Family Kuwaniidae


Hoffeinsia Koteja

NOMENCLATURE:

Hoffeinsia Koteja, 2008: 30. Type species: Hoffeinsia foldii, by monotypy and original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and definition by Koteja (2008).

SYSTEMATICS: Koteja (2008) described Hoffeinsia in the family Kuwaniidae MacGillivray, 1921. The genus was described for the type species, Hoffeinsia folddi Koteja, 2008, which was based on the first insatr nymph inclusion in Baltic amber.

KEYS: Koteja 2008: 24 [Archeococcid genera of Baltic amber dicussed by Koteja (2008).].

CITATIONS: Koteja2008 [taxonomy, description: 3-33].



Hoffeinsia foldii Koteja

NOMENCLATURE:

Hoffeinsia foldii Koteja, 2008: 30. Type data: BALTIC AMBER: holotype and two paratype first instar nymph inclusions in amber. Holotype first instar. Type depository: Gdansk, Museum of amber inclusions at the University of Gdansk, Poland. Described: first instar. Illust.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of first instar nymph by Koteja (2008).

SYSTEMATICS: Koteja (2008) described (Hoffeinsia foldii) from the holotype and two paratypes of first instar nymph inclusions in Baltic amber.

CITATIONS: Koteja2008 [taxonomy, description, illustration, distribution: 30-33].



Kuwania Cockerell in Fernald

NOMENCLATURE:

Sasakia Kuwana, 1902: 47. Type species: Sasakia quercus Kuwana, by monotypy. Homonym of Sasakia in Lepidoptera; discovered by Fernald, 1903b: 32.

Kuwania Cockerell in Fernald, 1903b: 32. Replacement name for Sasakia Kuwana, 1902.

Kuwaia; Kuwana, 1917a: 165. Misspelling of genus name.

Kuwaneia; Lindinger, 1937: 187. Misspelling of genus name.

Kuwanaia; Lindinger, 1957: 549. Misspelling of genus name.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by Kuwana (1902), Morrison (1928), Borchsenius (1950b), Danzig (1980b) and by Wu, et al., in 2013.

STRUCTURE: Body elongate, somewhat broadened toward posterior end, about 1.4-6.0 mm long, red in life. Derm membranous; mouthparts absent. Antennae, placed together on apex of head but not contiguous; usually with 9 segments, basal 2 segments much enlarged, apical segment ovoid, with a group of setae at apex, intermediate segments broader at apex than at base. Legs of moderate size relative to body; trochanter with 4-6 campaniform sensilla on each face; tibia with a tuft of clubbed setae at apex; tarsus 1 segmented and curved; claw with one denticle and 2 acute digitules. Thoracic spiracles without disc pores in atrium; abdominal spiracles smaller, with 46 pairs present (0 in K. oligostigma), each usually with a single disc pore within atrium. Anal lobe indistinct or absent; anal ring simple, subapical on dorsum. Multilocular disc pores distributed on both surfaces, of one or 2 types, each pore with one central loculus and 5-10 outer loculi; discoidal pores sometimes present on abdominal venter. (Wu, et al., 2013

SYSTEMATICS: Adult female of this genus is characterized in: absence of mouth parts; legs and antennae well-developed; tarsal claw without digitules; distal end of tibia with numerous digitule-like hairs.

KEYS: Wu & Nan 2012: 47 (female) [Key to genera of Kuwaniidae based on adult female]; Tang & Hao 1995: 76 (female) [Margarodidae]; Gill 1993: 35 (female) [USA, California]; Danzig 1980b: 86 (female) [Genera of Far East Russia]; Borchsenius 1960e: 914 (female) [Species of China]; Borchsenius 1950b: 32 (female) [Genera of USSR]; Morrison 1928: 64 (female, larva) [Margarodidae].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, catalogue: 53-54]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy: 32, 35]; Borchs1960e [taxonomy: 914]; Cocker1902q [taxonomy: 258-259]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description: 86,96-97]; Fernal1903b [taxonomy, catalogue: 32]; Foldi1997a [taxonomy: 192]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 426]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 204]; Gill1993 [taxonomy: 35,38]; Green1922 [taxonomy, description: 425]; GullanCo2007 [taxonomy: 413-425]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, description: 89]; Koteja2000 [taxonomy: 166]; Kuwana1902 [taxonomy, description: 47-48]; Kuwana1917a [taxonomy: 165]; Lindin1943b [taxonomy: 221]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 549]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description: 78-79]; Morris1928 [taxonomy, description: 64-67,220]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 100, 179]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 76-77]; Tao1999 [taxonomy: 4]; WuNaGu2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, molecular data, structure, taxonomy: 291-294]; Yang1982 [taxonomy: 19, 27-28].



Kuwania bipora Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Kuwania bipora Borchsenius, 1960e: 915. Type data: CHINA: Yunnan Province, near Kunming, on Quercus sp. Holotype. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Fagaceae: Quercus [Borchs1960e, ShiLi1991, TangHa1995].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: China (Yunnan [Borchs1960e, TangHa1995]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Borchsenius (1960e) and by Tang & Hao (1995).

SYSTEMATICS: GenBank Accession No. COI: KC417342 (Wu, et al., 2013)

KEYS: Wu et al. 2013: 295 (female) [Key to species of Kuwania based on adult females]; Wu & Nan 2012: 53 (female) [Key to species of genus Neogreenia MacGillivray based on adult female morphology]; Tang & Hao 1995: 77 (female) [Asia]; Borchsenius 1960e: 914 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 54]; Borchs1960e [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 914-916]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 205]; ShiLi1991 [host, distribution: 161]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 77-78]; WuNaGu2013 [taxonomy: 291-292]; Yang1982 [host, distribution: 28].



Kuwania minuta Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Kuwania minuta Borchsenius, 1955c: 225. Type data: UKRAINE: near Yalta, collected A.N. Kiritchenko; ARMENIA: Bendik Alaverdin ridge, collected M.A. Ter-Grigorian, on Quercus sp. Syntypes, female and first instar. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female and first instar.



HOSTS: Fagaceae: Quercus [Borchs1955c, TangHa1995], Quercus hartwissiana [Hadzib1983].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [Borchs1955c]; Georgia [Hadzib1983]; Ukraine (Krym (=Crimea) Oblast [Borchs1955c]).

BIOLOGY: Adults emerge from mid-September to mid-October (Jashenko, 1999).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Borchsenius (1955c) and by Tang & Hao (1995).

KEYS: Tang & Hao 1995: 77 (female) [Asia].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 54-55]; Borchs1955c [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 225-226]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 205]; Hadzib1983 [host, distribution: 266]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 44]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 78]; WuNaGu2013 [taxonomy: 291-292].



Kuwania oligostigma De Lotto

NOMENCLATURE:

Kuwania oligostigma De Lotto, 1959a: 387. Type data: KENYA: Sultan Hamud, on stem and branches of Commiphora sp., 19 August 1956. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK; type no. 2064. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Burseraceae: Commiphora [DeLott1959a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Kenya [DeLott1959a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by De Lotto (1959a).

STRUCTURE: Live adult female naked, deeply sunk in the bark of the host plant; colour evenly dark pink (De Lotto, 1959a).

KEYS: Wu et al. 2013: 295 (female) [Key to species of Kuwania based on adult females].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 55]; Buchne1966 [life history, structure: 285-286]; DeLott1959a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 387-389]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 205]; Hughes1963 [taxonomy, structure, chromosomes: 173-184]; WuNaGu2013 [taxonomy: 291-292,295].



Kuwania pasaniae Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Kuwania pasaniae Borchsenius, 1960e: 914. Type data: CHINA: Yunnan Province, near Kunming, on Pasania sp. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Fagaceae: Castanopsis cuspidata [Danzig1980b], Pasania [Borchs1960e], Quercus mongolica [Danzig1980b], Quercus pasania [Danzig1980b].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: China (Yunnan [Borchs1960e, TangHa1995]). Palaearctic: Japan (Shikoku [Danzig1980b]); Russia (Primor'ye Kray [Danzig1980b]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Borchsenius (1960e), Danzig (1980b) and by Tang & Hao (1995).

KEYS: Wu et al. 2013: 295 (female) [Key to species of Kuwania based on adult females]; Tang & Hao 1995: 77 (female) [Asia]; Borchsenius 1960e: 914 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 55]; Borchs1960e [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 914-915]; Buchne1966 [life history, structure: 287]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 96-97]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 426]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 205]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 44]; ShiLi1991 [host, distribution: 161]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 79]; WuNaGu2013 [taxonomy: 291-292]; Yang1982 [host, distribution: 28].



Kuwania quercus (Kuwana)

NOMENCLATURE:

Sasakia quercus Kuwana, 1902: 47. Type data: JAPAN: Tokyo, on Quercus myrsinaefolia and on Q. acuta. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust. Notes: LECTOTYPE, adult female, designated in Wu, et al., Japan, date not given, Coll. Kuwana, ex Quercus sp., on the same slide as an adult female paralectotype, lectotype on right, paralectotype on left, slide labelled "Kuwania / quercus (Kuw) / From Oak. / Japan / Kuwana, col. / Type material / Entomological Laboratory / Stanford University" [collection data handwritten, apparently by G.F. Ferris, but name of laboratory and university is printed]

Kuwania quercus; Fernald, 1903b: 32. Change of combination.

Kuwaia guereus; Kuwana, 1917a: 165. Misspelling of species name.

Kuwaia guereus; Kuwana, 1917a: 165. Misspelling of genus name.



HOSTS: Fagaceae: Quercus acuta [Kuwana1902, Kuwana1907], Quercus aliena [TangHa1995], Quercus glauca [TangHa1995], Quercus myrsinaefolia [Kuwana1902, Kuwana1907].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: China (Yunnan [TangHa1995]); Taiwan [TangHa1995]. Palaearctic: Japan (Honshu [Kuwana1902, Kawai1980]).

BIOLOGY: In Japan, the adult females of K. quercus are typically found in crevices in the bark and produce a white cottony secretion (Kuwana, 1902) that acts as an ovisac into which eggs are laid (Kawai, 1980).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of nymph and adult female by Kuwana (1902), Morrison (1928), and by Tang & Hao (1995). Redescription by Wu, et al., 2013) The illustration by Gill (1993) of the Californian adult female identified as K. quercus is more similar to K. bipora than to K. quercus, the main difference being the number of outer loculi in the two types of multilocular disc pore. Molecular examinations indicate that the Californian population should be recognised as a separate species, and is neither K. bipora nor K. quercus. (Wu, et al., 2013)

STRUCTURE: Adult female, 1.8 mm long, 1 mm wide; found in bark crevices in white cottony secretion; red, antennae and legs reddish brown Crawler red, with antennae and legs pale.(Kuwana, 1902).

SYSTEMATICS: This species was described and illustrated by Morrison (1928) based on specimens collected in 1926 from an unspecified locality, presumably in Japan; by Ferris (1950) based on Chinese specimens; by Paik (1978) based on Korean specimens; by Kawai (1980) based on Japanese specimens, and by Gill (1993) based on specimens from California, USA. However, there are differences among these descriptions and illustrations, mainly in number of abdominal spiracles and the types and structure of the disc pores, and it seems that more than one species is involved. (Wu, et al., 2013) K. quercus has been found only in China and Japan, and it appears to be an east-Asian species. There are two other Kuwania species recorded from Asia, i.e., K. bipora and K. pasaniae. K. quercus differs from K. bipora by the adult female having 4 pairs of abdominal spiracles and discoidal pores on the abdominal venter, and by the first-instar nymph having a discoidal pore on margin of abdominal segments II-IV and a pair of long hair-like setae behind the coxa of each fore leg, and by the intermediate-stage female lacking trilocular pores near the opening of the abdominal spiracles. K. quercus differs from K. pasaniae by adult female having 4 pairs of abdominal spiracles and each tibia having about 6 clubbed setae. (Wu, et al., 2013) GenBank Accession No. COI: KC417341 (Wu, et al., 2013)

KEYS: Wu et al. 2013: 295 (female) [Key to species of Kuwania based on adult females]; Tang & Hao 1995: 77 (female) [Asia].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 56]; Cocker1902q [taxonomy, distribution: 259]; Fernal1903b [taxonomy, catalogue: 32]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 426-427]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 205]; Goux1938c [taxonomy: 470]; GullanCo2007 [taxonomy: 413-425]; Kawai1972 [host, distribution: 3]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 89-90]; Kuwana1902 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 47-48]; Kuwana1907 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 179]; Kuwana1917a [taxonomy, distribution: 165]; Morris1928 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 64-67, 226]; Shiau1990 [taxonomy: 1-129]; ShiLi1991 [host, distribution: 161]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 79-80]; WuNaGu2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 291-293,295-300]; Yang1982 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 27-28].



Kuwania raygilli Wu & Gullan in Wu, et al.

NOMENCLATURE:

Kuwania quercus; Gill, 1986: 228. Misidentification.

Kuwania raygilli Wu & Gullan in Wu, et al., 2013: 300-305. Type data: USA: California, Yolo Co., Davis, University of California campus, near Academic Surge Building, on the bark of Quercus lobata, 5/2/2012, by R.J. Gill. Holotype female (examined), . Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

COMMON NAME: Kuwana oak scale [WuNaGu2013].



HOSTS: Fagaceae: Castanea dentata [Gill1993], Quercus douglasii [WuNaGu2013], Quercus lobata [WuNaGu2013], Quercus sp. [WuNaGu2013], Quercus virginicus [Gill1993].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (California [WuNaGu2013]).

BIOLOGY: Adult females and nymphs of various instars have been collected in different years in every month from March to July and in November, and immature males in at least March (based on dates of collections in the California State Collection of Arthropods, CDFA, Sacramento, and those of PJG from Yolo and Napa counties). Thus, either more than one generation occurs in the warmer months, or development varies depending on climatic conditions of the collection site and year-to-year variation in temperature. Also, it is possible that adult females are long lived in California and produce offspring over an extended period. (Wu, et al., 2013)

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustrations of first instar nymph, intermediate-stage female and adult female in Wu, et al., 2013.

STRUCTURE: Bright red, with a dorsal mass of white waxen threads. Colour photograph of adult female and cyst given by Gill (1993) Body elongate-oval, somewhat broadened toward posterior apex. Derm membranous with segments distinct. Eyes present, mouthparts wanting. Antennae placed close together on apex of head but without contiguous bases, 9 segmented. (Wu, et al., 2013)

SYSTEMATICS: From their illustrations and descriptions, it is inferred that the material used by Ferris (1950) and Kawai (1980) belongs to K. quercus. In contrast, the material described by Morrison (1928) and Gill (1993) is not K. quercus. Based on morphological and molecular study, Wu and Gullan concluded that the Californian specimens that were described and illustrated as K. quercus by Gill is a new species, K. raygilli Wu & Gullan. (Wu, et al., 2013) GenBank Accession No. COI KC417340

KEYS: Wu et al. 2013: 295 (female) [Key to species of Kuwania based on adult females].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 56]; Gill1986 [description, distribution, economic importance,, structure, taxonomy]; Gill1993 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 38-39, 54]; WuNaGu2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, life history, structure, molecular data, taxonomy: 295, 300-305].



Kuwania rubra Goux

NOMENCLATURE:

Kuwania rubra Goux, 1938c: 466. Type data: FRANCE: Marseille, massif de Marseillevyere, on Quercus ilex, 1935. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.



FOES: HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Ablerus celsus (Walker) [Noyes2004]. Encyrtidae: Lakshaphagus merceti (Hoffer) [Viggia1993, Viggia1996, Noyes2004].

HOSTS: Fagaceae: Castanea ssp. [SpodekBeMe2014], Quercus calliprinos [SpodekBeMe2014], Quercus ilex [Goux1938c, PellizCa1991a, Viggia1993, Foldi2000], Quercus robur [SpodekBeMe2014].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Corsica [Goux1938c, Trembl1988a, Foldi2003]; France [Goux1938c, Foldi2000]; Italy [Trembl1988a, PellizCa1991a, Viggia1993, BarbagBiBo1995]; Portugal [FrancoRuMa2011].

BIOLOGY: Occurs in bark cracks of branches. Develops one annual generation, oviposition begins in June-July (Goux, 1938c).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female and nymphs by Goux (1938c).

KEYS: Wu et al. 2013: 295 (female) [Key to species of Kuwania based on adult females].

CITATIONS: BarbagBiBo1995 [distribution: 39]; BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 56-57]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 427]; Foldi2000 [host, distribution: 77]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 205]; Foldi2003 [host, distribution: 148]; FrancoRuMa2011 [distribution: 2,17,25]; Goux1938c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 466-471]; Noyes2004 [biological control]; PellizCa1991a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 194]; SpodekBeMe2014 [distribution, host, illustration: 110,112,114,116,118]; Trembl1988a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 206]; Viggia1993 [life history, host, distribution, biological control: 53-56]; Viggia1996 [biological control: 101-103]; WuNaGu2013 [taxonomy: 291-292].



Neogreenia MacGillivray

NOMENCLATURE:

Neogreenia MacGillivray, 1921: 474. Replacement name for Paragreenia MacGillivray, 1921.

Paragreenia MacGillivray, 1921: 78,474. Type species: Monophlebus zeylanicus Green. Homonym of Paragreenia in the Arachnida, 1907.

Kuwaniella Tang, 1984b: 123. Nomen nudum.

Kuwaniella Kosztarab, Ben-Dov & Kosztarab, 1986: 9,20. Nomen nudum.

Kuwaniella Foldi, 2001a: 205. Nomen nudum.

STRUCTURE: The adult females of species in Group 1 are reddish in colour, without a group of discoidal pores on the posterior ventral abdomen and male stages have been collected. In Group 2, the body of the adult female is yellowish, there is a large group of simple pores on the posterior ventral abdomen and no male stages have yet been found. (Wu & Nan, 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: Neogreenia MacGillivray (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Margarodidae) was established as a monotypic genus by MacGillivray (1921), with Monophlebus zeylanicus Green (1896) as type species. However, Green (1922) did not accept this new genus and placed M. zeylanicus in Kuwania Cockerell.Morrison (1928) discussed the type species of this genus, questioned its association with Kuwania, but did not assign it to a position in his Margarodidae system. Wu & Nan (2012) determined that Neogreenia could not be a member of the Margarodidae sensu stricto as presently understood as this family is now restricted to hypogaeic margarodoids, and so the best placement for Neogreenia is in the family Kuwaniidae. The genus Neogreenia now (2012) includes five species, which can be divided into two groups. Group I includes N. zeylanica and N. zizyphi, and Group 2 the other three species, N. osmanthus, N. sophorica and N. lonicera. The adult females of species in Group 1 are reddish in colour, without a group of discoidal pores on the posterior ventral abdomen and male stages have been collected. In Group 2, the body of the adult female is yellowish, there is a large group of simple pores on the posterior ventral abdomen and no male stages have yet been found.. (Wu & Nan, 2012)

KEYS: Wu & Nan 47 2012 (female) [Key to genera of Kuwaniidae based on adult female]; Wu & Cheng 2006: 64 (female) [Species of Neogreenia]; Tang & Hao 1995: 76 (female) [as Margarodidae; Margarodidae].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, catalogue: 72]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 205,211]; KosztaBeKo1986 [taxonomy: 9,20]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 190, 192]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description: 78,474]; Morris1928 [taxonomy: 65,219,220]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy: 130,145]; Tang1984b [taxonomy: 123]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 80-81]; Tao1999 [taxonomy: 5]; WuCh2006 [taxonomy: 62-64]; WuNa2012 [description, molecular data, phylogeny, taxonomy: 43-47]; Xie1998 [taxonomy, description: 14].



Neogreenia lonicera Wu & Nan

NOMENCLATURE:

Neogreenia lonicera Wu & Nan, 2012: 47. Type data: CHINA: Inner Mongolia, Helan Mountain, Bayan Hot, under the bark of Lonicera microphylla, 7/27/2010, by Nan Nan. Holotype female (examined), by monotypy and original designation. Type depository: Beijing: Forestry University, Beijing, China. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Caprifoliaceae: Lonicera microphylla [WuNa2012].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Mongolia [WuNa2012].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Wu & Nan, 2012,

STRUCTURE: Adult female body elongate; dorsum convex and venter flat; derm membranous, orange-yellow; eyes and mouthparts black; antennae, legs and spiracles yellow-brown and well developed; body surrounded by white wax. Located in bark crack of host plant. First instar nymph yellow, oblong, 0.61-0.74mm long and 0.20-0.24mm wide. Posterior extremity blunt, with a pair of long caudal setae, each about 112 long (Wu & Nan, 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: The adult female of N. lonicera differs from that of N. osmanthus in having long acute setae on the distal end of each tibia rather than capitate setae; it differs from N. sophorica in having three denticles on each claw (only two on N. sophorica) and the disc pores on either side of the mouthparts of the first-instar nymph are bilocular pores rather than trilocular pores as in N. sophorica (Wu & Nan, 2012).

CITATIONS: WuNa2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, molecular data, taxonomy: 47-53].



Neogreenia osmanthus (Yang & Hu)

NOMENCLATURE:

Kuwania osmanthus Yang & Hu, 1994: 29. Type data: CHINA: Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Guilin City, on Osmanthus fragrans; collected by Yang and Hu, 31 May 1963. Holotype female. Type depository: Beijing: Institute of Entomology, Academy of Sciences, China. Described: female. Illust.

Neogreenia osmanthus; Wu & Cheng, 2006: 64. Change of combination.



HOST: Oleaceae: Osmanthus fragrans [YangHu1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: China (Guangxi (=Kwangsi) [YangHu1994]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Yang & Hu (1994).

KEYS: Wu & Nan 2012: 53 (female) [Key to species of genus Neogreenia MacGillivray based on adult female morphology]; Wu & Cheng 2006: 94 (female) [Species of Neogreenia].

CITATIONS: WuCh2006 [taxonomy: 94]; WuNaGu2013 [taxonomy: 291]; YangHu1994 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 29-31].



Neogreenia sophorica Wu {in} Wu & Cheng

NOMENCLATURE:

Neogreenia sophorica Wu {in} Wu & Cheng, 2006: 62. Type data: CHINA: Beijing, Dongcheng District, on Sophora japonica; collected 3 may 2004, by Cheng Guifang. Holotype female. Type depository: Beijing: Forestry University, Beijing, China. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Fabaceae: Sophora japonica [WuCh2006].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China (Beijing (=Peking) [WuCh2006]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Wu & Cheng (2006).

KEYS: Wu & Nan 2012: 53 (female) [Key to species of genus Neogreenia MacGillivray based on adult female morphology]; Wu & Cheng 2006: 64 (female) [Species of Neogreenia].

CITATIONS: WuCh2006 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 62-64].



Neogreenia zeylanica (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Monophlebus zeylanicus Green, 1896: 6. Type data: SRI LANKA: Pundaluoya, on stems of Antidesma bunius. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Kuwania zeylanica; Green, 1922: 425. Change of combination.

Neogreenia zeylanica; Foldi, 2001a: 211. Change of combination.



HOST: Stilaginaceae: Antidesma bunius [Green1896, Green1922].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Sri Lanka [Green1896, Green1922].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female and adult male by Green (1896, 1922).

STRUCTURE: The general appearance (in colour illustration) of the adult female and adult male by Green (1922).

SYSTEMATICS: Foldi (2001a) listed this species both in Kuwania and in Neogreenia.

KEYS: Wu & Nan 2012: 53 (female) [Key to species of genus Neogreenia MacGillivray based on adult female morphology]; Wu & Cheng 2006: 64 (female) [Species of Neogreenia]; Tang & Hao 1995: 81 (female) [Asia].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 72]; Cocker1902q [taxonomy, distribution: 232]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 205]; Green1896 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 425]; Green1922 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 425-427]; Green1937 [host, distribution: 281-282]; Morris1928 [taxonomy: 64-67,227]; MorrisMo1923 [taxonomy: 44]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 81-82]; WuCh2006 [taxonomy: 64]; WuNaGu2013 [taxonomy: 291].



Neogreenia zizyphi Tang in Tang & Hao

NOMENCLATURE:

Kuwaniella zizyphi Tang, 1984b: 123. Nomen nudum.

Kuwaniella zizyphi Kosztarab, Ben-Dov & Kosztarab, 1986: 9. Nomen nudum.

Neogreenia zizyphi Tang in Tang & Hao, 1995: 82. Type data: CHINA: Shanxi Province, Taigu County, on Ziziphus sativus. Syntypes, female and first instar. Type depository: Shanxi: Entomological Institute, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, China. Described: both sexes. Illust. Notes: Type series also included the male allotype.

Kuwaniella zizyphi Foldi, 2001a: 205. Nomen nudum.



HOST: Rhamnaceae: Ziziphus sativus [HaoWuJi1995].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China (Shaanxi (=Shensi) [HaoWuJi1995]).

BIOLOGY: Found under the bark of Ziziphus sativus (Hao et al., 1995).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Tang & Hao (1995).

SYSTEMATICS: Prof. Tang Fang-teh (personal communication to Yair Ben-Dov, 7 May 2002) confirmed that Kuwaniella zizyphi Tang, 1984 nomen nudum is identical with Neogreenia zizyphi Tang, 1995.

KEYS: Wu & Nan 2012: 53 (female) [Key to species of genus Neogreenia MacGillivray based on adult female morphology]; Wu & Cheng 2006: 64 (female) [Species og Neogreenia].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 73]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 211]; HaoWuJi1995 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 109-112]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 82-83, 550-551, 678]; WuCh2006 [taxonomy: 64]; Xie1998 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 14-15].



Neosteingelia Morrison

NOMENCLATURE:

Neosteingelia Morrison, 1927: 101. Type species: Neosteingelia texana Morrison, by original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by Morrison (1928) and by Kosztarab (1996).

SYSTEMATICS: Morrison (1927) placed this genus close to Kuwania, while noting that the adult female of Neosteingelia: is lacking the capitate setae at the apex of tibia, which are present in Kuwania; has 4-6 abdominal spiracles.

KEYS: Wu & Nan 2012: 47 (female) [Key to genera of Kuwaniidae based on adult female]; Kosztarab 1996: 40 (female) [North America]; Morrison 1928: 54 (female, larva) [Margarodidae].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, catalogue: 82]; Foldi1997a [taxonomy: 192]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 212]; GullanCo2007 [taxonomy: 413-425]; GullanSj2001 [taxonomy: 257-278]; HodgsoFo2006 [taxonomy: 113-114]; Koszta1996 [taxonomy, description: 50]; Koteja2000 [taxonomy: 166]; Koteja2008 [taxonomy: 31]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 190]; Morris1927 [taxonomy, description: 101]; Morris1928 [taxonomy, description: 21-30, 62-71, 219]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 133].



Neosteingelia texana Morrison

NOMENCLATURE:

Neosteingelia texana Morrison, 1927: 101. Type data: USA: Texas, San Antonio, on bark of Hackberry, Celtis sp., October, 1917; collected by H.G.H. Weinert. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

COMMON NAMES: pecan giant scale [Koszta1996].



HOSTS: Aceraceae: Acer [KosztaWa1994], Acer saccharum [Koszta1996]. Altingiaceae: Liquidambar styraciflua [KosztaWa1994]. Juglandaceae: Carya illinoensis [KosztaWa1994], Carya ovata [KosztaWa1994]. Oleaceae: Fraxinus [KosztaWa1994]. Ulmaceae: Celtis [Morris1927], Celtis occidentalis [KosztaWa1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Alabama [KosztaWa1994], Florida [KosztaWa1994], Georgia [KosztaWa1994], Oklahoma [KosztaWa1994], Pennsylvania [KosztaWa1994], South Carolina [KosztaWa1994], Tennessee [KosztaWa1994], Texas [Morris1927], Virginia [KosztaWa1994]).

BIOLOGY: In Virginia, USA, most of life of this species is spent under bark flakes of the host plant; adult females appear on bark surface in September - October, mate and wander back under the bark were they oviposit the eggs (Kosztarab & Watson, 1994).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female, intermediate female, adult male and nymph by Morrison (1927, 1928). Description and illustration of adult female by Kosztarab & Watson (1994) and by Kosztarab (1996). Description and illustration of adult male by Hodgson & Foldi (2006).

STRUCTURE: Colour photograph of adult female and adult male by Foldi (2003a).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Considered a potential pest of pecan plantations in the southern United States (Kosztarab & Watson, 1994).

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue, economic importance: 82-83]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 212]; Foldi2003a [taxonomy: 3]; GullanCo2007 [taxonomy: 413-425]; HodgsoFo2006 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 119-125]; Koszta1996 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 50-52]; KosztaWa1994 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 24-25]; Koteja1996a [taxonomy, illustration, description: 69-71]; Morris1927 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 101]; Morris1928 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 67-71,227].