



Heteromargarodes Jakubski

NOMENCLATURE:

Deuteromargarodes Jakubski, 1965: 88. Nomen nudum; discovered by Jakubski, 1965: 88. Notes: Published in the combination Deuteromargarodes americanus.

Heteromargarodes Jakubski, 1965: 85.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by Jakubski (1965), Foldi (2005a) and by Unruh & Gullan (2007).

KEYS: Unruh & Gullan 2007: 1699 (female) [Genera of western USA]; Unruh & Gullan 2007: 171 (female) [Species of Heteromargarodes in western USA]; Foldi 2005a: 121 (female) [genera of Margarodidae]; Jakubski 1965: 183 (female) [Margarodidae].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, catalogue: 53]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 202]; Foldi2005a [taxonomy, description, illustration: 93-95]; HodgsoFo2006 [taxonomy: 64]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description: 85-88]; UnruhGu2007 [taxonomy, description, revision: 166-181].



Heteromargarodes americanus Jakubski

NOMENCLATURE:

Heteromargarodes americanus Jakubski, 1965: 85. Type data: USA: Wyoming, Powell, host plant not specified; 24.v.1949, collected H.L. Beaudoin. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Deuteromargarodes americanus Jakubski, 1965: 88. Nomen nudum; discovered by Jakubski, 1965: 85.

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (California [UnruhGu2007], Nevada [UnruhGu2007], Wyoming [Jakubs1965, Foldi2005a]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Foldi (2005a) and by Unruh & Gullan (2007). Description and illustration of adult male by Hodgson & Foldi (2006).

KEYS: Unruh & Gullan 2007: 171 (female) [Heteronargarodes species of western USA]; Hodgson & Foldi 2006: 94-95 (male) [Margarodidae males].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 53]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 202]; Foldi2005a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 93-95]; HodgsoFo2006 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 65-70,95]; HodgsoHa2013 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 796]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, distribution: 85-88]; UnruhGu2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 171-174].



Heteromargarodes chukar (La Rivers)

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes chukar La Rivers, 1967: 4. Type data: U.S.A.: Nevada, Washoe County, Red Rock area 20 miles NNW of Reno, on Alectoris graeca or Bromus tectorum; collected 26 September 1964 by David Savage and Laun Buoy. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Sacramento: California State Collection of Arthropods, California Dept. Food & Agriculture, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Heteromargarodes chukar; Unruh & Gullan, 2007: 175. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Alectoris graeca [LaRive1967], Bromus tectorum [LaRive1967].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico (Baja California Norte [UnruhGu2007]); United States of America (Nevada [LaRive1967]).

BIOLOGY: All specimens of type series came from crops of the Chukar Partridge (Alectoris graeca), and while none of them were found with the host plant, the overwhelmingly dominant grass in the type locality was Cheat Grass (Bromus tectorum), parts of which were also in the crops with the insects (La Rivers, 1967).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by La Rivers (1967) and by Unruh & Gullan (2007). Description and illustration of adult male by Hodgson & Foldi (2006).

SYSTEMATICS: Ray Gill, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Sacramento, California, USA, found five syntypes of this species, in the collection of CDAE (see Unruh & Gullan, 2007 ). These specimens were slide mounted by Dick Wilkey, shortly after they were collected. (Ray Gill, personal communication to Yair Ben-Dov, 23 October, 2002).

KEYS: Unruh & Gullan 2007: 171 (female) [heteromargarodes species of western USA]; Hodgson & Foldi 2006: 94-95 (male) [Margarodidae males].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 60]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 206]; HodgsoFo2006 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 76-82,95]; HodgsoHa2013 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 796]; LaRive1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 4-6].



Heteromargarodes hiemalis (Cockerell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes hiemalis Cockerell, 1899h: 416. Type data: U.S.A.: New Mexico, Mesilla Park, on roots of some shrub; most probably on those of Atriplex canescens, which abounds on the college campus; possibly on those of Prosopis glandulosa; January 16, 1899. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Coccionella hiemalis; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Change of combination.

Porphyrophora hiemalis; Jakubski, 1965: 46. Change of combination.

Margarodes heimalis; Williams & Foldi, 2005: 20. Misspelling of species name.

Heteromargarodes hiemalis; Unruh & Gullan, 2007: 174. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Chenopodiaceae: Atriplex canescens [Cocker1899b]. Fabaceae: Prosopis glandulosa [Cocker1899b]. Poaceae: Prosopis [UnruhGu2007].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Arizona [UnruhGu2007], New Mexico [Cocker1899b]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Cockerell (1899h), Jakubski (1965), McDaniel (1965) and by Unruh & Gullan (2007).

STRUCTURE: Colour photograph of adult female given by Gill (1993).

KEYS: Unruh & Gullan 2007: 171 (female) [Heteromargarodes species of western USA]; McDaniel 1966: 239 [North America]; McDaniel 1965: 22 (female) [North America]; Morrison 1928: 77-78 (female) [Species of Margarodes.].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 92-93]; Cocker1899b [host, distribution, life history, chemistry: 36]; Cocker1899h [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 416]; Cocker1902q [taxonomy, distribution: 258]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 29]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 206]; Green1912 [taxonomy, distribution: 65]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 46-47]; LaRive1967 [taxonomy: 6]; Lindin1954 [taxonomy: 615]; McDani1965 [taxonomy, description, illustration: 18-19,22]; McDani1966 [taxonomy: 239]; Morris1928 [taxonomy: 77]; Silves1908 [taxonomy: 149]; UnruhGu2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 174-175]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20].



Margarodes Guilding

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes Guilding, 1829: 118.

Margarodes (Sphaeraspis) Giard, 1894a: 412. Synonymy by Morrison & Morrison, 1966: 186.

Sphaeraspis; Fernald, 1903b: 28. Change of status.

Promargarodes Silvestri, 1938a: 21. Synonymy by Vahedi, 2002: 311.

Acystomargarodes Bodenheimer, 1953a: 152. Unavailable name; discovered by Morrison & Morrison, 1966: 3. Notes: This post-1930 generic name was proposed in tentative fashion only, for two named species presumably having similar characteristics in the adult stage, but no type species was selected at the time of publication. Morrison & Morrison (1966: 3) designated Margarodes tritici Bodenheimer, 1941, as type species. Regardless of any zoological validity, the name appears to be deprived of status by the restrictions of Article 13 of the 1961 Zoological Code (Morrison & Morrison, 1966).

Margorades; Hunsucker, 1956: 6. Misspelling of genus name.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by Silvestri (1938a), Borchsenius (1950b), Jakubski (1965), Williams & Watson (1990), Tang & Hao (1995) and by Foldi (2005a).

SYSTEMATICS: Morrison & Morrison (1966) regarded Sphaeraspis Giard as a synonym of Margarodes while Jakubski (1965) accepted it as distinct. The genus Promargarodes Silvestri, 1938, was regarded by Vahedi ( 2002) and by Ben-Dov (2005) as a synonym of Margarodes. Unruh & Gullan (2007) considered Promargarodes as a good genus. The adult female of Margarodes mainly differs from Porphyrophora in the presence of abdominal spiracles, while in Porphyrophora these are absent or present only on first two abdominal segments.

KEYS: Unruh & Gullan 2007: 169 (female) [Genera of western USA]; Foldi 2005a: 121 (female) [genera of Margarodidae]; Vahedi 2002: 277-278 (female) [Genera of hypogaeic margarodids]; Tang & Hao 1995: 13 (female) [China]; Gill 1993: 35 (female) [USA, California]; Williams & Watson 1990: 15-16 (female) [Margarodidae Genera of Tropical South pacific]; De Klerk, Ben-Dov & Giliomee 1983: 139 (cyst) [South Africa]; De Klerk, Ben-Dov & Giliomee 1983: 139 (female) [South Africa]; Yang 1982: 19 (female) [China]; McDaniel 1966: 239-240 (female) [North America]; Jakubski 1965: 183 (female) [Margarodidae]; Jakubski 1965: 184 (female) [Margarodidae]; McDaniel 1965: 22 (female) [North America]; Borchsenius 1950b: 32 (female) [Genera of USSR]; Morrison 1928: 72 (female, larva) [Margarodidae]; Brain 1915: 183-184 (female) [South Africa].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, catalogue: 57-58]; BenDovHa1986 [taxonomy: 31-32]; Bodenh1953a [taxonomy: 152]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy: 32, 35]; Brain1915 [taxonomy, description: 183-184]; Cocker1902q [taxonomy: 257-258]; CostaL1950 [taxonomy: 241]; DeKlerBeGi1983 [taxonomy, structure, description: 133-144]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 28]; Foldi1984b [taxonomy: 265]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 421]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 206,215,216]; Foldi2005a [taxonomy, description, illustration: 95-98]; Giard1894a [taxonomy, structure, life history: 412-414]; Gill1993 [taxonomy: 35, 39]; Green1912 [taxonomy, description: 65-76]; Guildi1829 [taxonomy, description: 115-119]; GullanSj2001 [taxonomy: 257-278]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description: 88-91,108-111]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 188, 196]; Lindin1943b [taxonomy: 222]; Lindin1954 [taxonomy: 614, 615]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description: 93]; Maskel1887a [taxonomy: 91]; McDani1965 [taxonomy: 15-23]; McDani1966 [taxonomy: 237-240]; Morris1928 [taxonomy, description: 5-28,62-81,219,223]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 3,40,61,115,161,186]; PicardBa1939 [taxonomy: 118]; Podtia1941 [taxonomy: 59-60]; Signor1876a [taxonomy, description: 385]; Silves1908 [taxonomy: 140, 149]; Silves1920 [taxonomy: 482]; Silves1938a [taxonomy, description: 21-22]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 14-15,19-20,23-25]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 23-26]; UnruhGu2007 [taxonomy: 166-169]; Vahedi2002 [taxonomy, description: 269-276,311]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 19-22]; WilliaWa1990 [taxonomy, description: 29]; Yang1982 [taxonomy: 19,23].



Margarodes aurelianus Hall

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes aurelianus Hall, 1945a: 136. Type data: SUDAN: Atbara, on Cynodon dactylon; collected August, 1939, Abdallah Hassan and 22.iii.1945, W.P.L. Cameron. Syntypes, female and first instar. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK; type no. C.21631. Described: female and first instar. Illust.

Coccionella aureliana; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Change of combination.

Margarodes aurelianus; Schmutterer et al., 1957: 421. Change of combination.

Margarodes aurelina; Schmutterer et al., 1957: 421. Misspelling of species name.

Promargarodes aurelianus; Jakubski, 1965: 130. Change of combination.



HOST: Poaceae: Cynodon dactylon [Hall1945a, Jakubs1965].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Sudan [Hall1945a, Jakubs1965].

BIOLOGY: Found on roots of the grass Cynodon dactylon (Hall, 1945a).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female and cyst given by Hall (1945a) and by Jakubski (1965).

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 58]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 215]; Hall1945a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 136-140]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 130-132]; Lindin1954 [taxonomy: 615]; SchmutKlLu1957 [taxonomy, host, distribution, economic importance: 421]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20].



Margarodes australis (Jakubski)

NOMENCLATURE:

Promargarodes australis Jakubski, 1965: 146. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Queensland, Bundaberg, on roots of Saccharum officinarum, 25.x.1932, R.W. Mungomery. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Margarodes australis; Ben-Dov, 2005a: 58. Change of combination.



HOST: Poaceae: Saccharum officinarum [Jakubs1965, WilliaWa1990].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Queensland [Jakubs1965]); Papua New Guinea [WilliaWa1990].

BIOLOGY: Found on roots of Saccharum officinarum (Jakubski, 1965).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description of adult female and nymphs by Jakubski (1965).

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 58-59]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 215]; GruwelVoPa2005 [taxonomy, endosymbionts: 79-114]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 146-151]; WilliaWa1990 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 29, 31].



Margarodes basrahensis Jakubski

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes basrahensis Jakubski, 1965: 159. Type data: IRAQ: Basra District, Masgat near Masanah, in clayey ground, 25 December 1929, P.J. Barraud. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Iraq [Jakubs1965].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description of adult female and cyst by Jakubski (1965).

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 59]; Foldi1984b [taxonomy: 265]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 206]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, distribution: 159-163]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 21-22]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20].



Margarodes cadeti Foldi

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes cadeti Foldi, 1984b: 261. Type data: BURKINA FASO [=Haute-Volya; Upper Volta]: Banfora, on roots of Saccharum officinarum; Collected March 1983, by P. Cadet. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female.



HOST: Graminae: Saccharum officinalis [Foldi1984b].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Burkina Faso [Foldi1984b].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Foldi (1984b).

CITATIONS: Foldi1984b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 261-265]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20].



Margarodes capensis Giard

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes (Sphaeraspis) capensis Giard, 1897a: 685. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Cape Province, Malmesbury and Worcester, on roots of grapevine; collected C.P. Lounsbury. Syntypes, female and first instar. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female and first instar.

Margarodes capensis; Cockerell, 1899a: 390. Change of combination.

Margarodes (Sphaeraspis) capensis; Cockerell, 1902q: 258. Change of combination.

Coccionella capensis; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Change of combination.

Margarodes capensis; Jakubski, 1965: 118. Revived combination.



HOST: Vitaceae: Vitis vinifera [Giard1897a, Brain1915].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [Giard1897a, Brain1915, Jakubs1965].

BIOLOGY: Nymphs, cysts and adult female occur on roots of grapevine in South Africa (Brain, 1915).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Giard (1897), Brain (1915), Jakubski (1965) and by De Klerk et al. (1982). Description and illustration of first instar nymph and cyst by De Klerk et al. (1982).

KEYS: De Klerk, Ben-Dov & Giliomee 1983: 139 (female, cyst) [South Africa]; Morrison 1928: 77-78 (female) [Species of Margarodes.].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue, economic importance: 59]; Brain1915 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 184-187]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 390]; Cocker1902q [taxonomy, distribution: 258]; DeKlerBeGi1982 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 61-66]; DeKlerBeGi1983 [taxonomy, structure: 133-144]; DeKlerGiBe1982 [life history, ecology, host, distribution: 85-93]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 28]; Foldi1984b [taxonomy: 265]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 206]; Giard1897a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 685]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 118-120]; Lindin1954 [taxonomy: 615]; Morris1928 [taxonomy: 77-78,222]; Silves1908 [taxonomy: 149]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20].



Margarodes carvalhoi Costa Lima

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes carvalhoi Costa Lima, 1950: 241. Type data: BRAZIL: Pernambuco, on sugar-cane roots. Syntypes, female and first instar. Described: female.

Sphaeraspis carvalhoi; Jakubski, 1965: 116. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: perolas de terra [CostaL1950].



HOST: Poaceae: Saccharum officinalis [CostaL1950].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Pernambuco [CostaL1950, Jakubs1965]).

BIOLOGY: Found on roots of sugar-cane (Costa Lima, 1950).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Costa Lima (1950) and by Jakubski (1965).

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 60]; CostaL1950 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 241-248]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 216]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 116-117]; MaricoZa1973 [host, distribution, taxonomy: 86-101]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20].



Margarodes congolensis Jakubski

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes congolensis Jakubski, 1965: 163. Type data: CONGO [probably ZAIRE]: River Chinjanga and Zambilongo, Port Sunlight, found loosely in ground in river sands, December 1912. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Congo [Jakubs1965].

BIOLOGY: Found loosely in ground in river sands (Jakubski, 1965).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description of adult female and cyst by Jakubski (1965).

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 60-61]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 206]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, distribution: 163-164]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20].



Margarodes floridanus (Jakubski)

NOMENCLATURE:

Promargarodes floridanus Jakubski, 1965: 142. Type data: USA: Florida, Waverly; males collected 25.v.1934; intermediate female collected 1.iii.1934 on Valencia orange; adult females collected iii.1934. Syntypes, both sexes. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: both sexes.

Margarodes floridanus; Ben-Dov, 2005a: 61. Change of combination.



HOST: Rutaceae: Citrus [Jakubs1965].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Florida [Jakubs1965]).

BIOLOGY: The intermediate female syntype was recorded from Valencia orange (Citrus sp.), but no information was given about its infestation site (Jakubski, 1965).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description of adult female, first instar nymph and cyst by Jakubski (1965).

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 61]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 215]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 142-144].



Margarodes formicarum Guilding

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes formicarum Guilding, 1829: 119. Type data: PROVIDENCE ISLAND, BAHAMA, ANTIGUA: in soil, associated with ants. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Depository of type material unknown.

Porphyrophora margarodes Burmeister, 1835: 79. Unjustified emendation; discovered by Jakubski, 1965: 153.

Coccionella formicarum; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Change of combination.

Margarodes formicarum; Jakubski, 1965: 153. Revived combination.

COMMON NAMES: ground pearl [Signor1876a]; perle de terre [Signor1876a]; The ground pearl [Cocker1894i].



HOSTS: Euphorbiaceae: Acalypha [Jakubs1965]. Poaceae: Saccharum [Jakubs1965]. Rutaceae: Citrus [Martor1976].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Antigua and Barbuda (Antigua [Guildi1829]); Bahamas [Guildi1829]; Barbados [Jakubs1965]; Chile [Foldi2005a]; Montserrat [Jakubs1965]; Puerto Rico & Vieques Island (Puerto Rico [Martor1976]); Saint Croix [Beatty1944]; Saint Kitts and Nevis Islands (Saint Kitts [Jakubs1965]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustrationof adult female, first instar nymph and cyst by Foldi (2005a).

KEYS: Morrison 1928: 77-78 (female) [Species of Margarodes.].

CITATIONS: Beatty1944 [host, distribution: 114-172]; BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue, economic importance: 61-62]; Burmei1835 [taxonomy: 79]; Cocker1894i [taxonomy, description, distribution, economic importance: 17]; Cocker1902q [taxonomy, distribution: 258]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 28]; Foldi1984b [taxonomy: 265]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 206]; Foldi2005a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 95-98]; Giard1894b [taxonomy: 710]; Giard1897a [taxonomy: 683-684]; GiardBu1895 [chemistry: 2-3]; Green1912 [taxonomy, distribution: 65]; Guildi1829 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 115-119]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 153-155]; Lindin1954 [taxonomy: 615]; Martor1976 [host, distribution: 63,75]; Morris1928 [taxonomy, description: 73-78, 223, 225]; MorrisMo1923 [taxonomy: 44]; Signor1869 [taxonomy: 854]; Signor1876a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 385-386]; Silves1908 [taxonomy: 149]; Silves1938 [taxonomy: 35]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 22-23]; Vahedi2002 [taxonomy, description: 269-270]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20].



Margarodes gallicus (Signoret)

NOMENCLATURE:

Porphyrophora gallica Signoret, 1854: liii. Nomen nudum.

Porphyrophora gallica Signoret, 1869: 855,866. Nomen nudum.

Porphyrophora gallica Signoret, 1876a: 380. Type data: FRANCE: Somme, at sand dunes of Saint-Quentin, on Polygonum aviculare. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Vienna: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria. Described: both sexes. Illust.

Margarodes (Porphyrophora) gallicus; Cockerell, 1902q: 258. Change of combination.

Margarodes gallica; Fernald, 1903b: 28. Change of combination.

Coccionella gallica; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Change of combination.



HOST: Polygonaceae: Polygonum aviculare [Signor1876a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: France [Signor1876a].

SYSTEMATICS: Blanchard (1883: 308) listed this species as a synonym of Porphyrophora polonica (Linnaeus). Fernald (1903b: 28) listed it as a valid species. Jakubski (1965) did not mention this species.

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 62]; Blanch1883 [taxonomy: 308]; Cocker1902q [taxonomy, distribution: 258]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 28]; Green1912 [taxonomy, distribution: 65]; Lindin1954 [taxonomy: 615]; Morris1928 [taxonomy: 77,78,223]; Signor1854 [taxonomy: liii]; Signor1869 [taxonomy: 855,866]; Silves1908 [taxonomy: 149]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20].



Margarodes gimenezi Podtiaguin

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes gimenezi Podtiaguin, 1941: 62. Type data: PARAGUAY: Colonia Mennonitas, Chaco, on roots of Citrus aurantium. Syntypes, female, male and first instar; type no. 127. Described: female, male and first instar.

Coccionella gimenezi; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Change of combination.

Sphaeraspis gimenezi; Jakubski, 1965: 117. Change of combination.



HOST: Rutaceae: Citrus aurantium [Podtia1941].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Paraguay [Podtia1941].

BIOLOGY: Collected from roots of Citrus aurantium (Podtiaguin, 1941).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Podtiaguin (1941) and by Jakubski (1965).

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 62-63]; CostaL1950 [taxonomy: 241]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 216]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 117-118]; Lindin1954 [taxonomy: 615]; Podtia1941 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 62-64]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20].



Margarodes greeni Brain

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes greeni Brain, 1915: 187. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Cape Province, Elsenberg, Stellenbosch, on roots of vines, October 1914, collected F.W. Pettey. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Coccionella greeni; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Change of combination.

Promargarodes greeni; Jakubski, 1965: 132. Change of combination.



HOST: Vitaceae: Vitis vinifera [Brain1915].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [Brain1915].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female and cyst by Jakubski (1965) and by De Klerk et al. (1982).

KEYS: De Klerk, Ben-Dov & Giliomee 1983: 139 (female, cysts) [South Africa].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 63]; Brain1915 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 187]; DeKlerBeGi1982 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 66-69]; DeKlerBeGi1983 [taxonomy, structure: 133-144]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 206]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 132-134]; Lindin1954 [taxonomy: 615]; Morris1928 [taxonomy: 77, 224]; WaltonKrSa2009 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-6]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20].



Margarodes morrisoni McDaniel

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes morrisoni McDaniel, 1965: 15. Type data: U.S.A.: Texas, Nueces County, Corpus Christi, on Stenotaphrum secundatum; collected 1963. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae: Stenotaphrum secundatum [McDani1965].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Texas [McDani1965]).

KEYS: McDaniel 1966: 239-240 (female) [North America]; McDaniel 1965: 22 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 63]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 206]; McDani1965 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 15-23]; McDani1966 [taxonomy: 240].



Margarodes newsteadi Brain

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes newsteadi Brain, 1915: 187. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Transvaal, Pretoria, on roots of grass, October 1914. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Promargarodes newsteadi; Jakubski, 1965: 137. Change of combination.



HOST: Poaceae [Brain1915].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [Brain1915].

BIOLOGY: Develop in South Africa on roots of grass (Brain, 1915).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female and cyst by Jakubski (1965) and by De Klerk et al. (1982a).

KEYS: De Klerk, Ben-Dov & Giliomee 1983: 139 (female) [South Africa].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 63-64]; Brain1915 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 187-188]; DeKlerBeGi1982a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 77-79]; DeKlerBeGi1983 [taxonomy, structure: 133-144]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 206]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 137-140]; Morris1928 [taxonomy: 77, 225]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20].



Margarodes papillosus Green

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes papillosus Green, 1912: 74. Type data: INDIA: Madras, Beilary District [=Tamil Nadu], "near egg-cocoons of Acridid grasshoppers". Syntypes, female and first instar. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female and first instar. Illust.

Dimargarodes papillosus; Silvestri, 1938a: 22. Change of combination.

Coccionella papillosa; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Change of combination.

Dimargarodes papillosus; Jakubski, 1965: 94. Revived combination.



HOST: Poaceae: Cynodon dactylon [Jakubs1965].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: India (Karnataka [Green1912], Tamil Nadu [Green1912]).

BIOLOGY: The original description was based on specimens collected "near egg-cocoons of Acridiid grasshoppers", but Green (1912) suggested that the association was accidental.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Green (1912) and by Jakubski (1965).

KEYS: Morrison 1928: 77-78 (female) [Species of Margarodes.].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 64]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 199]; Green1912 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 74-75]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 94-97]; Lindin1954 [taxonomy: 615]; Morris1928 [taxonomy: 77,78,225]; Sassce1915 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 27]; Silves1938a [taxonomy: 22]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 17-19]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 21].



Margarodes paulistus Silvestri

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes paulistus Silvestri, 1939a: 421. Type data: BRAZIL: Sao Paulo, Rio das Padras, near Campinas, on roots of undetermined grass. Syntypes, female and first instar. Type depository: Portici: Dipartimento de Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria di Portici, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Italy. Described: female and first instar.

Coccionella paulista; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Change of combination.

Dimargarodes paulistus; Jakubski, 1965: 105. Change of combination.



HOST: Poaceae [Silves1939a].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Sao Paulo [Silves1939]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Silvestri (1939a). Description of adult female and cyst by Jakubski (1965).

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 64-65]; Buchne1966 [life history, structure: 355]; CostaL1950 [taxonomy: 241]; Foldi1984b [taxonomy: 265]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 199]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 105-106]; Lindin1954 [taxonomy: 615]; MaricoZa1973 [host, distribution, taxonomy: 86-101]; Silves1939a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 421-423]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 21].



Margarodes peringueyi Brain

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes peringueyi Brain, 1915: 188. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Transvaal, Pretoria, on roots of grass, 1914. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Coccionella peringueyi; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Change of combination.

Promargarodes peringueyi; Jakubski, 1965: 134. Change of combination.



HOST: Poaceae [Brain1915].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [Brain1915].

BIOLOGY: Develops in South Africa on roots of grass (Brain, 1915).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female and cyst by Jakubski (1965) and by De Klerk et al. (1982a).

KEYS: De Klerk, Ben-Dov & Giliomee 1983: 139 (female) [South Africa].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 65]; Brain1915 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 188]; DeKlerBeGi1982a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 79-81]; DeKlerBeGi1983 [taxonomy, structure: 133-144]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 207]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 134-136]; Lindin1954 [taxonomy: 615]; Morris1928 [taxonomy: 77, 225]; Vahedi2002 [taxonomy, description: 274]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 21].



Margarodes perrisii Signoret

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes perrisii Signoret, 1876a: 381. Type data: FRANCE: Mont-de-Marsan, host plant not indicated, collected by Ed. Perris. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Vienna: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria. Described: female. Illust.

Margarodes (Porphyrophora) perrisi; Cockerell, 1902q: 258. Change of combination.

Margarodes perrisii; Fernald, 1903b: 29. Change of combination.

Coccionella perrisii; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Change of combination.

Coccionella perrisii; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Giard" as author.

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: France [Signor1876a].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 65]; Cocker1902q [taxonomy, distribution: 258]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 29]; Giard1894a [taxonomy: 412-414]; Green1912 [taxonomy, distribution: 65]; Lindin1907a [taxonomy: 20]; Lindin1912b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 307-308]; Lindin1954 [taxonomy: 615]; Morris1928 [taxonomy: 77, 78, 225]; Signor1876a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 381-382]; Silves1908 [taxonomy: 149]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 21].



Margarodes prieskaensis (Jakubski)

NOMENCLATURE:

Sphaeraspis prieskaensis Jakubski, 1965: 120. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Cape Province, Kakamas, from soil in vineyard, 1958, collected J.G. Theron. 1. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.



HOST: Vitaceae: Vitis vinifera [Jakubs1965].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [Jakubs1965].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female and cysts by Jakubski (1965) and by De Klerk et al. (1982). Description and illustration of adult male by Hodgson & Foldi (2006).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: A pest of grapevine in South Africa. Hexachlorobutadiene was applied with hand soil injector guns as well as on commercial scale in two established vineyards in South Africa at a rate of 12 ml per square meter, to control M. prieskaensis. Adult females as well as male pre-pupae and pupae were effectively controlled. Best results were obtained with an application after harvest during March. Although the cyst stage was not affected, applications during two consecutive years could effectively control the pest. Dichloropropene, aldicarb, fenamiphos, carbofuran and oxamyl were found to be ineffective in the control of M. prieskaensis (de Klerk, 1987). Cadusafos at 25 mL/m² gave excellent control of male pre-pupae. Pre-pupae, as well as adult females, were effectively controlled by dichloropropene at 15 mL/m², as well as by thiamethoxam at 2.4 mL/m² and 2.0 mL/m² and imidacloprid at 15 mL/m², 3.0 mL/m² and 1.5 mL/m². Contact and fumigant applications were made during March and April (beginning of leafdrop), and systemics during January (one month after harvest). (de Klerk, 2010)

KEYS: Hodgson & Foldi 2006: 94-95 (male) [Margarodidae males]; De Klerk, Ben-Dov & Giliomee 1983: 139 (female, cyst) [South Africa].

CITATIONS: Anonym2007 [taxonomy: 560-570]; BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue, economic importance: 66]; Buchne1966 [life history, structure: 347-349]; DeKler1987 [host, distribution, chemical control: 11-15]; DeKler2010 [chemical control: 160-164]; DeKlerBeGi1982 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 69-72]; DeKlerBeGi1983 [taxonomy, structure: 133-144]; DuToit1975 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 255-257]; Foldi1984b [taxonomy: 265]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 207]; HodgsoFo2006 [taxonomy, description, illustration, distribution: 70-76,95]; HodgsoHa2013 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 796]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 120-123]; SmithMcSc1997 [economic importance]; WaltonKrSa2009 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-6]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 21].



Margarodes rileyi Giard

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes formicarum; Giard, 1894b: 710. Misidentification; discovered by Giard, 1897a: 683.

Margarodes formicarum; Riley, 1895: 359. Misidentification; discovered by Giard, 1897a: 684.

Margarodes formicarum rileyi Giard, 1897a: 684. Type data: JAMAICA, USA (FLORIDA) AND BAHAMAS: host plant not indicated; Jamaica material collected by Riley; Florida material collected by W.T. Swingle. Syntypes, immature. Described: immature.

Margarodes rileyi; Cockerell, 1902q: 257. Change of combination and rank.

Coccionella rileyi; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Change of combination.

Margarodes rileyi; Jakubski, 1965: 155. Revived combination.

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Florida [Giard1897a, Jakubs1965, Kerr1957]). Neotropical: Bahamas [Giard1897a]; Jamaica [Giard1897a, Jakubs1965].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by McDaniel (1965). Description of adult female and cyst by Jakubski (1965).

KEYS: McDaniel 1966: 239 (female) [North America]; McDaniel 1965: 22 (female) [North America]; Morrison 1928: 77-78 (female) [Species of Margarodes.].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 66-67]; Buchne1966 [life history, structure: 356-357]; Cocker1902q [taxonomy, distribution: 257-258]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 29]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 207]; Frank1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 131-139]; Giard1894b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 710]; Giard1897a [taxonomy, description, distribution: 684]; Green1912 [taxonomy, distribution: 65]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 155-157]; Kerr1957 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance, chemical control: 3-4]; Lindin1954 [taxonomy: 615]; McDani1965 [taxonomy, description, illustration: 21-22]; McDani1966 [taxonomy: 239]; Morris1928 [taxonomy: 77, 78, 226]; Silves1908 [taxonomy: 149]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 21].



Margarodes ruber Brain

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes ruber Brain, 1915: 189. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Transvaal, Pretoria, on roots of grass, October 1914. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Coccionella rubra; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.

Promargarodes ruber; Jakubski, 1965: 136. Change of combination.



HOST: Poaceae [Brain1915].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [Brain1915].

BIOLOGY: Found in South Africa on roots of grass, together with Margarodes peringueyi (Brain, 1915).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female and cyst by Jakubski (1965) and by De Klerk et al. (1982a).

KEYS: De Klerk, Ben-Dov & Giliomee 1983: 139 (female) [South Africa].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 67]; Brain1915 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 189]; DeKlerBeGi1982a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 81-83]; DeKlerBeGi1983 [taxonomy, structure: 133-144]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 207]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 136-137]; Lindin1954 [taxonomy: 615]; Morris1928 [taxonomy: 77, 226]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 21].



Margarodes salisburiensis Hall

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes salisburiensis Hall, 1940: 491. Type data: ZIMBABWE [=RHODESIA]: Salisbury, Avondale, "in maize land, ? at roots of maize"; collected x.1931, by Le Fevre. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK; type no. 2968. Described: female. Illust.

Coccionella salisburyensis; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Change of combination.

Coccionella salisburyensis; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Misspelling of species name.

Sphaeraspis salisburiensis; Jakubski, 1965: 123. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Poaceae [Jakubs1965], Magennis [Jakubs1965], Pennisetum clandestinum [Coates1974], Saccharum officinarum [Coates1974], Zea mays [Hall1940, Coates1974].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Zimbabwe [Hall1940, Coates1974].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female, first instar and cyst by Coates Palgrave (1974).Description and illustration of adult female by Hall (1940). Decsription of adult female and cyst by Jakubski (1965).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Has been reported as pest of maize, sugar cane and pasture grass in Zimbabwe (Rhodesia) (Coates Palgrave, 1974).

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue, economic importance: 67-68]; Coates1974 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, economic importance: 1-8]; Foldi1984b [taxonomy: 265]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 207]; Hall1940 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 491-492]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 123-127]; Lindin1954 [taxonomy: 615]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 21].



Margarodes similis Morrison

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes similis Morrison, 1924a: 143. Type data: GALAPAGOS ISLANDS: Symour Bay, Indefatigable, on rootlets of Maytenus. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Coccionella similis; Lindinger, 1954: 165. Change of combination.

Margarodes similis; Jakubski, 1965: 165. Revived combination.



FOE: COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Rodolia cardinalis [KondoGuPo2012].

HOSTS: Burseraceae: Bursera [Morris1924a], Bursera malacophylla [LincanHoCa2010]. Celastraceae: Maytenus [Morris1924a], Maytenus octogona [LincanHoCa2010]. Goodeniaceae: Scaevola plumieri [LincanHoCa2010].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Galapagos Islands [Morris1924a, Jakubs1965, LincanHoCa2010].

BIOLOGY: Found on roots of Maytenus sp. (Jakubski, 1965).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Morrison (1924a) and by Jakubski (1965).

KEYS: Morrison 1928: 77-78 (female) [Species of Margarodes.].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 68]; Foldi1984b [taxonomy: 265]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 207]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 165]; KondoGuPo2012 [biological control: 13]; LincanHoCa2010 [host, distribution: 6]; Lindin1954 [taxonomy: 615]; Morris1924a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 143-145]; Morris1928 [taxonomy: 77,78,226]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 21].



Margarodes sinensis (Silvestri)

NOMENCLATURE:

Promargarodes sinensis Silvestri, 1938a: 22. Type data: CHINA: Peitao (Foochow, Fukien), Peikuan (Foochow) and Kiukaw (Hankow), host plant not specified; collected 1924-1925 by F. Silvestri. Lectotype female and first instar, by subsequent designation Foldi, 2005a: 100. Type depository: Portici: Dipartimento de Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria di Portici, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Italy. Described: female and first instar. Illust.

Margarodes sinensis; Ben-Dov, 2005a: 68. Change of combination.



HOST: Poaceae [TangHa1995].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: China (Fujian (=Fukien) [Silves1938a], Hubei (=Hupei) [TangHa1995]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Silvestri (1938a), Jakubski (1995), Tang & Hao (1995) and by Foldi (2005a).

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 68]; Buchne1966 [life history, structure: 339]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 439]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 215]; Foldi2005a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 100-102]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, illustration, distribution: 140-141]; Silves1938a [taxonomy, description, illustration, distribution: 21-27]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 25-26,545,671]; Vahedi2002 [taxonomy, description: 272-274]; WilliaWa1990 [taxonomy: 29]; Yang1982 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 25-26]; YuPeZh2006 [host, distribution, life history: 9-11].



Margarodes trimeni Giard

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes trimeni Giard, 1897a: 684. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Cape Province, near Ceres, near termite nest and on roots of grass; collected C.P. Lounsbury. Syntypes, female and first instar. Described: female and first instar. Notes: Type material probably lost.

Coccionella trimeni; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Change of combination.

Margarodes trimeni; Jakubski, 1965: 157. Revived combination.



HOST: Poaceae [Giard1897a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [Brain1915].

BIOLOGY: The actual host plant in South Africa is unknown; the cysts were found in or near termite nests in south-west of the Cape Province (Brain, 1915; Jakubski, 1965).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female and cyst by Jakubski (1965) and by De Klerk et al. (1982).

KEYS: De Klerk, Ben-Dov & Giliomee 1983: 139 (female, cyst) [South Africa]; Morrison 1928: 77-78 (female) [Species of Margarodes.].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 69]; Brain1915 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 190]; Cocker1902q [taxonomy, distribution: 258]; DeKlerBeGi1982 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 72-76]; DeKlerBeGi1983 [taxonomy, structure: 133-144]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 29]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 207]; Giard1897a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 684-685]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 157-159]; Lindin1954 [taxonomy: 615]; Morris1928 [taxonomy: 77, 78, 227]; Silves1908 [taxonomy: 149]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 21].



Margarodes upingtonensis De Klerk

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes upingtonensis De Klerk, 1983: 85. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Cape Province, Upington, on roots of kikuyu grass; January 1974, by A. Calitz. Holotype female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa; type no. MD 10/1. Described: female and first instar. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae: Cynodon dactylon [DeKler1983].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [DeKler1983].

KEYS: De Klerk, Ben-Dov & Giliomee 1983: 139 (female, cyst) [South Africa].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 69]; DeKler1983 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 85-88]; DeKlerBeGi1983 [taxonomy, structure: 133-144]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 207]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 21].



Margarodes vitis (Philippi)

NOMENCLATURE:

Heterodera vitis Philippi, 1884: 226. Type data: CHILE: Pichidehua, Viluco and Nos, on roots of grapevine. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Notes: Depository of type material unknown.

Margarodes vitium Giard, 1894: 126. Type data: CHILE: near Santiago, on roots of grapevine. Syntypes, immature. Described: immature. Synonymy by Jakubski, 1965: 111. Notes: Depository of type material unknown (D. Matile-Ferrero, 1999, in correspondence to Yair Ben-Dov).

Margarodes trilobitum Reed, 1895: 86. Type data: CHILE: Quillota and Canquenes Baths, on roots of grapevine. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Synonymy by Morrison, 1928: 227. Notes: Depository of type material unknown.

Margarodes (Sphaeraspis) vitium; Cockerell, 1902q: 258. Change of combination.

Margarodes vitium; Costa Lima, 1924: 135. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Giard" as author.

Margarodes vitium orientalis Silvestri, 1939: 641. Type data: ARGENTINA, URUGUAY and BRAZIL: on grapevine. Syntypes. Described: female. Synonymy by Williams & Foldi, 2005: 21.

Margarodes vitium; Schmutterer et al., 1957: 421. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Giard" as author.

Sphaeraspis vitis; Jakubski, 1965: 111. Change of combination.

Margarodes vitium; Foldi, 1984b: 265. Misspelling of species name.

Margarodes orientalis; Williams & Foldi, 2005: 21. Change of combination and rank.

COMMON NAMES: grape ground pearl; Margarodes del la vid [Gonzal1989].



HOSTS: Cactaceae: Opuntia [Gonzal1989]. Malvaceae: Coletia spinosissima [Gonzal1989]. Vitaceae: Vitis vinifera [Reed1895, Gonzal1983RH, Gonzal1989, FoldiSo1989].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina (Buenos Aires [Jakubs1965, CABI2000a], Corrientes [Jakubs1965, CABI2000a], Entre Rios [Giard1897a, Jakubs1965, CABI2000a], La Rioja [Jakubs1965, CABI2000a], Mendoza [Jakubs1965, CABI2000a], Misiones [Jakubs1965, CABI2000a], Rio Negro [Jakubs1965, CABI2000a], San Juan [Jakubs1965]); Brazil [Jakubs1965] (Rio Grande do Sul [Jakubs1965], Santa Catarina [Jakubs1965]); Chile [Reed1895, Giard1897a, Gonzal1989, Jakubs1965] (Santiago [Reed1895, Jakubs1965]); Paraguay [Jakubs1965]; Uruguay [Jakubs1965]; Venezuela [Jakubs1965].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Philippi (1884), Jakubski (1965), Gonzalez (1983, 1989) and by Foldi (2005a). Description and illustration of adult female and cyst stage by Foldi & Soria (1989).

STRUCTURE: Colour photograph by Gonzalez (1983).

SYSTEMATICS: Margarodes vitis (Philippi, 1884) was first described as Heterodera vitis in Nematoda. Giard (1894) first recognized that it was a scale insect, and named it Margarodes vitium n. sp., Giard, which is a junior synonym of Margarodes vitis (Philippi, 1884).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: A pest of grapevine in Argentine, Chile, Uruguay and Venezuela (Olalquiaga Faure & Contesse Pinto, 1959; Gonzalez, 1983).

KEYS: Morrison 1928: 77-78 (female) [Species of Margarodes.].

CITATIONS: Anonym2007 [taxonomy: 560-570]; BarnesWaMa1969 [host, distribution, life history: 1032-1035]; Belloc1896 [host, distribution, economic importance: lxxvii]; BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue, economic importance: 69-70]; Brione1895 [chemistry: cxxv]; Buchne1966 [life history, structure: 340-346]; CABI2000a [host, distribution: 1-2]; CamposSa1983 [host, distribution, economic importance: 9]; Cocker1902q [catalogue: 258]; CostaL1924 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 135]; CostaL1950 [taxonomy: 241]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 30]; Foldi1984b [taxonomy: 265]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 216]; Foldi2005a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 99-100]; FoldiSo1989 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 418-421]; Galet1982 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1314]; Giard1894 [taxonomy, description: 126]; Giard1894a [taxonomy, life history: 412-414]; Giard1897a [host, distribution: 685]; GiardBu1895 [chemistry: 2]; Gonzal1983RH [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history, economic importance, chemical control: 27-35]; Gonzal1989 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 108-109]; Green1912 [taxonomy, distribution: 65]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 111-116]; Koszta1987 [life history: 216]; Latast1894b [host, distribution: ccxiv-ccxix]; Latast1895b [host, distribution, economic importance: cxxxvi-cxxxviii]; Latast1897 [taxonomy, description: 99-102]; Lizery1939 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 174]; Marcha1922 [taxonomy: 1092]; MaricoZa1973 [host, distribution, taxonomy: 86-101]; Mayet1897 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 241-259]; MirandOl1955 [host, distribution, economic importance: 121-123]; Morris1928 [taxonomy: 77,78,227]; MorrisMo1923 [taxonomy: 44]; OlalquCo1959 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history: 74-75]; Philip1884 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 225-228]; PicardBa1939 [host, distribution, economic importance : 118-120]; Porter1917 [host, distribution: 33-37]; Porter1935 [host, distribution, taxonomy: 323-335]; Reed1895 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 85-86]; SchmutKlLu1957 [host, distribution, economic importance: 421]; Silves1908 [taxonomy: 149]; Silves1939 [taxonomy, dsecription, host, distribution: 641]; SmithMcSc1997 [economic importance]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20,21].



Margarodes vredendalensis De Klerk

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes vredendalensis De Klerk, 1980: 47. Nomen nudum; discovered by De Klerk, 1983: 85.

Margarodes vredendalensis De Klerk, 1983: 88. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Cape Province, Vredendal, on roots of grapevine; February 1975, by C.A. de Klerk. Holotype female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa; type no. MD 3/1. Described: female and first instar. Illust.



HOST: Vitaceae: Vitis vinifera [DeKler1983].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [DeKler1983].

KEYS: De Klerk, Ben-Dov & Giliomee 1983: 139 (female, cyst) [South Africa].

CITATIONS: Anonym2007 [taxonomy: 560-570]; BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 71]; DeKler1980 [taxonomy, life history: 47-58]; DeKler1983 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 88-92]; DeKlerBeGi1983 [taxonomy, structure: 133-144]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 207]; SmithMcSc1997 [economic importance]; WaltonKrSa2009 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-6]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 21].



Margarodes williamsi (Jakubski)

NOMENCLATURE:

Promargarodes williamsi Jakubski, 1965: 144. Type data: GHANA: locality not specified, in soil, 26.iii1954, W. Belfield. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Margarodes williamsi; Ben-Dov, 2005a: 71. Change of combination.

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Ghana [Jakubs1965].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description of adult female and nymphs by Jakubski (1965).

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 71]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 215]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, distribution: 144-146].



Margarodesia Foldi

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodesia Foldi, 1981: 331.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters (adult female and cyst) by Foldi (1981, 2005a).

SYSTEMATICS: This genus is distinguished (in adult female and cyst) in possessing only two pairs of abdominal spiracles. Foldi (1981) suggested that it might be placed between Porphyrophora, in having no abdominal spiracles, and Eumargarodes, which has three pairs of abdominal spiracles.

KEYS: Foldi 2005a: 121 (female) [genera of Margarodidae].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005 [p. 71]; Foldi1981 [taxonomy, description: 331-335]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 207]; Foldi2005a [taxonomy, description, illustration: 101-106].



Margarodesia desmieri Foldi

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodesia desmieri Foldi, 1981: 332. Type data: COTE-d'IVOIRE: Dabou, on roots of Elaeis guineensis; collected February 1981 by R. Desmier de Chenon. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female and first instar. Illust.



HOST: Arecaceae: Elaeis guineensis [Foldi1981].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Côte d'Ivoire (=Ivory Coast) [Foldi1981].

BIOLOGY: Occurs on roots of the palm Elaeis guineensis (Foldi, 1981).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female and cyst stage by Foldi (1981, 2005a).

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 71-72]; Foldi1981 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 331-335]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 207]; Foldi2005a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 102-106].



Neomargarodes Green

NOMENCLATURE:

Neomargarodes Green, 1914a: 263.

Margarodiella Jakubski, 1965: 81. Nomen nudum; discovered by Jakubski, 1965: 81. Notes: The generic name Margarodiella was published by Jakubski (1965) in the combination Margarodiella pilosa Brain.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by Morrison (1928), Borchsenius (1950b), Jakubski (1965), Tang & Hao (1995) and by Foldi (1999, 2005a).

SYSTEMATICS: This genus was established and described from the adult male only. It is mainly distinguished in that segments 4,5 and 6 (of the seven-segmented antenna) each bears a lateral branch, that is longer than segment 7 (Foldi, 1999). Morrison (1928) assigned this genus to the tribe Margarodini. Jakubski (1965) placed it in a subfamily Neomargarodinae. Williams (1969a) commented that the subfamily ranking for this taxon was too high. Hodgson & Foldi (2006) described the male of the type species and commented that it is very different from othe Margarodidae males described by them.

KEYS: Foldi 2005a: 121 (female) [genera of Margarodidae]; Vahedi 2002: 277-278 (female) [Genera of hypogaeic margarodids]; Tang 2000: 4 (female) [China and neighbouring countries]; Tang & Hao 1995: 27 (female) [Margarodidae]; Kosztarab & Kozar 1988F: 47 (female) [central Europe]; Yang 1982: 18-19 (female) [China]; Kosztarab & Kozar 1978: 16 (female) [Hungary]; Borchsenius 1950b: 32 (female) [Genera of USSR]; Morrison 1928: 72 (female, larva, male) [Margarodidae].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, catalogue: 73-74]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy: 32,36]; Foldi1997a [taxonomy: 192]; Foldi1999 [taxonomy: 319-320]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 211]; Foldi2005a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 106-109]; Green1914a [taxonomy, description: 263]; Hadzib1983 [taxonomy: 693]; HodgsoFo2006 [taxonomy: 82]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description: 57-61]; KosztaKo1978 [taxonomy, description: 17-18]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description: 47, 49]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 190]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description: 93]; Marcha1922 [taxonomy: 1091-1096]; MkrtchSa2001 [structure, taxonomy: 167-168]; Morris1928 [taxonomy, description: 12-15, 26, 72-82, 21]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy: 131]; PicardBa1939 [taxonomy: 118]; Sassce1915 [taxonomy: 27]; Tang2000 [taxonomy, description: 1-5]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 27-30]; Tao1999 [taxonomy: 5]; Vahedi2002 [taxonomy, description: 271-272]; Vahedi2008a [taxonomy, life history: 73]; Yang1982 [taxonomy: 19, 23]; Zahrad1959a [taxonomy: 534].



Neomargarodes aethiopicus Silvestri

NOMENCLATURE:

Neomargarodes aethiopicus Silvestri, 1938: 41. Type data: ERITREA: Achele Guzzai, host plant not specified. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Portici: Dipartimento de Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria di Portici, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Italy. Described: female. Illust.

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Eritrea [Silves1938, Jakubs1965].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Silvestri (1938) and by Jakubski (1965).

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 74]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 211]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, distribution: 78-79]; Silves1938 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 41-43].



Neomargarodes aristidae Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Neomargarodes trabuti; Archangelskaya, 1935: 28, 32. Misidentification; discovered by Borchsenius, 1949b: 335.

Neomargarodes aristidae Borchsenius, 1949b: 335. Type data: TURKMENISTAN: near Repetek, on roots of Aristida; 1928, collected A. Archangelskaya. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female.

Neomargarodes balachowskyi Jakubski, 1965: 70. Type data: LIBYA: Fezzan, on Aristida pungens, 20.v.1949, collected A.S. Balachowsky. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Synonymy by Jashenko, 1999: 43.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Aristida [Borchs1949b], Aristida pennata [Borchs1950b], Aristida pungens [Jakubs1965].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Algeria [Jakubs1965]; Kazakhstan [Jashen1999]; Libya [Jakubs1965]; Turkmenistan [Borchs1950b]; Uzbekistan [Jashen1999].

BIOLOGY: Jakubski (1965) recorded this species from collars of the grass, Aristida pungens in Algeria and Libya. In Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan females emerge in first half of June (Jashenko, 1999).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Borchsenius (1949b, 1950b) and by Jakubski (1965).

KEYS: Tang 2000: 4 (female) [China and neighbouring countries]; Tang & Hao 1995: 29-30, 602-603 (female) [Palaearctic]; Borchsenius 1950b: 37 (female) [USSR].

CITATIONS: Archan1935 [life history: 32-33]; BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 74]; Borchs1949b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 335]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 36-37]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 431]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 211]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 70-73,77-78]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 43,44]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 44]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 30-31].



Neomargarodes chondrillae Archangelskaya

NOMENCLATURE:

Neomargarodes chondrillae Archangelskaya, 1935: 24. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: Akeer-Tube, near Turkestan-Siberian railway, on roots of Chondrilla brevirostris; collected by K. Roudakoff, summer 1930. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female and first instar. Illust.

Neomargarodes gossypii Yang, C.K., 1979: 37, 46. Type data: CHINA: Henan, Hebei and Shandong, on cultivated cotton. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Beijing: Institute of Entomology, Academy of Sciences, China. Described: female. Synonymy by Tang & Hao, 1995: 31.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Chondrilla brevirostris [Archan1935]. Malvaceae: Gossypium hirsutum [Yang1979, TangHa1995].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China (Hebei (=Hopei) [TangHa1995], Henan (=Honan) [TangHa1995], Shandong (=Shantung) [TangHa1995]); Kazakhstan [Archan1935, Jakubs1965].

BIOLOGY: Develops on the roots of Chondrilla brevirostris (Archangelskaya, 1935). A monovoltine species, adults emerge at June - July (Jashenko, 1999).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Archangelskaya (1935), Borchsenius (1950b), Jakubski (1965), Yang (1979), Tang & Hao (1995) and by Tang (2000).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Found (as Neomargarodes gossypii Yang) on cultivated cotton, Gossypium hirsutum in China (Yang, 1979).

KEYS: Tang 2000: 4 (female) [China and neighbouring countries]; Tang & Hao 1995: 29-30, 602-603 (female) [Palearctic]; Borchsenius 1950b: 37 (female) [USSR].

CITATIONS: Archan1935 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 24-26]; BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue, economic importance: 75]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 37]; Caresc1973 [life history, biological control: 127-133]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 431]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 432]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 211]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 74-76]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 45]; Kovale1973 [host, distribution, biological control: 166-172]; Tang2000 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 1-5]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 31-32,545-546,672]; Yang1979 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 37-41,46-47].



Neomargarodes cucurbitae Tang & Hao

NOMENCLATURE:

Neomargarodes cucurbitae Tang & Hao, 1995: 33. Type data: CHINA: Xinjiang Autonomous Region, Hami, on roots of Cucurbita melo, v. 1987, collected by Su Junmin. Holotype female. Type depository: Shanxi: Entomological Institute, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, China. Described: female. Illust.

Neomargarodes cucurbitae Tang, 2000: 3. Type data: CHINA: Xinjiang, Hami, on roots of Cucurbita melo; collected May 1987, by Su Jun. Holotype female. Type depository: Shanxi: Entomological Institute, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, China. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Ben-Dov, 2005a: 75. Homonym of Neomargarodes cucurbitae Tang & Hao, 1995.



HOST: Cucurbitaceae: Cucurbita melo [TangHa1995, Tang2000].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China (Xingiang Uygur (=Sinkiang) [TangHa1995, Tang2000]).

BIOLOGY: Found in China, Xinjiang, on roots of cucumbers, Cucurbita melo (Tang & Hao, 1995).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Tang & Hao (1995) and by Tang (2000).

SYSTEMATICS: The collection data of Neomargarodes cucurbitae Tang, 2000 is identical to that of (N. cucurbitae Tang & Hao, 1995.

KEYS: Tang 2000: 4 (female) [China and neighbouring countries]; Tang & Hao 1995: 29-39, 602-603 (female) [Palearctic].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [pp. 75-76]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 211]; Tang2000 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 1-5]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 33, 546-547, 673].



Neomargarodes erythrocephalus Green

NOMENCLATURE:

Neomargarodes erythrocephalus Green, 1914a: 263. Type data: ALGERIA: Sahara, El Meksa, South of El Golea, males collected by light trap, 2.iv.1913, J.O. Harter. Lectotype male, by subsequent designation Foldi, 1999a: 323. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: male.

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Sudan [Balach1935c]; Yemen [FoldiVa2004]. Palaearctic: Algeria [Green1914a, Jakubs1965, Foldi1999]; Western Sahara [Rungs1942].

BIOLOGY: This species is only known from the adult males, collected by light trap in Algeria (Green, 1914a; Foldi, 1999) as well from light-trap captures in Sudan (Balachowsky, 1935c).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult male by Green (1914a), Jakubski (1965), Foldi (1999, 2005a) and by Hodgson & Foldi (2006).

STRUCTURE: SEM micrographs of several structures of the adult male given by Foldi (1999).

CITATIONS: Balach1935c [host, distribution: 284-285]; BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 76]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 431]; Foldi1999 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 320-323]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 211]; Foldi2005a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 107-109]; FoldiVa2004 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 81]; Green1914a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 263-264]; HodgsoFo2006 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 82-88]; HodgsoHa2013 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 796]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 61-62]; Lindin1936 [taxonomy: 161]; Morris1928 [taxonomy: 78]; Rungs1942 [distribution: 110]; Sassce1915 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 27].



Neomargarodes europaeus Goidanich

NOMENCLATURE:

Neomargarodes sp. n. Goidanich, 1963: 237. Nomen nudum; discovered by Goidanich, 1977: 273.

Neomargarodes europaeus Goidanich, 1969: 103,141,157,166. Type data: ITALY: Sicily, Province of Trapani, Alcamo, on roots of Cynodon dactylon. Syntypes, female, male and first instar. Described: female, male and first instar. Illust. Notes: Depository of type series unknown (Imre Foldi, personal communication to Yair Ben-Dov, 1998).

Neomargarodes siculus Goidanich, 1972: 233. Type data: ITALY: Apparently Sicily, on roots of Cynodon dactylon. Syntypes, female, male and first instar. Described: female, male and first instar. Illust. Synonymy by Goidanich, 1977: 279.

Neomargarodes europeus; Foldi, 1999: 326. Misspelling of species name.



HOST: Poaceae: Cynodon dactylon [Goidan1977, Foldi2000].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: France [Foldi2000]; Italy [BarbagBiBo1995, Pelliz2010]; Sicily [Goidan1977].

CITATIONS: BarbagBiBo1995 [distribution: 39]; BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 76-77]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 431]; Foldi1999 [structure, taxonomy: 326]; Foldi2000 [host, distribution: 77]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 211]; Goidan1963 [taxonomy: 237]; Goidan1972 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 233-234]; Goidan1977 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 269-323]; Pelliz2010 [host, distribution: 90]; Trembl1988a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 207].



Neomargarodes festucae Archangelskaya

NOMENCLATURE:

Neomargarodes festucae Archangelskaya, 1935: 21. Type data: UKRAINE: Odessa district, Kryzhanowka, on roots of Festuca ovina and F. sulcata; collected by A.N. Kiritchenko. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female, male and first instar. Illust.

Neomargarodes borchsenii Hadzibejli, 1959: 61. Type data: REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA: Benera (5.v.1950), near Tbilisi (26.v.1948), Tbilisi, Botanical Gardens (8.iv.1949), Shiraki (28.iv.1957), near Tbilisi (21.vii.1959) on roots of Festuca sulcata. Syntypes, female, male and first instar. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female, male and first instar. Illust. Synonymy by Jashenko, 1999: 43.

COMMON NAME: grass pearl scale [KosztaKo1988F].



HOSTS: Poaceae: Agropyrum cristatum [Jakubs1965], Dactylis [KosztaKo1988F], Festuca ovina [Archan1935, KaydanKiKo2005a, KaydanUlEr2007], Festuca sulcata [Archan1935, Hadzib1959, Hadzib1966], Festuca vaginata [KosztaKo1978, KosztaKo1988F], Koeleria gracilis [Jakubs1965], Koeleria vallesiana [MatilePe2002], Stipa capillata [Jakubs1965].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Czech Republic [Jakubs1965]; France [Jakubs1965, Foldi2001]; Georgia [Hadzib1966, Hadzib1983]; Hungary [KosztaKo1978, KosztaKo1988F, KozarKiSa2004]; Italy [MatilePe2002]; Poland [Jakubs1965]; Turkey [KaydanKiKo2005a, KaydanUlEr2007]; Ukraine (Odessa Oblast [Archan1935]).

BIOLOGY: Develops on roots of grasses, such as Festuca ovina and F. sulcata (Archangelskaya, 1935, Hadzibejli, 1959, 1966). Adults emerge in June - July (Jashenko, 1999).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Archangelskaya (1935), Borchsenius (1950b), Jakubski (1965), Kosztarab & Kozar (1978, 1988) and by Foldi (2005a). Description and illustration of adult female, adult male, first instar nymph, and second instar nymph by Hadzibejli (1966).

SYSTEMATICS: Jakubski (1965: 64) suggested that Neomargarodes festucae is probably a synonym of Coccus phalaridis Linnaeus, 1758, but refrained from resurrecting Coccus phalaridis as the senior synonym. However, Coccus phalaridis is currently accepted (see Fernald, 1903b: 326) as an unrecognizable species of Coccus in the Coccidae. Jakubski (1965: 64) also suggested that Neomargarodes festucae is a synonym of Coccus radicum graminis Boyer de Fonscolombe, 1834. However, the latter is the senior synonym Lecanopsis radicumgraminis Boyer de Fonscolombe, 1834, in the Coccidae.

KEYS: Tang 2000: 4 (female) [China and neighbouring countries]; Tang & Hao 1995: 29-30, 602-603 (female) [Palearctic]; Kosztarab & Kozar 1988F: 47 (female) [Central Europe]; Borchsenius 1950b: 36 (female) [USSR].

CITATIONS: Archan1935 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 21-24,33]; BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 77-78]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 36]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 431]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 431-432]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 211]; Foldi2005a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 109-111]; Gavril2004 [host, distribution: 523]; Hadzib1957a [host, distribution: 100-102]; Hadzib1959 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 61-65]; Hadzib1966 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 693-702]; Hadzib1983 [host, distribution: 266]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 64-67]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 43-44]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 45]; KaydanKiKo2005a [host, distribution: 400]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 98]; KosztaKo1978 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 17]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 50]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 56]; KozarKoFe2013 [distribution, taxonomy: 56]; Lindin1936 [taxonomy: 161]; MatilePe2002 [host, distribution: 350]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 33-35]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20].



Neomargarodes hyparrheniae Hall

NOMENCLATURE:

Neomargarodes hyparrheniae Hall, 1940: 492. Type data: ZIMBABWE: Inyazura, El Dorado and Banket, on roots of Hyparrhenia filipendula; 10 & 29 March 1928, 24 April 1929. Syntypes, female and first instar. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female and first instar.



HOST: Poaceae: Hyparrhenia filipendula [Hall1940, Jakubs1965].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Zimbabwe [Hall1940, Jakubs1965].

BIOLOGY: Found on roots of Hyparrhenia filipendula. Cysts were found in March-April, females emerged in September (Hall, 1940; Jakubski, 1965).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Hall (1940) and by Jakubski (1965).

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 78]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 211]; Hall1940 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 492-494]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history: 73-74].



Neomargarodes niger (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes niger Green, 1912: 75. Type data: INDIA: Madras [=Tamil Nadu], Bellary District, in soil associated with egg-cocoons of grasshoppers. Syntypes, immature. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: immature.

Neomargarodes niger; Morrison, 1928: 77. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Fabaceae: Alhagi camelorum [Jakubs1965], Arachis hypogaea [HouSuZh1986, LiLiRe2001]. Poaceae [Ferris1950], Cynodon dactylon [Jakubs1965].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: China (Yunnan [Ferris1950]); India (Mizoram [Jakubs1965], Tamil Nadu [Green1912]); Pakistan [Jakubs1965]. Palaearctic: China (Henan (=Honan) [HouSuZh1986, LiLiRe2001]).

GENERAL REMARKS: The original description (Green, 1912) was based on cysts only. Jakubski (1965) also described the nymph and adult female, apparently based on new records from India.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Recorded as a serious pest of groundnuts, Arachis hypogaea in Henan, China (Hou et al., 1986).

KEYS: Tang 2000: 4 (female) [China and neighbouring countries]; Tang & Hao 1995: 29-30, 602-603 (female) [Palearctic]; Morrison 1928: 82 (female) [Species of Neomargarodes.].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue, economic importance: 78-79]; Ferris1950 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 11]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 211]; Green1912 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 75-76]; HouSuZh1986 [economic importance, host, distribution, life history, chemical control, ecology: 2-4]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 62-64]; LiLiRe2001 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history, chemical control: 18-19]; Morris1928 [taxonomy: 77-82,225]; Sassce1915 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 27]; Silves1938 [taxonomy: 43]; Srivas1964 [host, distribution, economic importance: 83-91]; Tang2000 [taxonomy: 1, 4]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 35-37]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 21]; Yang1982 [taxonomy: 23].



Neomargarodes pilosus Jakubski

NOMENCLATURE:

Neomargarodes pilosus Jakubski, 1965: 79. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Locality not specified, "in ground with locust egg-pods"; collected C.P. Lounsbury, May 1917. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Margarodiella pilosa Jakubski, 1965: 81. Nomen nudum; discovered by Jakubski, 1965: 81. Notes: Name presented by Jakubski (1965) as "Margarodiella pilosa Brain".

Margarodes pilosus; De Klerk, Ben-Dov & Giliomee, 1983: 139. Change of combination.

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [Jakubs1965].

BIOLOGY: Found in ground with locust egg-pods (Jakubski, 1965).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Jakubski (1965).

KEYS: De Klerk, Ben-Dov & Giliomee 1983: 139 (female) [South Africa].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 79]; DeKlerBeGi1983 [taxonomy, structure: 133-144]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 211]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 79-81].



Neomargarodes polygonis Jashenko

NOMENCLATURE:

Neomargarodes polygonis Jashenko, 1997: 9. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: South Kazakhstan, 41 km north-west of Kzylorda city, on roots of Polygonum ovicularae, 16.v.1990, coll. R. Jashenko. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. N.8171. Described: both sexes. Illust.

Neomargarodes poligonis; Jashenko, 1999: 45. Misspelling of species name.



HOST: Polygonaceae: Polygonum ovicularae [Jashen1997].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kazakhstan [Jashen1997].

BIOLOGY: Lives on roots of Polygonum ovicularae; cysts were found 3-5 cm below soil surface (Jashenko, 1997). Adults emerge at the beginning of June (Jashenko, 1999).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female and adult male by Jashenko (1997).

STRUCTURE: Cysts have weakly chitinised covers of yellow-brown colour (Jashenko, 1997).

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 79]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 212]; Jashen1997 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 9-11]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 45].



Neomargarodes ramosus Jashenko

NOMENCLATURE:

Neomargarodes ramosus Jashenko, 1989b: 14. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: Semipalatinsk Oblast, 30 km from Ayaguza, in dry, grass steppe, 30.vi.1986. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 7310/1. Described: female. Illust.



FOE: LEPIDOPTERA Noctuidae: Porphyrinia pallidula [Jashen1999b].

HOSTS: Poaceae: Agropyron pectiniforme [Jashen1999], Agropyron sibiricum [Jashen1999], Elymus angustatus [Jashen1999], Elymus giganteus [Jashen1999], Stipa kirghisorum [Jashen1999], Stipa lessingiana [Jashen1999], Stipa sareptana [Jashen1999].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kazakhstan (Semipaltinsk Oblast [Jashen1989b]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Jashenko (1989b).

KEYS: Tang 2000: 4 (female) [China and neighbouring countries]; Tang & Hao 1995: 29-30, 602-603 (female) [Palearctic].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 80]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 211]; Jashen1989b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 14-17]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history, biological control: 45, 47]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 37-39].



Neomargarodes rutae Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Neomargarodes erythrocephala; Archangelskaya, 1935: 31. Misidentification; discovered by Borchsenius, 1949b: 335.

Neomargarodes rutae Borchsenius, 1949b: 335. Type data: UZBEKISTAN: Vicinity of Samarkand, Chupan-Ata, on roots of Ruta; collected 26.vi.1928, by A.N. Archangelskaya. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Rutaceae: Ruta [Borchs1949b], Ruta hirsuta [Borchs1950b].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Uzbekistan (Samarkand Oblast [Borchs1949b, Borchs1950b]).

BIOLOGY: Collected in Uzbekistan from roots of Ruta hirsuta (Borchsenius, 1949b). Females emerge June-July (Jashenko, 1999).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Borchsenius (1949b, 1950b), Jakubski (1965) and by Tang & Hao (1995).

KEYS: Hodgson & Foldi 2006: 94-95 (male) [Margarodidae males]; Tang 2000: 4 (female) [China and neighbouring countries]; Tang & Hao 1995: 29-30, 602-603 (female) [Palearctic]; Borchsenius 1950b: 37 (female) [USSR].

CITATIONS: Archan1935 [life history, taxonomy: 31-32]; BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 80]; Borchs1949b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 335-336]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 37]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 432]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 212]; HodgsoFo2006 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 82-88,95]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 76]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 44]; Koteja1996a [taxonomy, illustration, description: 74]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 550]; Morris1928 [taxonomy: 81,223]; Sassce1915 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 27]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 29-30,39]; Vahedi2002 [taxonomy, description: 271-272].



Neomargarodes setosus Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Neomargarodes setosus Borchsenius, 1949b: 336. Type data: REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA: Gorisky District, vicinity of Akhal-Khiza, on roots of Festuca; collected 18.vii.1934, by N.S. Borchsenius. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Aristella bromoides [Hadzib1966], Diplachne bulgarica [Hadzib1966], Festuca [Borchs1949b], Festuca sulcata [Hadzib1966], Stipa [Hadzib1966], Stipa kirghisorum [Jashen1999].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Georgia [Borchs1949b, Hadzib1966, Hadzib1983].

BIOLOGY: Adult males and females emerge in July (Jashenko, 1999).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Borchsenius (1949b, 1950b), Jakubski (1965) and by Tang & Hao (1995). Description and illustration of adult female, adult male and first instar nymph by Hadzibejli (1966).

KEYS: Tang 2000: 4 (female) [China and neighbouring countries]; Tang & Hao 1995: 29-30, 602-603 (female) [Palearctic]; Borchsenius 1950b: 36 (female) [USSR].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 81]; Borchs1949b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 336]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 36]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 432]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 212]; Hadzib1966 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 703-706]; Hadzib1983 [host, distribution: 266]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 77]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 45]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 29-30,39-40].



Neomargarodes trabuti Marchal

NOMENCLATURE:

Neomargarodes trabuti Marchal, 1922: 1092. Type data: ALGERIA: South Algeria, El-Arfiane, near Tougourt, on Limoniastrum guyonianum; M. Bois & Trabut. Syntypes, male. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: male.



HOST: Limoniaceae: Limoniastrum guyonianum [Marcha1922, Vayssi1927, Jakubs1965].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Algeria [Marcha1922, Jakubs1965]; Tunisia [Vayssi1927, Jakubs1965].

BIOLOGY: Collected from subterranean parts of Limoniastrum guyonianum in Algeria (Marchal, 1922) and Tunisia (Vayssière, 1927).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female, adult male and nymph by Morrison (1928). Description and illustration of adult male by Marchal (1922).

KEYS: Tang 2000: 4 (female) [China and neighbouring countries]; Tang & Hao 1995: 29-30, 602-603 (female) [Palearctic]; Morrison 1928: 82 (female) [Species of Neomargarodes.].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 81]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 432]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 212]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 67-70]; Lindin1936 [taxonomy: 161]; Marcha1922 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 1091-1096]; Morris1928 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 78-82,227]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 40-42]; Vayssi1927 [host, distribution: 107].



Neomargarodes triodonotus Jashenko

NOMENCLATURE:

Neomargarodes triodonotus Jashenko, 1989b: 17. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: Kzyl Orda Oblast, 20 km from Yan-Kurgana, in dry, grass steppe, 26.5.1967, collected G. Matesova. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 2484/1. Described: female. Illust.

Neomargarodes triodontus; Tang & Hao, 1995: 42. Misspelling of species name.

Neomargarodes triodentus; Tang & Hao, 1995: 603. Misspelling of species name.

Neomargarodes triodontus; Foldi, 2001a: 212. Misspelling of species name.



HOST: Poaceae [Jashen1989b].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kazakhstan (Kzyl Orda Oblast [Jashen1989b]).

BIOLOGY: Adults emerge at the end of May (Jashenko, 1999).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Jashenko (1989b).

KEYS: Tang 2000: 4 (female) [China and neighbouring countries]; Tang & Hao 1995: 29-30, 602-603 (female) [Palearctic].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 82]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 212]; Jashen1989b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 17-19]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 45]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 42-43].



Porphyrophora Brandt in Brandt & Ratzeburg

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccionella Hahnemann, 1793: 193. Synonymy by Jakubski, 1965: 5. Notes: See discussion in Morrison & Morrison (1966) and Remarks below.

Porphyrophora Brandt in Brandt & Ratzeburg, 1833: 355. Type species: Porphyrophora frischii Brandt, 1833 (= Margarodes polonicus (Linnaeus)). Subsequently designated by Kirkaldy, 1906a: 254.

Porphirophora; Targioni Tozzetti, 1867: 18. Misspelling of genus name.

Pyrophora; Lindinger, 1935: 141. Misspelling of genus name.

Pyrophora; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Misspelling of genus name.

Cocccionella; Lindinger, 1958: 371. Misspelling of genus name.

Coccionella; Ben-Dov, 2005a: 83. Notes: Regarded as nomen oblitum

Porphyrophora; Ben-Dov, 2005a: 83. Notes: Regarded as nomen protectum

phyrophora; Moghaddam, 2009: 34. Misspelling of genus name. Notes: Misspelling of phyrophora for Porphyrophora.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by Signoret (1876a), Borchsenius (1950b), Danzig (1980b), Kosztarab & Kozar (1988F), Foldi (2005a) and by Vahedi & Hodgson (2007).

SYSTEMATICS: Lindinger (1954: 614) was first to discover that Hahnemann (1793) used the name Coccionella polonica for the Polish cochineal scale. Consequently, Lindinger (1954) presented the case for acceptance, while using the name Coccionella as a total replacement for Margarodes Guilding, 1829. Morrison & Morrison (1966) noted that, in recent years, there has been sufficient work to demonstrate that Margarodes sensu lato is a complex of morphologically diverse species that can be placed into several distinct genera. Therefore, Coccionella, if accepted, can only replace Porphyrophora Brandt, 1833. Lindinger's (1954) suggestion was not accepted, and no species have been assigned to Coccionella since 1954. On the other hand, numerous new species have been described after 1954 in the genus Porphyrophora. Jakubski (1965: 5) regarded Coccionella as a nomen oblitum and synonymized it with Porphyrophora. The interpretation in this Database basically concurs with that of Jakubski (1965). Article 23.9 (Reversal of Precedence) of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (Fourth Edition, 1999) can be applied, and stabilize Porphyrophora Brandt, 1833, as a nomen protectum, while regarding Coccionella Hahnemann, 1793 as a nomen oblitum and a synonym. The adult female of Porphyrophora differs mainly from Margarodes in the absence of abdominal spiracles, or their presence only on first two abdominal segments.

KEYS: Vahedi & Hodgson 2007: 31-34 (female) [Species of Palearctic region]; Foldi 2005a: 121 (female) [genera of Margarodidae]; Vahedi 2002: 277-278 (female) [Genera of hypogaeic margarodids]; Vahedi 2002: 279-287 (female) [Species of Porphyrophora]; Tang & Hao 1995: 27 (female) [Margarodidae]; Tang & Hao 1995: 47-48 (female) [Species of Palearctic region]; Kosztarab & Kozar 1988F: 47 (female) [central Europe]; Matesova & Jashenko 1988: 754-755 (female) [Species of Kazakhstan]; Danzig 1980b: 86 (female) [Genera of Far East Russia]; Kosztarab & Kozar 1978: 16 (female) [Hungary]; Borchsenius 1950b: 32 (female) [Genera of USSR].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, catalogue: 83-84]; Borchs1949b [taxonomy: 334]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy: 32, 37]; BrandtRa1833 [taxonomy, description: 355-356]; Burmei1835 [taxonomy, description: 77]; Cocker1902q [taxonomy: 257-258]; Danzig1972a [taxonomy: 269]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description: 86, 99-100]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 28-30]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 213]; Foldi2005a [taxonomy, description, illustration: 111-113]; Goux1948b [taxonomy: 184-185]; Hahnem1793 [taxonomy: 193]; HodgsoFo2006 [taxonomy: 88]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description: 5-8]; Jashen1999c [taxonomy, host: 162-163]; KosztaKo1978 [taxonomy, description: 19]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description: 47, 51]; Lindin1935 [taxonomy: 141]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 193]; Lindin1943b [taxonomy: 222]; Lindin1954 [taxonomy: 614-615]; Maskel1887a [taxonomy: 91]; MatesoJa1988 [taxonomy: 754-755]; MkrtchSa2001 [structure, taxonomy: 167-168]; Moghad2009 [taxonomy: 34]; Morris1928 [taxonomy: 5, 73, 220]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 40, 160]; PicardBa1939 [taxonomy, distribution, economic importance: 118-120]; Signor1876a [taxonomy, description: 377-380]; Silves1938 [taxonomy, description: 35-36]; Tang2000a [taxonomy, description: 6-13]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 43-48]; Tao1999 [taxonomy: 6]; Targio1867 [taxonomy: 18]; Targio1868 [taxonomy: 723]; Vahedi2008a [taxonomy, life history: 73]; VahediHo2007 [taxonomy, description: 23-122]; Willia2007b [taxonomy: 449-450]; WilliaBeMa2009 [taxonomy: 159]; Zahrad1959a [taxonomy: 534].



Porphyrophora akirtobiensis Jashenko

NOMENCLATURE:

Porphyrophora akirtobiensis Jashenko, 1989a: 70. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: Dzhaambul region, 20 km west of Akirtobe, on roots of Festuca sp. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 2046/1. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae: Festuca [Jashen1989a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kazakhstan (Dzhambul Oblast [Jashen1989a]).

BIOLOGY: Collected on roots of Festuca sp. (Jashenko, 1989a). Females emerge in July (Jashenko, 1999).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Jashenko (1989a), Vahedi (2002) and by Vahedi & Hodgson (2007).

KEYS: Vahedi 2002: 279-287 (female) [Species of Porphyrophora]; Tang & Hao 1995: 47-48, 603-606 (female) [Palearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 84-85]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 214]; Jashen1989a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 70-71]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 46]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 47-49]; Vahedi2002 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 87-91]; VahediHo2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 35-37].



Porphyrophora altaiensis Jashenko

NOMENCLATURE:

Porphyrophora altaiensis Jashenko, 1988: 91. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: Semipaltinsk Oblast, 60 km north east of Begen, host plant not indicated. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 7429/1. Described: female. Illust.

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kazakhstan (Semipaltinsk Oblast [Jashen1988]).

BIOLOGY: Adults emerge in mid -July (Jashenko, 1999).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Jashenko (1988).

KEYS: Tang & Hao 1995: 47-48, 603-606 (female) [Palearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 85]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 214]; Jashen1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 91-92]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, distribution, life history: 45]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 49-50].



Porphyrophora arnebiae (Archangelskaya)

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes arnebiae Archangelskaya, 1935: 17. Type data: UZBEKISTA: near Samarkand, on roots of Lappula sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female and first instar. Illust.

Porphyrophora arnebiae; Borchsenius, 1950b: 41. Change of combination.

Coccionella arnebiae; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Change of combination.

Coccionella arnebiae; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Change of combination.

Porphyrophora arnebiae; Jakubski, 1965: 28. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Artemisia cina [MatesoJa1988]. Boraginaceae: Arnebia guttata [Jakubs1965, Jashen1999], Echinospermum [Jashen1999], Lappula [Archan1935].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kazakhstan (Dzhambul Oblast [MatesoJa1988]); Uzbekistan (Samarkand Oblast [Archan1935, Borchs1950b, Jakubs1965]).

BIOLOGY: Found on roots of the host plants. Males emerge towards the end of August, females in early September (Jakubski, 1965).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Archangelskaya (1935), Borchsenius (1950b) and by Jakubski (1965).

KEYS: Tang & Hao 1995: 47-48, 603-606 (female) [Palearctic region]; Matesova & Jashenko 1988: 754-755 (female) [Kazakhstan]; Borchsenius 1950b: 41 (female) [USSR].

CITATIONS: Archan1935 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 17-19,31]; BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 85-86]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 41]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 433]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 214]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy. description, host, distribution: 28]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 45]; JashenAm1999 [taxonomy: 49]; Lindin1954 [taxonomy: 615]; MatesoJa1988 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 754-755,759]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 50-51]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20].



Porphyrophora bolivari (Balachowsky)

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes bolivari Balachowsky, 1935d: 93. Type data: SPAIN: Andalusia, Sierra Nevada, altitude 2900-3000 meters, on roots of Arenaria tetraquetra; August 8, 1934, collected A.S. Balachowsky. Syntypes, female and first instar. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female and first instar. Illust.

Porphyrophora bolivari; Picard & Balachowsky, 1939: 119. Change of combination.

Margarodes buxtoni bolivari; Goux, 1946a: 96. Change of combination and rank.

Porphyrophora polonica bolivari; Goux, 1948b: 185. Change of combination and rank.

Coccionella bolivari; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Incorrect synonymy; discovered by Jakubski, 1965: 8.



HOST: Caryophyllaceae: Arenaria tetraquetra [Balach1935d, Martin1985].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Spain [Balach1935, Martin1985].

BIOLOGY: Collected at altitude of 2900-3000 meters in Spain, from roots of Arenaria tetraquerta (Balachowsky, 1935d).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Balachowsky (1935d), Vahedi (2002) and by Vahedi & Hodgson (2007).

KEYS: Vahedi & Hodgson 2007: 31-34 (female) [Species of Palearctic region]; Vahedi 2002: 279-287 (female) [Species of Porphyrophora].

CITATIONS: Balach1935d [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 93-96]; BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 86]; Foldi1998 [CATALOGUE: 433-434]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 214]; Goux1946a [taxonomy: 95-96]; Goux1948b [taxonomy: 184-185]; Lindin1954 [taxonomy: 615]; Martin1985 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 102]; PicardBa1939 [host, distribution, economic importance: 118-120]; PicardBa1939 [taxonomy: 119]; Silves1938 [taxonomy: 36]; Vahedi2002 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 92-97]; VahediHo2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 37-40]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20].



Porphyrophora buxtoni (Newstead)

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes buxtoni Newstead, 1917a: 10. Type data: ALGERIA: El Kantora, host plant not indicated; collected P.A. Buxton, 13.iv.1913. Syntypes, both sexes. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: both sexes. Illust.

Porphyrophora polonica buxtoni; Goux, 1948b: 185. Change of combination and rank.

Coccionella buxtoni; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Incorrect synonymy; discovered by Jakubski, 1965: 31. Notes: Incorrect synonymy with Porphyrophora polonica.

Porphyrophora buxtoni; Jakubski, 1965: 31. Change of combination.

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Algeria [Newste1917a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female and adult male by Newstead (1917a).

STRUCTURE: Adult female elongated and very tumid, derm almost completely covered with a layer of white, mealy secretion (Newstead, 1917a).

KEYS: Morrison 1928: 77-78 (female) [Species of Margarodes.].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 86-87]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 434]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 214]; Goux1938c [taxonomy: 474]; Goux1946a [taxonomy: 91-92]; Goux1948b [taxonomy: 184-185]; Lindin1936 [taxonomy: 160]; Lindin1954 [taxonomy: 615]; Morris1928 [taxonomy: 77-78,222]; Newste1917a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 10-13]; Silves1938 [taxonomy: 36]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20].



Porphyrophora chelodonta Vahedi {in} Vahedi & Hodgson

NOMENCLATURE:

Porphyrophora chelodonta Vahedi {in} Vahedi & Hodgson, 2007: 40. Type data: IRAN: Kermanshah, Songhor, village of Mezrallae; host plant unknown, collected from soil in wheat field; collected H.A. Vahedi, 8.iv.1985. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Iran [VahediHo2007].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Vahedi & Hodgson (2007).

KEYS: Vahedi & Hodgson 2007: 31-34 (female) [Species of Palearctic region].

CITATIONS: Moghad2013a [distribution: 59]; VahediHo2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 40-42].



Porphyrophora crithmi (Goux)

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes buxtoni crithmi Goux, 1938c: 471. Type data: FRANCE: Marseille, on Crithmum maritimum, 1934. Syntypes, female, male and first instar. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female, male and first instar. Illust.

Porphyrophora polonica crithmi; Goux, 1948b: 185. Change of combination and rank.

Coccionella polonica; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Incorrect synonymy; discovered by Jakubski, 1965: 30.

Porphyrophora crithmi; Jakubski, 1965: 30. Change of combination and rank.



HOST: Umbelliferae: Crithmum maritimum [Goux1938c, Foldi2000].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: France [Goux1938c, Foldi2000].

BIOLOGY: Develops on subterranean parts of Crithmum maritimum (Goux, 1938c).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female by Goux (1938c, 1946a) and by Jakubski (1965).

STRUCTURE: Wouters & Verhecken (1991) compared, by HPLC methods, the constituents of pigments of Porphyrophora polonica (from Poland) and Porphyrophora crithmi (from southern France) and concluded that "according to the pigment analyses, P. polonica is identical to P. crithmi.

SYSTEMATICS: Jakubski (1965) stated that for some time he supposed that Margarodes buxtoni crithmi Goux was identical with Porphyrophora polonica. Since the intraspecific variation of P. polonica was not well known, he regarded M. crithmi as a distinct species.

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 87]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 434]; Foldi2000 [host, distribution: 77]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 214]; Goux1938c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 471-474]; Goux1946a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 91-93]; Goux1948b [taxonomy: 184-185]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 30-31]; Koteja1996a [taxonomy, illustration, description: 69-73]; LagowsKo1996 [host, distribution: 30, 33]; Lindin1954 [taxonomy: 615]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20]; WouterVe1991 [chemistry, host, distribution: 211-225].



Porphyrophora cynodontis (Archangelskaya)

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes cynodontis Archangelskaya, 1935: 15. Type data: UZBEKISTAN: near Samarkand, on stems and sprouts of Cynodon dactylon. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female and first instar. Illust.

Porphyrophora cynodontis; Borchsenius, 1950b: 40. Change of combination.

phyrophora cynodontis; Moghaddam, 2009: 34. Misspelling of genus name. Notes: Misspelling of cynodontis, phyrophora for cynodontis, Porphyrophora.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Aleuropus littoralis [Jakubs1965, Jashen1999], Cynodon dactylon [Archan1935, Jashen1999], Phragmites [Vahedi2002].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Iran [Vahedi2002, VahediHo2007, TorabiVaHo2010]; Uzbekistan (Samarkand Oblast [Archan1935, Jakubs1965]).

BIOLOGY: Adults emerge August - September (Jashenko, 1999).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Archangelskaya (1935), Borchsenius (1950b), Jakubski (1965), Vahedi (2002) and by Vahedi & Hodgson (2007)..

SYSTEMATICS: Vahedi & Hodgson (2007) conisidered that P. cynodontis is a synonym of P. hamelii, but did not introduce a formal synonymy.

KEYS: Vahedi & Hodgson 2007: 31-34 (female) [Porphyrophora species of Palearctic]; Vahedi 2002: 279-287 (female) [Species of Porphyrophora]; Tang & Hao 1995: 47-48, 603-606 (female) [Palearctic region]; Borchsenius 1950b: 40 (female) [USSR].

CITATIONS: Archan1935 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 15-17,30-31]; BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 88]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 40]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 434]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 214]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 37-38]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 45]; JashenAm1999 [taxonomy: 49]; Moghad2009 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 15,34]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 59]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 51-52]; TorabiVaHo2010 [host, distribution: 153-162]; Vahedi2002 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 98-105]; Vahedi2005 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 257-263]; VahediGh2010 [taxonomy, morphology: 76-81]; VahediHo2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 42-46]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20].



Porphyrophora duhamelii Lindinger nomen nudum

NOMENCLATURE:

Porphyrophora duhamelii Lindinger, 1954: 615. Nomen nudum. Notes: Lindinger (1954: 615) listed this binomen "Porphyrophora duhamelii Brestowski, 1893" as a synonym of Porphyrophora polonica (L.). I failed to trace a publication by Brestowski (1893), therefore the first-mentioned name is regarded a nomen nudum.

Porphyrophora duhamelii Foldi, 2001a: 214. Nomen nudum.



Porphyrophora elinae Jashenko

NOMENCLATURE:

Porphyrophora elinae Jashenko, 1994a: 35. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: south Kazakhstan, Zhambyl Province, Muyunkum Desert, 80 km east of Ulanbel, host plant not indicated, sand desert, 4.vi.1988. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 7750. Described: both sexes. Illust.

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kazakhstan [Jashen1994a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female and adult male by Jashenko (1994a).

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 88]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 214]; Jashen1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 35-36]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, distribution, life history: 46].



Porphyrophora embiensis Jashenko

NOMENCLATURE:

Porphyrophora embiensis Jashenko, 1994a: 25. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: West Kazakhstan, Emba railway, bank of Emba river, roots of grass, 9.vii.1969, coll. G. Matesova. Paratypes in central Kazakhstan, 10 km north west of Zharkol Lake, Akmola region, on roots of Agropyron pectiniforme. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 3076/1. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae: Agropyron actiniforme [Jashen1994a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kazakhstan [Jashen1994a].

BIOLOGY: Collected from roots of Agropyron pectiniforme and grasses (Jashenko, 1994a). Adults emerge July-August (Jashenko, 1999).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Jashenko (1994a), Vahedi (2002) and by Vahedi & Hodgson (2007).

KEYS: Vahedi & Hodgson 2007: 31-34 (female) [Pporphyrophora species of Palearctic region.]; Vahedi 2002: 279-289 (female) [Species of Porphyrophora].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 89]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 214]; Jashen1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 25-27]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 46]; Vahedi2002 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 106-110]; VahediHo2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 46-49].



Porphyrophora epigaea Danzig

NOMENCLATURE:

Porphyrophora epigaea Danzig, 1983: 514. Type data: UZBEKISTAN: Bukhara Oblast, "Karakul" Reserve, 25 km South of Alat, 29.iv.1980, on Astragalus prope ammodendron, Coll. E. Danzig. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Euphorbiaceae [Jashen1999]. Fabaceae: Astragalus prope ammodendron [Danzig1983]. Poaceae: Poa bulbosa [Jashen1999].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Uzbekistan (Bukhara Oblast [Danzig1983, Foldi1998]).

BIOLOGY: The cysts were collected from above and underground stems of the plants (Danzig, 1983). Adults emerge in May (Jashenko, 1999).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Danzig (1983), Vahedi (2002) and by vahedi & Hodgson (2007).

KEYS: Vahedi & Hodgson 2007: 31-34 (female) [Porphyrophora species of Palearctic region.]; Vahedi 2002: 279-289 (female) [Species of Porphyrophora]; Tang & Hao 1995: 47-48, 603-606 (female) [Palearctic region]; Matesova & Jashenko 1988: 754-755 (female) [Kazakhstan].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 89]; Danzig1983 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 514-515]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 434]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 214]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 45]; JashenAm1999 [taxonomy: 49]; MatesoJa1988 [taxonomy: 754]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 52]; Vahedi2002 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 111-116]; VahediHo2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 49-51].



Porphyrophora eremospartonae Jashenko

NOMENCLATURE:

Porphyrophora eremospartonae Jashenko, 1989: 37. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: Aktyubinsk Oblast, Chelkarski district, in Bolshi Barsuki sand dunes, on roots of Eremosparton aphyllum, collected 26.vi.1968 by G. Matesova. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 2817/1. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Fabaceae: Eremosparton aphyllum [Jashen1989].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kazakhstan (Aktyubinsk Oblast [Jashen1989]).

BIOLOGY: Adults emerge on June - July (Jashenko, 1999).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Jashenko (1989), Vahedi (2002) and by Vahedi & Hodgson (2007).

KEYS: Vahedi & Hodgson 2007: 31-34 (female) [Porphyrophora species of Palearctic region]; Vahedi 2002: 279-287 (female) [Species of Porphyrophora]; Tang & Hao 1995: 47-48, 603-606 (female) [Palearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 89-90]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 214]; Jashen1989 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 37-39]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 46]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 52-53]; Vahedi2002 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 117-122]; VahediHo2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 51-54].



Porphyrophora erythraea Silvestri

NOMENCLATURE:

Porphyrophora erythraea Silvestri, 1938: 36. Type data: ERITREA: Achele Guzzai, host plant not specified. Syntypes, female and first instar. Type depository: Portici: Dipartimento de Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria di Portici, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Italy. Described: female and first instar. Illust.

Coccionella erythraea; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Change of combination.

Porphyrophora erythraea; Jakubski, 1965: 34. Revived combination.

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Eritrea [Silves1938].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Silvestri (1938) and by Jakubski (1965).

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 90]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 214]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 34]; Lindin1954 [taxonomy: 615]; Silves1938 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 36-38].



Porphyrophora gigantea Jashenko

NOMENCLATURE:

Porphyrophora gigantea Jashenko, 1990a: 143. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: East Kazakhstan region, 12 km south west of Buran, Aigarkumi desert, on roots of Elymus giganteus. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 7396/1. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae: Elymus giganteus [Jashen1990a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kazakhstan (Vostochno Kazakhstan Oblast [Jashen1990a]).

BIOLOGY: Collected on roots of Elymus giganteus (Jashenko, 1990a). Females emerge June - July (Jashenko, 1999).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Jashenko (1990a), Vahedi (2002) and by Vahedi & Hodgson (2007).

KEYS: Vahedi & Hodgson 2007: 31-34 (female) [Porphyrophora species of Palearctic region]; Vahedi 2002: 279-287 (female) [Species of Porphyrophora]; Tang & Hao 1995: 47-48, 603-606 (female) [Palearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 90]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 214]; Jashen1990a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 143-145]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 46]; JashenAm1999 [taxonomy: 49]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 53-54]; Vahedi2002 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 123-128]; VahediHo2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 54-57].



Porphyrophora hamelii Brandt in Brandt & Ratzeburg

NOMENCLATURE:

Porphyrophora hamelii Brandt in Brandt & Ratzeburg, 1833: 356. Type data: ARMENIA: on roots of Poa pungens. Syntypes, female and first instar. Described: female and first instar. Notes: Depository of type material unknown.

Porphyrophora hameli; Brandt, 1834: 65. Misspelling of species name.

Porphyrophora armeniaca Burmeister, 1835: 78. Type data: ARMENIA: on Poa pungens. Syntypes, both sexes. Described: both sexes. Synonymy by Fernald, 1903b: 28.

Coccus radicis Meyer, 1856: 336. Type data: ARMENIA: on roots of Scleranthus. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Synonymy by Jakubski, 1965: 43. Notes: Depository of type material unknown.

Margarodes (Porphyrophora) hameli; Cockerell, 1902q: 258. Change of combination. Notes: Mis-spelling of species epithet.

Margarodes hameli; Fernald, 1903b: 28. Change of combination. Notes: Mis-spelling of species epithet.

Coccionella armeniaca; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Change of combination.

Coccionella hameli; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Incorrect synonymy; discovered by Jakubski, 1965: 43. Notes: Incorrect synonymy of Porphyrophora hameli with Porphyrophora polonica.

Coccionella hamelii; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Change of combination.

Porphyrophora hameli; Jakubski, 1965: 43. Revived combination.

Porphyrophora hameli; Jakubski, 1965: 43. Revived combination.

COMMON NAMES: Ararat scale [SarkisMkZa2001]; ararat scale; Araratsche Cochenille [BrandtRa1833]; Armenian carmine scale insect [Cardon2007]; Armenian cochineal [Borchs1950b]; cochenille am Ararat.



FOES: ACARI Acaridae: Tyrophagus utrescentiae [Jashen1999b]. COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Litophilus bipustulatus [Jashen1999b], Nephus bipunctatus [Jashen1999b]. HYMENOPTERA Formicidae: Messor caducus [Jashen1999b], Messor rufitarsis [Jashen1999b], Pheidole pallidula [Jashen1999b], Tappinoma erraticus [Jashen1999b].

HOSTS: Poaceae: Aleuropus laevis [Bodenh1953a], Aleuropus littoralis [Jakubs1965, Jashen1999], Aleuropus pungens [BrandtRa1833, Burmei1835], Cynodon [Bodenh1953a], Phragmites communis [Borchs1950b, Jakubs1965], Poa [Borchs1950b].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [BrandtRa1833, Borchs1950b]; Iran [Kaussa1957]; Turkey [Bodenh1953a, KaydanUlEr2007].

BIOLOGY: Adults emerge in July-August (Jashenko, 1999).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Signoret (1876a), Borchsenius (1950b), Jakubski (1965), Vahedi (2002) and by Vahedi & Hodgson (2007). Description and illustration of adult male by Hodgson & Foldi (2006).

SYSTEMATICS: SIGNORET (1868: 855) listed Coccus hamelii Brandt and cited "Brandt, 1827", Volume 2, page 355. In fact, the description of the genus Porphyrophora was made by Brandt in 1833 in the publication by BRANDT & RATZEBURG (1833: 355) and the descriptions by Brandt of Porphyrophora hamelii and P. frischii appeared in the same publication on page 356; see Williams, Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero (2009). Jakubski (1956) listed (without explanation) the species Coccus radicis Meyer, 1856 as a synonym of both Porphyrophora polonica (L.) (on page 18), and also of Porphyrophora hameli (Brandt) (on page 43).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: This insect was a source since ancient times for the extraction of dyes used in textile industry (Schmutterer et al., 1957; Sarkisov, 1984).

KEYS: Vahedi & Hodgson 2007: 31-34 (female) [Porphyrophora species of Palearctic region]; Vahedi 2002: 279-287 (female) [Species of Porphyrophora]; Tang & Hao 1995: 47-48, 603-606 (female) [Palearctic region]; Borchsenius 1950b: 40 (female) [USSR].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue, economic importance: 91-92]; Blanch1883 [taxonomy, life history, economic importance: 312-313]; Bodenh1953a [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 149-150]; Bohmer2000 [chemistry: 57-60]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 40]; Brandt1835 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 65-68]; BrandtRa1833 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 355-356]; Burmei1835 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 78]; Cardon1999a [economic importance, chemistry: 18-29]; Cardon2007 [taxonomy, economic importance, life history, host, distribution: 646-652]; Cocker1902q [taxonomy, distribution: 258]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 28]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 435]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 214]; Goux1948b [taxonomy: 184-185]; Green1912 [taxonomy, distribution: 65]; HodgsoFo2006 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 88-94]; HodgsoHa2013 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 796]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history: 43-46]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history, biological control: 45, 47]; JashenAm1999 [taxonomy, economic importance: 48]; Kaussa1957 [host, distribution: 2]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 99]; Kurdia1941 [host, distribution, economic importance: 105-107]; Lindin1907a [taxonomy: 20]; Lindin1912b [taxonomy, host, distribution: 56,384]; Lindin1935 [taxonomy: 141]; Lindin1954 [taxonomy: 615]; MagakiMaPe1976 [anatomy, structure: 932-936]; Meyer1854 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 336]; Mkrtch1977 [structure, anatomy: 638-642]; Mkrtch1982 [structure, anatomy: 764-768]; MkrtchSa1975 [structure, anatomy: 84-89]; MkrtchSa1985 [life history, host, distribution, economic importance: 1-157]; MkrtchSaSa1978 [life history, structure: 921-926]; MkrtchSaSa1979 [structure, anatomy: 204-208]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 59]; Morris1928 [taxonomy: 77,222,224]; PicardBa1939 [host, distribution, economic importance: 118-120]; SarkisMk1981 [structure, anatomy: 633-636]; SarkisMkEa1984 [economic importance, life history: 684-687]; SarkisMkKh1981 [life history, physiology: 46-49]; SarkisMkKh1983 [life history, ecology: 211-232]; SarkisMkZa1990 [distribution, ecology, economic importance: 123-124]; SarkisMkZa1991 [life history, physiology, economic importance: 228-230]; SarkisMkZa1998 [economic importance, life history: 33-34]; SarkisMkZa2001 [economic importance, life history, distribution: 273-274]; SarkisSaMk1980 [economic importance, life history, ecology: 1980]; SarkisSeMk1974 [economic importance, life history: 95-98]; SarkisSeMk1978 [structure, life history: 927-930]; SarkisSeSa1974 [life history, distribution: 84-85]; SchmutKlLu1957 [host, distribution, economic importance: 421]; Signor1869 [taxonomy: 855]; Signor1876a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 380,383-384]; Silves1908 [taxonomy: 149]; Silves1938 [taxonomy: 36]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 54-56]; Targio1868 [taxonomy: 723]; Targio1869 [catalogue: 30]; Vahedi2002 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 129-134]; VahediHo2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 57-60]; Waller1986 [chemistry: 145-155]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 25]; WilliaBeMa2009 [taxonomy: 159]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20].



Porphyrophora hirsutissima (Hall)

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes hirsutissimus Hall, 1924: 1. Type data: EGYPT: Nag Hamadi, on Imperata cylindrica. Syntypes, female and first instar. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female and first instar. Illust.

Porphyrophora hirsutissima; Silvestri, 1938: 38. Change of combination.

Coccionella hirsutissima; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Change of combination.

Porphyrophora hirsutissima; Jakubski, 1965: 39. Revived combination.

COMMON NAME: Egyptian carmine scale insect [Cardon2007].



HOSTS: Poaceae: Chloris gayana [Vahedi2002], Imperata cylindrica [Hall1924].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Egypt [Hall1924].

BIOLOGY: Found low down between the leaf-sheaths and the parent stem (Hall, 1924).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Hall (1924), Jakubski (1965) and by Vahedi & Hodgson (2007).

STRUCTURE: Adult female completely enclosed in a tough spherical cyst composed of very thin layers of a mica-like substance incorporated in the outer layers of which are grains of sand and other extraneous matter giving a rough granular external appearance (Hall, 1924).

SYSTEMATICS: Jakubski (1965: 43) noted that Rungs' (1946) record of this species from Morocco was doubtful.

KEYS: Vahedi & Hodgson 2007: 31-34 (female) [Porphyrophora species of Palearctic region]; Vahedi 2002: 279-287 (female) [Species of Porphyrophora]; Morrison 1928: 77-78 (female) [Species of Margarodes.].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 93]; Cardon2007 [economic importance, host, distribution: 655]; EzzatNa1987 [distribution: 88]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 435]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 214]; Goux1946a [taxonomy: 96]; Hall1924 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 1-5]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 39-43]; Lindin1936 [taxonomy: 160]; Lindin1954 [taxonomy: 615]; MohammGh2008 [distribution: 154]; Morris1928 [taxonomy: 77,78,224]; Silves1938 [taxonomy: 36,38,41]; Vahedi2002 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 135-140]; VahediHo2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 60-63]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20].



Porphyrophora iliensis Matesova & Jashenko

NOMENCLATURE:

Porphyrophora iliensis Matesova & Jashenko, 1988: 757. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: Alma-Ati Oblast, near Ilisk (Kanchagai) sand dunes, in soil near stems of Camphorosma lessingii. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 1638. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Chenopodiaceae: Camphorosma lessingii [MatesoJa1988].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kazakhstan (Alma Ata Oblast [MatesoJa1988]).

BIOLOGY: Females emerge at the beginning of July (Jashenko, 1999).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Matesova & Jashenko (1988).

KEYS: Tang & Hao 1995: 47-48, 603-606 (female) [Palearctic region]; Matesova & Jashenko 1988: 754-755 (female) [Kazakhstan].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 94]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 214]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 45]; MatesoJa1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 754-755, 757]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 56-57].



Porphyrophora indica (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes sp. Green, 1909b: 761. Nomen nudum; discovered by Green, 1912: 69.

Margarodes indicus Green, 1912: 69. Type data: NEPAL: Jahada, host plant not indicated; collected 14 February, 1908. Syntypes, female, male and first instar. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female, male and first instar.

Porphyrophora indica; Silvestri, 1938: 36. Incorrect synonymy; discovered by Jakubski, 1965: 29.

Coccionella indica; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Incorrect synonymy; discovered by Jakubski, 1965: 29.

Porphyrophora airae Jakubski, 1965: 29. Type data: NEPAL: Jahada, host plant not indicated; collected 14 February, 1908. Syntypes, female, male and first instar. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female, male and first instar. Synonymy by Williams, 2002: 239. Notes: Jakubski (1965: 29) erroneously credited this species to Anderson (1787).

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Nepal [Green1912].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Green (1912) and by Jakubski (1965).

SYSTEMATICS: Anderson (1787:3) distinguished an insect that he named Hemiptera Coccus Airae spicatae Madraspatensis, which can be translated as Hemiptera Coccus of Aira spicata of the Madras region. The Latin description by Anderson has no standing as a scientific name. Jakubski (1965: 29) decided that the Latin description by Anderson was an earlier name for Margarodes indicus Green, 1912, and introduced the name Porphyrophora airae (Anderson, 1787). The species is currently known as Porphyrophora indica Green (Williams, 2002). Foldi (2001a) erroneously listed Porphyrophora airae (Anderson, 1787) as an available, valid name.

CITATIONS: Anders1787 [taxonomy: 3]; BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 94-95]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 206,214]; Green1909b [taxonomy: 761-762]; Green1912 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 66-70,73]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 29-30]; Lindin1954 [taxonomy: 615]; Morris1928 [taxonomy: 77,224]; Sassce1915 [catalogue: 27]; Silves1938 [taxonomy: 36]; Willia2002 [taxonomy: 241]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20].



Porphyrophora italica Goidanich

NOMENCLATURE:

Porphyrophora italica Goidanich, 1963: 227. Type data: ITALY: Sicily, on Poa rigida and Avena sativa. Syntypes, female and first instar. Type depositories: Torino:  Dipartimento di Valorizzazione e Protezione delle Risorse Agroforestali, Universita degli Studi di Torino, Italy, and Padova: Istituto di Entomologia Agraria, Italy. Described: female and first instar. Illust.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Avena sativa [Goidan1963], Poa rigida [Goidan1963].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Italy [BarbagBiBo1995]; Sicily [Goidan1963, BarbagBiBo1995].

CITATIONS: BarbagBiBo1995 [distribution: 39]; BenDov2005a [p. 95]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 435]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 214]; Goidan1963 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 223-257]; Trembl1988a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 207].



Porphyrophora ivorontzovi Jashenko

NOMENCLATURE:

Porphyrophora ivorontzovi Jashenko, 1994a: 27. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: East Kazakhstan: Aygarkum desert, environ Kabyrgatal, on roots of Gypsophilla trichotoma, 25.vi.1989. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 17=81. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Caryophyllaceae: Gypsophilla trichotoma [Jashen1994a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kazakhstan (Vostochno Kazakhstan Oblast [Jashen1994a]).

BIOLOGY: Collected from roots of Gypsophilla trichotoma (Jashenko, 1994a). Females emerge at the end of June (Jashenko, 1999).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Jashenko (1994a), Vahedi (2002) and by Vahedi & Hodgson (2007).

KEYS: Vahedi & Hodgson 2007: 31-34 (female) [porphyrophora species of Palearctic region]; Vahedi 2002: 279-287 (female) [Species of Porphyrophora].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 95]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 214]; Jashen1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 27-29]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 46]; Vahedi2002 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 141-145]; VahediHo2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 63-66].



Porphyrophora jaapi Jakubski

NOMENCLATURE:

Porphyrophora jaapi Jakubski, 1965: 15. Type data: CROATIA: Dalmatia, Lacroma near Ragusa [=Dubrovnik], on Lotus cytisoides; 2 April 1914, collected Otto Jaap. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Fabaceae: Lotus cytisoides [Jakubs1965].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Croatia [Jakubs1965].

KEYS: Tang & Hao 1995: 47-48, 603-606 (female) [Palearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 95-96]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 435]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 214]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 15-16]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 57].



Porphyrophora jakubskii Vahedi {in} Vahedi & Hodgson

NOMENCLATURE:

Porphyrophora jakubskii Vahedi {in} Vahedi & Hodgson, 2007: 66. Type data: ARMENIA: Martuni, host plant unknown; collected by A. Avetyan, 10.viii.1938. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 162-47. Described: female. Illust.

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [VahediHo2007].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Vahedi & Hodgson (2007).

KEYS: Vahedi & Hodgson 2007: 31-34 (female) [Porphyrophora species of Palearctic region].

CITATIONS: VahediHo2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 66-68].



Porphyrophora jashenkoi Vahedi {in}: Vahedi & Hodgson

NOMENCLATURE:

Porphyrophora jashenkoi Vahedi {in}: Vahedi & Hodgson, 2007: 68. Type data: IRAN: 74 km N Hamadan-Kermanshah, Amireye village, on whear Triticum vulgare crown-collar; collected R. Linkfield & J. Gentry, 13.v.1960. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae: Triticum vulgare [VahediHo2007].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Iran [VahediHo2007].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Vahedi & Hodgson (2007).

KEYS: Vahedi & Hodgson 2007: 31-34 (female) [Porphyrophora species of Palearctic region].

CITATIONS: Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 59]; VahediHo2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 68-71].



Porphyrophora kazakhstanica Matesova & Jashenko

NOMENCLATURE:

Porphyrophora kazakhstanica Matesova & Jashenko, 1988: 757. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: Dzhambul Oblast, near Ak-Shar lake, sand dunes, host plant not specified. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 6. Described: female. Illust.

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kazakhstan (Dzhambul Oblast [MatesoJa1988]).

BIOLOGY: Cysts collected in July, adults emerge on mid - September (Jashenko, 1999)

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Matesova & Jashenko (1988), Vahedi (2002) and by Vahedi & Hodgson (2007).

KEYS: Vahedi & Hodgson 2007: 31-34 (female) [porphyrophora species of Palearctic region]; Vahedi 2002: 279-287 (female) [Species of Porphyrophora]; Tang & Hao 1995: 47-48, 603-606 (female) [Palearctic region]; Matesova & Jashenko 1988: 754-755 (female) [Kazakhstan].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 96]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 214]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 45]; MatesoJa1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 754-755, 757-758]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 57-58]; Vahedi2002 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 146-150]; VahediHo2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 71-74].



Porphyrophora ketmeniensis Jashenko

NOMENCLATURE:

Porphyrophora ketmeniensis Jashenko, 1994a: 31. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: Ketmen Mountains, near Ketmen, on roots of Erysimum polymorphum, 21.vi.1987. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 7522. Described: both sexes. Illust.

Porphyrophora ketmeniensis; Ben-Dov, 2005a: 96. Notes: The date of description of this species was erroneously listed (in this catalogue) as Jashenko (1999a), whereas the correct date is Jashenko (1994a).



HOST: Cruciferae: Erysimum polymorphum [Jashen1999].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kazakhstan [Jashen1999].

BIOLOGY: Cysts lives on roots of the host plants; females emerge in July (Jashenko, 1999).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Jashenko (1994a).

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 96]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 214]; Jashen1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 31, 34]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 46].



Porphyrophora kiritshenkoi Jakubski

NOMENCLATURE:

Porphyrophora kiritshenkoi Jakubski, 1965: 35. Type data: UKRAINE: Odessa, on roots of Coronilla varia; viii.1928, collected A. Kiritchenko. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.



HOST: Fabaceae: Coronilla varia [Jakubs1965].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Ukraine (Odessa Oblast [Jakubs1965]).

BIOLOGY: Found on roots of the host plant, Coronilla varia (Jakubski, 1965). Adults emerge on July- August (Jashenko, 1999).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Jakubski (1965).

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 96-97]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 435]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 214]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 35-36]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 45].



Porphyrophora lappulae Jashenko

NOMENCLATURE:

Porphyrophora lappulae Jashenko, 1990c: 36. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: Alma-Ata Oblast, Terskey Alatau, 28 km south west of Narinkol, on roots of Lappula microcarpa, 6.vii.1985. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 7145/1. Described: female, male and first instar. Illust.



HOST: Boraginaceae: Lappula microcarpa [Jashen1990c].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kazakhstan (Alma Ata Oblast [Jashen1990c]).

BIOLOGY: Found on roots of the host plant (Jashenko, 1990c). Adults emerge at the end of July (Jashenko, 1999).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Vahedi & Hodgson (2007). Description and illustration of adult female, adult male and nymph by Jashenko (1990c). Description and illustration of adult female by Vahedi (2002).

KEYS: Vahedi & Hodgson 2007: 31-34 (female) [Porphyrophora species of Palearctic region]; Vahedi 2002: 279-287 (female) [Species of Porphyrophora].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 97]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 214]; Jashen1990c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 36-39]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 46]; Vahedi2002 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 151-157]; VahediHo2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 74-76].



Porphyrophora libica Silvestri

NOMENCLATURE:

Porphyrophora libica Silvestri, 1938: 38. Type data: LIBYA: Gefara, on roots of a Leguminosae plant. Syntypes, female, male and first instar. Type depository: Portici: Dipartimento de Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria di Portici, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Italy. Described: female, male and first instar. Illust.

Porphyrophora lybica; Silvestri, 1938: 39. Misspelling of species name.

Coccionella lybica; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Change of combination.

Coccionella lybica; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Misspelling of species name.

Porphyrophora libica; Jakubski, 1965: 16. Revived combination.



HOST: Fabaceae [Silves1938].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Libya [Silves1938].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female and adult male by Silvestri (1938) and by Jakubski (1965).

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 97]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 435-436]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 214]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 16-18]; Lindin1954 [taxonomy: 615]; Silves1938 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 38-41].



Porphyrophora madraguensis (Goux)

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes buxtoni madraguensis Goux, 1946a: 93. Type data: FRANCE: near Marseille, on roots of Festuca ovina. Syntypes, female, male and first instar. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female, male and first instar.

Porphyrophora polonica madraguensis; Goux, 1948b: 185. Change of combination and rank.

Coccionella buxtoni madgragensis; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Change of combination and misspelling of species epithet.

Coccionella polonica; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Incorrect synonymy; discovered by Jakubski, 1965: 13.

Margarodes buxtoni madgragensis; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Misspelling of species name.

Porphyrophora madraguensis; Jakubski, 1965: 13. Change of combination and rank.



HOST: Poaceae: Festuca ovina [Goux1946a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: France [Goux1946a].

BIOLOGY: Adult female emerge at the end of June (Goux, 1946a).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Goux (1946a) and by Jakubski (1965).

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 97-98]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 436]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 214]; Goux1946a [taxonomy, description, host: 93-96]; Goux1948b [taxonomy: 184-185]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 13-14]; Lindin1954 [taxonomy: 615]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20].



Porphyrophora matesovae Jashenko

NOMENCLATURE:

Porphyrophora matesovae Jashenko, 1989: 39. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: East Kazakhstan Oblast, Markakolski district, near Buran, on roots of Elymus fragilis, collected 20.vi.1962 by G. Matesova. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 1533/1. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae: Elymus fragilis [Jashen1989].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kazakhstan (Vostochno Kazakhstan Oblast [Jashen1989]).

BIOLOGY: Lives on roots of the host plant; females emerge in June - July (Jashenko, 1999).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Jashenko (1989), Vahedi (2002) and by Vahedi & Hodgson (2007).

KEYS: Vahedi & Hodgson 2007: 31-34 (female) [Porphyrophora species of Palearctic region]; Vahedi 2002: 279-287 (female) [Species of Porphyrophora]; Tang & Hao 1995: 47-48, 603-606 (female) [Palearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 98]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 214]; Jashen1989 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 39-41]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 46]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 58-59]; Vahedi2002 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 157-162]; VahediHo2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 76-79].



Porphyrophora medicaginis Jashenko

NOMENCLATURE:

Porphyrophora medicaginis Jashenko, 1994a: 22. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: East Kazakhstan, environs Aiyaguz, Akshatau Mountains, on roots of Medicago falcata, 24.vi.1986, collected R. Jashenko. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 7283. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Fabaceae: Medicago falcata [Jashen1994a], Medicago sativa [Moghad2013a], Medicago vulgare [VahediHo2007]. Poaceae: Cynodon [VahediHo2007], Phragmites [VahediHo2007].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Iran [VahediHo2007]; Kazakhstan (Vostochno Kazakhstan Oblast [Jashen1994a]).

BIOLOGY: Collected from roots of Medicago falcata (Jashenko, 1994a). Females emerge in July (Jashenko, 1999).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female, cyst, and nymphs by Jashenko (1994a). Description and illustration of adult female by Vahedi (2002) and by Vahedi & Hodgson (2007).

KEYS: Vahedi & Hodgson 2007: 31-34 (female) [Porphyrophora species of Palearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 98-99]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 214]; Jashen1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 22-24]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 46]; JashenAm1999 [taxonomy: 49]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 60]; Vahedi2002 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 163-168]; VahediHo2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 79-84].



Porphyrophora minuta Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Porphyrophora minuta Borchsenius, 1949b: 337. Type data: UKRAINE: South Crimea, Tuak, on roots of Medicago; 8.x.1937, collected A. Kiritchenko. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female.

Coccionella minuta; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Change of combination.

Porphyrophora minuta; Jakubski, 1965: 26. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Cruciferae: Cardaria draba [KaydanKiKo2005a], Diplotaxis tenuifolia [KaydanKiKo2005a]. Fabaceae: Medicago sativa [Jakubs1965, Jashen1999].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Turkey [KaydanKiKo2005a, KaydanUlEr2007]; Ukraine (Krym (=Crimea) Oblast [Borchs1949b, Borchs1950b]).

BIOLOGY: Found on roots of Medicago sativa (Borchsenius, 1949b).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Borchsenius (1949b, 1950b) and by Jakubski (1965).

KEYS: Tang & Hao 1995: 47-48, 603-606 (female) [Palearctic]; Borchsenius 1950b: 37-38 (female) [USSR].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 99]; Borchs1949b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 337]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 37-38]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 436]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 214]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 26]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 45]; KaydanKiKo2005a [host, distribution: 400]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 99]; Lindin1954 [taxonomy: 615]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 59].



Porphyrophora mongolica Jashenko

NOMENCLATURE:

Porphyrophora mongolica Jashenko, 1994a: 29. Type data: MONGOLIA: central Aimak, near Undzhul, on roots of Achnatherum sp., 9.vii.1973, coll. K. Ulykpan. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 144-73. Described: both sexes. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae: Achnatherum [Jashen1994a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Mongolia [Jashen1994a].

BIOLOGY: Found on roots of the host plant, adults emerge July (Jashenko, 1994a, 1999).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female and adult male by Jashenko (1994a).

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 99]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 214]; Jashen1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 29-32]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 46].



Porphyrophora monticola Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Porphyrophora monticola Borchsenius, 1949b: 336. Type data: ARMENIA: Caucasus, Alagez, host plant not indicated. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female.

Coccionella monticola; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Change of combination.

Porphyrophora georgica Hadzibejli, 1957: 205. Type data: GEORGIA: West Georgia, on roots of Dorycnium graecum and D. intermedium. Syntypes, female and first instar. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female and first instar. Synonymy by Jashenko, 1999: 43.

Porphyrophora monticola; Jakubski, 1965: 25. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Fabaceae: Dorycnium graecum [Hadzib1957, Hadzib1983], Dorycnium intermedium [Hadzib1957, Hadzib1983].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [Borchs1949b, Borchs1950b]; Georgia [Hadzib1957, Hadzib1983].

BIOLOGY: Found on roots of the host plant (Hadzibejli, 1957).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Borchsenius (1949b, 1950b), Hadzibejli (1957), Jakubski (1965), Vahedi (2002) and by Vahedi & Hodgson (2007).

SYSTEMATICS: Jakubski (1965) suggested that this species might be synonymous with Porphyrophora tritici Bodenheimer.

KEYS: Vahedi & Hodgson 2007: 31-34 (female) [Porphyrophora species of Palearctic region]; Vahedi 2002: 279-287 (female) [Species of Porphyrophora]; Tang & Hao 1995: 47-48, 603-606 (female) [Palearctic]; Borchsenius 1950b: 38 (female) [USSR].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 99-100]; Borchs1949b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 336-337]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 38]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 436]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 214]; Hadzib1957 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 203-211]; Hadzib1957a [host, distribution: 100-102]; Hadzib1983 [host, distribution: 266]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 25-26]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 43, 45]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 45]; Lindin1954 [taxonomy: 615]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 59-60]; Vahedi2002 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 169-174]; VahediHo2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 84-88].



Porphyrophora nuda (Archangelskaya)

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes nuda Archangelskaya, 1935: 19. Type data: UZBEKISTAN: Tcupan-ata hill near Samarkand, on roots of Festuca sp., May 1929. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female and first instar. Illust.

Margarodes hordei Rusanova, 1944: 84. Type data: AZERBAIJAN: Apsheron Peninsula, near Baku, on Hordeum leporinum. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Synonymy by Borchsenius, 1950b: 41.

Porphyrophora nuda; Borchsenius, 1950b: 41. Change of combination.

Acystomargarodes nuda; Bodenheimer, 1953a: 152. Change of combination.

Coccionella nuda; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Change of combination.

Porphyrophora nuda; Jakubski, 1965: 12. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Cynodon dactylon [MatesoJa1988, Jashen1999], Festuca [Archan1935], Festuca sulcata [MatesoJa1988], Hordeum [Borchs1950b], Hordeum leporinum [Rusano1944], Lolium [Borchs1950b], Poa bulbosa [Jashen1999].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Azerbaijan [Rusano1944, Borchs1950b]; Kazakhstan (Dzhambul Oblast [MatesoJa1988]); Uzbekistan (Samarkand Oblast [Archan1935]).

BIOLOGY: Lives on roots of the host plants. Adult females emerge on May June (Jashenko, 1999).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Archangelskaya (1935), Rusanova (1944), Borchsenius (1950b), Jakubski (1965), Vahedi (2002) and by Vahedi & Hodgson (2007).

KEYS: Vahedi & Hodgson 2007: 31-34 (female) [Porphyrophora species of Palearctic region]; Vahedi 2002: 279-287 (female) [Species of Porphyrophora]; Tang & Hao 1995: 47-48 (female) [Palearctic]; Matesova & Jashenko 1988: 754-755 (female) [Kazakhstan]; Borchsenius 1950b (female) [USSR].

CITATIONS: Archan1935 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 19-21,31]; BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 100-101]; Bodenh1953a [taxonomy: 152]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 41]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 436]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 214]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 12-13]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 45]; Lindin1954 [taxonomy: 615]; MatesoJa1988 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 754-755, 759]; Rusano1944 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 83-84]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 60-61]; Vahedi2002 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 176-181]; VahediHo2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 88-91]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20,21].



Porphyrophora odorata (Archangelskaya)

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes odorata Archangelskaya, 1935: 8. Type data: UZBEKISTAN: at hills near Samarkand, on stems and branches, on Dianthus crinitus. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female, male and first instar. Illust.

Porphyrophora odorata; Borchsenius, 1950b: 41. Change of combination.

Coccionella odorata; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Change of combination.

Porphyrophora odorata; Jakubski, 1965: 36. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Caryophyllaceae: Acanthophyllum spinosum [Jakubs1965], Dianthus crinitus [Archan1935, Jakubs1965], Silene [Jashen1999]. Fabaceae: Medicago [Jakubs1965]. Plumbaginaceae: Acantholimon [Borchs1950b, Jakubs1965].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Borchs1950b, Jakubs1965]; Uzbekistan (Samarkand Oblast [Archan1935, Borchs1950b]).

BIOLOGY: Adults emerge in July - August (Jashenko, 1999).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Archangelskaya (1935), Borchsenius (1950b), Jakubski (1965), Vahedi (2002) and by Vahedi & Hodgson (2007).

KEYS: Vahedi & Hodgson 2007: 31-34 (female) [Porphyrophora species of Palearctic region]; Vahedi 2002: 279-287 (female) [Species of Porphyrophora]; Tang & Hao 1995: 47-48, 603-606 (female) [Palearctic]; Borchsenius 1950b: 40 (female) [USSR].

CITATIONS: Archan1935 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 8-12,29-30]; BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 101]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 40-41]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 437]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 214]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 36-37]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 45]; Lindin1954 [taxonomy: 615]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 61-62]; Vahedi2002 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 182-186]; VahediHo2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 91-93]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 21].



Porphyrophora parieli (Vayssière)

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes parieli Vayssière, 1920: 258. Type data: MOROCCO: South East Morocco, Oasis of Figuig, on root collars of "d'Orge" [=barley], March 1919. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female.

Porphyrophora parieli; Silvestri, 1938: 36. Change of combination.

Margarodes buxtoni parieli; Goux, 1946a: 95. Change of combination and rank.

Porphyrophora polonica parieli; Goux, 1948b: 185. Change of status.

Coccionella parieli; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Change of combination.

Porphyrophora polonica; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Incorrect synonymy; discovered by Jakubski, 1965: 25.

Porphyrophora parieli; Jakubski, 1965: 25. Revived combination.



HOST: Poaceae: Hordeum vulgare [Vayssi1920].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Morocco [Vayssi1920, Jakubs1965].

BIOLOGY: Found on root collars of barley (Vayssière, 1920).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Vayssiere (1920) and by Jakubski (1965).

SYSTEMATICS: Jakubski (1965) indicated that he was "fully convinced of the identity of P. parieli with P. buxtoni Newstead" but he refrained from sinking the latter as a synonym, because he did not study material.

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 102]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 437]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 214]; Goux1946a [taxonomy: 95-96]; Goux1948b [taxonomy: 184-185]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 25]; Lindin1936 [taxonomy: 160]; Lindin1954 [taxonomy: 615]; Morris1928 [taxonomy: 77,78,225]; PicardBa1939 [host, distribution, economic importance: 118-120]; Silves1938 [taxonomy: 36]; Vayssi1920 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 258-259]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 21].



Porphyrophora polonica (Linnaeus)

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus pilosellae Linnaeus, 1758: 456. Type data: EUROPE: on roots of Hieracium pilosella. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Synonymy by Williams, 2007b: 450.

Coccus polonicus Linnaeus, 1758: 456. Type data: EUROPE: Country not indicated, "Habitat in Scleranthi perennis radicibus" [=on roots of perennial Scleranthus]. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Notes: Type material lost (D.J. Williams, 1985, personal communication to Yair Ben-Dov).

Coccus radicum Beckmann, 1790: 3. Type data: EUROPE: on roots of perennial plants, such as Scleranthus, Uva ursi and others. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Synonymy by Jakubski, 1965: 18. Notes: Depository of type material unknown.

Coccionella polonica; Hahnemann, 1793: 1090. Change of combination.

Porphyrophora frischii Brandt in Brandt & Ratzeburg, 1835: 225. Type data: Locality not indicated: on Scleranthus perennis. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Synonymy by Fernald, 1903b: 29.

Porphyrophora polonica; Burmeister, 1835: 78. Change of combination.

Coccus alchemillae Walker, 1852: 1082. Synonymy by Williams & Ben-Dov, 2009: 7-8.

Porphyrophora alchimillae Signoret, 1869: 842. Nomen nudum. Notes: Signoret erroneously credited the authorship of this binomen to Bergen (1748), a pre-Linnean publication.

Porphyrophora fritchii; Signoret, 1869: 854. Misspelling of species name.

Porphyrophora polinica; Signoret, 1869: 854. Misspelling of species name.

Porphyrophora fritchii; Signoret, 1877: 667. Misspelling of species name.

Margarodes (Porphyrophora) polonicus; Cockerell, 1902q: 258. Change of combination.

Coccus alchimillae Fernald, 1903b: 325. Nomen nudum.

Porphyrophora polonica polonica; Goux, 1948b: 185. Change of status.

Coccionella alchimillae Lindinger, 1954: 615. Nomen nudum.

COMMON NAMES: crimson-dyeing scale insect [Cardon2007]; ground pearl [KosztaKo1988F]; Polish carmine scale [Jashen1999a]; polish carmine scale [AAEE1925]; Polish carmine scale insect [Cardon2007]; Polish cochineal scale [KosztaKo1988F]; polish cochineal scale [KosztaKo1988F].



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Hieracium pilosella [Willia2007b]. Boraginaceae: Alkanna [KosztaKo1988F]. Caryophyllaceae: Cerastium [KosztaKo1988F], Dianthus [Jashen1999a], Gypsophila fastigiata [Kohler2008], Herniaria [KosztaKo1988F], Scleranthus [Linnae1758, Jashen1999a], Scleranthus perennis [BrandtRa1833], Spergularia [KosztaKo1988F]. Fabaceae: Caragana [TangHa1995, Tang2000a], Caragana kirshinskii [TangHa1995], Caragana microphylla, Lens culinaris [KaydanUlEr2007], Medicago [Jashen1999a]. Poaceae: Agropyron [TangHa1995, Tang2000a], Festuca [KosztaKo1988F], Koeleria cristata [Jashen1999a]. Rosaceae: Fragaria [KosztaKo1988F], Potentilla [KosztaKo1988F], Potentilla acaulis [Jashen1999a], Potentilla bifurcata [Jashen1999a], Potentilla impolita [Jashen1999a], Potentilla recta [Jashen1999a]. Scrophulariaceae: Melampyrum [KosztaKo1988F].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China (Nei Monggol (=Inner Mongolia) [TangHa1995, Tang2000a]); Czech Republic [Jakubs1965]; France [Jakubs1965]; Germany [Jakubs1965, Kohler2008]; Hungary [Jakubs1965, KosztaKo1978, KozarKiSa2004]; Kazakhstan (Dzhambul Oblast [MatesoJa1988]); Lithuania [Jakubs1965]; Netherlands [Jansen2001]; Poland [Jakubs1965, SimonKa2011]; Slovakia [Lauter2011]; Sweden [Jakubs1965, Gertss2001]; Switzerland [Jakubs1965]; Turkey [KaydanUlEr2007].

BIOLOGY: Kohler (2008) indicated that populations of this species have been declining in Germany since 1918.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Signoret (1876a), Jakubski (1929, 1934, 1965), Borchsenius (1950b), Kawecki & Wernorowna (1975), Kosztarab & Kozar (1978, 1988), Tang & Hao (1995), Tang (2000a), Vahedi (2002), Foldi (2005a) and by Vahedi & Hodgson (2007). Jashenko (1999a) showed that the morphology of the species is very variable, basing the study on 29 populations in forest-steppe and step biotopes of Poland, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Russia and Mongolia.

STRUCTURE: Wouters & Verhecken (1991) compared, by HPLC methods, the constituents of pigments of Porphyrophora polonica (from Poland) and Porphyrophora crithmi (from southern France) and concluded that "according to the pigment analyses, P. polonica is identical to P. crithmi.

SYSTEMATICS: Jashenko (1999a) showed that the morphology of this species is very variable, basing the study on 29 populations in forest-steppe and step biotopes of Poland, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Russia and Mongolia. Williams & Ben-Dov (2009: 42-43), provided this information: scleranthi Virey, 1821a: 523, Coccus. Virey listed this name as the same as Coccus polonicus Linnaeus and credited the name to Fabricius. We have no evidence that Fabricius listed this name. Lindinger (1954:615) added the name authored by La Chenaye- Desbois (1759: 675) to a list of names applied to Coccionella polonica (L.). Current status: We have seen this work but La Chenaye-Desbois was referring to works by Linnaeus pre-1758, later applied by Linnaeus (1758) to Coccus polonicus Linnaeus, now Porphyrophora polonica (Linnaeus) (Family Margarodidae).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Since ancient times this insect was a source for dyes in textile industry (Schmutterer, 1957; Cardon, 2007).

KEYS: Vahedi & Hodgson 2007: 31-34 (female) [Porphyrophora species of Palearctic region]; Vahedi 2002: 279-289 (female) [Species of Porphyrophora]; Tang & Hao 1995: 47-48, 603-606 (female) [Palearctic]; Matesova & Jashenko 1990: 754-755 (female) [Kazakhstan]; Kosztarab & Kozar 1988F: 47 (female) [Central Europe]; Borchsenius 1950b: 38 (female) [USSR].

CITATIONS: Beckma1790 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 3]; BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue, economic importance: 102-104]; Blanch1883 [taxonomy, life history, economic importance: 307-312]; Bodenh1953a [taxonomy: 152]; Bohmer2000 [chemistry: 57-60]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 38]; BrandtRa1833 [taxonomy, description, host: 356]; Buchne1965 [taxonomy, structure: 292-295]; Buchne1966 [life history, structure: 316-331]; Burmei1835 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 78-79]; Cardon2007 [taxonomy, economic importance, life history, host, distribution: 635-646]; Cocker1902q [taxonomy, distribution: 258]; Comsto1881a [taxonomy, economic importance: 440]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 29]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 437-438]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 214]; Foldi2005a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 111-113]; Gavril2003a [host, distribution: 107]; Gertss2001 [distribution: 123-130]; Gertss2008 [taxonomy: 55-58]; Goux1948b [taxonomy: 184-185]; Hahnem1793 [taxonomy: 193]; Jakubs1921 [life history, host, distribution: 155-182]; Jakubs1929 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history, behaviour, ecology: 1076-1096]; Jakubs1934 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 1-502]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history: 18-25]; Jansen2001 [host, distribution: 199]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 46]; Jashen1999a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 103-132]; JashenAm1999 [taxonomy, economic importance: 47-58]; Kaweck1948 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 7]; Kaweck1965a [taxonomy, structure: 205-211]; KaweckWe1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 1-148]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 99]; Kohler2008 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 193-202]; Kohler2009a [host, distribution: 24]; KohlerEi2005 [host, distribution: 160-161]; KohlerEi2006 [host, distribution: 14]; Koszta1987 [economic importance: 218]; KosztaKo1978 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 19]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 52-53]; Koteja2000a [distribution: 172]; KotejaPyVo2003 [taxonomy, structure: 253]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 56]; KozarKoFe2013 [distribution, taxonomy: 56]; LagowsGo2006 [host, distribution, life history: 5-15]; LagowsGoSt2006 [host, distribution, life history: 5-14]; LagowsGoSt2008 [host, distribution, life history: 241-249]; Lauter2011 [description, distribution, host, life history: 77-78]; Lindin1912b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 63,179,181,307,384]; Lindin1935 [taxonomy: 141]; Lindin1939 [taxonomy: 38]; Lindin1954 [taxonomy: 614, 615]; Linnae1758 [taxonomy, description: 456]; MatesoJa1988 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 754, 758-759]; Morris1928 [taxonomy: 5,73,77-78,223]; PicardBa1939 [host, distribution, economic importance: 118-120]; SchmutKlLu1957 [host, distribution, economic importance: 421]; Signor1869 [taxonomy: 854,866-867]; Signor1876a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 382-383]; Signor1877 [taxonomy: 667,672]; Silves1908 [taxonomy: 149]; Silves1938 [taxonomy: 36]; SimonKa2011 [distribution: 234]; Szulcz1926 [host, distribution: 137-143]; Szulcz1931 [host, distribution: 124-135]; Tang2000a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 6-13]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 62-65,547,674]; Targio1868 [taxonomy: 723]; Vahedi2002 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 187-192]; VahediHo2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 93-96]; Virey1821b [taxonomy: 523]; Werner1963 [economic importance: 185-186]; Willia2007b [taxonomy: 450, 427-490]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 7-8,26,37,38,40,42,]; WilliaBeMa2009 [taxonomy: 159]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20-21]; WouterVe1991 [chemistry, host, distribution: 211-225]; Zahrad1959a [taxonomy: 534].



Porphyrophora rhodesiensis Hall

NOMENCLATURE:

Porphyrophora rhodesiensis Hall, 1940: 494. Type data: ZIMBABWE [=RHODESIA]: Inkomo, on roots of Hyparrhenia filipendula; collected 26.iii.1928. Syntypes, female and first instar. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female and first instar. Illust.

Coccionella rhodesiensis; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Change of combination.

Porphyrophora rhodesiensis; Jakubski, 1965: 9. Revived combination.



HOST: Poaceae: Hyparrhenia filipendula [Hall1940].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Zimbabwe [Hall1940].

BIOLOGY: Collected in Zimbabwe from roots of Hyparrhenia filipendula (Hall, 1940).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Hall (1940) and by Jakubski (1965).

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 104-105]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 214]; Hall1940 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 494-496]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 9-12]; Lindin1954 [taxonomy: 615].



Porphyrophora salsa Jashenko

NOMENCLATURE:

Porphyrophora salsa Jashenko, 1994a: 22. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: Central Kazakhstan, 80 km north east of Balkhash, on roots of Psathyrostachys juncea, 14.vi.1978, collected by G. Matesova. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 4721/1. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae: Psathyrostachys juncea [Jashen1994a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kazakhstan [Jashen1994a].

BIOLOGY: Collected from roots of Psathyrostachys juncea in saline land (Jashenko, 1994a). Females emerge on June (Jashenko, 1999).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Jashenko (1994a), Vahedi (2002) and by Vahedi & Hodgson (2007).

KEYS: Vahedi & Hodgson 2007: 31-34 (female) [Porphyrophora species of Palearctic region]; Vahedi 2002: 279-287 (female) [Species of Porphyrophora].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 105]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 214]; Jashen1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 22-23]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 46]; Vahedi2002 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 193-198]; VahediHo2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 96-99].



Porphyrophora sophorae (Archangelskaya)

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes sophorae Archangelskaya, 1935: 12. Type data: UZBEKISTAN: near Samarkand, on roots of Sophora alopecuroides. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female, male and first instar. Illust.

Porphyrophora sophorae; Borchsenius, 1948f: 266. Change of combination.

Coccionella sophorae; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Change of combination.

Porphyrophora sophorae; Jakubski, 1965: 38. Revived combination.

Porphyrophora ningxiana Yang, C.K., 1979: 41, 47. Type data: CHINA: North West China, Ningxia, on roots of Hedysarum scoparium and on roots of "licorice". Syntypes, female, male and first instar. Type depository: Beijing: Institute of Entomology, Academy of Sciences, China. Described: female, male and first instar. Illust. Synonymy by Tang & Hao, 1995: 66.

Porphyrophora xinjiangana Yang, C.K., 1979: 43, 47. Type data: CHINA: Xinjiang, on roots of Sophora flavescens, August 4, 1977. Syntypes, female and first instar. Type depository: Beijing: Institute of Entomology, Academy of Sciences, China. Described: female and first instar. Illust. Synonymy by Tang & Hao, 1995: 66.

COMMON NAMES: Sophora carmine scale insect [Cardon2007].



HOSTS: Fabaceae: Glycyrrhiza [Archan1935, Yang1979], Glycyrrhiza glabra [Jashen1990b], Glycyrrhiza uralensis [TangHa1995], Hedysarum scoparium [Yang1979, TangHa1995], Sophora [TangHa1995, Tang2000a], Sophora alopecuroides [Archan1935, Jashen1990b], Sophora flavescens [Yang1979].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China (Ningxia (=Ningsia) [Yang1979, TangHa1995, Tang2000a], Xingiang Uygur (=Sinkiang) [Yang1979, TangHa1995]); Kazakhstan (Alma Ata Oblast [Jashen1990b], Dzhambul Oblast [MatesoJa1988], Taldy Kurgan Oblast [Jashen1990b]); Uzbekistan (Fergana Oblast [Archan1935], Samarkand Oblast [Archan1935]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Archangelskaya (1935), Borchsenius (1950b), Jakubski (1965), Yang (1973), Jashenko (1990b), Tang & Hao (1995), Tang (2000a), Vahedi (2002) and by Vahedi & Hodgson (2007). Description and illustration of first instar nymph, adult female and adult male by Jashenko (1990b).

KEYS: Vahedi & Hodgson 2007: 31-34 (female) [Porphyrophora species of Palearctic region]; Vahedi 2002: 279-287 (female) [Species of Porphyrophora]; Tang & Hao 1995: 47-48, 603-606 (female) [Palearctic]; Matesova & Jashenko 1988: 754-755 (female) [Kazakhstan]; Borchsenius 1950b: 40 (female) [USSR].

CITATIONS: Archan1935 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 12-15,30]; BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 105-106]; Bodenh1953a [taxonomy: 150]; Borchs1948f [taxonomy, host, distribution: 266]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 40]; Cardon2007 [economic importance, host, distribution: 652-654]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 436,438]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 214,215]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 38-39]; Jashen1990b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 21-31]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 45]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 46]; JashenAm1999 [taxonomy: 49]; MatesoJa1988 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 754-755,758-759]; Tang2000a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 6-13]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 65-68,547-548,675]; Vahedi2002 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 199-204]; VahediHo2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 99-102]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 21]; Yang1979 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 41-43,47].



Porphyrophora tritici (Bodenheimer)

NOMENCLATURE:

Margarodes tritici Bodenheimer, 1941: 81. Type data: TURKEY: Elazig, on root collar of Triticum durum, May 1940. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Bet Dagan: Department of Entomology, The Volcani Center, Israel. Described: female. Illust.

Porphyrophora tritici; Borchsenius, 1950b: 30. Change of combination.

Acystomargarodes tritici; Bodenheimer, 1953a: 152. Change of combination.

Coccionella tritici; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Change of combination.

Porphyrophora tritici; Jakubski, 1965: 26. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Triticum aestivum [MoghadTa2010], Triticum durum [Bodenh1941, Bodenh1953a, Jakubs1965].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [Borchs1950b, SarkisMkKh1990]; Iran [Vahedi2001, MoghadTa2010, TorabiVaHo2010]; Syria [PicardBa1939, Bodenh1953a, Vahedi2001]; Turkey [Bodenh1941, Bodenh1953a, KaydanUlEr2007].

BIOLOGY: Develops one annual generation on wheat in Iran (Vahedi, 2001).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Bodenheimer (1941, 1953a), Borchsenius (1950b), Jakubski (1965), Tang & Hao (1995), Vahedi (2002) and by Vahedi & Hodgson (2007). Jakubski (1965) suggested that the record of P. minuta by Borchsenius & Awtjan from Armenia, and the record of P. hameli on wheat from Syria by Balachowsky are misidentifications of P. tritici.

SYSTEMATICS: Vahedi (2002) and Vahedi & Hodgson (2007) elucidated intraspecific variation in taxonomic characters of the adult female, by presenting four illustrations from various localities in Iran and Turkey.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: A pest of wheat and barley in Turkey, Syria and in Iran (Safar Alizadeh & Bahador, 1987; Vahedi, 2001).

KEYS: Vahedi & Hodgson 2007: 31-34 (female) [Porphyrophora species of Palearctic region]; Vahedi 2002: 279-289 (female) [Species of Porphyrophora]; Tang & Hao 1995: 47-48, 603-606 (female) [Palearctic]; Borchsenius 1950b: 40 (female) [USSR].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue, economic importance: 106-107]; BenDovHa1986 [taxonomy: 31-32]; Bodenh1941 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 81-84]; Bodenh1953a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history: 150-152]; Bohmer2000 [chemistry: 57-60]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 30,40]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 438]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 215]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 26-28]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 45]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 99]; Lindin1954 [taxonomy: 615]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 60]; MoghadTa2010 [host, distribution: 39]; PicardBa1939 [host, distribution, economic importance: 118-120]; SafarABa1987 [economic importance, host, distribution: 1-2,7-9,29-37]; SarkisMkKh1990 [economic importance, life history, taxonomy, host, distribution: 410-412]; SchmutKlLu1957 [host, distribution, economic importance: 421]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 68-69]; TorabiVaHo2010 [host, distribution: 153-162]; Vahedi2001 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance, control: 357-363]; Vahedi2002 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 233-242]; VahediGh2010 [taxonomy, morphology: 76-81]; VahediHo1996 [host, distribution, taxonomy, life history, biological control: 1/2]; VahediHo2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 102-108]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 20]; WilliaFo2005 [taxonomy: 21].



Porphyrophora turaigiriensis Jashenko

NOMENCLATURE:

Porphyrophora turaigiriensis Jashenko, 1989a: 67. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: Alma-Ata Region, Turaigir ridge, 32 km north east of Jalanash, on roots of Festuca sulcata. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 7460/1. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae: Festuca sulcata [Jashen1989a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kazakhstan (Alma Ata Oblast [Jashen1989a]).

BIOLOGY: Collected from roots of Festuca sulcata (Jashenko, 1989a). Females emerge in July (Jashenko, 1999).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female and adult male by Jashenko (1989a). Description and illustration of adult female by Vahedi (2002) and by Vahedi & Hodgson (2007).

KEYS: Vahedi & Hodgson 2007: 31-34 (female) [Porphyrophora species of Palearctic region]; Vahedi 2002: 279-287 (female) [Species of Porphyrophora]; Tang & Hao 1995: 47-48, 603-606 (female) [Palearctic].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 107]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 215]; Jashen1989a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 67-70]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 46]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 69-70]; Vahedi2002 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 243-248]; VahediHo2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 108-110].



Porphyrophora turkmenica Jashenko

NOMENCLATURE:

Porphyrophora turkmenica Jashenko, 1994a: 28. Type data: TURKMENISTAN: Repetek, sand desert, on roots of Euphorbia, 29.x.1980, coll. V. Kaplin. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 17-81. Described: both sexes. Illust.



HOST: Euphorbiaceae: Euphorbia [Jashen1994a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Turkmenistan [Jashen1994a].

BIOLOGY: Cysts found on roots of the host plant; adults emerge August-September (Jashenko, 1994a; 1999).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female and adult male by Jashenko (1994a).

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 107-108]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 215]; Jashen1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 28-31]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 46].



Porphyrophora ussuriensis Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Porphyrophora ussuriensis Borchsenius, 1949b: 337. Type data: RUSSIA: Southern Primorye, Ussuri zone, Mikhailovsk region, Grigorevka, on Potentilla, September 1, 1939, collected Suleimanov. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 462-39. Described: female. Illust.

Coccionella ussuriensis; Lindinger, 1954: 615. Change of combination.

Porphyrophora ussuriensis; Jakubski, 1965: 26. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Cleistogenes [TangHa1995, Tang2000a]. Rosaceae: Fragaria [Danzig1980b], Potentilla [Borchs1949b, Borchs1950b, Danzig1980b].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China (Nei Monggol (=Inner Mongolia) [TangHa1995, Tang2000a]). Palaearctic: Mongolia [Danzig1980b]. Palaearctic: Russia (Primor'ye Kray [Borchs1949b, Borchs1950b, Danzig1980b]).

BIOLOGY: Found on roots of Potentilla sp. (Borchsenius, 1949b), and of Cleistogenes (Tang & Hao, 1995).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Borchsenius (1949b, 1950b), Jakubski (1995), Danzig (1980b), Tang & Hao (1995), Tang (2000a), Vahedi (2002) and by Vahedi & Hodgson (2007).

KEYS: Vahedi & Hodgson 2007: 31-34 (female) [Porphyrophora species of Palearctic region]; Vahedi 2001: 279-287 (female) [Species of Porphyrophora]; Tang & Hao 1995: 47-48, 603-606 (female) [Palearctic]; Borchsenius 1950b: 37 (female) [USSR].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 108]; Borchs1949b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 337-338]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 37]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 100-101]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 438]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 215]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 26]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 46]; Jashen1999a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 103-132]; Lindin1954 [taxonomy: 615]; Tang2000a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 6-13]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 70-71,549,676]; Vahedi2002 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 249-253]; VahediHo2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 110-113].



Porphyrophora victoriae Jashenko

NOMENCLATURE:

Porphyrophora victoriae Jashenko, 1994a: 36. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: South Kazakhstan, Zhambyl Province, Karatau Mountains, north - west of Karatau City, on twigs of Acanthophyllum pungens, 20.v.1988. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 7671. Described: both sexes. Illust.



HOSTS: Brassicaceae: Cardaria draba [Moghad2013a]. Caryophyllaceae: Acanthophyllum pungens [Jashen1994a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Iran [Moghad2013a]; Kazakhstan [Jashen1994a].

BIOLOGY: Adults emerge in July (Jashenko, 1999).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female and adult male by Jashenko (1994a).

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 108-109]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 215]; Jashen1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 36-38]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 46]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 60].



Porphyrophora villosa Danzig

NOMENCLATURE:

Porphyrophora villosa Danzig, 1972a: 270. Type data: RUSSIA: Primorye Kray, Khasanski, on roots of a Leguminous plant, 31.vii.1949, collected N.S. Borchsenius. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Artemisia [Danzig1972a, Danzig1980b]. Fabaceae [Danzig1980b].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Russia (Primor'ye Kray [Danzig1972a, Danzig1980b]).

BIOLOGY: Collected from roots of the host plants (Danzig, 1972a).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Danzig (1972a, 1980b), Vahedi (2002) and by Vahedi & Hodgson (2007).

KEYS: Vahedi & Hodgson 2007: 31-34 (female) [Porphyrophora species of palearctic region]; Vahedi 2002: 279-287 (female) [Species of Porphyrophora]; Tang & Hao 1995: 47-48, 603-606 (female) [Palearctic].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 109]; Danzig1972a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 269-270]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 115-116]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 438]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 215]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 45]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 71]; Vahedi2002 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 254-258]; VahediHo2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 113-116].



Porphyrophora violaceae Matesova & Jashenko

NOMENCLATURE:

Porphyrophora violaceae Matesova & Jashenko, 1988: 755. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: South Kazakhstan, Chikment Oblast, near Kelintube sand dunes, on Lappula semiglabra. Holotype female and first instar. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 2468-3. Described: female. Illust.

Porphyrophora violacea; Foldi, 2001a: 215. Misspelling of species name.



HOST: Boraginaceae: Lappula semiglabra [MatesoJa1988, Jashen1990b].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kazakhstan (Chimkent Oblast [MatesoJa1988, Jashen1990b], Taldy Kurgan Oblast [Jashen1990b]).

BIOLOGY: Found on roots of Lappula semiglabra (Matesova & Jashenko, 1988).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Matesova & Jashenko (1988), Jashenko (1990b), Vahedi (2002) and by Vahedi & Hodgson (2007). Description and illustration of first instar nymph, adult female and adult male by Jashenko (1990b).

KEYS: Vahedi & Hodgson 2007: 31-34 (female) [Porphyrophora species of Palearctic region.]; Vahedi 2002: 279-287 (female) [Species of Porphyrophora]; Tang & Hao 1995: 47-48, 603-606 (female) [Palearctic]; Matesova & Jashenko 1988: 754-755 (female) [Kazakhstan].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 109]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 215]; Jashen1990b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 21-31]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 45]; MatesoJa1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 754-757]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 72-73]; Vahedi2002 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 259-264]; VahediHo2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 116-118].



Porphyrophora yemenica Yang, C.K.

NOMENCLATURE:

Porphyrophora yemenica Yang, C.K., 1979: 43,47. Type data: YEMEN: Sanaa, host plant not indicated; collected October 1973. Syntypes, both sexes. Type depository: Beijing: Institute of Entomology, Academy of Sciences, China. Described: both sexes. Illust.

Porphyrophora yamenica; Tang, 2000a: 13. Misspelling of species name.

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Socotra Island [Yang1979].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Yang (1979).

SYSTEMATICS: Tang (2000a: 13) interpreted that Porphyrophora yemenica Yang, C.K., 1979 " ... is exactly the same one of P. hirsutissima (Hall, 1925), n. syn.".

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 110]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 438]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 215]; Tang2000a [taxonomy: 10,13]; Yang1979 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 43-48].



Termitococcus Silvestri

NOMENCLATURE:

Termitococcus Silvestri, 1901: 4.

Termiticoccus; MacGil1ivray, 1921: 141. Misspelling of genus name.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and definition by Silvestri (1901, 1936), Jakubski (1965) and by Foldi (2005a).

SYSTEMATICS: Silvestri (1936) redescribed the genus, and provided its diagnostic characters.

KEYS: Foldi 2005a: 121 (female) [genera of Margarodidae]; Jakubski 1965: 185 (female) [Margarodidae].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, catalogue: 110]; daSilvCa2012 [description, taxonomy: 311-320]; Fernal1903b [taxonomy: 122]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 217]; Foldi2005a [taxonomy, description, illustration: 113-116]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description: 168-172]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy: 141]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 194]; PicardBa1939 [taxonomy: 118]; Silves1901 [taxonomy, description: 4]; Silves1936 [taxonomy, description: 32-34].



Termitococcus aster Silvestri

NOMENCLATURE:

Termitococcus aster Silvestri, 1901: 4. Type data: PARAGUAY: Tacuru Pucu, in nest of termites, Leucotermitis tenuis (Hag.). Syntypes, female. Type depository: Portici: Dipartimento de Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria di Portici, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Italy. Described: female.

Termiticoccus aster; MacGil1ivray, 1921: 141. Misspelling of genus name.



ASSOCIATE: HYMENOPTERA Blattodea: Leucotermitis tenuis [daSilvCa2012].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Paraguay [Silves1901].

BIOLOGY: Collected in Brazil, from nest of termites, Leucotermitis tenuis (Hag.) (Silvestri, 1901).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description of first instar nymph by Jakubski (1965).

SYSTEMATICS: This species is known from the first instar nymph only.

KEYS: da Silva & Carvalho 2012: 212 (female) [Key to the species of Termitococcinae using characters of the adult female ]; da Silva & Carvalho 2012: 212 (first instar) [Key to the species of Termitococcinae using characters of the first instar].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 110-111]; daSilvCa2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 312-313]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 217]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, distribution: 168-169]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy: 141]; Silves1901 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 4-5]; Silves1936 [taxonomy: 34].



Termitococcus carratoi Silvestri

NOMENCLATURE:

Termitococcus carratoi Silvestri, 1936: 34. Type data: BRAZIL: Mato Groso, near Lagoas, on roots of Gramineae. Syntypes, female and first instar. Type depository: Portici: Dipartimento de Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria di Portici, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Italy. Described: female and first instar. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae [Silves1936].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Mato Grosso [Silves1936]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female and nymphs by Silvestri (1936), Jakubski (1965) and by Foldi (2005a).

KEYS: da Silva & Carvalho 2012: 212 (female) [Key to the species of Termitococcinae using characters of the adult female]; da Silva & Carvalho 2012: 212 (first instar) [Key to the species of Termitococcinae using characters of the first instar].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 111]; daSilvCa2012 [description, illustration, host, taxonomy: 313]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 217]; Foldi2005a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 113-116]; Jakubs1965 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 170-172]; Silves1936 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 33-36].





Genera Removed from Family


Afrodrosicha

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Afrodrosicha Vayssière, 1968: 1493. Notes: Current status: Afrodrosicha Vayssière in Monophlebidae.



Araucaricoccus

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Araucaricoccus Brimblecombe, 1960: 183. Notes: Current status: Araucaricoccus Brimblecombe in Steingeliidae.

Araucaricoccus Gullan & Cook, 2007: 417. Notes: Genus transferred to the Steingeliidae. Current status: Araucaricoccus Brimblecombe in Steingeliidae.



Aspidoproctus

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidoproctus Newstead, 1901: 948. Notes: Current status: Aspidoproctus Newstead in Monophlebidae.

Lophococcus Cockerell, 1901l: 227. Removed from family by Morrison, 1928: 151. Notes: Current status: Aspidoproctus Reyne in Monophlebidae.

Walkeriana (Aspidoproctus) Cockerell, 1902q: 257. Notes: Current status: Aspidoproctus Reyne in Monophlebidae.

Aspidioproctus Sasscer, 1912: 83. Notes: Current status: Aspidoproctus Newstead in Monophlebidae.



Buchnericoccus

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Buchnericoccus Reyne, 1965b: 167. Notes: Current status: Buchnericoccus Reyne in Monophlebidae.



Callipappus

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Callipappus Guérin-Méneville, 1841: 129. Notes: Current status: Callipappus Guérin-Méneville in Callipappidae.



Cancerococcus

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Cancerococcus Koteja, 1988b: 412. Notes: Current status: Cancerococcus Koteja in Pityococcidae.



Coelostomidia

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Coelostoma Maskell, 1880: 294. Removed from family by Cockerell, 1900a: 367. Notes: Current status: Coelostomidia Cockerell in Coelostomidiidae.

Coelostomidia Cockerell, 1900a: 367. Notes: Current status: Coelostomidia Cockerell in Coelostomidiidae.

Coelostomidea MacGil1ivray, 1921: 86. Notes: Current status: Coelostomidia Cockerell in Coelostomidiidae.



Conifericoccus

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Conifericoccus Brimblecombe, 1960: 185. Notes: Current status: Conifericoccus Brimblecombe in Steingeliidae.



Corandesia

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Corandesia Foldi, 2009: 6. Notes: Current status: Corandesia Foldi in Monophlebidae.



Crypticerya

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya (Crypticerya) Cockerell, 1895z: 15. Notes: Current status: Crypticerya (Cockerell) in Monophlebidae.

Icerya (Proticerya) Cockerell, 1895z: 15. Removed from family by Unruh & Gullan, 2008: 24. Notes: The genus Crypticerya has been originally established as subgenus, Icerya (Crypticerya) Cockerell, 1895z: 15 (type species: Icerya rosae Riley & Howard, 1890a, by original designation). It was elevated to genus Crypticerya by Cockerell (1899c: 4). Cockerell (1902q: 237) synonymized it with Palaeococcus Cockerell. Vayssiere (1926: 312) revived the genus Crypticerya. Unruh & Gullan (2008) recognized Crypticerya a valid genus and synonymized with it, the genera Proticerya Cockerell, 1895, and Steatococcus Ferris, 1921. Current status: Crypticerya in Monophlebidae.

Crypticerya Cockerell, 1899n: 4. Notes: Current status: Crypticerya (Cockerell) in Monophlebidae.

Cryticerya Tao, 1999: 2. Notes: Current status: Crypticerya (Cockerell) in Monophlebidae.



Cryptokermes

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Cryptokermes Hempel, 1900a: 380,398. Notes: Current status: Cryptokermes Hempel in Coelostomidiidae.



Desmococcus

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Desmococcus McKenzie, 1942: 7. Notes: Current status: Desmococcus McKenzie in Pityococcidae.



Drosicha

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Drosicha Walker, 1858: 306. Notes: Current status: Drosicha Walker in Monophlebidae.

Drosycha Signoret, 1876: 351. Notes: Current status: Drosicha Morrison in Monophlebidae.

Villigera Karsch, 1877: 16. Removed from family by Ben-Dov & Williams, 2002: 338. Notes: Current status: Drosicha Morrison in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebus (Drosicha) Cockerell, 1902q: 233. Notes: Current status: Drosicha Morrison in Monophlebidae.

Cockerellella MacGillivray, 1921: 71. Removed from family by Morrison, 1928: 163. Notes: Current status: Drosicha Walker in Monophlebidae.

Greenacoccus MacGillivray, 1921: 474. Removed from family by Morrison, 1928: 163. Notes: Current status: Drosicha Morrison in Monophlebidae.

Greenella MacGillivray, 1921: 75. Notes: Mis-spelling of "Greeniella". Current status: Drosicha Morrison in Monophlebidae.

Warajicoccus Kuwana, 1922: 7. Removed from family by Morrison, 1928: 163. Notes: Current status: Drosicha Morrison in Monophlebidae.

Drosiche Kuwana, 1931b: 163. Notes: Current status: Drosicha Morrison in Monophlebidae.



Drosichoides

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Drosichoides Morrison, 1927: 106. Notes: Current status: Drosichoides Morrison in Monophlebidae.



Echinicerya

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Echinicerya Morrison, 1930: 17. Notes: Current status: Echinicerya Morrison in Monophlebidae.



Eomatsucoccus

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Eomatsucoccus Koteja, 1988: 143. Notes: Current status: Eomatsucoccus Koteja in Matsucoccidae.

Eumatsucoccus Foldi, 2001a: 201. Notes: Current status: Eomatsucoccus No valid generic record found in Matsucoccidae.



Etropera

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Etropera Bhatti & Gullan, 1990: 882. Notes: Current status: Etropera Bhatti & Gullan in Monophlebidae.



Gigantococcus

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Gigantococcus Pesson & Bielenin, 1966: 219. Notes: Current status: Gigantococcus Pesson & Bielenin in Monophlebidae.



Gueriniella

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Guerinia Targioni Tozzetti, 1868: 724. Removed from family by Fernald, 1903b: 331. Notes: Current status: Gueriniella Fernald in Monophlebidae.

Gueriniella Fernald, 1903b: 331. Notes: Current status: Gueriniella Fernald in Monophlebidae.

Guerinococcus Berlese, 1909: 498. Removed from family by Morrison & Morrison, 1966: 88. Notes: Cited in the combination Guerinococcus serratulae Fab. Current status: Gueriniella Foldi in Monophlebidae.

Guerinella MacGillivray, 1921: 72. Notes: Current status: Gueriniella Fernald in Monophlebidae.



Gullania

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Gullania Foldi, 1998a: 310. Notes: Current status: Gullania Foldi in Monophlebidae.



Hemaspidoproctus

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Hemaspidoproctus Morrison, 1927: 104. Notes: Current status: Hemaspidoproctus Morrison in Monophlebidae.



Hoffeinsia

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Hoffeinsia Koteja, 2008: 30. Notes: Current status: Hoffeinsia Koteja in Kuwaniidae.



Icerya

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya Signoret, 1876: 351. Notes: Current status: Icerya Signoret in Monophlebidae.

Crossotosoma Douglas, 1890: 79. Removed from family by Morrison, 1928: 219. Notes: Current status: Icerya Signoret in Monophlebidae.

Iceria Hempel, 1912: 57. Notes: Current status: Icerya Signoret in Monophlebidae.

Newsteadiella MacGillivray, 1921: 75. Removed from family by Rao, 1951: 40. Notes: Current status: Icerya Signoret in Monophlebidae.

Auloicerya Morrison, H. {in}: Morrison & Morrison, 1923: 22. Removed from family by Unruh & Gullan, 2008: 41. Notes: The footnote on page 22 of Morrison & Morrison (1923) states "New genera should be credited to the senior author only", therefore the author of Auloicerya is Morrison, H. Current status: Icerya Signoret in Monophlebidae.

Aulo cerya Vayssière, 1926: 306. Notes: Current status: Icerya Signoret in Monophlebidae.

Iceria Kiritchenko, 1932a: 253. Notes: Current status: Icerya Signoret in Monophlebidae.

Pericerya Silvestri, 1939: 648. Removed from family by Morrison & Morrison, 1966: 152. Notes: Current status: Icerya Bhatti in Monophlebidae.

Acerya Rao, 1943: 246. Notes: Current status: Icerya Signoret in Monophlebidae.

Iceria Liegeois, 1944: 165. Notes: Current status: Icerya Signoret in Monophlebidae.

Iceria Kaussari, 1957: 2. Notes: Current status: Icerya Signoret in Monophlebidae.

Perycerya Gomez-Menor Ortega, 1957: 86. Notes: Current status: Icerya Signoret in Monophlebidae.

Iceria Kawecki, 1965a: 206. Notes: Current status: Icerya Signoret in Monophlebidae.

Perycerya Gomez-Menor Ortega, 1968: 563. Notes: Current status: Icerya Signoret in Monophlebidae.

Icerva Hadzibejli, 1983: 55. Notes: Current status: Icerya Signoret in Monophlebidae.

Preicerya Hadzibejli, 1983: 55. Notes: Current status: Icerya Signoret in Monophlebidae.

Ycerya Hadzibejli, 1983: 266. Notes: Current status: Icerya Bhatti in Monophlebidae.

Auloicerya Unruh & Gullan, 2008: 41. Notes: The authorships of Auloicerya is incorrectly attributed to Morrison & Morrison. Current status: Icerya Signoret in Monophlebidae.



Insulococcus

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Insulococcus Bhatti, 1991: 146. Notes: Current status: Insulococcus Bhatti in Monophlebidae.



Jansenus

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Jansenus Foldi, 1997a: 186. Notes: Current status: Jansenus Foldi in Xylococcidae.



Kuwania

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Sasakia Kuwana, 1902: 47. Removed from family by Fernald, 1903b: 32. Notes: Current status: Kuwania Morrison in Kuwaniidae.

Kuwania Cockerell in Fernald, 1903b: 32. Notes: Current status: Kuwania Cockerell in Fernald in Kuwaniidae.

Kuwaia Kuwana, 1917a: 165. Notes: Current status: Kuwania Cockerell in Fernald in Kuwaniidae.

Kuwanaia Lindinger, 1957: 549. Notes: Current status: Kuwania Cockerell in Fernald in Kuwaniidae.



Labioproctus

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Labioproctus Green, 1922: 453. Notes: Current status: Labioproctus Green in Monophlebidae.



Laurencella

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Ortonia Signoret, 1876: 367. Removed from family by Cockerell, 1899j: 259. Notes: Current status: Laurencella Takahashi in Monophlebidae.

Laurencella Foldi, 1995a: 166. Notes: Current status: Laurencella Foldi in Monophlebidae.

Ecuadortonia Ben-Dov, 2004: 385. Notes: Current status: Laurencella (Ben-Dov) in Monophlebidae.

Ecuadortonia Ben-Dov, 2004: 385. Removed from family by Williams & Gullan, 2008: 81. Notes: Current status: Laurencella Foldi in Monophlebidae.

Ecuadortonia Ben-Dov, 2004: 385. Notes: Current status: Laurencella (Ben-Dov) in Monophlebidae.



Lecaniodrosicha

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecaniodrosicha Takahashi, 1930: 29. Notes: Current status: Lecaniodrosicha Takahashi in Monophlebidae.



Llaveia

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Llaveia Signoret, 1876: 370. Notes: Current status: Llaveia Signoret in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebus (Llaveia) Cockerell, 1902q: 233. Notes: Current status: Llaveia No valid generic record found in Monophlebidae.

Llavea Lindinger, 1937: 188. Removed from family by Morrison & Morrison, 1966: 111. Notes: Current status: Llaveia Signoret in Monophlebidae.



Llaveiella

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Llaveiella Morrison, 1927: 108. Notes: Current status: Llaveiella Morrison in Monophlebidae.

Llaveella Lindinger, 1937: 188. Removed from family by Morrison & Morrison, 1966: 111. Notes: Current status: Llaveiella Morrison in Monophlebidae.



Marchalina

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Marchalina Vayssière, 1923a: 427. Notes: Current status: Marchalina Vayssière in Marchalinidae.



Matesovia

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Matesovia Jashenko & Danzig, 1992: 84. Notes: Current status: Matesovia Jashenko & Danzig in Monophlebidae.



Matsucoccus

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Acreagris Koch & Berendt, 1854: 17. Removed from family by Ben-Dov & Koteja, 2002: 380. Notes: Ben-Dov & Koteja (2002) designated this name as a nomen oblitum. Current status: Matsucoccus Cockerell in Matsucoccidae.

Matsucoccus Cockerell, 1909: 56. Notes: Ben-Dov & Koteja (2002) designated this name as a nomen protectum. Current status: Matsucoccus Cockerell in Matsucoccidae.

Americoccus MacGillivray, 1921: 78. Removed from family by Morrison, 1928: 219. Notes: Current status: Matsucoccus Cockerell in Matsucoccidae.

Agreagris Buchner, 1966: 280. Notes: Current status: Matsucoccus Cockerell in Matsucoccidae.

Sonsaucoccus Young, 1980: 186. Removed from family by Tang & Hao, 1995: 95. Notes: Current status: Matsucoccus No valid generic record found in Matsucoccidae.



Melaleucococcus

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Melaleucococcus Bhatti, 1990: 499. Notes: Current status: Melaleucococcus Bhatti in Monophlebidae.



Mimosicerya

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya (Mimosicerya) Cockerell, 1902q: 233. Notes: Current status: Mimosicerya (Cockerell) in Coelostomidiidae.

Clypeococcus Newstead, 1920: 175. Removed from family by Morrison, 1928: 105. Notes: Current status: Mimosicerya (Cockerell) in Coelostomidiidae.

Mimosicerya Morrison, 1928: 104. Notes: Current status: Mimosicerya Hempel in Coelostomidiidae.



Misracoccus

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Misracoccus Rao, 1950a: 115. Notes: Current status: Misracoccus Rao in Monophlebidae.



Modicicoccus

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Modicicoccus Bhatti & Gullan, 1990: 892. Notes: Current status: Modicicoccus Bhatti & Gullan in Monophlebidae.



Monophlebidus

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebidus Morrison, 1927: 104. Notes: Current status: Monophlebidus Morrison in Monophlebidae.



Monophleboides

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophleboides Morrison, 1927: 104. Notes: Current status: Monophleboides Morrison in Monophlebidae.



Monophlebulus

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebulus Cockerell, 1902q: 233. Notes: Current status: Monophlebulus Cockerell in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebus (Monophlebulus) Cockerell, 1902q: 233. Notes: Current status: Monophlebulus No valid generic record found in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebulus Foldi, 2001a: 210. Notes: Current status: Monophlebulus No valid generic record found in Monophlebidae.



Monophlebus

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus Guérin-Méneville, 1827: 99. Notes: Current status: Monophlebus Guérin-Méneville in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebus Burmeister, 1835: 80. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Leach" as author. Current status: Monophlebus Guérin-Méneville in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebus Westwood, 1845: 21. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Leach" as author. Current status: Monophlebus Vayssière in Monophlebidae.

Monophloebus Targioni Tozzetti, 1868: 724. Notes: Current status: Monophlebus Vayssière in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebus Signoret, 1876: 363. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Leach" as author. Current status: Monophlebus Vayssière in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebus Maskell, 1889: 107. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Leach" as author. Current status: Monophlebus Vayssière in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebus Cockerell, 1899n: 2. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Leach" as author. Current status: Monophlebus Guérin-Méneville in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebus Kuwana, 1902: 46. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Leach" as author. Current status: Monophlebus Vayssière in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebus Cockerell, 1902o: 79. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Leach" as author. Current status: Monophlebus Guérin-Méneville in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebus Cockerell, 1902q: 232. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Leach" as author. Current status: Monophlebus Guérin-Méneville in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebus (Monophlebus) Cockerell, 1902q: 232. Notes: Current status: Monophlebus Vayssière in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebus Fernald, 1903b: 15. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Burmeister" as author. Current status: Monophlebus Guérin-Méneville in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebus Brain, 1915: 160. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Leach" as author. Current status: Monophlebus Guérin-Méneville in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebus MacGillivray, 1921: 71. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Burmeister" as author. Current status: Monophlebus Vayssière in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebus Green, 1922: 430. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Burmeister" as author. Current status: Monophlebus Guérin-Méneville in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebus Morrison & Morrison, 1923: 1. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Burmeister" as author. Current status: Monophlebus Vayssière in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebus Vayssière, 1923a: 427. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Burmeister" as author. Current status: Monophlebus Vayssière in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebus Vayssière, 1926: 266. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Burmeister" as author. Current status: Monophlebus Vayssière in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebus Morrison, 1928: 144. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Burmeister" as author. Current status: Monophlebus Vayssière in Monophlebidae.



Nautococcus

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Nautococcus Vayssière, 1939: 124. Notes: Current status: Nautococcus Vayssière in Monophlebidae.



Neocoelostoma

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Neocoelostoma Hempel, 1932: 310. Notes: Current status: Neocoelostoma Hempel in Coelostomidiidae.



Neogreenia

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Neogreenia MacGillivray, 1921: 474. Notes: Current status: Neogreenia MacGillivray in Kuwaniidae.



Neohodgsonius

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Hodgsonius Foldi, 1998a: 312. Removed from family by Foldi, 1999a: 348. Notes: Current status: Neohodgsonius Foldi in Monophlebidae.

Neohodgsonius Foldi, 1999a: 348. Notes: Current status: Neohodgsonius Foldi in Monophlebidae.



Neosteingelia

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Neosteingelia Morrison, 1927: 101. Notes: Current status: Neosteingelia Morrison in Kuwaniidae.



Nietnera

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Nietnera Green, 1922: 454. Notes: Current status: Nietnera Green in Monophlebidae.



Nodulicoccus

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Nodulicoccus Morrison in Morrison & Morrison, 1923: 19. Notes: Current status: Nodulicoccus Morrison in Morrison & Morrison in Monophlebidae.



Palaeococcus

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Leachia Signoret, 1876: 359. Notes: Current status: Palaeococcus Cockerell in Monophlebidae.

Palaeococcus Cockerell, 1894: 36. Notes: Current status: Palaeococcus Cockerell in Monophlebidae.

Palacococcus Lindinger, 1919: 2. Notes: Current status: Palaeococcus Cockerell in Monophlebidae.

Paleococcus Ferris, 1919a: 7. Notes: Current status: Palaeococcus Foldi in Monophlebidae.



Palaeosteingelia

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Palaeosteingelia Koteja & Azar, 2008: 147. Notes: Current status: Palaeosteingelia Koteja & Azar in Steingeliidae.



Paracoelostoma

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Paracoelostoma Morrison, 1927: 102. Notes: Current status: Paracoelostoma Morrison in Coelostomidiidae.



Paramoandesia

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Paramoandesia Foldi, 2009: 13. Notes: Current status: Paramoandesia Foldi in Monophlebidae.

Paramoandesia Foldi, 2009: 13. Notes: Current status: Paramoandesia Foldi in Monophlebidae.



Peengea

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Peengea Bhatti & Gullan, 1990: 904. Notes: Current status: Peengea Bhatti & Gullan in Monophlebidae.



Perissopneumon

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Perissopneumon Newstead, 1900: 250. Notes: Current status: Perissopneumon Newstead in Monophlebidae.

Perissopneumon Fernald, 1903b: 20. Removed from family by Morrison, 1928: 135. Notes: Incorrect synonymy with Stigmacoccus Ferris. Current status: Perissopneumon Newstead in Monophlebidae.

Drosichiella Morrison, 1927: 105. Removed from family by Rao, 1950a: 114. Notes: Current status: Perissopneumon Newstead in Monophlebidae.



Pityococcus

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Pityococcus McKenzie, 1942: 3. Notes: Current status: Pityococcus McKenzie in Pityococcidae.



Platycoelostoma

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Platycoelostoma Morrison in: Morrison & Morrison, 1923: 34. Notes: Current status: Platycoelostoma Morrison in Morrison & Morrison in Callipappidae.



Protortonia

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Protortonia Townsend in Townsend & Cockerell, 1898: 169. Notes: Current status: Protortonia Townsend in Townsend & Cockerell in Monophlebidae.

Prototonia Fonseca, J.P., 1979: 7. Notes: Current status: Protortonia Morrison in Monophlebidae.

Prototornia Foldi, 1998a: 319. Notes: Current status: Protortonia Morrison in Monophlebidae.



Pseudaspidoproctus

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Pseudaspidoproctus Morrison, 1927: 104. Notes: Current status: Pseudaspidoproctus Morrison in Monophlebidae.



Sishania

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Sishania Ferris, 1950: 12. Notes: Current status: Sishania Ferris in Monophlebidae.



Steatococcus

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Steatococcus Ferris, 1921: 69. Notes: Current status: Steatococcus Ferris in Monophlebidae.



Steingelia

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Steingelia Nasonov, 1908: 345. Notes: Current status: Steingelia Nasonov in Steingeliidae.



Stigmacoccus

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Stigmacoccus Hempel, 1900a: 399. Notes: Current status: Stigmacoccus Hempel in Stigmacoccidae.



Stomacoccus

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Stomacoccus Ferris, 1917a: 375. Notes: Current status: Stomacoccus Ferris in Steingeliidae.

Stomatococcus Lindinger, 1937: 196. Removed from family by Morrison & Morrison, 1966: 189. Notes: Current status: Stomacoccus No valid generic record found in Steingeliidae.

Stomacoccus Gullan & Cook, 2007: 417. Notes: Genus transferred to Steingeliinae. Current status: Stomacoccus No valid generic record found in Steingeliidae.



Tessarobelus

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Tessarobelus Montrouzier in Perroud & Montrouzier, 1864: 246. Notes: Current status: Tessarobelus Montrouzier in Perroud & Montrouzier in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebus (Tessarobelus) Cockerell, 1902q: 233. Notes: Current status: Tessarobelus Montrouzier in Perroud & Montrouzier in Monophlebidae.

Tessarobelus Vayssière, 1923a: 427. Notes: Current status: Tessarobelus Vayssière in Monophlebidae.



Ultracoelostoma

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Coelostomidia (Ultracoelostoma) Cockerell, 1902g: 114. Notes: Current status: Ultracoelostoma (Cockerell) in Coelostomidiidae.

Ultracoelostoma Morrison & Morrison, 1922: 11. Notes: Current status: Ultracoelostoma No valid generic record found in Coelostomidiidae.



Vrydagha

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Vrydagha Vayssière, 1957: 1. Notes: Current status: Vrydagha Vayssière in Monophlebidae.



Walkeriana

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Walkeriana Signoret, 1876a: 390. Notes: Current status: Walkeriana Signoret in Monophlebidae.

Walkerana Lindinger, 1937: 198. Notes: Current status: Walkeriana Signoret in Monophlebidae.



Xylococculus

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Xylococculus Morrison, 1927: 101. Notes: Current status: Xylococculus Morrison in Xylococcidae.



Xylococcus

No valid record found for this genus

NOMENCLATURE:

Xylococcus Lôw, 1882b: 274. Notes: Current status: Xylococcus Lôw in Xylococcidae.

Parakuwania Borchsenius, 1960: 144. Removed from family by Tang & Hao, 1995: 90. Notes: Current status: Xylococcus Lôw in Xylococcidae.



Species Removed from Family


Afrodrosicha nimbae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Afrodrosicha nimbae Vayssière, 1968: 1493. Illust. Notes: Current status: Afrodrosicha nimbae Vayssière in Monophlebidae.

Araucaricoccus queenslandicus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Araucaricoccus queenslandicus Brimblecombe, 1960: 183. Illust. Notes: Current status: Araucaricoccus queenslandicus Brimblecombe in Steingeliidae.

Aspidoproctus armatus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidoproctus armatus Newstead, 1911a: 160. Illust. Notes: Current status: Aspidoproctus armatus Newstead in Monophlebidae.

Aspidoproctus bifurcatus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidoproctus bifurcatus Thorpe, 1940: 165. Illust. Notes: Current status: Aspidoproctus bifurcatus Thorpe in Monophlebidae.

Aspidoproctus bouvieri

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidoproctus bouvieri Vayssière, 1914b: 333. Notes: Current status: Aspidoproctus bouvieri Vayssière in Monophlebidae.

Aspidoproctus carinatus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Lophococcus carinatus Lindinger, 1913: 87. Illust. Notes: Current status: Aspidoproctus carinatus (Lindinger) in Monophlebidae.

Aspidoproctus congolensis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidoproctus congolensis Vayssière, 1926: 285. Illust. Notes: Current status: Aspidoproctus congolensis Vayssière in Monophlebidae.

Aspidoproctus ellenbergeri

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidoproctus ellenbergeri Vayssière, 1926: 285. Illust. Notes: The collection data were missing from the original description. The data were copied from the type slides and provided by Daniele Matile-Ferrero (August, 1999). Current status: Aspidoproctus ellenbergeri Vayssière in Monophlebidae.

Aspidoproctus ghesquierei

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidoproctus ghesquierei Vayssière, 1926: 288. Illust. Notes: Current status: Aspidoproctus ghesquierei Vayssière in Monophlebidae.

Aspidoproctus giganteus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidoproctus giganteus Newstead, 1914: 303. Illust. Notes: Current status: Aspidoproctus giganteus Newstead in Monophlebidae.

Aspidoproctus glaber

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Lophococcus glaber Lindinger, 1913: 87. Illust. Notes: Current status: Aspidoproctus glaber (Lindinger) in Monophlebidae.

Aspidoproctus magnicornis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidoproctus magnicornis Thorpe, 1940: 169. Illust. Notes: Current status: Aspidoproctus magnicornis Thorpe in Monophlebidae.

Aspidoproctus maximus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Lophococcus maximus Lounsbury, 1908: 32. Notes: Current status: Aspidoproctus maximus (Lounsbury) in Monophlebidae.

Aspidoproctus mimeuri

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidoproctus mimeuri Vayssière, 1924: 31. Illust. Notes: Current status: Aspidoproctus mimeuri Vayssière in Monophlebidae.

Aspidoproctus mirabilis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Lophococcus mirabilis Cockerell, 1901l: 248. Notes: Current status: Aspidoproctus mirabilis (Cockerell) in Monophlebidae.

Aspidoproctus neavei

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidoproctus neavei Newstead, 1917a: 4. Illust. Notes: Current status: Aspidoproctus neavei Newstead in Monophlebidae.

Aspidoproctus pallidus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus pallidus Newstead, 1908: 3. Illust. Notes: Current status: Aspidoproctus pallidus (Newstead) in Monophlebidae.

Aspidoproctus parvus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Lophococcus parvus Lindinger, 1913: 89. Notes: Current status: Aspidoproctus parvus (Lindinger) in Monophlebidae.

Aspidoproctus pertinax

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Walkeriana pertinax Newstead, 1901: 947. Illust. Notes: Current status: Aspidoproctus pertinax (Newstead) in Monophlebidae.

Aspidoproctus tricornis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Lophococcus mirabilis tricornis Newstead, 1912: 16. Notes: Current status: Aspidoproctus tricornis (Newstead) in Monophlebidae.

Aspidoproctus verrucosus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidoproctus verrucosus Newstead, 1917a: 5. Notes: Current status: Aspidoproctus verrucosus Newstead in Monophlebidae.

Aspidoproctus vuilleti

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Lophococcus vuilleti Vayssière, 1913: 424. Illust. Notes: Current status: Aspidoproctus vuilleti (Vayssière) in Monophlebidae.

Buchnericoccus javanus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Buchnericoccus javanus Reyne, 1965b: 167. Illust. Notes: Current status: Buchnericoccus javanus Reyne in Monophlebidae.

Callipappus australis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Coelostoma australe Maskell, 1890a: 280. Illust. Notes: Current status: Callipappus australis (Maskell) in Callipappidae.

Callipappus farinosus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Callipappus farinosus Fuller, 1897b: 1346. Notes: Current status: Callipappus farinosus Fuller in Callipappidae.

Callipappus immanis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Coelostoma immane Maskell, 1892: 49. Illust. Notes: Current status: Callipappus immanis (Maskell) in Callipappidae.

Callipappus rubiginosus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Coelostoma rubiginosum Maskell, 1893b: 242. Notes: Current status: Callipappus rubiginosus (Maskell) in Callipappidae.

Callipappus westwoodii

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Callipappus westwoodii Guérin-Méneville, 1841: 130. Notes: Current status: Callipappus westwoodii Guérin-Méneville in Callipappidae.

Cancerococcus apterus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Cancerococcus apterus Koteja, 1988b: 412. Illust. Notes: Current status: Cancerococcus apterus Koteja in Pityococcidae.

Coelostomidia deboerae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Coelostomidia deboerae Morales, 1991: 30. Illust. Notes: Current status: Coelostomidia deboerae Morales in Coelostomidiidae.

Coelostomidia jenniferae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Coelostomidia jenniferae Morales, 1991: 32. Illust. Notes: Current status: Coelostomidia jenniferae Morales in Coelostomidiidae.

Coelostomidia montana

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Coelostomidia montana Green, 1929: 370. Illust. Notes: Current status: Coelostomidia montana Green in Coelostomidiidae.

Coelostomidia pilosa

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Coelostoma pilosum Maskell, 1891: 29. Illust. Notes: Current status: Coelostomidia pilosa (Maskell) in Coelostomidiidae.

Coelostomidia wairoensis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Caelostoma wairoense Maskell, 1884: 141. Illust. Notes: Current status: Coelostomidia wairoensis (Maskell) in Coelostomidiidae.

Coelostomidia zealandica

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Coelostoma zealandica Maskell, 1880: 294. Illust. Notes: Current status: Coelostomidia zealandica (Maskell) in Coelostomidiidae.

Conifericoccus agathidis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Conifericoccus agathidis Brimblecombe, 1960: 191. Illust. Notes: Current status: Conifericoccus agathidis Brimblecombe in Steingeliidae.

Conifericoccus invaginatus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Conifericoccus invaginatus Brimblecombe, 1960: 186. Illust. Notes: Current status: Conifericoccus invaginatus Brimblecombe in Steingeliidae.

Conifericoccus notabilis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Conifericoccus notabilis Brimblecombe, 1960: 188. Illust. Notes: Current status: Conifericoccus notabilis Brimblecombe in Steingeliidae.

Corandesia kozari

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Corandesia kozari Foldi, 2009: 7-9. Illust. Notes: Originally described (Foldi, 2009) as Corandesia kozári and replaced by Foldi (2009a) with Corandesia kozari. Current status: Corandesia kozari Foldi in Monophlebidae.

Crypticerya abrahami

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Llaveia abrahami Newstead, 1917a: 1. Notes: Current status: Crypticerya abrahami (Newstead) in Monophlebidae.

Crypticerya bicolor

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Palaeococcus bicolor Newstead, 1917a: 5. Notes: Current status: Crypticerya bicolor (Newstead) in Monophlebidae.

Crypticerya brasiliensis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya brasiliensis Hempel, 1900a: 370. Illust. Notes: Current status: Crypticerya brasiliensis (Hempel) in Monophlebidae.

Crypticerya bursera

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Crypticerya bursera Unruh, 2008: 9. Illust. Notes: Current status: Crypticerya bursera Unruh in Monophlebidae.

Crypticerya cajani

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Palaeococcus cajani Newstead, 1917a: 7. Notes: Current status: Crypticerya cajani (Newstead) in Monophlebidae.

Crypticerya caudatus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Palaeococcus caudatus Newstead, 1917a: 6. Notes: Current status: Crypticerya caudatus (Newstead) in Monophlebidae.

Crypticerya colimensis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya colimensis Cockerell, 1902o: 81. Notes: Current status: Crypticerya colimensis (Cockerell) in Monophlebidae.

Crypticerya ewarti

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya ewarti Newstead, 1896a: 132. Illust. Notes: Current status: Crypticerya ewarti (Newstead) in Monophlebidae.

Crypticerya flava

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya flava Hempel, 1920a: 334. Notes: Current status: Crypticerya flava (Hempel) in Monophlebidae.

Crypticerya flocculosa

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya flocculosa Hempel, 1932: 312. Notes: Current status: Crypticerya flocculosa (Hempel) in Monophlebidae.

Crypticerya genistae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya genistae Hempel, 1912: 55. Notes: Current status: Crypticerya genistae (Hempel) in Monophlebidae.

Crypticerya littoralis littoralis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya (Proticerya) littoralis Cockerell, 1898j: 429. Notes: Current status: Crypticerya littoralis littoralis (Cockerell) in Monophlebidae.

Crypticerya luederwaldti

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya luederwaldti Hempel, 1918: 197. Notes: Current status: Crypticerya luederwaldti (Hempel) in Monophlebidae.

Crypticerya mexicana

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Crypticerya rosae mexicana Cockerell & Parrott in Cockerell, 1899n: 4. Notes: Current status: Crypticerya mexicana Cockerell & Parrott in Cockerell in Monophlebidae.

Crypticerya minima

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya minima Morrison, 1919: 64. Illust. Notes: Current status: Crypticerya minima (Morrison) in Monophlebidae.

Crypticerya montserratensis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya montserratensis Riley & Howard, 1890b: 99. Illust. Notes: Current status: Crypticerya montserratensis (Riley & Howard) in Monophlebidae.

Crypticerya morrilli

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Palaeococcus morrilli Cockerell, 1914a: 110. Notes: Current status: Crypticerya morrilli (Cockerell) in Monophlebidae.

Crypticerya multicicatrices

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Crypticerya multicicatrices Kondo & Unruh, 2009: 95. Notes: Current status: Crypticerya multicicatrices Kondo & Unruh in Monophlebidae.

Crypticerya palmeri

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya palmeri Riley & Howard, 1890b: 103. Illust. Notes: Current status: Crypticerya palmeri (Riley & Howard) in Monophlebidae.

Crypticerya pimentae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Llaveia primitiva pimentae Newstead, 1917a: 2. Notes: Current status: Crypticerya pimentae (Newstead) in Monophlebidae.

Crypticerya rileyi rileyi

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya (Proticerya) rileyi Cockerell, 1895z: 15. Notes: Current status: Crypticerya rileyi rileyi (Cockerell) in Monophlebidae.

Crypticerya rodriguesi

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Crypticerya rodriguesi Castel-Branco, 1952: 23. Illust. Notes: Current status: Crypticerya rodriguesi Castel-Branco in Monophlebidae.

Crypticerya rosae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya rosae Riley & Howard, 1890: 333. Notes: Unruh & Gullan (2008) also designated paralecttype of first-instar nymph. Current status: Crypticerya rosae (Riley & Howard) in Monophlebidae.

Crypticerya similis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya similis Morrison, 1927: 108. Notes: Current status: Crypticerya similis (Morrison) in Monophlebidae.

Crypticerya subandina

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya subandina Leonardi, 1911: 238. Illust. Notes: Current status: Crypticerya subandina (Leonardi) in Monophlebidae.

Crypticerya tabernicola

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Steatococcus tabernicolus Ferris, 1921: 70. Notes: Current status: Crypticerya tabernicola (Ferris) in Monophlebidae.

Crypticerya townsendi

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya (Crypticerya) townsendi Cockerell, 1896o: 201. Notes: Current status: Crypticerya townsendi (Cockerell) in Monophlebidae.

Crypticerya tuberculata

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Steatococcus tuberculatus Morrison, 1941: 140. Notes: Current status: Crypticerya tuberculata (Morrison) in Monophlebidae.

Crypticerya zeteki

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya zeteki Cockerell, 1914: 148. Illust. Notes: Current status: Crypticerya zeteki (Cockerell) in Monophlebidae.

Cryptokermes brasiliensis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Cryptokermes brasiliensis Hempel, 1900a: 398. Illust. Notes: Current status: Cryptokermes brasiliensis Hempel in Coelostomidiidae.

Cryptokermes mexicanus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Cryptokermes mexicanus Morrison, 1927: 103. Notes: Current status: Cryptokermes mexicanus Morrison in Coelostomidiidae.

Cryptokermes mimosae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Cryptokermes mimosae Foldi, 1995a: 173. Illust. Notes: Current status: Cryptokermes mimosae Foldi in Coelostomidiidae.

Desmococcus captivus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Desmococcus captivus McKenzie, 1942: 8. Illust. Notes: Current status: Desmococcus captivus McKenzie in Pityococcidae.

Desmococcus sedentarius

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Desmococcus sedentarius McKenzie, 1942: 9. Illust. Notes: Current status: Desmococcus sedentarius McKenzie in Pityococcidae.

Drosicha afganica

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Drosicha afganica Jashenko, 1994c: 36. Illust. Notes: Current status: Drosicha afganica Jashenko in Monophlebidae.

Drosicha burmeisteri

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus burmeisteri Westwood, 1845: 22. Illust. Notes: Depository of type material unknown. No material was found by Yair Ben-Dov at the Natural History Museum, Oxford, UK, during a visit on December 15, 2002. Current status: Drosicha burmeisteri (Westwood) in Monophlebidae.

Drosicha contrahens

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Drosicha contrahens Walker, 1858: 306. Notes: Current status: Drosicha contrahens Walker in Monophlebidae.

Drosicha corpulenta

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus corpulenta Kuwana, 1902: 46. Illust. Notes: Current status: Drosicha corpulenta (Kuwana) in Monophlebidae.

Drosicha dalbergiae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus dalbergiae Stebbing, 1902: 142. Notes: Current status: Drosicha dalbergiae (Stebbing) in Monophlebidae.

Drosicha frauenfeldi

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Villigera frauenfeldi Karsch, 1877: 16. Notes: Depository of type material unknown. Current status: Drosicha frauenfeldi (Karsch) in Monophlebidae.

Drosicha howardi

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Warajicoccus howardi Kuwana, 1922: 40. Illust. Notes: Current status: Drosicha howardi (Kuwana) in Monophlebidae.

Drosicha jujubae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Rhizobius jujubae Buckton, 1883: 181. Illust. Notes: Current status: Drosicha jujubae (Buckton) in Monophlebidae.

Drosicha koreiensis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Drosicha koreiensis Jashenko, 1994c: 36. Illust. Notes: Current status: Drosicha koreiensis Jashenko in Monophlebidae.

Drosicha leachii

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus leachii Westwood, 1845: 22. Notes: Westwood (1845: 22) referred to an earlier description in Zoological Journal No. 20, p. 452. Current status: Drosicha leachii (Westwood) in Monophlebidae.

Drosicha littorea

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Drosicha littorea Beardsley, 1966: 394. Illust. Notes: Current status: Drosicha littorea Beardsley in Monophlebidae.

Drosicha mangiferae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus stebbingii mangiferae Stebbing, 1903: 332. Illust. Notes: Stebbing (1903: 332) credited the authorship to Green, however the author is Stebbing. Current status: Drosicha mangiferae (Stebbing) in Monophlebidae.

Drosicha maskelli

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus maskelli Cockerell, 1902j: 718. Notes: Current status: Drosicha maskelli Reyne in Monophlebidae.

Drosicha minor

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Drosicha minor Reyne, 1965b: 181. Illust. Notes: Current status: Drosicha minor Reyne in Monophlebidae.

Drosicha palavanica

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Drosicha palavanica Cockerell, 1916: 235. Notes: Current status: Drosicha palavanica Cockerell in Monophlebidae.

Drosicha philippinensis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus philippinensis Green, 1924a: 1. Illust. Notes: Current status: Drosicha philippinensis (Green) in Monophlebidae.

Drosicha pinicola

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Warajicoccus pinicola Kuwana, 1922: 29. Illust. Notes: Current status: Drosicha pinicola (Kuwana) in Monophlebidae.

Drosicha quadricaudata

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus quadricaudatus Green, 1922: 434. Illust. Notes: Current status: Drosicha quadricaudata (Green) in Monophlebidae.

Drosicha saundersii

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus saundersii Westwood, 1845: 22. Illust. Notes: Current status: Drosicha saundersii (Westwood) in Monophlebidae.

Drosicha stebbingii

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus stebbingii Stebbing, 1902: 135. Notes: Current status: Drosicha stebbingii (Stebbing) in Monophlebidae.

Drosicha sumatrensis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Drosicha sumatrensis Green, 1930c: 281. Illust. Notes: Current status: Drosicha sumatrensis Green in Monophlebidae.

Drosicha townsendi

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebulus townsendi Cockerell, 1905f: 127. Notes: Current status: Drosicha townsendi (Cockerell) in Monophlebidae.

Drosicha turkestanica

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Drosicha turkestanica Archangelskaya, 1931: 69. Illust. Notes: Current status: Drosicha turkestanica Archangelskaya in Monophlebidae.

Drosicha variegata

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus variegatus Green, 1922: 433. Illust. Notes: Current status: Drosicha variegata (Green) in Monophlebidae.

Drosichoides haematoptera

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Llaveia haematoptera Cockerell, 1919a: 272. Notes: Current status: Drosichoides haematoptera (Cockerell) in Monophlebidae.

Drosichoides sanguinea

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Llaveia sanguinea Cockerell, 1915: 344. Notes: Current status: Drosichoides sanguinea (Cockerell) in Monophlebidae.

Echinicerya anomala

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Echinicerya anomala Morrison, 1930: 18. Illust. Notes: Current status: Echinicerya anomala Morrison in Monophlebidae.

Eomatsucoccus andrewi

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Eomatsucoccus andrewi Koteja, 1999: 864. Illust. Notes: Current status: Eomatsucoccus andrewi Koteja in Matsucoccidae.

Eomatsucoccus casei

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Eomatsucoccus casei Koteja, 2000: 165. Illust. Notes: Current status: Eomatsucoccus casei Koteja in Matsucoccidae.

Eomatsucoccus popovi

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Eomatsucoccus popovi Koteja, 1988: 147. Illust. Notes: Current status: Eomatsucoccus popovi Koteja in Matsucoccidae.

Eomatsucoccus sukachevae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Eomatsucoccus sukachevae Koteja, 1988: 143. Illust. Notes: Current status: Eomatsucoccus sukachevae Koteja in Matsucoccidae.

Etropera ablusa

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Etropera ablusa Bhatti & Gullan, 1990: 883. Illust. Notes: Current status: Etropera ablusa Bhatti & Gullan in Monophlebidae.

Etropera papuensis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Etropera papuensis Bhatti & Gullan, 1990: 886. Illust. Notes: Current status: Etropera papuensis Bhatti & Gullan in Monophlebidae.

Etropera pilosa

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Etropera pilosa Bhatti & Gullan, 1990: 886. Illust. Notes: Current status: Etropera pilosa Bhatti & Gullan in Monophlebidae.

Etropera sedlaceki

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Etropera sedlaceki Bhatti & Gullan, 1990: 889. Illust. Notes: Current status: Etropera sedlaceki Bhatti & Gullan in Monophlebidae.

Gigantococcus maximus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya maxima Newstead, 1914: 301. Illust. Notes: Current status: Gigantococcus maximus (Newstead) in Monophlebidae.

Gigantococcus nigroareolatus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya nigroareolata Newstead, 1917a: 8. Notes: Current status: Gigantococcus nigroareolatus (Newstead) in Monophlebidae.

Gigantococcus schoutedeni

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya schoutedeni Vayssière, 1926: 337. Illust. Notes: Current status: Gigantococcus schoutedeni (Vayssière) in Monophlebidae.

Gueriniella decorata

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Gueriniella decorata Borchsenius, 1949b: 338. Notes: Current status: Gueriniella decorata Borchsenius in Monophlebidae.

Gueriniella serratulae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus serratulae Fabricius, 1775: 744. Notes: Type material lost (Ziemsen, 1964). Current status: Gueriniella serratulae (Fabricius) in Monophlebidae.

Gullania solomonensis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Gullania solomonensis Foldi, 1998a: 310. Illust. Notes: Current status: Gullania solomonensis Foldi in Monophlebidae.

Hemaspidoproctus cinereus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidoproctus cinerea Green, 1922: 450. Illust. Notes: Current status: Hemaspidoproctus cinereus (Green) in Monophlebidae.

Hemaspidoproctus euphorbiae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Walkeriana euphorbiae Green, 1896: 6. Notes: Current status: Hemaspidoproctus euphorbiae (Green) in Monophlebidae.

Hemaspidoproctus senex

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Walkeriana senex Green, 1896: 6. Notes: Current status: Hemaspidoproctus senex (Green) in Monophlebidae.

Hoffeinsia foldii

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Hoffeinsia foldii Koteja, 2008: 30. Illust. Notes: Current status: Hoffeinsia foldii Koteja in Kuwaniidae.

Icerya acaciae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Auloicerya acaciae Morrison & Morrison, 1923: 26. Illust. Notes: Current status: Icerya acaciae (Morrison & Morrison) in Monophlebidae.

Icerya aegyptiaca

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Crossotosoma aegyptiacum Douglas, 1890: 79. Notes: Type material probably lost (Williams & Watson, 1990). Current status: Icerya aegyptiaca (Douglas) in Monophlebidae.

Icerya albolutea

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya seychellarum albolutea Cockerell, 1898x: 259. Notes: Current status: Icerya albolutea Cockerell in Monophlebidae.

Icerya assamensis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Steatococcus assamensis Rao, 1951a: 154. Illust. Notes: Current status: Icerya assamensis (Rao) in Monophlebidae.

Icerya australis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya rosae australis Maskell, 1894b: 101. Illust. Notes: Current status: Icerya australis Maskell in Monophlebidae.

Icerya bimaculata

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya bimaculata De Lotto, 1959a: 385. Illust. Notes: Current status: Icerya bimaculata De Lotto in Monophlebidae.

Icerya brachystegiae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya brachystegiae Hall, 1940: 488. Illust. Notes: Current status: Icerya brachystegiae Hall in Monophlebidae.

Icerya callitri

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Llaveia callitri Froggatt, 1923: 162. Notes: Current status: Icerya callitri (Froggatt) in Monophlebidae.

Icerya chilensis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya chilensis Hempel, 1920a: 333. Notes: Current status: Icerya chilensis Hempel in Monophlebidae.

Icerya clauseni

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Crypticerya clauseni Rao, 1951a: 144. Illust. Notes: Current status: Icerya clauseni (Rao) in Monophlebidae.

Icerya corticalis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya corticalis Vayssière, 1926: 321. Illust. Notes: Current status: Icerya corticalis Vayssière in Monophlebidae.

Icerya crocea

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya crocea Green, 1896: 7. Illust. Notes: Current status: Icerya crocea Green in Monophlebidae.

Icerya formicarum

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya formicarum Newstead, 1897b: 169. Illust. Notes: Current status: Icerya formicarum Newstead in Monophlebidae.

Icerya hanoiensis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya hanoiensis Jashenko & Danzig, 1992: 90. Illust. Notes: Current status: Icerya hanoiensis Jashenko & Danzig in Monophlebidae.

Icerya imperatae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya imperatae Rao, 1951: 58. Illust. Notes: Current status: Icerya imperatae Rao in Monophlebidae.

Icerya insulans

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya insulans Hempel, 1923: 510. Notes: Vayssiere (1926) listed this species as Icerya insulans Luederwaldt & Fonseca. Current status: Icerya insulans Hempel in Monophlebidae.

Icerya jacobsoni

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya jacobsoni Green, 1913: 316. Notes: Current status: Icerya jacobsoni Green in Monophlebidae.

Icerya jaihind

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Crypticerya jaihind Rao, 1951a: 148. Illust. Notes: Current status: Icerya jaihind (Rao) in Monophlebidae.

Icerya koebelei

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya koebelei Maskell, 1893b: 245. Illust. Notes: Current status: Icerya koebelei Maskell in Monophlebidae.

Icerya kumari

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Crypticerya kumari Rao, 1951a: 152. Illust. Notes: Current status: Icerya kumari (Rao) in Monophlebidae.

Icerya littoralis mimosae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya littoralis mimosae Cockerell, 1898j: 430. Notes: Current status: Icerya littoralis mimosae Cockerell in Monophlebidae.

Icerya littoralis tonilensis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya littoralis tonilensis Cockerell, 1902o: 81. Notes: Current status: Icerya littoralis tonilensis Cockerell in Monophlebidae.

Icerya longisetosa

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya longisetosa Newstead, 1911a: 155. Illust. Notes: Current status: Icerya longisetosa Newstead in Monophlebidae.

Icerya mangiferae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Crypticerya mangiferae Tang & Hao, 1995: 151. Illust. Notes: Current status: Icerya mangiferae (Tang & Hao) in Monophlebidae.

Icerya menoni

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya menoni Rao, 1951: 60. Illust. Notes: Current status: Icerya menoni Rao in Monophlebidae.

Icerya minor

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya minor Green, 1908a: 17. Illust. Notes: Current status: Icerya minor Green in Monophlebidae.

Icerya morrisoni

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya morrisoni Rao, 1951: 64. Illust. Notes: Current status: Icerya morrisoni Rao in Monophlebidae.

Icerya natalensis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Ortonia natalensis Douglas, 1888a: 86. Notes: Current status: Icerya natalensis (Douglas) in Monophlebidae.

Icerya nuda

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya (Crypticerya) nuda Green, 1930c: 282. Illust. Notes: Current status: Icerya nuda Green in Monophlebidae.

Icerya nudata

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya nudata Maskell, 1896b: 405. Illust. Notes: Current status: Icerya nudata Maskell in Monophlebidae.

Icerya pattersoni

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya sulfurea pattersoni Newstead, 1917a: 9. Notes: Current status: Icerya pattersoni Newstead in Monophlebidae.

Icerya paulista

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya paulista Hempel, 1920a: 336. Notes: Current status: Icerya paulista Hempel in Monophlebidae.

Icerya pilosa

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya pilosa Green, 1896: 7. Notes: Current status: Icerya pilosa Green in Monophlebidae.

Icerya pulchra

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Paleococcus pulcher Leonardi, 1907: 1. Illust. Notes: Current status: Icerya pulchra (Leonardi) in Monophlebidae.

Icerya purchasi citriperda

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya purchasi citriperda Hempel, 1920a: 337. Notes: Current status: Icerya purchasi citriperda Hempel in Monophlebidae.

Icerya purchasi crawii

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya purchasi crawii Cockerell, 1897n: 94. Notes: Current status: Icerya purchasi crawii Cockerell in Monophlebidae.

Icerya purchasi maskelli

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya purchasi maskelli Cockerell, 1897n: 94. Notes: Current status: Icerya purchasi maskelli Cockerell in Monophlebidae.

Icerya purchasi purchasi

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya purchasi Maskell, 1879: 221. Illust. Notes: Current status: Icerya purchasi purchasi Maskell in Monophlebidae.

Icerya rileyi larreae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya rileyi larreae Cockerell, 1902o: 82. Notes: Current status: Icerya rileyi larreae Cockerell in Monophlebidae.

Icerya samaraia

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Steatococcus samaraius Morrison, 1927: 109. Notes: Current status: Icerya samaraia (Morrison) in Monophlebidae.

Icerya schrottkyi

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya schrottkyi Hempel, 1900a: 373. Illust. Notes: Current status: Icerya schrottkyi Hempel in Monophlebidae.

Icerya seychellarum cristata

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya seychellarum cristata Newstead, 1908: 9. Notes: Current status: Icerya seychellarum cristata Newstead in Monophlebidae.

Icerya seychellarum seychellarum

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Dorthesia seychellarum Westwood, 1855: 836. Illust. Notes: Current status: Icerya seychellarum seychellarum (Westwood) in Monophlebidae.

Icerya splendida

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya splendida Lindinger, 1913: 84. Notes: Current status: Icerya splendida Lindinger in Monophlebidae.

Icerya sulfurea

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya sulfurea Lindinger, 1913: 85. Notes: Current status: Icerya sulfurea Lindinger in Monophlebidae.

Icerya sumatrana

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya sumatrana Rao, 1951a: 137. Illust. Notes: Current status: Icerya sumatrana Rao in Monophlebidae.

Icerya travancorensis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya travancorensis Rao, 1951a: 140. Illust. Notes: Current status: Icerya travancorensis Rao in Monophlebidae.

Icerya zimmermanni

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya zimmermanni Green, 1932: 32. Notes: Current status: Icerya zimmermanni Green in Monophlebidae.

Insulococcus magnoporus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Insulococcus magnoporus Bhatti, 1991: 146. Illust. Notes: Current status: Insulococcus magnoporus Bhatti in Monophlebidae.

Jansenus burgeri

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Jansenus burgeri Foldi, 1997a: 186. Illust. Notes: Current status: Jansenus burgeri Foldi in Xylococcidae.

Kuwania bipora

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Kuwania bipora Borchsenius, 1960e: 915. Illust. Notes: Current status: Kuwania bipora Borchsenius in Kuwaniidae.

Kuwania minuta

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Kuwania minuta Borchsenius, 1955c: 225. Notes: Current status: Kuwania minuta Borchsenius in Kuwaniidae.

Kuwania oligostigma

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Kuwania oligostigma De Lotto, 1959a: 387. Illust. Notes: Current status: Kuwania oligostigma De Lotto in Kuwaniidae.

Kuwania pasaniae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Kuwania pasaniae Borchsenius, 1960e: 914. Illust. Notes: Current status: Kuwania pasaniae Borchsenius in Kuwaniidae.

Kuwania quercus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Sasakia quercus Kuwana, 1902: 47. Illust. Notes: Current status: Kuwania quercus (Kuwana) in Kuwaniidae.

Kuwania rubra

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Kuwania rubra Goux, 1938c: 466. Illust. Notes: Current status: Kuwania rubra Goux in Kuwaniidae.

Labioproctus poleii

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Walkeriana poleii Green, 1896: 6. Notes: Current status: Labioproctus poleii (Green) in Monophlebidae.

Laurencella colombiana

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Laurencella colombiana Foldi & Watson, 2001: 369. Illust. Notes: Current status: Laurencella colombiana Foldi & Watson in Monophlebidae.

Laurencella marikana

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Laurencella marikana Foldi, 1995a: 169. Illust. Notes: Current status: Laurencella marikana Foldi in Monophlebidae.

Laurencella taunayi

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya taunayi Hempel, 1920a: 340. Notes: Current status: Laurencella taunayi (Hempel) in Monophlebidae.

Laurencella uhleri

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Ortonia uhleri Signoret, 1876: 369. Illust. Notes: Current status: Laurencella uhleri (Signoret) in Monophlebidae.

Lecaniodrosicha lithocarpi

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecaniodrosicha lithocarpi Takahashi, 1930: 30. Illust. Notes: Current status: Lecaniodrosicha lithocarpi Takahashi in Monophlebidae.

Llaveia axin axin

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus axin Llave, 1832: 148. Illust. Notes: Depository of type material unknown. Current status: Llaveia axin axin (Llave) in Monophlebidae.

Llaveia axin dorsalis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Llaveia dorsalis Duges, 1888: 160. Illust. Notes: Depository of type material unknown. Current status: Llaveia axin dorsalis Duges in Monophlebidae.

Llaveia championi

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus championi Cockerell, 1902a: 26. Notes: Current status: Llaveia championi (Cockerell) in Monophlebidae.

Llaveia mexicanorum

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Ortonia mexicanorum Cockerell, 1898j: 430. Notes: Current status: Llaveia mexicanorum (Cockerell) in Monophlebidae.

Llaveia oaxacoensis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Llaveia oaxacoensis Morrison, 1927: 107. Notes: Current status: Llaveia oaxacoensis Morrison in Monophlebidae.

Llaveiella dugmilleri

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Llaveiella dugmilleri Foldi, 1995a: 169. Illust. Notes: Current status: Llaveiella dugmilleri Foldi in Monophlebidae.

Llaveiella taenechina

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Llaveiella taenechina Morrison, 1927: 108. Notes: Current status: Llaveiella taenechina Morrison in Monophlebidae.

Marchalina hellenica

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus hellenicus Gennadius, 1883: 32. Notes: Depository of type material unknown. Current status: Marchalina hellenica (Gennadius) in Marchalinidae.

Matesovia turkmenica

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Matesovia turkmenica Jashenko & Danzig, 1992: 84. Illust. Notes: Current status: Matesovia turkmenica Jashenko & Danzig in Monophlebidae.

Matsucoccus acalyptus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Matsucoccus acalyptus Herbert, 1921: 20. Illust. Notes: Current status: Matsucoccus acalyptus Herbert in Matsucoccidae.

Matsucoccus alabamae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Matsucoccus alabamae Morrison, 1939: 2. Notes: Current status: Matsucoccus alabamae Morrison in Matsucoccidae.

Matsucoccus apachecae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Matsucoccus apachecae Ray & Williams, 1984: 765. Illust. Notes: Current status: Matsucoccus apachecae Ray & Williams in Matsucoccidae.

Matsucoccus apterus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Matsucoccus apterus Koteja, 1984d: 486. Illust. Notes: Current status: Matsucoccus apterus Koteja in Matsucoccidae.

Matsucoccus banksianae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Matsucoccus banksianae Ray & Williams, 1991: 186. Illust. Notes: Current status: Matsucoccus banksianae Ray & Williams in Matsucoccidae.

Matsucoccus bisetosus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Matsucoccus bisetosus Morrison, 1939: 3. Notes: Current status: Matsucoccus bisetosus Morrison in Matsucoccidae.

Matsucoccus boratynskii

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Matsucoccus boratynskii Bodenheimer & Neumark, 1955: 10. Notes: Current status: Matsucoccus boratynskii Bodenheimer & Neumark in Matsucoccidae.

Matsucoccus californicus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Matsucoccus californicus Morrison, 1939: 5. Notes: Current status: Matsucoccus californicus Morrison in Matsucoccidae.

Matsucoccus crenata

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Acreagris crenata Koch & Berendt, 1854: 123. Illust. Notes: The type was deposited in Koenigsberg Collection. It disappeared during the Second World War (Ben-Dov & Koteja, 2002). Current status: Matsucoccus crenata (Koch & Berendt) in Matsucoccidae.

Matsucoccus dahuriensis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Matsucoccus dahuriensis Hu & Hu, 1981: 178. Illust. Notes: Current status: Matsucoccus dahuriensis Hu & Hu in Matsucoccidae.

Matsucoccus degeneratus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Matsucoccus degeneratus Morrison, 1939: 6. Notes: Current status: Matsucoccus degeneratus Morrison in Matsucoccidae.

Matsucoccus eduli

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Matsucoccus eduli Morrison, 1939: 7. Notes: Current status: Matsucoccus eduli Morrison in Matsucoccidae.

Matsucoccus electrinus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Matsucoccus electrinus Koteja, 1984d: 481. Illust. Notes: Current status: Matsucoccus electrinus Koteja in Matsucoccidae.

Matsucoccus fasciculensis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Matsucoccus fasciculensis Herbert, 1919: 157. Illust. Notes: Current status: Matsucoccus fasciculensis Herbert in Matsucoccidae.

Matsucoccus feytaudi

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Matsucoccus feytaudi Ducasse, 1941: 217. Notes: Current status: Matsucoccus feytaudi Ducasse in Matsucoccidae.

Matsucoccus gallicolus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Matsucoccus gallicolus Morrison, 1939: 9. Notes: Current status: Matsucoccus gallicolus Morrison in Matsucoccidae.

Matsucoccus josephi

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Matsucoccus josephi Bodenheimer & Harpaz {in}: Bodenheimer & Neumark, 1955: 12. Illust. Notes: Current status: Matsucoccus josephi Bodenheimer & Harpaz in: Bodenheimer & Neumark in Matsucoccidae.

Matsucoccus koraiensis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Matsucoccus koraiensis Young & Hu, in: Young, Hu & Ren, 1976: 203. Illust. Notes: Current status: Matsucoccus koraiensis Young & Hu, in: Young, Hu & Ren in Matsucoccidae.

Matsucoccus larssoni

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Matsucoccus larssoni Koteja, 1984d: 470. Illust. Notes: Current status: Matsucoccus larssoni Koteja in Matsucoccidae.

Matsucoccus leiophyllae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Matsucoccus leiophyllae Ray & Williams, 1984: 766. Illust. Notes: Current status: Matsucoccus leiophyllae Ray & Williams in Matsucoccidae.

Matsucoccus liaoningensis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Matsucoccus liaoningensis Tang, 1978: 164. Illust. Notes: Current status: Matsucoccus liaoningensis Tang in Matsucoccidae.

Matsucoccus macrocicatrices

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Matsucoccus macrocicatrices Richards, 1960: 179. Illust. Notes: Current status: Matsucoccus macrocicatrices Richards in Matsucoccidae.

Matsucoccus massonianae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Matsucoccus massonianae Young & Hu, in: Young, Hu & Ren, 1976: 202. Illust. Notes: Current status: Matsucoccus massonianae Young & Hu, in: Young, Hu & Ren in Matsucoccidae.

Matsucoccus matsumurae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Xylococcus matsumurae Kuwana, 1905: 91. Illust. Notes: The type-series was destroyed in an earthquake in 1923 (Kuwana, 1925; Booth & Gullan, 2006). Current status: Matsucoccus matsumurae (Kuwana) in Matsucoccidae.

Matsucoccus monophyllae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Matsucoccus monophyllae McKenzie, 1941: 2. Illust. Notes: Current status: Matsucoccus monophyllae McKenzie in Matsucoccidae.

Matsucoccus mugo

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Matsucoccus mugo Siewniak, 1970: 168. Illust. Notes: Depository of type material unknown. Current status: Matsucoccus mugo Siewniak in Matsucoccidae.

Matsucoccus oocarpae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Matsucoccus oocarpae Ray & Williams, 1991: 188. Illust. Notes: Current status: Matsucoccus oocarpae Ray & Williams in Matsucoccidae.

Matsucoccus paucicicatrices

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Matsucoccus paucicicatrices Morrison, 1939: 45. Notes: Current status: Matsucoccus paucicicatrices Morrison in Matsucoccidae.

Matsucoccus pini

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Matsucoccus pini Green, 1925: 34. Illust. Notes: Current status: Matsucoccus pini Green in Matsucoccidae.

Matsucoccus pinnatus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus pinnatus Germar & Berendt, 1856: 3. Illust. Notes: The type was deposited in Koenigsberg Collection. It disappeared during the Second World War; Jan Koteja, personal information to Yair Ben-Dov; February 2001. Current status: Matsucoccus pinnatus (Germar & Berendt) in Matsucoccidae.

Matsucoccus saxonicus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Matsucoccus saxonicus Koteja, 1986: 56. Illust. Notes: Current status: Matsucoccus saxonicus Koteja in Matsucoccidae.

Matsucoccus secretus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Matsucoccus secretus Morrison, 1939: 14. Notes: Current status: Matsucoccus secretus Morrison in Matsucoccidae.

Matsucoccus shennongjiaensis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Matsucoccus shennongjiaensis Young & Lu in: Young, Lu & Zhan, 1986: 195. Illust. Notes: Current status: Matsucoccus shennongjiaensis Young & Lu in: Young, Lu & Zhan in Matsucoccidae.

Matsucoccus sinensis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Matsucoccus sinensis Chen, F.G., 1937: 382. Illust. Notes: The author stated that the types were in his collection. Current status: Matsucoccus sinensis Chen, F.G. in Matsucoccidae.

Matsucoccus subdegeneratus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Matsucoccus subdegeneratus Morrison, 1939: 17. Notes: Current status: Matsucoccus subdegeneratus Morrison in Matsucoccidae.

Matsucoccus vexillorum

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Matsucoccus vexillorum Morrison, 1939: 18. Notes: Current status: Matsucoccus vexillorum Morrison in Matsucoccidae.

Matsucoccus yunnanensis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Matsucoccus yunnanensis Ferris, 1950: 12. Illust. Notes: Current status: Matsucoccus yunnanensis Ferris in Matsucoccidae.

Matsucoccus yunnansonsaus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Matsucoccus yunnansonsaus Young & Hu, in: Young, Hu & Ren, 1980: 46. Illust. Notes: Current status: Matsucoccus yunnansonsaus Young & Hu, in: Young, Hu & Ren in Matsucoccidae.

Melaleucococcus hirtipectus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Melaleucococcus hirtipectus Bhatti, 1990: 511. Illust. Notes: Current status: Melaleucococcus hirtipectus Bhatti in Monophlebidae.

Melaleucococcus nodosus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Melaleucococcus nodosus Bhatti, 1990: 509. Illust. Notes: Current status: Melaleucococcus nodosus Bhatti in Monophlebidae.

Melaleucococcus notoporosus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Melaleucococcus notoporosus Bhatti, 1990: 514. Illust. Notes: Current status: Melaleucococcus notoporosus Bhatti in Monophlebidae.

Melaleucococcus phacelopilus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Melaleucococcus phacelopilus Bhatti, 1990: 501. Illust. Notes: Current status: Melaleucococcus phacelopilus Bhatti in Monophlebidae.

Mimosicerya hempeli

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya (Crypticerya) hempeli Cockerell, 1899c: 43. Notes: Current status: Mimosicerya hempeli (Cockerell) in Coelostomidiidae.

Mimosicerya williamsi

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Mimosicerya williamsi Foldi, 2009: 28. Illust. Notes: Current status: Mimosicerya williamsi Foldi in Coelostomidiidae.

Misracoccus assamensis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Misracoccus assamensis Rao, 1950a: 117. Illust. Notes: Current status: Misracoccus assamensis Rao in Monophlebidae.

Misracoccus convexus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Lophococcus convexus Morrison, 1920: 153. Illust. Notes: Current status: Misracoccus convexus (Morrison) in Monophlebidae.

Misracoccus serrei

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidoproctus serrei Vayssière, 1914b: 334. Notes: Current status: Misracoccus serrei (Vayssière) in Monophlebidae.

Misracoccus xyliae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidoproctus xyliae Ramakrishna Ayyar, 1930: 69. Illust. Notes: Current status: Misracoccus xyliae (Ramakrishna Ayyar) in Monophlebidae.

Modicicoccus gagnei

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Modicicoccus gagnei Bhatti & Gullan, 1990: 893. Illust. Notes: Current status: Modicicoccus gagnei Bhatti & Gullan in Monophlebidae.

Modicicoccus kaindiensis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Modicicoccus kaindiensis Bhatti & Gullan, 1990: 895. Illust. Notes: Current status: Modicicoccus kaindiensis Bhatti & Gullan in Monophlebidae.

Modicicoccus monticolus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Modicicoccus monticolus Bhatti & Gullan, 1990: 895. Illust. Notes: Current status: Modicicoccus monticolus Bhatti & Gullan in Monophlebidae.

Modicicoccus newsteadi

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Modicicoccus newsteadi Bhatti & Gullan, 1990: 899. Illust. Notes: Current status: Modicicoccus newsteadi Bhatti & Gullan in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebidus indicus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebidus indicus Morrison, 1927: 104. Notes: Current status: Monophlebidus indicus Morrison in Monophlebidae.

Monophleboides africanus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus africanus Newstead, 1912: 15. Illust. Notes: Current status: Monophleboides africanus (Newstead) in Monophlebidae.

Monophleboides arachidis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophleboides arachidis Vayssière, 1957: 6. Illust. Notes: Current status: Monophleboides arachidis Vayssière in Monophlebidae.

Monophleboides gymnocarpi

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus gymnocarpi Hall, 1926a: 1. Illust. Notes: Current status: Monophleboides gymnocarpi (Hall) in Monophlebidae.

Monophleboides hirtus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus hirtus Brain, 1915: 165. Illust. Notes: Current status: Monophleboides hirtus (Brain) in Monophlebidae.

Monophleboides sjostedti

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus sjostedti Newstead, 1908: 2. Illust. Notes: Current status: Monophleboides sjostedti (Newstead) in Monophlebidae.

Monophleboides suaedae halocnemae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus suaedae halocnemae Vayssière, 1927: 107. Notes: Current status: Monophleboides suaedae halocnemae (Vayssière) in Monophlebidae.

Monophleboides suaedae suaedae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus suaedae Vayssière, 1924: 29. Illust. Notes: Current status: Monophleboides suaedae suaedae (Vayssière) in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebulus comperei

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebulus comperei Morrison & Morrison, 1923: 12. Illust. Notes: Current status: Monophlebulus comperei Morrison & Morrison in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebulus crawfordi

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus crawfordi Maskell, 1889: 108. Illust. Notes: Current status: Monophlebulus crawfordi (Maskell) in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebulus enarotalicus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebulus enarotalicus Bhatti & Gullan, 1990: 901. Illust. Notes: Current status: Monophlebulus enarotalicus Bhatti & Gullan in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebulus fuscus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus fuscus Maskell, 1893b: 244. Illust. Notes: Current status: Monophlebulus fuscus (Maskell) in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebulus gressitti

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebulus gressitti Bhatti & Gullan, 1990: 903. Illust. Notes: Current status: Monophlebulus gressitti Bhatti & Gullan in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebulus montanus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebulus montanus Reyne, 1965b: 186. Illust. Notes: Current status: Monophlebulus montanus Reyne in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebulus pilosior

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus crawfordi pilosior Maskell, 1893b: 244. Notes: Current status: Monophlebulus pilosior (Maskell) in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebulus subterraneus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebulus subterraneus Morrison & Morrison, 1923: 14. Illust. Notes: Current status: Monophlebulus subterraneus Morrison & Morrison in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebulus toxopei

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebulus toxopei Reyne, 1965b: 185. Illust. Notes: Current status: Monophlebulus toxopei Reyne in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebus atripennis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus atripennis Burmeister, 1835: 80. Notes: Depository of type material unknown. Current status: Monophlebus atripennis Burmeister in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebus dumonti

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus dumonti Vayssière, 1932: 24. Illust. Notes: Current status: Monophlebus dumonti Vayssière in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebus fabricii

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus fabricii Westwood, 1845: 22. Notes: Current status: Monophlebus fabricii Westwood in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebus hoggarensis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus hoggarensis Vayssière, 1932: 25. Illust. Notes: Current status: Monophlebus hoggarensis Vayssière in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebus illigeri

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus illigeri Westwood, 1845: 22. Illust. Notes: Depository of type material unknown. Current status: Monophlebus illigeri Westwood in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebus irregularis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus irregularis Germar & Berendt in: Berendt, 1856: 4. Illust. Notes: The type was deposited in Koenigsberg Collection. It disappeared during the Second World War (Jan Koteja, personal information to Yair Ben-Dov; February 2001. Current status: Monophlebus irregularis Germar & Berendt in: Berendt in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebus niveus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus niveus Hempel, 1920a: 331. Notes: Current status: Monophlebus niveus Hempel in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebus raddoni

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus raddoni Westwood, 1845: 22. Illust. Notes: Depository of type material unknown. Current status: Monophlebus raddoni Westwood in Monophlebidae.

Monophlebus simplex

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus simplex Scudder, 1890: 242. Notes: Current status: Monophlebus simplex Scudder in Monophlebidae.

Nautococcus schraderae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Nautococcus schraderae Vayssière, 1939: 124. Illust. Notes: Current status: Nautococcus schraderae Vayssière in Monophlebidae.

Neocoelostoma xerophila

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Neocoelostoma xerophila Hempel, 1932: 311. Notes: Current status: Neocoelostoma xerophila Hempel in Coelostomidiidae.

Neogreenia osmanthus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Kuwania osmanthus Yang & Hu, 1994: 29. Notes: Current status: Neogreenia osmanthus (Yang & Hu) in Kuwaniidae.

Neogreenia sophorica

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Neogreenia sophorica Wu {in} Wu & Cheng, 2006: 62. Notes: Current status: Neogreenia sophorica Wu in Wu & Cheng in Kuwaniidae.

Neogreenia zeylanica

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus zeylanicus Green, 1896: 6. Notes: Current status: Neogreenia zeylanica (Green) in Kuwaniidae.

Neogreenia zizyphi

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Neogreenia zizyphi Tang in Tang & Hao, 1995: 82. Notes: Current status: Neogreenia zizyphi Tang in Tang & Hao in Kuwaniidae.

Neohodgsonius cassicola

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Hodgsonius cassicola Foldi, 1998a: 312. Illust. Notes: Current status: Neohodgsonius cassicola (Foldi) in Monophlebidae.

Neosteingelia texana

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Neosteingelia texana Morrison, 1927: 101. Notes: Current status: Neosteingelia texana Morrison in Kuwaniidae.

Nietnera pundaluoya

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Nietnera pundaluoya Green, 1922: 455. Illust. Notes: Current status: Nietnera pundaluoya Green in Monophlebidae.

Nodulicoccus levis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus crawfordi levis Maskell, 1893b: 244. Notes: Current status: Nodulicoccus levis (Maskell) in Monophlebidae.

Palaeococcus brasiliensis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus brasiliensis Walker, 1852: 1089. Notes: Current status: Palaeococcus brasiliensis (Walker) in Monophlebidae.

Palaeococcus fuscipennis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus fuscipennis Burmeister, 1835: 80. Illust. Notes: Depository of type series unknown. Current status: Palaeococcus fuscipennis (Burmeister) in Monophlebidae.

Palaeococcus tabaybae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Palacococcus tabaybae Lindinger, 1919: 2. Notes: Type material probably lost; see Weidner & Wagner (1968), Williams (1986). Current status: Palaeococcus tabaybae (Lindinger) in Monophlebidae.

Palaeosteingelia acrai

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Palaeosteingelia acrai Koteja & Azar, 2008: 148. Illust. Notes: Current status: Palaeosteingelia acrai Koteja & Azar in Steingeliidae.

Palaeosteingelia caudata

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Palaeosteingelia caudata Koteja & Azar, 2008: 154. Illust. Notes: Current status: Palaeosteingelia caudata Koteja & Azar in Steingeliidae.

Paracoelostoma peruviana

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Paracoelostoma peruviana Morrison, 1927: 103. Notes: Current status: Paracoelostoma peruviana Morrison in Coelostomidiidae.

Paramoandesia colombiensis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Paramoandesia colombiensis Foldi, 2009: 16-21. Illust. Notes: Current status: Paramoandesia colombiensis Foldi in Monophlebidae.

Paramoandesia ecuadorensis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Paramoandesia ecuadorensis Foldi, 2009: 21-25. Illust. Notes: Current status: Paramoandesia ecuadorensis Foldi in Monophlebidae.

Peengea affinis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Peengea affinis Bhatti & Gullan, 1990: 906. Illust. Notes: Current status: Peengea affinis Bhatti & Gullan in Monophlebidae.

Perissopneumon cellulosa

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Drosichiella cellulosa Takahashi, 1942: 4. Illust. Notes: Current status: Perissopneumon cellulosa (Takahashi) in Monophlebidae.

Perissopneumon ferox

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Perissopneumon ferox Newstead, 1900: 250. Illust. Notes: Current status: Perissopneumon ferox Newstead in Monophlebidae.

Perissopneumon phyllanthi

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus (Drosicha) phyllanthi Green, 1923c: 169. Illust. Notes: Current status: Perissopneumon phyllanthi (Green) in Monophlebidae.

Perissopneumon tamarindus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus tamarindus Green, 1908a: 17. Notes: Current status: Perissopneumon tamarindus (Green) in Monophlebidae.

Perissopneumon tectonae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Drosichiella tectonae Morrison, 1927: 105. Notes: Current status: Perissopneumon tectonae (Morrison) in Monophlebidae.

Pityococcus deleoni

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Pityococcus deleoni McKenzie, 1942: 5. Illust. Notes: Current status: Pityococcus deleoni McKenzie in Pityococcidae.

Pityococcus ferrisi

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Pityococcus ferrisi McKenzie, 1942: 4. Illust. Notes: Current status: Pityococcus ferrisi McKenzie in Pityococcidae.

Pityococcus rugulosus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Pityococcus rugulosus McKenzie, 1942: 6. Illust. Notes: Current status: Pityococcus rugulosus McKenzie in Pityococcidae.

Platycoelostoma compressa

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Coelostoma compressum Maskell, 1892: 45. Illust. Notes: Current status: Platycoelostoma compressa (Maskell) in Callipappidae.

Platycoelostoma rauppi

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Platycoelostoma rauppi Foldi, 2009: 34-37. Illust. Notes: Current status: Platycoelostoma rauppi Foldi in Callipappidae.

Platycoelostoma tasmanicum

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Platycoelostoma tasmanicum Gullan & Sjaarda, 2001: 267. Illust. Notes: Current status: Platycoelostoma tasmanicum Gullan & Sjaarda in Callipappidae.

Protortonia azteca

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Marchalina azteca Ferris, 1925: 230. Illust. Notes: Current status: Protortonia azteca (Ferris) in Monophlebidae.

Protortonia cacti

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus cacti Linnaeus, 1758: 457. Notes: Type material lost. Current status: Protortonia cacti (Linnaeus) in Monophlebidae.

Protortonia crotonis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Protortonia crotonis Reyne, 1964: 122. Illust. Notes: Current status: Protortonia crotonis Reyne in Monophlebidae.

Protortonia ecuadorensis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Protortonia ecuadorensis Foldi, 2006: 102. Illust. Notes: Current status: Protortonia ecuadorensis Foldi in Monophlebidae.

Protortonia navesi

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Protortonia navesi Fonseca, J.P., 1979: 7. Illust. Notes: Current status: Protortonia navesi Fonseca, J.P. in Monophlebidae.

Protortonia primitiva

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Ortonia primitiva Townsend in: Townsend & Cockerell, 1898: 169. Notes: Current status: Protortonia primitiva (Townsend in: Townsend & Cockerell) in Monophlebidae.

Protortonia quernea

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Protortonia quernea Williams & Gullan, 2008: 122. Notes: Current status: Protortonia quernea Williams & Gullan in Monophlebidae.

Pseudaspidoproctus acaciae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus acaciae Joubert, 1925: 119. Illust. Notes: Current status: Pseudaspidoproctus acaciae (Joubert) in Monophlebidae.

Pseudaspidoproctus africana

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Walkeriana africana Newstead, 1908: 4. Illust. Notes: Current status: Pseudaspidoproctus africana (Newstead) in Monophlebidae.

Pseudaspidoproctus fortis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus fortis Cockerell, 1901l: 224. Notes: Current status: Pseudaspidoproctus fortis (Cockerell) in Monophlebidae.

Pseudaspidoproctus fulleri

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus fulleri Cockerell, 1901l: 223. Notes: Current status: Pseudaspidoproctus fulleri (Cockerell) in Monophlebidae.

Pseudaspidoproctus gramineus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Pseudaspidoproctus gramineus Jashenko & Danzig, 1992: 89. Illust. Notes: Current status: Pseudaspidoproctus gramineus Jashenko & Danzig in Monophlebidae.

Pseudaspidoproctus hyphaeniacus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidoproctus hyphaeniacus Hall, 1925: 1. Illust. Notes: Current status: Pseudaspidoproctus hyphaeniacus (Hall) in Monophlebidae.

Pseudaspidoproctus madecassus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Pseudaspidoproctus madecassus Mamet, 1951: 230. Illust. Notes: Current status: Pseudaspidoproctus madecassus Mamet in Monophlebidae.

Pseudaspidoproctus vayssieriellus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Pseudaspidoproctus vayssieriellus Ghesquiere, 1943: 395. Notes: Current status: Pseudaspidoproctus vayssieriellus Ghesquiere in Monophlebidae.

Pseudaspidoproctus zimmermanni

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Perissopneumon zimmermanni Newstead, 1911a: 157. Notes: Current status: Pseudaspidoproctus zimmermanni (Newstead) in Monophlebidae.

Sishania flavopilata

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Sishania flavopilata Tang & Hao, 1995: 144. Illust. Notes: Current status: Sishania flavopilata Tang & Hao in Monophlebidae.

Sishania nigropilata

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Sishania nigropilata Ferris, 1950: 13. Illust. Notes: Current status: Sishania nigropilata Ferris in Monophlebidae.

Steatococcus euphorbiae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Icerya euphorbiae Brain, 1915: 167. Illust. Notes: Current status: Steatococcus euphorbiae (Brain) in Monophlebidae.

Steatococcus gowdeyi

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidoproctus gowdeyi Newstead, 1920: 177. Notes: Current status: Steatococcus gowdeyi (Newstead) in Monophlebidae.

Steatococcus madagascariensis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Steatococcus madagascariensis Mamet, 1951: 233. Illust. Notes: Current status: Steatococcus madagascariensis Mamet in Monophlebidae.

Steatococcus theobromae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Palaeococcus theobromae Newstead, 1908a: 154. Illust. Notes: Current status: Steatococcus theobromae (Newstead) in Monophlebidae.

Steingelia cretacea

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Steingelia cretacea Koteja, 2000: 168. Illust. Notes: Current status: Steingelia cretacea Koteja in Steingeliidae.

Steingelia gorodetskia

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Steingelia gorodetskia Nasonov, 1908: 345. Illust. Notes: Current status: Steingelia gorodetskia Nasonov in Steingeliidae.

Stigmacoccus asper

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Stigmacoccus asper Hempel, 1900a: 400. Illust. Notes: Current status: Stigmacoccus asper Hempel in Stigmacoccidae.

Stigmacoccus garmilleri

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Stigmacoccus garmilleri Foldi, 1995a: 173. Illust. Notes: Current status: Stigmacoccus garmilleri Foldi in Stigmacoccidae.



HOSTS: Fagaceae: Quercus affinis Schweid. [GamperKoGa2011], Quercus corrugata Hook [GamperKoGa2011], Quercus laurina Bonpl. [GamperKoGa2011], Quercus xalapensis Bonpl. [GamperKoGa2011], Quescus salicifolia Nee [GamperKoGa2011].

CITATIONS: GamperKoGa2011 [distribution, ecology, structure: 1-14].

Stigmacoccus paranaensis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Stigmacoccus paranaensis Foldi, 2006: 108. Illust. Notes: Current status: Stigmacoccus paranaensis Foldi in Stigmacoccidae.

Stomacoccus capsulatus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Stomacoccus capsulatus Ferris, 1941c: 29. Illust. Notes: Current status: Stomacoccus capsulatus Ferris in Steingeliidae.

Stomacoccus platani

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Stomacoccus platani Ferris, 1917a: 375. Illust. Notes: Current status: Stomacoccus platani Ferris in Steingeliidae.

Tessarobelus guerini

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Tessarobelus guerini Montrouzier in Perroud & Montrouzier, 1864: 247. Illust. Notes: The type material of Montrouzier (1864) was lost (Miller, 1971a). Current status: Tessarobelus guerini Montrouzier in Perroud & Montrouzier in Monophlebidae.

Tessarobelus immaturus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Tessarobelus immaturus Bhatti, 1991: 138. Illust. Notes: Current status: Tessarobelus immaturus Bhatti in Monophlebidae.

Tessarobelus inusitatus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Tessarobelus inusitatus Bhatti, 1991: 140. Illust. Notes: Current status: Tessarobelus inusitatus Bhatti in Monophlebidae.

Tessarobelus ordinarius

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Tessarobelus ordinarius Bhatti, 1991: 142. Illust. Notes: Current status: Tessarobelus ordinarius Bhatti in Monophlebidae.

Tessarobelus perissoporosus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Tessarobelus perissoporosus Bhatti, 1991: 144. Illust. Notes: Current status: Tessarobelus perissoporosus Bhatti in Monophlebidae.

Ultracoelostoma assimile

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Coelostoma assimile Maskell, 1890: 153. Illust. Notes: Current status: Ultracoelostoma assimile (Maskell) in Coelostomidiidae.

Ultracoelostoma brittini

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Ultracoelostoma brittini Morales, 1991: 49. Illust. Notes: Current status: Ultracoelostoma brittini Morales in Coelostomidiidae.

Ultracoelostoma dracophylli

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Ultracoelostoma dracophylli Morales, 1991: 51. Illust. Notes: Current status: Ultracoelostoma dracophylli Morales in Coelostomidiidae.

Vrydagha lepesmei

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Vrydagha lepesmei Vayssière, 1957: 1. Notes: Current status: Vrydagha lepesmei Vayssière in Monophlebidae.

Walkeriana andreae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Walkeriana andreae Green, 1899: 45. Notes: Current status: Walkeriana andreae Green in Monophlebidae.

Walkeriana compacta

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Walkeriana compacta Green, 1896: 6. Notes: Current status: Walkeriana compacta Green in Monophlebidae.

Walkeriana digitifrons

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Walkeriana digitifrons Newstead, 1920: 177. Notes: Current status: Walkeriana digitifrons Newstead in Monophlebidae.

Walkeriana florigera

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus floriger Walker, 1858: 305. Notes: Current status: Walkeriana florigera (Walker) in Monophlebidae.

Walkeriana furcatus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus furcatus Green, 1922: 433. Illust. Notes: Current status: Walkeriana furcatus (Green) in Monophlebidae.

Walkeriana ovilla

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Walkeriana ovilla Green, 1922: 448. Illust. Notes: Current status: Walkeriana ovilla Green in Monophlebidae.

Walkeriana tosariensis

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Walkeriana tosariensis Reyne, 1957a: 116. Illust. Notes: Current status: Walkeriana tosariensis Reyne in Monophlebidae.

Xylococculus betulae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Xylococcus betulae Pergande in Hubbard & Pergande, 1898: 19. Illust. Notes: Current status: Xylococculus betulae (Pergande in Hubbard & Pergande) in Xylococcidae.

Xylococculus macrocarpae

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Xylococcus macrocarpae Coleman, 1908: 198. Illust. Notes: Current status: Xylococculus macrocarpae (Coleman) in Xylococcidae.

Xylococculus quercus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Xylococcus quercus Ehrhorn, 1900: 311. Illust. Notes: Current status: Xylococculus quercus (Ehrhorn) in Xylococcidae.

Xylococcus filiferus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Xylococcus filiferus Lôw, 1882b: 274. Illust. Notes: Depository of type material unknown. Current status: Xylococcus filiferus Lôw in Xylococcidae.

Xylococcus grabenhorsti

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Xylococcus grabenhorsti Koteja, 2008: 25. Illust. Notes: Current status: Xylococcus grabenhorsti Koteja in Xylococcidae.

Xylococcus japonicus

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Xylococcus japonicus Oguma, 1926: 101. Notes: Current status: Xylococcus japonicus Koteja in Xylococcidae.

Xylococcus kutscheri

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Xylococcus kutscheri Koteja, 2008: 26. Illust. Notes: Current status: Xylococcus kutscheri Koteja in Xylococcidae.

Xylococcus quercicola

No valid record found for this species

NOMENCLATURE:

Xylococcus quercicola Danzig, 1980a: 594. Illust. Notes: Current status: Xylococcus quercicola Danzig in Xylococcidae.