Family Eriococcidae


Acalyptococcus Lambdin & Kosztarab

NOMENCLATURE:

Acalyptococcus Lambdin & Kosztarab, 1977: 245. Type species: Acalyptococcus eugeniae Lambdin & Kosztarab, by monotypy and original designation.

BIOLOGY: Species of this genus have been found protected by the shelter of ants (Camponotus sp.) and on Bambusa sp., Perotis indica and Perotis sp. (Kozar, et al., 2013)

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description in Kozar, et al., 2013.

STRUCTURE: Adult female pyriform, reddish brown in color and rests on a cushion of fluffy, white wax, not completely enclosing female body. (Kozar, et al., 2013)

SYSTEMATICS: Generic characteristics that distinguish this genus from all other eriococcids are: the possession of segmental rows of bisclerotic, bifurcate microtubular ducts; dorsal setae primarily unenlarged; absence of macrotubular ducts; presence of cruciform pores (Lambdin & Kosztarab, 1977). Acalyptococcus seems to be most closely related to Scutare (Lambdin & Kosztarab, 1977). In Kozár, et al., 2013, Acalyptococcus was placed in the family, Acanthococcidae Signoret, 1875, but is here kept in Eriococcidae because placement of species.outside of the palaearctic are unclear.

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 62-63 (female) [Key to genera of Acanthococcidae]; Tang & Hao 1995: 643-644 (female) [Key to genera of Eriococcina].

CITATIONS: HodgsoMi2010 [description, distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 6-8]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 9, 64-71]; LambdiKo1977 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 245]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, taxonomy: 19].



Acalyptococcus deformis (Wang)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus deformis Wang, 1974: 329. Type data: CHINA: Hainan, on Perotis sp., 28/05/1973, by T.C. Wang. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Beijing: Institute of Entomology, Academy of Sciences, China. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus deformis; Kozár & Walter, 1985: 74. Change of combination.

Rhizococcus deformis; Tang & Hao, 1995: 526. Change of combination.

Acalyptococcus deformis; Kozár, 2009: 91. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Bambusa sp. [Wang1981TC], Perotis indica [Hua2000], Perotis sp. [Wang1974]

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: China (Guangdong (=Kwangtung) [Hua2000], Hainan [Wang1974]). Palaearctic: China (Xizang (=Tibet) [Wang1981TC]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Kozar, et al., 2013.Description and illustration by Wang (1974).

STRUCTURE: Female pyriform, 1.65-1.92 mm long, narrowed posteriorly, dorsum quite strongly sclerotized. Anal lobes conical and normally heavily sclerotized sometimes strongly nodulose with sclerotized teeth on inner margin, antennae 7 segmented; frontal lobes, segments of labium, not mentioned. Anal lobe with a long apical seta and usually with 3 short dorsal conical setae. (Kozar, et al., 2013)

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae elongate, apices acute, marginal setae longer than other dorsal setae, medial setae longer than other dorsal setae except marginal setae, lateral margin of each abdominal segment with 2 or 3 setae; distinct indentation near anterior edge of abdomen (Wang, 1974).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 65 (female) [Key to species of Acalyptococcus]; Wang 2001: 225 (female) [as Rhizococcus deformis; Key to Chinese species of Rhizococcus]; Tang & Hao 1995: 519, 653 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus deformis; Rhizococcus species]; Wang 1982c: 143 (adult female) [as Eriococcus deformis; Eriococcus species]; Wang 1982ZQ: 41 (adult female) [as Eriococcus deformis; Eriococcus species of China]; Wang 1980: 115 (adult female) [as Eriococcus deformis; Eriococcus species].

CITATIONS: Hua2000 [distribution, host: 138]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 375]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 91]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, illustration, host, structure, taxonomy, phylogeny: 45,66-67]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 74]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 186-187]; OuvrarKo2009 [distribution: 130]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 519,526-527,598,653]; Tao1999 [distribution, host: 35]; Wang1974 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 329-330]; Wang1980 [description, distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 115, 118]; Wang1981TC [distribution, host, taxonomy: 287]; Wang1982c [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 143, 145-146]; Wang1982ZQ [distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 41, 44-45]; Wang2001 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 225, 228-229]; Yang1982 [distribution, taxonomy: 104].



Acalyptococcus eugeniae Lambdin & Kosztarab

NOMENCLATURE:

Acalyptococcus eugeniae Lambdin & Kosztarab, 1977: 246. Type data: SINGAPORE: Bukit Batok Forest, on Eugenia linocieroides, 02/08/1972, by D.H. Murphy & M. Kosztarab. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Paratypes deposited in BMNH, NMSC, USNM, ZMAS, MNHN, SAMA, VPIC, ECUT.

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Singapore [LambdiKo1977].

BIOLOGY: Lambdin & Kosztarab (1977) stated that the population of scale insects they described was found to be protected by the shelter of ants (Camponotus sp.).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Lambdin & Kosztarab (1977).

STRUCTURE: Adult female pyriform, reddish brown in color and rests on a cushion of fluffy, white wax. Male pupal cocoon is elongate, felt-like and white (Lambdin & Kosztarab, 1977).

SYSTEMATICS: This species seems to be most closely similar to species of Scutare, but can be distinguished by the type of microtubular ducts on the dorsum and the lack of such ducts on the venter, except the margin. The tubular ducts of Acalyptococcus have a single distal orifice compared to bilocular openings in Scutare (Lambdin & Kosztarab, 1977).

CITATIONS: Kozar2009 [distribution: 91]; LambdiKo1977 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 245-249]; MillerGi2000 [biological control, catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 19]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 14].



Acalyptococcus graminis (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus graminis Maskell, 1897a: 243. Type data: CHINA: Hong Kong, on undetermined Gramineae, by A. Koebele. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: San Francisco: California Academy of Sciences, Department of Entomology, California, USA, Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand, and UCDC, USNM. Described: female.

Eriococcus graminiae; Kuwana, 1917a: 167. Misspelling of species name.

Nidularia graminis; Lindinger, 1933a: 116. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus graminis; Kozár & Walter, 1985: 74. Change of combination.

Acalyptococcus graminis; Kozár et al., 2013: 68-69. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: grass scale [Yang1982].



HOSTS: Poaceae: Bambusa sp. [Kohler1998], Chrysopogon sp. [Wang1982c]

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: China (Guangdong (=Kwangtung) [Hua2000], Sichuan (=Szechwan) [Hua2000], Zhejiang (=Chekiang) [Hua2000]); Hong Kong [Maskel1897a]. Palaearctic: Japan [Hoy1963].

BIOLOGY: Adult females are massed together and appear as if encrusting the plant (Maskell, 1898).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Ferris (1936).

STRUCTURE: Adult females are enclosed in sacs of white cotton. They are closely felted. Male sacs similar to those of females, though smaller. Adult female is elliptical, but shrivelling at gestation, dull greenish-brown in color. First instars are yellow (Maskell, 1898).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae elongate, conical, apices acute, largest setae in marginal and medial areas, 3 longitudinal lines of setae on each side of body; anal lobes heavily sclerotized, elongate, with 4 enlarged setae; sclerotized plate between median lobes on dorsum (Ferris, 1936).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 65 (female) [Key to species of Acalyptococcus]; Wang 2001: 207 (female) [as Eriococcus graminis; Key to species of Eriococcus]; Tang & Hao 1995: 448, 645 (adult female) [as Eriococcus graminis; Eriococcus species]; Wang 1982c: 143 (adult female) [as Eriococcus graminis; Eriococcus species]; Wang 1982ZQ: 41 (adult female) [as Eriococcus graminis; Eriococcus species of China].

CITATIONS: Ali1970a [distribution, host: 76]; Cheo1935 [distribution, host: 98]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 391]; DeitzTo1980 [distribution, taxonomy: 46]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 75]; Ferris1921a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 211]; Ferris1936 [distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 12-13]; Green1922 [distribution, taxonomy: 352]; Hartma1916 [distribution, host: 95]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 92]; Hua2000 [distribution, host: 137]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 377]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 92]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, phylogeny, taxonomy: 45, 68-69]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 74]; Kuwana1902 [distribution, host: 50]; Kuwana1907 [distribution, host: 182]; Kuwana1917 [distribution: 5]; Kuwana1917a [distribution: 167]; Kuwana1917b [distribution, host: 138]; Kuwana1927 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 71]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 116]; MartinLa2011 [catalogue, distribution: 45]; Maskel1897a [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 243]; Maskel1898 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 243]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 219-220]; MillerMiSc1973 [taxonomy: 9]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 33]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 17]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 448, 471, 593, 645]; Tao1999 [distribution, host: 32]; Wang1974 [taxonomy: 329]; Wang1982c [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 143, 149]; Wang1982ZQ [distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 41, 47-48]; Wang2001 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 207, 216-217]; Wu1935 [distribution, host: 176]; Yang1982 [distribution, taxonomy: 104]; YangKo1967 [taxonomy: 51].



Acalyptococcus trispinatus (Wang)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus trispinatus Wang, 1974: 329-333. Type data: CHINA: Peking, on Phragmites communis, 09/02/1972, by T.C. Wang. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Beijing: Institute of Entomology, Academy of Sciences, China. Described: female. Illust.

Rhizococcus trispinatus; Kozár & Walter, 1985: 75. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus trispinatus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 604. Change of combination.

Acalyptococcus trispinatus; Kozár et al., 2013: 70-71. Change of combination.



HOST: Poaceae: Phragmites communis [Wang1974].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China (Beijing (=Peking) [Wang1974]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Wang (1974).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae cylindrical, elongate, sides straight except basally where concave, apices rounded, marginal setae conspicuously larger than other dorsal setae, 3 lateral setae on margin of each abdominal segment; anal lobes each with 3 enlarged setae, mesal setae conspicuously thin (Wang, 1974).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 65 (female) [Key to species of Acalyptococcus]; Wang 2001: 225 (female) [as Rhizococcus trispinatus; Key to Chinese species of Rhizococcus]; Tang & Hao 1995: 520, 654 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus trispinatus; Rhizococcus species]; Wang 1982c: 143 (adult female) [as Eriococcus trispinatus; Eriococcus species]; Wang 1982ZQ: 41 (adult female) [as Eriococcus trispinatus; Eriococcus species of China]; Wang 1980: 115 (adult female) [as Eriococcus trispinatus; Eriococcus species].

CITATIONS: Hua2000 [distribution, host: 138]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 401]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 106]; KozarKaKo2013 [distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy, phylogeny: 65, 70-71]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 75]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 604]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 367-368]; Tang1984b [distribution, host: 126]; TangHa1995 [describtion, distribution, taxonomy: 520, 541-542, 600, 654]; Tao1999 [distribution, host: 35]; Wang1974 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 329-333]; Wang1980 [description, distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 115, 116-118]; Wang1982c [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 143, 144-145]; Wang1982ZQ [distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 41, 43-44]; Wang2001 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 225, 226-228]; Yang1982 [taxonomy: 105].



Acanthococcus Signoret

NOMENCLATURE:

Acanthococcus Signoret, 1875b: 16. Type species: Acanthococcus aceris Signoret, by monotypy.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration in Hodgson & Miller, 2010.

STRUCTURE: Surface covered in waxyDifferentiated by the presence of enlarged macrospines on the dorsum, by absence of heavily sclerotized, discoidal pores (mostly five-locular), or pore groups and cruciform pores on dorsum, anal lobes sometimes strongly nodulose (serrate) with sclerotized teeth on inner margin. Labium with well developed segments and a weakly developed basal segment with two pairs of setae. (Kozár & Konczné Benedicty, 2008)

SYSTEMATICS: As of 2010, it is considered that all species from the neotropics placed in the genus Eriococcus are more appropriately placed in Acanthococcus. (Hodgson & Miller, 2010) In Kozár, et al., 2013, Acanthococcus was placed in the family, Acanthococcidae Signoret, 1875, but is here kept in Eriococcidae because placement of species.outside of the palaearctic are unclear.

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 62-63 (female) [Key to genera of Acanthococcidae]; Hardy et al. 2011: 502-504 (female) [Key to the adult females of genera of felt scales on Eucalyptus and Corymbia]; Hodgson et al. 2011: 54-55 (female) [Key to the Eriococcidae of the Neotropical Region based on the morphology of adult females]; Hodgson et al. 2011: 71 (female, male) [Key to the Genera of the Eriococcidae of the Neotropical Region based the morphology of the adult males]; Pellizzari & Kozár 2011: 58 (female) [Key to the genera of Eriococcidae in Europe]; Hodgson & Miller 2010: 90-92 (female, male, first insta) [Key to the Genera of the Eriococcidae of South America]; Kaydan & Kozár 2008: 6 (female) [Eriococcidae genera of the western Paleartic Region]; Kozár & Konczné Benedicty 2008: 140-142 (female, adult) [Modified key to genera of the Eriococcidae of Neotropical Region]; Kozár & Konczné Benedicty 2008a: 256-257 (female) [Key to Genera of Eriococcidae in Western Palaearctic Region]; Kosztarab 1996: 226 (female) [Key to Genera of Eriococcidae]; Gill 1993: 155 (female) [Key to the California Genera of Eriococcidae]; Miller & Miller 1993: 6 (female) [Key to Genera of Eriococcidae of the Eastern U.S.]; Miller & Miller 1992: 3 (female) [Acanthococcus species in the Western U.S.]; Miller et al. 1992: 514 (female) [nstars of Acanthococcus and most Eriococcidae]; Miller 1991: 334 (female, adult) [Acanthococcus species that infest Atriplex sp.]; Kosztarab & Kozár 1988: 275 (female) [Key to genera of Eriococcidae]; Danzig 1986a: 238 (female) [Key to Eriococcidae genera of the far-eastern USSR]; Tranfaglia & Esposito 1986: 115 (female) [Key to species]; Tereznikova 1982: 34 (female) [Key to genera of the Ukraine]; Tereznikova 1981: 14, 52 (female) [Key to genera of the Ukraine]; Danzig 1980b: 238 (female) [Key to the genera of the Far-Eastern USSR]; Danzig 1975a: 42 (female) [Acanthococcus species of the far eastern USSR]; Danzig 1971d: 820 (female) [Key to genera of Eriococidae]; Borchsenius 1949: 321-322 (female) [Key to Eriococcinae genera of the USSR].

CITATIONS: Boraty1962 [description, taxonomy: 55]; Borchs1948 [taxonomy: 501]; Borchs1948a [taxonomy: 953,956]; Borchs1949 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 321, 331-351]; Borchs1960e [taxonomy: 916]; CookGu2001 [description, physiology, taxonomy: 59-66]; Danzig1964 [distribution, structure: 632]; Danzig1971d [distribution, taxonomy: 821]; Danzig1975a [taxonomy: 42-55]; Danzig1980b [description, taxonomy: 205-226]; Danzig1986a [description, taxonomy: 238, 239-265]; Danzig1988 [taxonomy: 707-709]; FoldiKo2007 [taxonomy: 2]; Gill1993 [taxonomy: 155]; HardyBeGu2011 [taxonomy: 502-503]; HodgsoMaMi2011 [taxonomy: 54-55, 71]; HodgsoMi2010 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 6-9]; Hoy1962 [taxonomy: 28]; Kaweck1957 [taxonomy: 198]; Kaweck1985 [taxonomy: 27]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, taxonomy: 371-386]; Koszta1996 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 18,28,225-227,250]; KosztaBeKo1986 [taxonomy: 21]; KosztaKo1978 [description, taxonomy: 67-76]; KosztaKo1988F [description, distribution, taxonomy: 274-277,287,298]; Koteja1974 [taxonomy: 275,294-295]; Koteja1974a [physiology: 248]; Koteja1974b [physiology: 77]; Koteja1980 [physiology: 74]; KotejaZa1972 [taxonomy: 207]; KotejaZa1979 [taxonomy: 674]; KotejaZa1983 [taxonomy: 476]; Kozar2009 [distribution, host: 111, 113]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 9, 72-179]; KozarKo2008 [description: 128]; KozarKo2008a [taxonomy: 257]; KozarWa1985 [catalogue, taxonomy: 73]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 107]; Lindin1937 [catalogue, taxonomy: 178]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 543]; Maskel1879 [description, taxonomy: 217]; Miller1991 [taxonomy: 334]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 597-606]; MillerGi2000 [taxonomy: 20]; MillerLiHo1992 [taxonomy: 512-523]; MillerMi1992 [description, taxonomy: 2]; MillerMi1993 [description, taxonomy: 6-7, 72]; MillerWi1976 [taxonomy: 118-123]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy: 1]; NastChKl1990 [distribution, taxonomy: 120]; OuvrarKo2009 [host, phylogeny, taxonomy: 101-118]; PooleGe1997 [distribution: 354]; Sharip1979a [biological control, distribution: 135, 137, 138]; Signor1875b [description,, distribution, taxonomy: 20,29,35-37]; SzitaKoKo2011 [description, taxonomy: 36]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 448]; Terezn1977 [description, taxonomy: 570]; Terezn1981 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 13, 14]; Terezn1982 [distribution, taxonomy: 34,35]; TranfaMa1988 [taxonomy: 610]; Wang1974 [taxonomy: 329]; Willia1969a [taxonomy: 318].



Acanthococcus abditus (Hoy)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus abditus Hoy, 1962: 32, 34. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: South Island, Buller Gorge, seaward end, on Metrosideros perforata, 04/03/1960, by J.M. Hoy. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus abditus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 111. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus abdifus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 598. Misspelling of species name.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Metrosideros perforata [Hoy1962].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (South Island [Hoy1962]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Hoy (1962).

STRUCTURE: Adult females rotund and found in galls on the underside of host leaf. Up to six galls per leaf have been observed. A white cottony wax is also associated with females (Hoy, 1962).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: suranal setae slender; body oval; enlarged setae around body margin and on other parts of dorsum but with bare area between margin and mediolateral enlarged setae; anal lobes each with 3 enlarged setae; posterior coxae with translucent pores; 2 enlarged setae on margins of most abdominal segments; enlarged setae apically acute (Hoy, 1962).

KEYS: Hoy 1962: 32 (adult female) [Eriococcus species of New Zealand].

CITATIONS: Beards1984 [distribution, taxonomy: 85]; Brown1967 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 130]; Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 32, 34]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 66]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 97]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 598]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 111]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 96].



Acanthococcus abeliceae (Kuwana)

NOMENCLATURE:

Gossyparia ulmi; Kuwana, 1902: 52. Misidentification; discovered by Kuwana, 1927a: 111.

Eriococcus abeliceae Kuwana, 1927a: 111. Type data: JAPAN: Honshu, Kyoto City, Imperial Palace Grounds, on Abelicea hirta, ?/05/1924, by S. Iwai. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Ibaraki-ken: Insect Taxonomy Laboratory, National Institute of Agricultural Environmental Sciences, Kannon-dai, Yatabe, Tsukuba-shi, (Kuwana), Japan. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus abeliceae; Kozár & Walter, 1985: 73. Change of combination.

Eriococcus abeliceae; Miller & Gimpel, 2000: 111. Revived combination.

Acanthococcus abeliceae; Kozár et al., 2013: 79. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Buxaceae: Buxus microphylla [TangHa1995], Buxus sinica [Wang2001]. Ulmaceae: Abelicea hirta [Kuwana1927a], Ulmus sp. [Kuwana1927a]

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China (Beijing (=Peking) [TangHa1995]); Japan (Honshu [Kuwana1927a]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration by Kuwana (1927a).

STRUCTURE: Adult female dark purple, oval or broadly oval. Rounded anteriorly and gradually narrowed posteriorly (Kuwana, 1927a).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae abundant over dorsum; 3 enlarged setae on each anal lobe; enlarged setae with apically rounded apices (Kuwana, 1927a).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 75 (female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus]; Wang 2001: 208 [as Eriococcus abeliceae; Key to Eriococcus of China]; Tang & Hao 1995: 453, 651 (adult female) [as Eriococcus abeliceae; Eriococcus species]; Takahashi 1957: 7 (adult female) [as Eriococcus abeliceae; Some Eriococcus species of Japan].

CITATIONS: Danzig1975a [taxonomy: 44, 45]; Danzig1977b [distribution, taxonomy: 50]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy: 207]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 66]; Kawai1972 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 54]; Kawai1977 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 153, 159, 163]; Kawai1980 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 127]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 372]; KotejaZa1981 [taxonomy: 513]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 91]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, physiology, taxonomy: 78-80]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 73]; Kuwana1927a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 111]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 111-112]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 4]; Takaha1957 [taxonomy: 7]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 453, 588, 651, 712]; Tao1999 [distribution, host: 31]; Wang2001 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 208, 224].



Acanthococcus acericola (Tang & Hao)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus acericola Tang & Hao, 1995: 454. Type data: CHINA: Ningxia, on Acer truncatum, 30/09/1963. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Shanxi: Entomological Institute, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, China. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus acericola; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 598. Change of combination.

Eriococcus acericola; Miller & Gimpel, 2000: 112. Revived combination.

Acanthococcus acericola; Kozár et al., 2013: 80. Revived combination.



HOST: Aceraceae: Acer truncatum [TangHa1995].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China (Ningxia (=Ningsia) [TangHa1995]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Tang & Hao (1995).

STRUCTURE: Adult female body elongate-oval (Tang & Hao, 1995).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: dorsal spines apically acute; dorsal spines with bare areas between longitudinal lines; anal lobes with medial setae (Tang & Hao, 1995).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 75-78 (female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus]; Wang 2001: 208 [as Eriococcus acericola; Key to Eriococcus of China]; Tang & Hao 1995: 452, 650 (adult female) [as Eriococcus acericola; Eriococcus species]; Takahashi 1957: 7 (adult female) [as Eriococcus acericola; Some Eriococcus species of Japan].

CITATIONS: Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 91]; KozarKaKo2013 [distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 81-83]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 598]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 112]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 452,454, 588-589,713]; Tao1999 [distribution, host: 31]; Wang2001 [distribution, taxonomy: 208].



Acanthococcus aceris Signoret

NOMENCLATURE:

Acanthococcus aceris Signoret, 1875b: 35-36. Unknown type status. Described: female. Notes: "No original material has been traced. The specimens from Austria, one of the type-localities, are from the Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna, identified by F. Löw, and the specimens from Switzerland are from the collection of P. Marchal. There seems to be no doubt about the identity of the species now recognized as such by many modern workers (Williams, 1985h)." Matile-Ferrero & Danzig visited the Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna in June of 1997 and were unable to locate any type material of this species.

Eriococcus aceris; Cockerell, 1896b: 323. Change of combination.

Nidularia aceris; Lindinger, 1933a: 108. Change of combination.

Eriococcus aceris; Miller & Gimpel, 2000: 113. Revived combination.

Acanthococcus aceris aceris Kozár & Konczné Benedicty, 2008. Described: female. revived status.

COMMON NAME: maple felt scale [KosztaKo1988F].



FOES: ACARI Trombidiidae: Allothrombium fuliginosum [KosztaKo1988F]. COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Exochomus quadripustulatus [KosztaKo1988F]. HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Arrhenophagus chionaspidis [KosztaKo1988F], Coccophagus lycimnia [KosztaKo1988F], Microterys lineola [KosztaKo1988F], Microterys trjapitzini [KosztaKo1988F], Zaomma eriococci [KosztaKo1988F], Zaomma lambinus [JaposhCe2010]. Mymaridae: Anagyrus schoenherri [KosztaKo1988F]. Pteromalidae: Pachyneuron concolor [KosztaKo1988F].

HOSTS: Aceraceae: Acer campestre [KozarKaKo2013], Acer cincinatum [KozarKaKo2013], Acer cinereus [Willia1985h], Acer platanoides [Willia1985h], Acer pseudoplatanus [Willia1985h]. Carpinaceae: Carpinus betulus [Willia1985h]. Elaeagnaceae: Elaeagnus angustifolia [Willia1985h]. Fagaceae: Fagus sylvatica [Willia1985h], Quercus calliprinos [SpodekBeMe2014], Quercus ithaburensis [SpodekBeMe2014], Quercus pubescens [MarottTr1990], Quercus robur [Willia1985h]. Hippocastanaceae: Aesculus hippocastanum [Willia1985h]. Myrtacae: Myrtus communis [KozarKaKo2013]. Platanaceae: Platanus orientalis [Hoy1963]. Rosaceae: Malus sp. [Kohler1998], Pyrus sp. [Kohler1998]. Salicaceae: Salix caprea [Willia1985h]. Ulmaceae: Ulmus campestris [Willia1985h].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Austria [Hoy1963]; Bulgaria [KosztaKo1988F, HodgsoTr2008]; Croatia [MastenSi2008]; Cyprus [KozarKaKo2013]; Czechoslovakia [KosztaKo1988F]; France [Hoy1963, Foldi2001]; Germany [Hoy1963]; Hungary [Hoy1963]; Iraq [Hoy1963]; Israel [SpodekBeMe2014]; Italy [MarottTr1990]; Moldova [KozarKaKo2013]; Netherlands [Hoy1963, Jansen2001]; Poland [KosztaKo1988F, SimonKa2011]; Romania [Rogoja1966]; Russia (Stavrapol Oblast [Danzig1985]); Slovenia [KozarKaKo2013]; Switzerland [Hoy1963]; Turkmenistan [Hoy1963]; Ukraine [Hoy1963] (Krym (=Crimea) Oblast [Hoy1963]); Yugoslavia [Kozar1983a].

BIOLOGY: Species overwinters as second instar. Adults develop by the first half of April and complete egg laying by the end of May. 82-378 red eggs are laid per female. Eggs hatch in about 30-35 days. First instars feed on leaves, and return to bark for overwintering in September and October. In Hungary, all eggs hatched by mid June. Also has been found at altitudes of up to 1,500 m in elevation. The species has also been observed with ants feeding on the honeydew (Kosztarab & Kozár, 1988).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Williams (1985h). According to Borchsenius (1934) the species does not occur in middle Asia as recorded by Archangelskaya (1923). Detailed description and illustrations in Hodgson & Trencheva (2008).

STRUCTURE: Ovisac compact, gray. Adult female oval, chestnut colored, covered with white wax powder (Kosztarab & Kozár, 1988).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: dorsal setae abundant over dorsum; microtubular ducts bifid; frontal lobes slightly smaller than first antennal segment; anal lobes with medial teeth and 3 dorsal enlarged setae (Williams, 1985h). The first instar nymph of A. aceris is easily separable from that of A. melnikensis and A. roboris because all of the dorsal spinose setae forming the double mid-line are sharply pointed and subequal in size. Those of A. melnikensis and A. roboris are basically of two sizes, those on abdominal segments II-V being small to minute; and all spines are truncate rather than sharply pointed. In addition, the 1st instar nymph of A. aceris lacks spinose seta submedially on the head, whereas one is present on each side of A. melnikensis and A. roboris. Gavrilov, 2010, states that it is not known what the differences between larvae from different localities different host plants, etc are likely to be significant. However, he stated that a comparison of adults of A. melnikensis and adults of A. aceris in a collection in St. Petersburg from different locations, these two species appeared to be identical and he considered A. melnikensis a new junior synomym of A. aceris. However, Spodek, et al., 2014, compared specimens of A. melnikensis from Israel and A. melnikensis from Greece and Hungary and concluded that they were different species. Adult female A. aceris aceris differ from those of E. roboris in having (character traits of E. roboris in brackets): (i) all measurements rather smaller; (ii) few or no small macrotubular ducts ventrally on abdominal segment VII (8-12): (iii)fewer than 10 small macrotubular ducts present across abdominal segment VI-II (mainly more than 15 and sometimes over 30 across some segments); (iv) segment III of the antennae without setae (setae apparently always present on segment III on A. roboris). The 2nd-instar male is immediately separable from the 2nd-instar female by the presence of macrotubular ducts. It differs from the 2nd-instar male of E. roboris in being rather smaller, in having fewer cruciform pores, in the shape of the median plate, and in geneally having small submedial truncate dorsal setae only on abdominal segments VI and VII (rather than II-VII).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: This species is rarely a pest in urban situations (Kosztarab & Kozár, 1988).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 75-77 (female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus]; Hodgson & Trencheva 2008: 36-37 (adult, female) [as Eriococcus aceris; Key for separation of adult female Eriococcida on Qurcus sp. in wstrn Palaearctic]; Tang & Hao 1995: 449, 646 (adult female) [as Eriococcus aceris; Eriococcus species]; Kosztarab & Kozár 1988: 277 (adult female) [as Eriococcus aceris; Acanthococcus species of central Europe]; Tranfaglia & Esposito 1985: 116 (adult female) [as Eriococcus aceris; Eriococcus species of Italy]; Tereznikova 1982: 35 (adult female) [Acanthococcus species]; Danzig 1971d: 821 (female) [as Eriococcus aceris; Key to species of family Eriococcidae]; Danzig 1964: 632 (adult female) [as Eriococcus aceris; Acanthococcus species of USSR]; Borchsenius 1938: 135 (adult female) [as Eriococcus aceris; Species of the Far Eastern USSR].

CITATIONS: AbdulWNo1978 [distribution, host, life history, chemical control, description, illustration: 57-61]; Archan1923 [distribution, host: 261]; Balach1937c [distribution, host, life history: 5]; BalasSa1982 [distribution, host, life history: 398-399]; BarbagBiBo1995 [distribution: 42]; BarethVa1976 [taxonomy: 211]; Bodenh1935 [taxonomy: 271]; BognarVi1979 [distribution, host: 16]; Borchs1934 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 13]; Borchs1936 [distribution, host: 111]; Borchs1937 [distribution, illustration: 59]; Borchs1937a [distribution, host: 173, 181,184,186-187]; Borchs1938 [behavior, distribution, host, taxonomy: 131, 135, 137]; Borchs1948 [taxonomy: 501]; Borchs1949 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 48-50, 52, 333, 347]; Borchs1950b [distribution, taxonomy: 121]; Borchs1960a [taxonomy: 195]; Borchs1963a [distribution, host: 161, 163, 164]; Borchs1973 [host: 164]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 323]; CookGu2001 [taxonomy: 60]; Danzig1964 [taxonomy: 632]; Danzig1971d [taxonomy: 821]; Danzig1975a [taxonomy: 44]; Danzig1977b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 50]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy: 3, 75, 205, 207]; Danzig1985 [taxonomy: 111]; Dziedz1970 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 25]; Dziedz1977 [structure: 59]; Dziedz1988 [host, taxonomy: 94]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 70]; FetykoKoDa2010 [distribution: 295]; Foldi2001 [distribution, economic importance: 305, 307]; Gavril2010 [description, taxonomy: 38-39]; Goot1912 [host, taxonomy: 290]; Goux1931 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 332]; Goux1931a [distribution, host: 60, 63]; Goux1936a [taxonomy: 346]; Goux1938 [taxonomy: 457]; Goux1943b [distribution, life history: 128]; Green1922 [taxonomy: 351]; GullanCo2001 [taxonomy: 95]; GwiazdVaDe2006 [phylogenetics: 16]; Hadzib1983 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 269]; HertinSi1972 [biological control: 131]; HodgsoHa2013 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 797]; HodgsoHe1996 [taxonomy: 192]; HodgsoMi2010 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 7-9]; HodgsoTr2008 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 12-31]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 66-67]; ICZN1982 [taxonomy: 95]; Jaap1914 [taxonomy: 136]; Jansen2001 [distribution: 200]; JaposhCe2010 [p. 134]; Kaweck1936a [distribution, host: 320]; Kaweck1957 [distribution, host: 198]; Kaweck1985 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 27-28]; Kiritc1928 [distribution, host: 112]; Kiritc1931 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 312]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 372]; KondoHaCo2006 [host, phylogeny: 23]; Koszta1956a [distribution, host: 395]; Koszta1959 [biological control, distribution, host: 402]; KosztaKo1978 [taxonomy: 65]; KosztaKo1988F [biological control, description, distribution, host, illustration, life history, taxonomy: 278-279]; Koteja1974 [taxonomy: 296]; Koteja1974b [distribution, structure, taxonomy: 76]; Koteja1976 [structure: 272]; Koteja1983a [distribution, host: 675]; Koteja1988d [taxonomy: 534]; Koteja2000a [distribution: 172]; Koteja2000d [distribution: 242]; KotejaLi1976 [structure: 666]; KotejaZa1966 [distribution, host: 319]; KotejaZa1969 [distribution: 354]; KotejaZa1979 [distribution, host: 674]; KotejaZa1981 [taxonomy: 512, 513]; KotejaZa1983 [distribution, host: 476]; Kozar1980 [distribution, host: 67]; Kozar1983a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 142]; Kozar1985 [distribution: 202]; Kozar1991 [taxonomy: 81]; Kozar1999a [distribution, host: 139]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 93]; Kozar2009a [distribution: 582]; KozarDr1991 [distribution, host: 362]; KozarGuBa1994 [distribution, host: 153]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 82-86]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 59]; KozarKo1982 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 204]; KozarKo2002b [distribution: 375]; KozarOrKo1977 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 71]; KozarSu1979 [biological control, distribution: 234]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 73]; KozarzVl1981 [host: 16, 20, 23]; KozarzVl1982 [distribution, host: 188]; Lagows1998a [ecology: 65]; Lichte1882 [description, taxonomy: 58]; Lichte1882f [host: 329]; Lindin1910 [taxonomy: 192]; Lindin1911 [taxonomy: 357]; Lindin1912b [host, taxonomy: 54]; Lindin1923 [taxonomy: 146]; Lindin1930 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 102]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 108]; Lindin1935 [taxonomy: 134]; Lindin1938 [distribution, taxonomy: 5]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 121]; LongoRuMa1991 [distribution, host: 184]; Low1882 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 81-85]; Low1883 [taxonomy: 7]; Marcha1908 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 251-253]; MarottTr1990 [distribution, host: 109]; MarottTr2001 [illustration, taxonomy: 134, 135]; MastenSi2008 [catalogue, distribution, host: 105-119]; Miller1991 [taxonomy: 333]; MillerGi2000 [biological control, catalogue, description, distribution, economic importance, host, taxonomy: 113-115]; MillerWi1976 [taxonomy: 121]; NastChKl1990 [distribution, taxonomy: 120]; OuvrarKo2009 [host, phylogeny, taxonomy: 101-115]; Panis1981 [distribution: 6]; PellizKo2011 [distribution: 66]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 39, 147, 153]; Pierre1928 [distribution, host: 5, 7]; Reyne1964 [taxonomy: 11]; RipkaReKo1996 [distribution, host: 8]; Rogoja1966 [distribution, host: 324]; Schmut1952 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 378, 406]; Schmut1955 [taxonomy: 159]; Schmut1980 [taxonomy: 50]; Signor1875b [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 35-36]; SimonKa2011 [distribution: 237]; SpodekBeMe2014 [distribution, host, illustration: 106, 115]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 4]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 454-455, 449, 646]; Terezn1959b [distribution: 448]; Terezn1959d [taxonomy: 93]; Terezn1960a [distribution, host, life history: 537-538]; Terezn1963 [distribution, host: 187]; Terezn1966 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 25]; Terezn1967a [distribution: 474]; Terezn1968b [distribution: 49]; Terezn1968c [distribution, taxonomy: 49]; Terezn1970 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 45]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy: 29]; Terezn1981 [biological control, distribution: 15-17]; Terezn1982 [distribution, taxonomy: 35]; TerGri1962 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 131, 152, 156]; TerGri1969a [distribution, taxonomy: 78, 79]; TerGri1983 [taxonomy: 879]; TranfaEs1985 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 116-118]; TranfaMa1988 [host, taxonomy: 609]; TranfaPeMa1985 [distribution, host: 123]; Tsalev1968 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 207]; Willia1985h [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 358-359]; Wunn1925 [distribution, host: 123]; Wunn1925b [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 285]; Wunn1925c [distribution, host: 436]; Wunn1926 [distribution, host: 48]; Zahrad1959a [taxonomy: 540]; Zahrad1972 [biological control, distribution, host, taxonomy: 401]; Zahrad1977 [taxonomy: 121]; ZahradRo1995 [distribution: 205]; ZakOgaKo1964 [distribution, host, life history, taxonomy: 419, 425, 434, 435].



Acanthococcus acutispinatus (Hoy)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus acutispinatus Hoy, 1962: 33, 36. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: South Island, Motueka, on Coprosma sp., 26/12/1923, by G. Brittin. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus acutispinatus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 598. Change of combination.



HOST: Rubiaceae: Coprosma sp. [Hoy1962]

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (South Island [Hoy1962]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Hoy (1962).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae covering most of dorsum; enlarged setae with broad base, narrowing rapidly to acute apex; outer seta of anal lobes smaller than setae on mesal margin (Hoy, 1962).

KEYS: Hoy 1962: 33 (adult female) [Key to Eriococcus species of New Zealand].

CITATIONS: Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 33, 36]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 68]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 97]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 116-117]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 96].



Acanthococcus agonis (Fuller)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus agonis Fuller, 1897a: 1345. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Perth, on Agonis flexuosa. Unknown type status female, by original designation. Described: female. Notes: According to Gullan (personal communication, June 10, 1996) "whereabouts unknown- most of Fuller's material has disappeared."

Nidularia agonidis; Lindinger, 1933a: 108. Change of combination. Notes: This combination was also a misspelling of "agonis."

Acanthococcus agonis; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 598. Change of combination.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Agonis flexuosa [Fuller1897a].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Western Australia [Fuller1897a]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most comprehensive description in Fuller (1899).

STRUCTURE: Adult female purple (Fuller, 1897a).

CITATIONS: Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 391]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 71]; Frogga1916 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 425]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 71]; Fuller1897b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 1345]; Fuller1899 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 439]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 68]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 97]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 108]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 598]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 119].



Acanthococcus albatus (Hoy)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus albatus Hoy, 1962: 33, 38. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: North Island, Pureora Forest, on Coprosma sp., 21/03/1960, by J.M. Hoy. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus albatus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 598. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Loranthaceae: Ileostylus micranthus [HenderSuRo2010]. Rubiaceae: Coprosma crassifolia [Hoy1962].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (North Island [Hoy1962]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Hoy (1962).

STRUCTURE: Adult female sac is white and felted (Hoy, 1962).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae present over entire dorsum, conical, tapering to slightly rounded apex; anal lobes each with tooth at apical mesal angle; outer seta on lobe shorter than enlarged setae on mesal margin (Hoy, 1962).

KEYS: Hoy 1962: 32 (adult female) [Eriococcus species of New Zealand].

CITATIONS: Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 33, 38]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 69]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 97]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 598]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 122]; Terezn1959a [taxonomy: 178]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 96].



Acanthococcus altaicus Matesova

NOMENCLATURE:

Acanthococcus altaicus Matesova, 1967: 1193-1202. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: Eastern Kazakhstan Oblast, Ubinski Ridge, Kirov District, Orlovka, on Salix sp., 08/06/1961, by Makarov & Matesova. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 1145. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Holotype adult female mounted alone on slide, also 4 additional female paratypes on 4 slides (Danzig, personal communication, 1996).

Eriococcus altaicus; Tang & Hao, 1995: 455. Described: female. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus altaicus; Kozár et al., 2013: 87. Revived combination.



ASSOCIATE: HEMIPTERA Phylloxeridae: Phylloxerina salicis [Mateso1967, KozarKaKo2013].

HOST: Salicaceae: Salix sp. [Mateso1967]

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kazakhstan [Mateso1967].

BIOLOGY: Lives in crevices on the bark of its host, density was very high. Lays lilac colored eggs in mid June, between 76-116 eggs. Nymphs appear at end of June. Phyloxerina salicis Linnaeus lives in a symbiotic relation with A. altaicus, 80% of egg sacs of the scale was infested with Phyloxerina (Matesova, 1967).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Matesova (1967) and by Tang & Hao (1995). Redescription and illustration in Kozár, et al., 2013.

STRUCTURE: Adult female oval, chestnut coloured, covered with white wax powder, 2.2 mm long, 1.5-1.7 mm wide. Ovisac compact, milk-white colour, felted with waxy needles. (Kozár, et al., 2013)

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae thin, slightly rounded apices, covering dorsum; anal lobes each with 4 enlarged setae (Matesova, 1967).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 75-77 (female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus]; Tang & Hao 1995: 451, 648 (adult female) [as Eriococcus altaicus; Eriococcus species]; Matesova 1967: 1202 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus altaicus; Acanthococcus species].

CITATIONS: Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 372]; KotejaZa1981 [taxonomy: 513]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 91]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 73]; Mateso1967 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 1193-1202]; Mateso1968 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 115]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 123]; TangHa1995 [description, taxonomy: 451, 455, 648].



Acanthococcus amomidis (Gómez-Menor Ortega)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus amomidis Gómez-Menor Ortega, 1935: 2152-2153. Type data: DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Trujillo Province, San Cristobal, on Amomis caryophilata, by C. Gonzales. Unknown type status. Described: female. Illust. Notes: According to Izquierdo (personal communication, June 21, 1996) there is no type material of this species in the MNCN.

Acanthococcus amomidis; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 598. Change of combination.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Amomis caryophilata [GomezM1935].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Dominican Republic [GomezM1935].

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description by Gómez-Menor Ortega (1935).

STRUCTURE: Sac is white and elliptical, first instars are yellow and oval (Gómez-Menor Ortega, 1935).

CITATIONS: GomezM1935 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 2152-2153]; GomezM1941 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 132-137]; HodgsoMi2010 [host, taxonomy: 99]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 69]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 91]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 598]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 124]; PerezG2008 [distribution: 216]; Reyne1964 [taxonomy: 101]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 5].



Acanthococcus angulatus (Froggatt)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus angulatus Froggatt, 1916: 426. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Perth, on Araucaria excelsa, by J.L. Newman. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Orange: Agricultural Scientific Collections Trust, New South Wales Agriculture, NSW, Australia. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Type depository information provided by Gullan (personal communication, June 10, 1996).

Acanthococcus angulatus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 598. Change of combination.



HOST: Araucariaceae: Araucaria excelsa [Frogga1916].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Western Australia [Frogga1916]).

BIOLOGY: The infested host is not covered with a black smut as in similar species (Froggatt, 1916).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Froggatt (1916).

STRUCTURE: Adult female yellow, sacs are white (Froggatt, 1916).

CITATIONS: Frogga1916 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 426]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 72]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 69]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 598]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 124]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 25].



Acanthococcus apiomorphae (Fuller)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus apiomorphae Fuller, 1897a: 1345. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Western Australia, in empty female galls of Apiomorpha maliformis on Eucalyptus sp. Syntypes, female (examined). Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Notes: There are five specimens labeled "type" in the USNM that apparently are in Fuller's handwriting. The label data are "Swan River/Western Australia" with no other details.

Acanthococcus apiomorphae; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 598. Change of combination.



ASSOCIATE: Eriococcidae: Apiomorpha maliformis [Fuller1897a].

HOST: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus sp. [Fuller1897a]

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Western Australia [Fuller1897a]).

BIOLOGY: Eriococcus apiomorphae was collected from the female galls of Apiomorpha maliformis on Eucalyptus sp. (Fuller, 1897a).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most comprehensive descriptions are by Fuller (1897a, 1899), but are very brief.

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: distinct marginal row of enlarged setae (Gullan & Vranjic, 1991).

KEYS: Gullan & Vranjic 1991: 26 (adult female) [Key to allow adult females of E. confusus and E. coriaceus to be distinguished from adult females of other Australian Eriococcus species found on Eucalyptus.].

CITATIONS: Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 391]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 71]; Foldi2003b [p. 27]; Frogga1916 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 426]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 72, 82]; Fuller1897b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 1345]; Fuller1899 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 439-440]; GullanVr1991 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 26]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 69]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 97]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 108]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 598]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 125].



Acanthococcus arcanus (Hoy)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus arcanus Hoy, 1962: 15, 32, 42, 204. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: North Island, New Plymouth, on Phyllocladus trichomanoides, ?/03/1958, by J.M. Hoy. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus arcanus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 598. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Phyllocladaceae: Phyllocladus alpinus [Hoy1962], Phyllocladus trichomanoides [Hoy1962].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (North Island [Hoy1962], South Island [Hoy1963]).

BIOLOGY: Forming galls on cladodes of Phyllocladus species, sometimes on the cladode surface (Hoy, 1962).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Hoy (1962).

STRUCTURE: When in gall, adult female is accompanied by some white powdery wax. When on the leaf surface, the females form a felted white sac (Hoy, 1962).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae thin, apically acute; marginal setae larger than those on remainder of dorsum, those on abdomen conspicuously small; with more than 3 enlarged setae on lateral margin of most abdominal segments; irregular boss at apex of anal lobes; hind coxae with translucent pores (Hoy, 1963).

KEYS: Hoy 1962: 32 (adult female) [Eriococcus species of New Zealand].

CITATIONS: Beards1984 [distribution, taxonomy: 85]; HardyGuHe2008 [host, phylogeny: 368-373]; Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 15, 32, 42, 204]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 72]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 97]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 598]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 131-132]; NanDeWu2013 [phylogenetics, taxonomy: 171, 173-174]; RossHaOk2012 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 199]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 6]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 96].



Acanthococcus armeniacus (Tang & Hao)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus armeniacus Tang & Hao, 1995: 456-457. Type data: CHINA: Ningxia, on Prunus armeniaca, 18/10/1983. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Shanxi: Entomological Institute, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, China. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus armeniacus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 598. Change of combination.



HOST: Rosaceae: Prunus armeniaca [TangHa1995].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China (Ningxia (=Ningsia) [TangHa1995]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Tang & Hao (1995).

STRUCTURE: Adult female spindle shaped (Tang & Hao, 1995).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae elongate with slightly rounded apex, abundant over dorsum; large-sized enlarged setae forming 2 or 3 longitudinal lines on each side of abdomen; 8th abdominal segment with only 1 or 2 setae anterior of anal ring (Tang & Hao, 1995).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 75-77 (female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus]; Wang 2001: 208 [Key to Eriococcus of China]; Tang & Hao 1995: 453, 650 (adult female) [Eriococcus species].

CITATIONS: Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 91]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 90-91]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 598]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 134]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 453,456-457,589-590,714]; Tao1999 [distribution, host: 31]; Wang2001 [distribution, taxonomy: 208].



Acanthococcus asteliae (Hoy)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus asteliae Hoy, 1962: 32, 46. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: North Island, Ruahine Range, Mt. Hector, on Astelia cockaynei and Cordyline australis, 29/11/1958, by M.J. Esson. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus asteliae; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 598. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Agavaceae: Cordyline australis [Hoy1962]. Liliaceae: Astelia cockaynei [Hoy1962].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (North Island [Hoy1962]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Original description and illustration by Hoy (1962).

STRUCTURE: Female has a tawny felted sac (Hoy, 1962).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae nipple-shaped, with pointed projection, apices slightly rounded; enlarged setae abundant over dorsal surface, all approximately of same size (Hoy, 1962).

KEYS: Hoy 1962: 32 (adult female) [Eriococcus species of New Zealand].

CITATIONS: Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 32, 46]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 72]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 97]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 598]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 136]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 96].



Acanthococcus australis (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus buxi australis Maskell, 1895b: 65. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Queensland, Brisbane, Botanic Gardens, on Trachymene billardieri. Syntypes. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female.

Eriococcus buxi; Froggatt, 1921: 75. Misidentification; discovered by Hoy, 1963: 73.

Nidularia buxi australis; Lindinger, 1933a: 108. Change of combination.

Eriococcus australis; Hoy, 1963: 73. Change of combination and rank.

Acanthococcus australis; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 598. Change of combination.



HOST: Umbelliferae: Trachymene billardieri [Hoy1963].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Maskel1895b], Queensland [Maskel1895b]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Brief description by Maskell (1895b).

CITATIONS: Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 323]; DeitzTo1980 [distribution, taxonomy: 45]; Frogga1900 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 101]; Frogga1916 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 428]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 75]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 73]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 97]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 108]; Maskel1895b [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 65]; Maskel1896b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 399]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 598]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 137].



Acanthococcus azaleae (Comstock)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus azaleae Comstock, 1881: 338. Type data: UNITED STATES: District of Columbia, in "Agr. Greenhouse," on Azalea sp., 06/01/1881, by D.C. Pergande. Lectotype female (examined), by subsequent designation Miller & Miller, 1992: 14-18. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Eriococcus borealis Cockerell, 1899o: 369-370. Type data: CANADA: Yukon, Dawson City, on Salix sp., by J. Morley. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA, and London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Synonymy by Miller & Miller, 1992: 14-18.

Nidularia borealis; Lindinger, 1933a: 108. Change of combination.

Nidularia azaleae; Lindinger, 1933a: 108, 117. Change of combination.

Eriococcus bezzii; Lindinger, 1943b: 223. Incorrect synonymy; discovered by Tranfaglia & Esposito, 1985: 121.

Acanthococcus azaleae; Borchsenius, 1949b: 350-351. Described: female. Illust. Change of combination.

COMMON NAMES: azalea bark scale [Blicke1965, Westco1973]; eriococcus scale [Frankl1952]; spirea scale [Westco1973].



FOE: HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Coccophagus immaculatus [Comper1931].

HOSTS: Aceraceae: Acer sp. [MillerMi1992]. Altingiaceae: Liquidambar sp. [Gill1993]. Cupressaceae: Thuja sp. [MillerMi1992]. Ericaceae: Azalea hinodegiri [Hoy1963], Azalea indica [Hoy1963], Azalea mendula [Hoy1963], Azalea nudiflora [Hoy1963], Azalea sp. [Hoy1963], Gaylussacia sp. [MillerMi1992], Pieris sp. [MillerMi1992], Rhododendron catawbiense [Hoy1963], Rhododendron sp. [MillerMi1992], Vaccinium macrocarpon [Frankl1952], Vaccinium sp. [MillerMi1992]. Grossulariaceae: Ribes sp. Rosaceae: Crataegus coccinea [Hoy1963]. Salicaceae: Populus sp. [MillerMi1992], Salix sp. [MillerMi1992]. Sterculiaceae: Fremontodendron sp. [MillerMi1992]. Ulmaceae: Celtis sp. [MillerMi1992]

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Canada (Nova Scotia [MawFoHa2000], Ontario [MawFoHa2000]); United States of America (Alabama [MillerMi1992], Alaska [Hoy1963], Arkansas [MillerMi1992], California [MillerMi1992], Colorado [MillerMi1992], Connecticut [MillerMi1992], District of Columbia [Stimme1982a], Florida [MillerMi1992], Georgia [MillerMi1992], Idaho [MillerMi1992], Indiana [MillerMi1992], Iowa [MillerMi1992], Louisiana [MillerMi1992], Maine [MillerMi1992], Maryland [MillerMi1992], Massachusetts [MillerMi1992, Frankl1952], Minnesota [MillerMi1992], Mississippi [MillerMi1992], Missouri [Hoy1963], Montana [MillerMi1992], New Jersey [MillerMi1992], New Mexico [MillerMi1992], New York [MillerMi1992], North Carolina [MillerMi1992], Ohio [MillerMi1992], Oregon [MillerMi1992], Pennsylvania [Stimme1982a], Rhode Island [MillerMi1992], South Carolina [MillerMi1992], Tennessee [MillerMi1992], Texas [MillerMi1992], Utah [MillerMi1992], Virginia [MillerMi1992], Washington [MillerMi1992], West Virginia [MillerMi1992]). Palaearctic: Belgium [Hoy1963]; Germany [Hoy1963]; Russia [Hoy1963].

BIOLOGY: Data indicates the species has one generation per year in colder places, but two generations per year have been observed in warmer areas such as Alabama. This species overwinters as eggs or first instar nymphs. Females lay 50-250 reddish purple eggs in spring (Kosztarab, 1996). On cranberries in Massachusetts the females were found in crotches of the stems. In early June to early July 100 to 150 pink eggs were found associated with the females in white fluffy sacs. Crawlers were present in late June and early July and were light yellow unlike the red females (Franklin 1952).

GENERAL REMARKS: E. azaleae is known in most of the United States and probably occurs in all areas of North America (Miller & Miller, 1992). Due to the large amount of economic literature on this species we have not attempted to include all citations. Miller & Miller (1992) and Gill (1993) provide detailed descriptions and illustrations.

STRUCTURE: Adult female oval, posterior apex pointed, body dark red or purple. Ovisac is pure white and tapered (Gill, 1993).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, apices acute or slightly rounded, present over dorsum, all approximately of same size; microtubular ducts elongate, with bifurcate orifice; anal lobes with teeth on medial margin (Miller & Miller, 1992). Eriococcus azaleae is morphologically variable and therefore had been considered as 2 species (E. azaleae and E. borealis). The E. azaleae type was collected from Rhododendron spp. from central Texas and east as well as from southern Oregon north (excluding Canada and Alaska). Specimens of the E. borealis type were not collected on Rhododendron spp. and were from Utah west to California. Specimens collected from the overlapping areas were intermediate in form, and the 2 species were therefore considered to be 2 forms of 1 species (E. azaleae) (Miller & Miller, 1992). Gill (1993) treats E. borealis as a separate species. Lindinger (1943b) incorrectly considered this species to be a senior synonym of E. bezzi(Leonardi). For information on the differences between these 2 species see the remarks section of Eriococcus uvaeursi.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: This species is a widespread economic pest, particularly on azaleas (Miller & Miller, 1992). Mentioned as a troublesome pest of azaleas in greenhouses (Franklin 1952).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 75-77 (female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus]; Kosztarab 1996: 228 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus azaleae; Acanthococcus species in Northeastern North America]; Gill 1993: 156 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus azaleae; Acanthococcus species in California]; Miller & Miller 1993: 8 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus azaleae; Acanthococcus species in the eastern United States]; Miller & Miller 1992: 3 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus azaleae; Acanthococcus species in the western United States]; McDaniel 1964: 103 (adult female) [as Eriococcus borealis; Eriococcus species of Texas]; Ferris 1955a: 95 (adult female) [as Eriococcus borealis; North American species of Eriococcus].

CITATIONS: Arnett1985 [distribution, economic importance: 239]; Blicke1965 [taxonomy: 288,308]; Borchs1949 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 350-351]; Britto1920 [distribution: 63]; Britto1923 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 351, 352]; Britto1925 [chemical control, distribution, host: 337]; Britto1929 [distribution, host: 684]; Britto1939 [distribution, host: 14]; CCNI1989 [taxonomy: 158]; Cocker1894 [taxonomy: 31]; Cocker1894v [distribution, taxonomy: 1052]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 323]; Cocker1898q [distribution, host, taxonomy: 322]; Cocker1899o [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 369-370]; Cocker1900i [taxonomy: 595]; Cocker1905b [taxonomy: 192]; Cocker1910b [distribution: 428]; Cocker1913b [distribution, host: 424]; CockerRo1914 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 335]; CockerRo1915b [host: 549]; Comper1931 [biological control, distribution: 107]; Comsto1881a [biological control, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 338-339]; Comsto1883 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 132]; Davids1974 [chemical control, distribution, host: 3]; Davis1896 [description, illustration: 29]; DietzMo1916a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 222-223]; EnglisTu1940 [chemical control, description, distribution, host, illustration, life history, taxonomy: 5]; Essig1928 [distribution, host: 76]; Felt1901 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 355]; Felt1918 [distribution, host: 74]; Felt1923 [chemical control, distribution, life history: 106]; FeltMo1928 [distribution, host: 194]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 72]; Ferris1955a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 95, 108, 112]; FoxWil1939 [distribution, host: 2315]; Frankl1952 [economic importance, life history, illustration: 3-7]; Fulmek1943 [biological control, distribution, host: 32]; Gauthi1993 [taxonomy: 4-5]; Gill1993 [economic importance, description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 156, 160-161]; GullanCo2001 [taxonomy: 95]; Hartma1916 [distribution, host: 94]; HertinSi1972 [biological control: 131]; Hollin1917a [distribution, host, illustration: 269]; Hollin1923 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 38, 65]; Howard1894a [distribution, host: 52]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 73, 75]; Jarvis1911 [distribution, host: 69]; Johnso1982 [description, economic importance, illustration,: 114, 116, 122]; JohnsoLy1976 [description, distribution, host, illustration, life history: 290-291]; JohnsoLy1988 [description, distribution, economic importance, host, illustration, taxonomy: 336-337]; King1899a [distribution, host: 110]; King1901e [distribution, host, taxonomy: 180]; King1901i [distribution, host: 232]; King1902d [taxonomy: 159]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 373]; Koszta1981 [chemical control: 153]; Koszta1996 [description, distribution, economic importance, host, illustration, life history, taxonomy: 228, 230-232]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy: 76]; Koteja1976 [structure: 272]; KotejaZa1981 [taxonomy: 513]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 91]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 92-95]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 74]; Kunkel1967 [distribution, taxonomy: 47]; Lindin1932f [taxonomy: 201]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 108, 117]; Lindin1936b [taxonomy: 286]; Lindin1943b [taxonomy: 223]; Lindin1958 [distribution, host: 368]; MacGil1921 [distribution, host: 145]; MawFoHa2000 [distribution: 45]; McDani1964 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 103]; Merril1953 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 120]; MerrilCh1923 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 196, 280]; Miller1985b [biological control, distribution, host, life history, taxonomy: 103-104]; Miller1991b [economic importance: 101]; Miller2005 [distribution: 491]; MillerGi2000 [biological control, catalogue, description, distribution, economic importance, host, life history, taxonomy: 137-141]; MillerMi1992 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 3, 14-18]; MillerMi1993 [distribution, taxonomy: 8, 15]; Morley1910b [biological control: 95]; Nishid2002 [catalogue: 143]; Peck1963 [biological control: 934]; PooleGe1997 [distribution: 354]; Riley1894 [distribution, host, life history: 71]; Robins1917 [structure: 45, 47]; Ryan1946 [distribution, economic importance: 124]; Sander1904a [description, distribution, host: 28, 38-39]; Schrea1961 [description, distribution, host, illustration, life history: 6-7]; Sleesm1945 [distribution, host: 44, 45]; Stimme1982a [chemical control, description, distribution, economic importance, host, illustration, life history, taxonomy: 17-18]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 7, 8]; Suomi1990 [chemical control, description, distribution, host, illustration, life history, taxonomy: 15]; SwanPa1972 [distribution, host: 156]; TakahaTa1956 [taxonomy: 2]; TippinDu1975 [chemical control, economic importance: 15]; Trimbl1928 [distribution, host: 43]; WebsteBu1902 [distribution, host: 109]; Westco1973 [chemical control, description, distribution, host, life history,: 387, 422]; Whitne1933 [distribution, host: 66]; Willia1985a [distribution, host: 217]; Zahrad1990c [distribution, host: 16]; Zappe1925 [distribution, host: 321].



Acanthococcus azumae (Kanda)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus azumae Kanda, 1933: 151-153. Type data: JAPAN: Honshu, Mt. Azuma, on Bambusa, 25/07/1932, by S. Kanda. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Yokohama: S. Kanda Collection, Asano Senior High School, Kanagawa-ku, Japan. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus azumae; Kozár & Walter, 1985: 74. Change of combination.



HOST: Poaceae: Bambusa sp. [Kanda1933]

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Japan (Honshu [Kanda1933]).

BIOLOGY: Lives transversely across the axils of the leaves of bamboo, collected at the end of July. (Kozar, et al., 2013)

GENERAL REMARKS: Best description and illustration by Kanda (1933).

STRUCTURE: Adult female completely enclosed in a white ovisac. Body brown (Kanda, 1933).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, apices acute, abundant over dorsum, marginal setae apparently larger than others (Kanda, 1933). The species is similar to A. onukii, in which the fourth antennal segment is markedly shorter than the third antennal segment. (Kozar, et al., 2013)

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 75-77 (female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus]; Tang & Hao 1995: 450, 647 (adult female) [Eriococcus species]; Takahashi 1957: 7 (adult female) [Some Eriococcus species of Japan].

CITATIONS: Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 74]; Kanda1933 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 151-153]; Kawai1972 [distribution, host: 5]; Kawai1980 [description, distribution, host: 129]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 373]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 91]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 96-97]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 74]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 141]; Takaha1957 [taxonomy: 6, 7]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 450, 458-459,647].



Acanthococcus bambusae (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus bambusae Green, 1922: 350. Type data: SRI LANKA: Udagama (?/10/?) and Yatiyantota (?/03/?), on Bamboo. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: both sexes. Illust. Notes: There are six adult female syntypes in the BMNH (Williams, personal communication, May 15, 1996).

Nidularia bambusae; Lindinger, 1933a: 108, 117. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus bambusae; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 598. Change of combination.



HOST: Poaceae: Bambusa sp. [Green1922]

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Sri Lanka [Green1922].

GENERAL REMARKS: Green (1922) gives description and illustration of adult males and females as well as immatures.

STRUCTURE: Adult male has brown thorax and head, pinkish purple abdomen. When boiled in potash whole insect turns bright crimson (Green, 1922).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, apices acute, abundant over dorsum, larger and more abundant in marginal areas (Green, 1922).

KEYS: Tang & Hao 1995: 451, 648 (adult female) [Eriococcus species]; Green 1922: 347 (adult female) [Eriococcus species of Ceylon (=Sri Lanka)].

CITATIONS: Ali1970a [distribution, host: 76]; Green1922 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 347, 350]; Green1937 [distribution, host: 296]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 74]; Jancke1955 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 291-292]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 97]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 108]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 598]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 142]; Ramakr1926 [distribution, host: 452]; Szeleg1971 [illustration, structure: 24]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 451, 459-460, 648].



Acanthococcus beilschmiediae (Hoy)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus beilschmiediae Hoy, 1962: 33, 48. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: North Island, Palmerston, Waipoura Forest, Ruakokere River, on Beilschmiedia tawa, 13/08/1958, by J.M. Hoy. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus beilschmiediae; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 598. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Lauraceae: Beilschmiedia tarairi [Hoy1962], Beilschmiedia tawa [Hoy1962].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (North Island [Hoy1962]).

BIOLOGY: Adults occur on the under sides of host leaves (Hoy, 1962).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Hoy (1962).

STRUCTURE: Sac of female is tawny in color (Hoy, 1962).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae thin, apices thin but rounded, abundant over surface, some 3 times longer than others; small tooth on apex of mesal margin of anal lobes (Hoy, 1962).

KEYS: Hoy 1962: 33 (adult female) [Eriococcidae of New Zealand].

CITATIONS: Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 33, 48]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 75]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 98]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 143]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 96].



Acanthococcus betulaefoliae (Tang & Hao)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus betulaefoliae Tang & Hao, 1995: 460. Type data: CHINA: Ningxia, on Pyrus betulaefolia, 12/09/1983. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Shanxi: Entomological Institute, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, China. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus betulaefoliae; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 598. Change of combination.



HOST: Rosaceae: Pyrus betulaefolia [TangHa1995].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China (Ningxia (=Ningsia) [TangHa1995]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Tang & Hao (1995).

STRUCTURE: Adult female body ovoid (Tang & Hao, 1995).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae elongate, conical; anal lobes with numerous tubercles; anal ring with 10 setae; frontal lobes present (Tang & Hao, 1995).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 75-77 (female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus]; Wang 2001: 208 [as Eriococcus betulaefoliae; Key to Eriococcus of China]; Tang & Hao 1995: 453, 650 (adult female) [as Eriococcus betulaefoliae; Eriococcus species].

CITATIONS: Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 91]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 98-99]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 598]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 144]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 453, 460,590,650,715]; Tao1999 [distribution, host: 31]; Wang2001 [distribution, taxonomy: 208].



Acanthococcus bezzii (Leonardi)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus bezzii Leonardi, 1907b: 148-151. Type data: ITALY: Val Nerina, Sondrio, vaso 75 tubo no 7, on Rhododrendron ferrugineum, by M. Bezzi. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Tranfaglia & Esposito, 1985: 121. Type depository: Portici: Dipartimento de Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria di Portici, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Italy. Described: female. Illust.

Eriococcus uvaeursi; Lindinger, 1912. Misidentification; discovered by Leonardi, 1920.

Acanthococcus bezzii; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 598. Change of combination.



HOST: Ericaceae: Rhododendron ferrugineum [Leonar1907b].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Germany [Leonar1907b]; Italy [Leonar1907b]; Spain [Leonar1907b].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration by Leonardi (1907b) and by Tranfaglia & Esposito (1985).

STRUCTURE: Adult female oval (Tranfaglia & Esposito, 1985).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, apices acute; dorsum covered by enlarged setae except medial areas of last 3 abdominal segments; marginal enlarged setae larger than other dorsal setae; microtubular ducts elongate with single sclerotization (Tranfaglia & Esposito, 1985). Lindinger (1943b) erroneously considered Eriococcus bezzii to be a junior synonym of E. azaleae. Lindinger (1912b) incorrectly considered E. bezzii to be a junior synonym of E. uvaeursi. Goux (1936a & b) erroneously considered E. bezzii to be a junior synonym of E. bahiae = texanus. Later, in 1948a, Goux incorrectly considered both E. bezzii and E. texanus to be junior synonyms of E. uvaeursi. Information used to distinguish among E. bezzii, A. bahiae = texanus and E. uvaeursi is given in the remarks of E. uvaeursi. We are considering all of these species as distinct until more detailed studies can be undertaken.

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 75-77 (female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus]; Tang & Hao 1995: 451, 648 (adult female) [as Eriococcus bezzii; Eriococcus species]; Tranfaglia & Esposito 1985: 115 (adult female) [as Eriococcus bezzii; Eriococcus species of Italy].

CITATIONS: BarbagBiBo1995 [distribution: 42]; FoxWil1939 [distribution, host: 2315]; Goux1936a [taxonomy: 352]; Goux1936b [taxonomy: 299]; Goux1938d [taxonomy: 328]; Goux1948a [taxonomy: 69]; Goux1989a [structure: 21]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host: 75]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 91]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 100-102]; Leonar1907b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 148-151]; Leonar1918 [distribution, host: 215]; Leonar1920 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 439]; Lindin1907d [taxonomy: 159]; Lindin1910 [taxonomy: 155]; Lindin1943b [taxonomy: 223]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 121]; LongoMaPe1999a [distribution: 146]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 598]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 144-145]; OuvrarKo2009 [behaviour, structure, taxonomy: 101-118]; PellizKo2011 [distribution: 66]; Sander1909a [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 37]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 8]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 451, 460-461, 648]; TranfaEs1985 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 119-121].



Acanthococcus bicolor (Froggatt)

NOMENCLATURE:

Rhizococcus bicolor Froggatt, 1915: 1059. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Western Australia, Dowering, on Acacia sp., by L.J. Newman. Unknown type status. Described: female. Notes: The whereabouts of this type material is unknown (Gullan, personal communication, June 10, 1996).

Eriococcus bicolor; Hoy, 1963: 75. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus bicolor; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 598. Change of combination.



HOST: Fabaceae: Acacia sp. [Frogga1915]

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Western Australia [Frogga1915]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Brief description by Froggatt (1915).

STRUCTURE: Adult female blackish purple with yellowish markings (Froggatt, 1915).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: anal lobes with group of short blunt enlarged setae; dorsum covered with short hair-like enlarged setae (Froggatt, 1915).

CITATIONS: Frogga1915 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 1059]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 63]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 75]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 98]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 598]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 145-146].



Acanthococcus boguschi (McDaniel)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus boguschi McDaniel, 1964: 101. Type data: UNITED STATES: Texas, Kleberg Co., Kingsville, Texas College of Arts and Industries, on Prosopis glandulosa, 20/11/1962, by B. McDaniel. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: College Station: Texas A&M University, Department of Entomology Insect Collection, Texas, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus boguschi; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 599. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Caryophyllaceae: Paronychia jamesii [McDani1964]. Euphorbiaceae: Croton sp. [McDani1964]. Fabaceae: Prosopis glandulosa [McDani1964].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Texas [McDani1964, Miller2005]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration by McDaniel (1964).

KEYS: McDaniel 1964: 104 (adult female) [Eriococcus species of Texas].

CITATIONS: Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 98]; McDani1964 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 101-102, 104]; Miller2005 [distribution: 491]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 599]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 146]; PooleGe1997 [distribution: 354].



Acanthococcus brittini (Hoy)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus brittini Hoy, 1962: 50. Type data: NEW ZEALAND. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus brittini; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 599. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Fagaceae: Nothofagus solandri var. cliffortioides [Hoy1962]. Leguminosae: Coprosma rotundifolia [HardyGuHe2008].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand [Hoy1962].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Hoy (1962).

STRUCTURE: Female sac is tawny (Hoy, 1962).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical with rounded apices decreasing in size anteriorly, with 2 setae on each lateral margin of each abdominal segment excluding mediolateral longitudinal line, dorsal setae smaller than those on body margin; enlarged setae on anal lobes noticeably smaller than on remainder of surface; microtubular ducts simple without sclerotized apex (Hoy, 1962).

KEYS: Hoy 1962: 32 (adult female) [Eriococcidae of New Zealand].

CITATIONS: HardyGuHe2008 [host,, phylogeny, structure: 366, 368-373]; Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 32, 50]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 76]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 98]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 599]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 149]; NanDeWu2013 [phylogenetics, taxonomy: 171, 173-174]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 96].



Acanthococcus campbelli (Hoy)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus campbelli Hoy, 1959: 12. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Victoria, Peterborough, on Leptospermum juniperinum, 28/07/1956. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia. Described: female. Illust. Notes: There are nine paratypes in ANIC (Gullan, personal communication, October 27, 1998).

Acanthococcus campbelli; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 599. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Leptospermum flavescens [Hoy1959], Leptospermum juniperinum [Hoy1959], Leptospermum lanigerum [Hoy1959], Leptospermum liversidgei [Hoy1959], Leptospermum myrtifolium [Hoy1959], Leptospermum nitidum [Hoy1959], Leptospermum obovatum [Hoy1959], Leptospermum scoparium [Hoy1959], Leptospermum sericeum [Hoy1959], Leptospermum squarrosum [Hoy1959].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Hoy1959], Queensland [Hoy1959], Tasmania [Hoy1959]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Hoy (1959).

STRUCTURE: Sac of female is white and felted. Infestation is accompanied by heavy growth of sooty mold fungi (Hoy, 1959).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae slender with rounded apex, marginal setae conspicuously longer than other dorsal setae, with 2 setae on lateral margin of each abdominal segment; posterior 2 or 3 abdominal segments nodulose; microtubular ducts with bifid orifice (Hoy, 1959).

KEYS: Pellizzari & Germain 2010: 52 (female) [Key to the 7 eriococcid species known to occur on Leptospermum spp.]; Hoy 1959: 12, 23 (adult female) [Eriococcus species known to occur on Leptospermum species in Australia].

CITATIONS: Hender2008 [phylogeny: 89-94]; HenderSuRo2010 [host: 20-21]; HertinSi1972 [distribution, host: 131]; Hoy1959 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 12]; Hoy1961 [distribution, host: 64]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 78]; Hoy1964 [distribution, host: 18]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 98]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 599]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, life history, taxonomy: 153-154]; PellizGe2010 [host, taxonomy: 51,52].



Acanthococcus campinensis (Hempel)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus campinensis Hempel, 1937: 5-6. Type data: BRAZIL: Estado de Sao Paulo, Campinas, on Tephrosia candida, 30/10/1934. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo, Brazil; type no. 361. Described: female. Notes: Part of the type series is in the USNM.

Acanthococcus campinensis; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 599. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Fabaceae: Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia [PerontMiSo2001], Tephrosia candida [Hempel1937].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Sao Paulo [Hempel1937]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description of adult female and first instar by Hempel (1937).

STRUCTURE: Sac of female felted. When adult female is boiled in KOH it turns transparent (Hempel, 1937).

CITATIONS: Hempel1937 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 5-6]; HodgsoMi2010 [host, taxonomy: 99]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 78]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 98]; Lepage1938 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 379]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 599]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, life history, taxonomy: 154]; PerontMiSo2001 [host: 248]; SilvadGoGa1968 [distribution, host: 159]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 9].



Acanthococcus castanopus (Tang & Hao)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus castanopus Tang & Hao, 1995: 463. Type data: CHINA: Guangxi, Long Sheng, on Castanopsis sp., 07/06/1981. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Shanxi: Entomological Institute, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, China. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus castanopus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 599. Change of combination.



HOST: Fagaceae: Castanopsis sp. [TangHa1995]

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: China (Guangxi (=Kwangsi) [TangHa1995]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Tang & Hao (1995).

STRUCTURE: Adult female body oval (Tang & Hao, 1995).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical with rounded apices all setae approximately same size and scattered over entire surface of dorsum; microtubular ducts with 2 sclerotized areas; anal lobes with small teeth on medial margin (Tang & Hao, 1995).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 75-77 (female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus]; Wang 2001: 208 [as Eriococcus castanopus; Key to Eriococcus of China]; Tang & Hao 1995: 453, 650 (adult female) [as Eriococcus castanopus; Eriococcus species].

CITATIONS: Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 91]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 102-104]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 599]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 156]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 453,463,591,650,717]; Tao1999 [distribution, host: 32]; Wang2001 [distribution, taxonomy: 208].



Acanthococcus celmisiae (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Rhizococcus celmisiae Maskell, 1884: 135. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: South Island, Southern Alps, on Celmisia sp. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia, Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA, and Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female.

Nidularia celmisiae; Lindinger, 1933a: 108. Change of combination.

Eriococcus celmisiae; Hoy, 1962: 6, 7, 31, 54. Described: female. Illust. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus celmisiae; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 599. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Celmisia lyallii [Hoy1962], Celmisia sp. [Hoy1962]

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (South Island [Hoy1962]).

BIOLOGY: Females found on either side of leaves, but dominantly on the under side (Hoy, 1962).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Hoy (1962). Detailed type data in Deitz & Tocker (1980).

STRUCTURE: Sac of female is white and closely felted (Hoy, 1962).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae elongate, broad base, apices acute or slightly rounded; marginal enlarged setae conspicuously larger than remaining dorsal setae, with 3 setae on lateral margin of each abdominal segment; enlarged setae on anal lobes noticeably slender (Hoy, 1962).

KEYS: Hoy 1962: 31 (adult female) [Eriococcidae of New Zealand].

CITATIONS: Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 324]; DeitzTo1980 [distribution, taxonomy: 45]; Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 6, 7, 31, 54]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 79]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 98]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 108]; Maskel1884 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 135]; Maskel1887a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 96]; Maskel1894 [distribution: 135]; Maskel1895a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 20]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 599]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 159]; Myers1922 [distribution, taxonomy: 197]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 9]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 96].



Acanthococcus chabohiba (Kuwana & Nitobe)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus chabohiba Kuwana & Nitobe, 1918: 400-403. Type data: JAPAN: on Chamaecyparis obutosa (sic) var. breviramia. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Ibaraki-ken: Insect Taxonomy Laboratory, National Institute of Agricultural Environmental Sciences, Kannon-dai, Yatabe, Tsukuba-shi, (Kuwana), Japan. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Five slides in UCDC.

Eriococcus chabohibae; Takahashi, 1957: 7. Misspelling of species name.

Acanthococcus chabohiba; Kozár & Walter, 1985: 74. Change of combination.



HOST: Cupressaceae: Chamaecyparis obtusa var. breviramia [Hoy1963].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Japan [Hoy1963].

BIOLOGY: Adult female with great, large, white eggsacs on braches of host plant. (Kozar, et al., 2013)

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description by Kuwana & Nitobe (1918).

STRUCTURE: Antennae 7 segmented. Legs normal, tarsus longer than tibia, tarsal and claw digitules capitated, longer than claw. On the penultimate segment with 9 enlarged sharp pointed spines. On margin 2 or 3 setae situated. Anal lobes elongated, serrated on inner side, with three blunted spines. Anal lobe setae as long as anal lobe length. Anal ring with 8 pairs of setae, as long as the lobe setae. (Kozár, et al., 2013)

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 75-77 (female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus]; Tang & Hao 1995: 453, 651 (adult female) [as Eriococcus chabohiba; Eriococcus species]; Takahashi 1957: 7 (adult female) [as Eriococcus chabohiba; Some Eriococcus species of Japan].

CITATIONS: Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 79]; Kawai1972 [distribution, host: 4]; Kawai1977 [distribution, host: 151, 157, 164]; Kawai1980 [distribution, host: 128]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 374]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 91]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 104-105]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 74]; KuwanaNi1918 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 400-403]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 160]; Takaha1957 [taxonomy: 6]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 453, 464, 651].



Acanthococcus chathamensis (Hoy)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus chathamensis Hoy, 1962: 79. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: Chatham Islands, Waikato Point, on Myrsine chathamica, ?/11/1959, by L.J. Dumbleton. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus chathamensis; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 599. Change of combination.



HOST: Myrsinaceae: Myrsine chathamica [Hoy1962].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Chatham Island [Hoy1962].

BIOLOGY: Adult females mainly occur on the under surface of leaves (Hoy, 1962).

GENERAL REMARKS: Original description and illustration by Hoy (1962).

STRUCTURE: Sac is brown, felted and slightly resinous (Hoy, 1962).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, rounded or blunt apices, dorsal setae all approximately same size with only small number of setae in medial and mediolateral areas, with 1 or 2 setae on lateral margin of each abdominal segment; enlarged setae with 1 or 2 microtubular ducts associated with base (Hoy, 1962).

KEYS: Hoy 1962: 56-57 (adult female) [Eriococcidae of New Zealand].

CITATIONS: Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 32, 56]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 79]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 599]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 161-162]; Willia1973 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 83]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 96].



Acanthococcus christopherus (Foldi & Kozar)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus christopherus Foldi & Kozar, 2007: 53-54. Type data: BRAZIL: Rio Grande do Sul, Itaimbéznho, parc Natonal de Asparados, on Eugenia jaboticaba (Myrtaceae), 11/16/1985, by I. Foldi. Holotype female (examined). Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus christopherus; Kozár & Konczné Benedicty, 2008: 117-144. Change of combination.



HOST: Myrtacae: Eugenia jaboticaba [FoldiKo2007].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul [FoldiKo2007]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Foldi & Kozár (2007)

STRUCTURE: Adult female body outline elongate oval, 2.3-2.5 mm long, 1.2-1.3 mm wide. Antenna 7 segmented; antennal segments with few setae; segment III almost parallel-sided, without setae; apical segment with one seta, and three sensory falcate setae. Frontal lobes well developed, about as long as width of scape. Eyes near margin on venter. Venter: Labium 3-segmented, basal segment very small, bearing 2 pairs of setae, middle segment large, with one pair of setae and a;ical segment bearing 4 pairs of seetae. Legs well developed, with large translucent pores on each metathoracic coxa and febur. tarsal digitules knobbed. Each trochanger with a long seta, and with two oval campaniform pores on each side. Each claw with a distinct dentible. Legs with few hair=like setae. Coxae with about 90-115 large translucent pores; femur with about 10-15 translucent pores dorsally at distal end. Disc pores with 5 loculi, distributed in bands across all abdominal segments, and scattered on thorax and head; also frequent laterad to each spiracle. Each spiracle with peritreme. Hair like setae scattered throughout arranged segmentally on abdomen. Microtubular ducts absent. Macrotubular ducts variable in length, sparse on all segments. Cruciform pores few, present in a submarginal band from head posteriorly to about abdominal segment III. Anal lobes membranous, each about twice as long as broad, with 3 hair-like setae. Margin: Marginal spinose setae similar to dorsal setae, each straight but smaller, very few present as a sparse band anteriorly, becoming absent on abdominal segments VI-VIII. Dorsum: Dorsal setae all spine-like, each spinose seta varying in size and shape, sometimes slightly curved, each with a large basal socket. Dorsal spinose setae forming 2 longibudinal medial bands and 9 transverse bands. Macrotubular ducts similar to those on venter, sparse, present throughout. Microtubular ducts with a dentral septa but no sclerotised pore opening, scattered throughout. Disc pores absent. Anal ring with pores and with 8 hairlike setae. Anal lobes each with two spinose setae along inner margin, and one spinose seta on outer margin, similar in size to those on dorsum, plus a long apical seta. Median sclerotised plate absent.

SYSTEMATICS: A. christopherus differs from the other species of Acanthococcus found in south America in the characteristic arrangement of the dorsal spinose setae, in 2 longitudinal medial bands and 9 transverse rows.

KEYS: Foldi & Kozar 2007: 62 (female) [as (Eriococcus christopherus; Key to the species of Eriococcus discussed here from South America].

CITATIONS: FoldiKo2007 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 53-54, 62]; HodgsoMi2010 [host, taxonomy: 99]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 91]; KozarKo2008 [taxonomy: 143].



Acanthococcus clapsae (González)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus clapsae González, 2009: 115-134. Type data: ARGENTINA: Catamarca, on Larrea sp., 11/25/1995, by P. González. Holotype female (examined). Type depository: Tucuman: Fundacion e Instituto Miguel Lillo, Universidade Nactional de Tucuman, Argentina. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus clapsae; Hodgson & Miller, 2010: 99. Change of combination.



HOST: Zygophyllaceae: Larrea [Gonzal2009].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina [Gonzal2009].

KEYS: González 2009: 133 (female) [as Eriococcus clapsae; Clave para hembras adultas de las especies de Eriococcus encontradas sobre Larrea en Argentina (Key to the adult females of the species of Eriococcus found on Larrea in Argentina)].

CITATIONS: Gonzal2009 [description, distribution, host, illustration: 116-118]; HodgsoMi2010 [host, taxonomy: 99].



Acanthococcus coffeae (Hempel)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus coffeae Hempel, 1919: 453-457. Type data: BRAZIL: Pinhal, on Coffea arabica, 03/09/1903, by Heitor de Sá; Sao Paulo, on Coffea arabica, 13/10/1913, by J. Arnthaud-Berthet. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil. Described: female.

Nidularia coffeae; Lindinger, 1933a: 108. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus coffeae; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 599. Change of combination.



HOST: Rubiaceae: Coffea arabica [Hempel1919].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Sao Paulo [Hempel1919]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description by Hempel (1919).

STRUCTURE: Adult female enclosed in white felted sac. Body is oval and red, and becomes transparent when boiled in KOH (Hempel, 1919).

CITATIONS: CostaL1928 [distribution, host: 106]; CostaL1936 [distribution, taxonomy: 178]; Hempel1919 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 453-457]; HodgsoMi2010 [host, taxonomy: 99]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 81]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 98]; Lepage1938 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 379]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 108]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 599]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 169]; Moreir1928 [taxonomy: 24]; Pompeu1925 [distribution, host: 411]; Roba1935 [distribution: 304]; SilvadGoGa1968 [distribution, host: 159].



Acanthococcus confluens (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Gossyparia confluens Maskell, 1893b: 227. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Sydney, on Eucalyptus sp., by Koebele. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Nidularia confluens; Lindinger, 1933a: 108. Change of combination.

Eriococcus confluens; Hoy, 1962: 22. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus confluens; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 599. Change of combination.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus sp. [Maskel1893b]

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Maskel1893b]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Maskell (1893b). Type information from Deitz & Tocker (1980).

STRUCTURE: Adult female produces a white cottony ovisac with a yellowish tinge. The body is dark red (Maskell, 1893b).

CITATIONS: Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 324]; DeitzTo1980 [distribution, taxonomy: 45]; Frogga1915 [description, distribution, host: 1063]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 69]; Hoy1962 [taxonomy: 22]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 81]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 98]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 108]; Maskel1893b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 227]; Maskel1895a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 21]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 599]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 169-170]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 11].



Acanthococcus conspersus (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus conspersus Maskell, 1893b: 229-330. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Clarence River, Harwood, on Casuarina sp., by Koebele. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: both sexes. Illust.

Nidularia conspersus; Lindinger, 1933a: 108. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus conspersus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 599. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus consperus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 599. Misspelling of species name.



HOST: Casuarinaceae: Casuarina sp. [Maskel1893b]

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Maskel1893b]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustrations by Maskell (1893b) including adult males and females as well as a description of first-instar nymphs. Type data from Deitz & Tocker (1980).

STRUCTURE: Sac of adult female yellow, not closely felted. Sac of male pupa white and cylindrical. Adult females brown. First instars and adult males are brown (Maskell, 1893b).

CITATIONS: Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 323]; DeitzTo1980 [distribution, taxonomy: 45]; Essig1931 [distribution, host: 316]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 73]; Frogga1900 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 101]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 81]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 98]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 108]; Maskel1893b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 229-230]; Maskel1895a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 22]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 599]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 171]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 11].



Acanthococcus constrictus (Froggatt)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus constrictus Froggatt, 1933: 365-367. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Euston, Murray River, on Casuarina lepidophloia. Syntypes, female, by original designation. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia. Described: female. Illust. Notes: The type material includes one slide with 4 females and a second slide with 5 females and 7 dry mounts (Gullan, personal communication, June 10, 1996).

Acanthococcus constrictus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 600. Change of combination.



HOST: Casuarinaceae: Casuarina lepidophloia [Frogga1933].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Frogga1933]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Froggatt (1933).

STRUCTURE: Female sac light reddish-brown and closely felted. Adult female dark brown and giving an amber tint when boiled in potash (Froggatt, 1933).

CITATIONS: Frogga1933 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 365-367]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 81]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 98]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 600]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 172].



Acanthococcus coprosmae (Hoy)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus coprosmae Hoy, 1962: 32, 60-61. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: North Island, Nokomai, on Coprosma sp., 09/06/1953, by R. Macarthur. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus coprosmae; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 600. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Rubiaceae: Coprosma australis [Hoy1962], Coprosma linariifolia [Hoy1962], Coprosma propinqua? [Hoy1962], Coprosma robusta? [Hoy1962], Coprosma rugosa [Hoy1962], Coprosma sp. [Hoy1962]

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (North Island [Hoy1962], South Island [Hoy1962]).

BIOLOGY: Occurs on stems and in stem and leaf axils. Insect is accompanied by a lot of sooty mould (Hoy, 1962).

GENERAL REMARKS: Best description and illustration by Hoy (1962).

STRUCTURE: Sac of female is grey to white (Hoy, 1962).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae short, conical, apex acute; marginal setae noticeably larger than other dorsal setae, with 2 lateral setae on each abdominal segment; anal lobes conspicuously enlarged with distinct tooth on apical mesal margin (Hoy, 1962).

KEYS: Hoy 1962: 32 (adult female) [Eriococcidae of New Zealand].

CITATIONS: Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 32, 60-61]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 82]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 98]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 600]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 172]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 96].



Acanthococcus coriaceus (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus coriaceus Maskell, 1893b: 229. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, on Eucalyptus sp., by Olliff. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Gullan & Vranjic, 1991: 21-40. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia. Described: female. Illust.

Nidularia coriaceus; Lindinger, 1933a: 108. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus coriaceus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 600. Change of combination.

COMMON NAMES: blue gum scale [DeBach1964]; common gum scale [French1911]; gum tree scale [KirkCo1909]; rice bubble scale [Hockin1980].



FOES: COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Chilocorus sp. [GordonHi1990], Cryptolaemus montrouzieri [Stilin1993, Frogga1902a], Orcus chalybeus [Stilin1993], Rhizobius ventralis [Frogga1902a], Rhyzobius ventralis [Marcha1907, Valent1967, Zondag1977]. DIPTERA Chamaemyiidae: Pseudoleucopis benefica [Dumble1940]. HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Aphycus nigrivarius [Dumble1940]. LEPIDOPTERA : Catoblemma mesotaenia [Dumble1940], Creobota coccophthora [Dumble1940]. Oecophoridae: Stathmopoda melanchra [Dumble1940].

HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus amygdalina [Hoy1962], Eucalyptus blakelyi [GullanVr1991], Eucalyptus botryoides [GullanVr1991], Eucalyptus camaldulensis [GullanVr1991], Eucalyptus cinera [Zondag1977], Eucalyptus cladocalyx [Maskel1893b], Eucalyptus coccifera [Maskel1893b], Eucalyptus cosmophylla [GullanVr1991], Eucalyptus dalrympleana [GullanVr1991], Eucalyptus eugenioides [Zondag1977], Eucalyptus globulus [Maskel1893b], Eucalyptus gunnii [Maskel1893b], Eucalyptus intertexa [GullanVr1991], Eucalyptus macarthurii [Zondag1977], Eucalyptus mellidora [GullanVr1991], Eucalyptus microcarpa [GullanVr1991], Eucalyptus nicholii [GullanVr1991], Eucalyptus nitens [Philli1993], Eucalyptus obliqua [Zondag1977], Eucalyptus playpus [GullanVr1991], Eucalyptus pulchella [GullanVr1991], Eucalyptus regnans [Maskel1893b], Eucalyptus robusta [GullanVr1991], Eucalyptus sp. [Maskel1893b], Eucalyptus stuartiana [Maskel1893b], Eucalyptus torquata [GullanVr1991], Eucalyptus viminalis [GullanVr1991], Melaleuca incana [GullanVr1991].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Australian Capital Territory [GullanVr1991], New South Wales [Maskel1893b], Queensland [Maskel1893b], South Australia [Maskel1893b], Tasmania [Maskel1893b], Victoria [Maskel1893b]); New Zealand [Maskel1893b].

BIOLOGY: There are four or five generations each year in Adelaide Australia (Patel, 1971; Gough, 1975).

GENERAL REMARKS: Best description and illustration by Gullan & Vranjic (1991). Also described by Maskell (1893b). Type information provided by Deitz & Tocker (1980) and Gullan & Vranjic (1991).

STRUCTURE: Adult female broadly oval. Crushed body contents reddish brown and crimson to scarlet in 10% KOH solution (Gullan & Vranjic, 1991). Sac of female ovoid to globular in shape, varying from light yellow or buff to dark orange or red and are typically discretely spaced (Vranjic, 1990). Sac of male pupa of similar color, but smaller. Adult female is dark red and fills the sac (Maskell, 1893b).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae elongate, apices acute, slightly curved, becoming increasingly larger posteriorly; macrotubular ducts absent from posteriomedial area of dorsum; microtubular ducts sparse on dorsal abdomen, often in irregular transverse row on each segment (Gullan & Vranjic, 1991). Anal lobes each with 6 setae (Hoy, 1962).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: This species can cause severe dieback and even death of young eucalyptus trees (Hoy, 1962; Hockings, 1950; Elliott & de Little, 1985).

KEYS: Gullan & Vranjic 1991: 26 (adult female) [Australian Eriococcus species on Eucalyptus]; Hoy 1962: 31 (adult female) [New Zealand Eriococcidae].

CITATIONS: AddaeMCa1978 [taxonomy: 2089]; AtkinsChDi1956 [taxonomy, host, economic importance, illustration: 249, 284, 333, 472-4]; Banks1977 [chemistry: 60, 63]; BanksCa1970 [chemistry, host, taxonomy: 1577-1578]; BanksCa1973 [chemistry: 145, 154]; BanksCaCr1976 [chemistry: 2231-2245]; BanksCaEd1976 [chemistry: 2227]; BanksCaRa1976 [chemistry: 1509]; Bartle1978b [biological control, distribution, life history: 129-131]; Brown1967 [distribution, host: 131]; CameroCrFe1978 [chemistry: 1363-1370]; Charle1998 [distribution, economic importance: 51]; Clark1938 [biological control, distribution, economic importance, host, life history: 750-754]; Clark1949 [biological control, distribution, host: 367]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 323]; Comper1940 [biological control, distribution, host: 46]; CookGu2004 [taxonomy: 444]; DeBach1962 [biological control, distribution: 70]; DeBach1964 [biological control, distribution, host: 677]; DeitzTo1980 [distribution, taxonomy: 5, 46]; Dumble1940 [biological control, distribution, host: 102a-108a]; Eastwo2004 [ecology, life history]; ElliotDe1985 [description, distribution, host, illustration, life history, taxonomy: 19-20]; Esson1994 [distribution: 7]; Evans1942 [distribution, host: 157]; Evans1943 [host: 138]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 73]; French1911 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 89-90]; French1944 [distribution, host: 58]; Frogga1900 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 101-102]; Frogga1907 [distribution, host, illustration: 377]; Frogga1916 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 430]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 76, 81]; Frogga1923 [distribution, host: 13]; Fulmek1943 [biological control, distribution: 32]; Giraul1929 [biological control, distribution, host: 314]; GordonHi1990 [biological control: 287]; Gough1975 [biological control, distribution, host: 67-68]; Gourla1930 [biological control, distribution, host: 8]; Green1929 [description, distribution, host: 375]; GullanCo2001 [taxonomy: 95, 96]; GullanMa2003 [illustration: 1088]; GullanVr1991 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 21-40]; GwiazdVaDe2006 [phylogenetics: 16]; HagenFr1973 [distribution: 437]; HertinSi1972 [biological control, distribution: 131]; Hockin1980 [host, illustration: 97]; HodekHo2009 [biological control: 235]; Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 5, 6, 31, 62]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 82]; Imms1931 [biological control, distribution, host: 98]; Imms1931a [biological control, distribution, host: 334]; Kirk1905 [biological control, chemical control, economic importance, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 421]; Kirk1907 [host: 172]; Kirk1908 [biological control, distribution, host: 118, 119]; KirkCo1909 [biological control, distribution: 276, 280]; KirkCo1909a [distribution, host: 4]; Koteja1974 [taxonomy: 296]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy: 76]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 98]; Lindin1910 [taxonomy: 153]; Lindin1914 [taxonomy: 157]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 108]; Lindin1958 [taxonomy: 368]; Mackin1920 [biological control, distribution, host: 483]; Marcha1907 [biological control, distribution: 323]; Maskel1893b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 229]; Maskel1895a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 22]; McKeow1945 [description, distribution, economic importance, host: 338]; Miller1918 [biological control, distribution, host: 15]; Miller1925 [biological control, description, distribution, economic importance, host, life history,: 28-30, 63]; Miller1949 [economic importance, distribution: 45]; MillerCl1935 [biological control, economic importance, distribution, host: 306-307]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy, Nomenclature: 600]; MillerGi2000 [biological control, catalogue, description, distribution, economic importance, host, life history, taxonomy: 172-175]; Myers1922 [distribution, taxonomy: 198]; NanDeWu2013 [phylogenetics: 173]; Paladi1923 [distribution: 2]; Patel1971 [biological control, description, distribution, economic importance, host, illustration, life history, taxonomy: 43-56]; PerkinEv1918 [host: 608]; Philli1993 [distribution, host: 378, 379]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 99, 131]; Pope1981 [biological control, distribution, host: 21]; Richar1981 [distribution, ecology, host: 34]; Richar1985 [biological control, distribution: 294]; Robins1924 [host: 199]; RossHaOk2012 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 199]; SchildSc1928 [biological control: 247]; Schmid1940 [distribution, host: 269]; Silves1939 [taxonomy: 684]; Stilin1993 [biological control, distribution, host, taxonomy: 32]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 11]; Sweetm1935 [biological control, distribution: 375]; Sweetm1936 [biological control, distribution: 355]; Sweetm1958 [biological control, distribution, economic importance: 453]; ThieleWyMa2008 [p. 282]; Tillya1926 [biological control, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 174]; Valent1967 [biological control, distribution: 1104, 1147, 1168]; Vranji1990 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 83-84]; VranjiAs1997 [host, economic importance: 143-149]; VranjiGu1990 [behaviour, biological control, distribution, host: 157-162]; Willia1985h [distribution, life history: 350]; Willia1991DJ [distribution, host: 461]; Wilson1963 [biological control, distribution, host: 7]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 97]; WoodwaEvEa1970 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 430]; Zeck1954 [distribution, host: 298]; Zeck1955 [biological control, distribution, host: 343, 373]; Zimmer1948 [biological control: 137]; Zondag1977 [biological control, description, distribution, economic importance, host, illustration, life history, taxonomy: 1-4]; Zondag1979 [biological control, distribution: 85-89].



Acanthococcus corniculatus (Ferris)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus corniculatus Ferris, 1950: 7. Type data: CHINA: Yunnan Province, near Kunming, An-lin-wen-chian, on Ternstroemia japonica var. wightii, 27/04/1949, by G.F. Ferris. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Proteriococcus corniculatus; Yang, 1982: 101. Illust. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus corniculatus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 600. Change of combination.

Eriococcus cornicilatus; Wang, 2001: 216. Misspelling of species name.



HOSTS: Theaceae: Camellia oleosa [Wang1982c], Ternostroemia japonica wightii [Ferris1950], Ternstroemia gymnanthera [Hua2000], Ternstroemia japonica wightii [Tao1999], Ternstroemia japonica [Hua2000].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: China (Yunnan [Ferris1950]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Best description and illustration by Ferris (1950). Redescription and illustration in Kozar, et al., 2013.

STRUCTURE: Adult female has distinctive minute horns on the dorsal surface. Sac is unusual and white. Adult female ovoid (Ferris, 1950).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae elongate, nearly cylindrical, apices rounded, all approximately same size on dorsal surface; microtubular ducts with bifid orifice; abdominal apex with weakly sclerotized plate (Ferris, 1950).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 75-77 (female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus]; Wang 2001: 208 [as Eriococcus corniculatus; Key to Eriococcus of China]; Tang & Hao 1995: 450, 647 (adult female) [as Eriococcus corniculatus; Eriococcus species]; Wang 1982c: 143 (adult female) [as Eriococcus corniculaturs; Eriococcus species]; Wang 1982ZQ: 41 (adult female) [as Eriococcus corniculatus; Eriococcus species of China].

CITATIONS: Ali1970a [distribution, host: 76]; Borchs1960e [distribution, host, taxonomy: 916]; Ferris1950 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 7]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 82]; Hua2000 [distribution, host: 137,138]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 91]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 105-107]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 600]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 175-176]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 450, 465, 592, 647]; Tao1999 [distribution, host: 32]; Wang1974 [taxonomy: 329]; Wang1982c [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 41, 46, 143, 147-148]; Wang1982ZQ [description, host, illustration, taxonomy: 41, 46]; Wang2001 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 208, 213-214, 216]; Yang1982 [distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 101, 103, 405].



Acanthococcus costaricensis (Cockerell & Robinson)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus costaricensis Cockerell & Robinson, 1915: 105. Type data: COSTA RICA: Mt. Irazu, on Vaccinium sp., 15/03/1913, by E. Bethel. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Nidularia costaricensis; Lindinger, 1933a: 108. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus costaricensis; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 600. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Ericaceae: Vaccinium sp. [CockerRo1915]. Guttiferae: Hypericum iraguense [KozarKo2008].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Costa Rica [CockerRo1915].

BIOLOGY: The type specimens were collected at 11,300 feet elevation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Best descriptions and illustrations by Cockerell & Robinson (1915) and by Ferris (1955a).

STRUCTURE: Adult female is bright red when boiled in KOH. Sac is perfectly white. Adults are accompanied by much black fungus (Cockerell & Robinson, 1915). Frontal lobes present. Basal segment of labium with two pairs of pores. median setae on tip of labium long, hair-like. Stylet loop reaches median legs. Cruciform pores present in a submarginal band. All coxae with spinulae and with few small pores on the posterior. Cauda present. Microtubular ducts short, present on dorsum and in submarginal band. Microtubular ducts absent at the base of dorsal setae. (Kozár & Konczne Benedicty, 2008)

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, apices rounded, largest setae on margin and in medial areas of thorax and head (Ferris, 1955a). Frontal lobes present. Basal segment of labium with two pairs of pores. median setae on tip of labium long, hair-like. Stylet loop reaches median legs. Cruciform pores present in a submarginal band. All coxae with spinulae and with few small pores on the posteriors. Cauda present. Microtubular ducts short, present on dorsum and in submarginal band. Microtubular ducts absent at the base of dorsal setae. (Kozár & Konczné Benedicty, 2008)

KEYS: Kozár & Konczné Benedicty 2008: 140 (adult, female) [as Acanthococcus; Key to species of Acanthococcus found in this survey]; Ferris 1955a: 97 (adult female) [North American species of Eriococcus].

CITATIONS: CockerRo1915 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 105]; Ferris1920b [taxonomy: 18]; Ferris1955a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 97, 118]; HodgsoMi2010 [host, taxonomy: 99]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 83]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 92]; KozarKo2008 [description: 139]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 108]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 600]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 176-177]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 11]; Willia1985a [distribution, host: 218].



Acanthococcus costatus Danzig

NOMENCLATURE:

Acanthococcus costatus Danzig, 1975a: 43. Type data: RUSSIA: Vladivostok, Okeanskaya, on Ulmus propinqua, 01/06/1963, by E. Danzig. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Eriococcus ulmi Tang, 1977: 45. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Shanxi: Entomological Institute, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, China. Synonymy by Danzig, 1983: 521.

Eriococcus costatus; Tang & Hao, 1995: 466. Described: female. Illust. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus costatus; Köhler, 1998: 375. Revived combination.



FOE: HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Microterys ulmi [Sharko1986].

HOSTS: Ulmaceae: Ulmus davidiana var. japonica [KozarKaKo2013], Ulmus propinqua [Danzig1975a], Ulmus pumila [Wang2001].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China (Liaoning [Tang1984b], Shanxi (=Shansi) [Tang1984b]); Iran [TorabiVaHo2010, Moghad2013a]; Russia (Primor'ye Kray [Danzig1975a]).

BIOLOGY: Xie (1998) describes and illustrates a winged and a wingless male form of this species.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration by Danzig (1975a). Xie (1998) describes and illustrates a winged and a wingless male form of this species. Redescription and illustration in Kozár, et al., 2013.

STRUCTURE: Adult female oval, brown. Ovisac white with obvious transverse ribs and a depressed zone along the median body line. Eggs yellow (Danzig, 1975a) and laid in June (Danzig, 1986a).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae elongate, nearly cylindrical, all of approximately same size except a few in marginal areas slightly larger; anal lobes each with 4 enlarged setae; microtubular ducts with simple orifice, 2 sclerotized areas (Danzig, 1986a).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 75-77 (female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus]; Wang 2001: 208 [as Eriococcus costatus; Key to Eriococcus of China]; Tang & Hao 1995: 450, 646 (adult female) [as Eriococcus costatus; Eriococcus species]; Danzig 1988: 708 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus costatus; Acanthococcus species of the far eastern USSR]; Danzig 1986a: 239 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus costatus; Acanthococcus species of the far eastern USSR]; Wang 1982c: 143 (adult female) [as Eriococcus ulmi; Eriococcus species]; Wang 1982ZQ: 41 (adult female) [as Eriococcus ulmi; Eriococcus species of China]; Danzig 1975a: 43 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus costatus; Acanthococcus species of the far eastern USSR].

CITATIONS: Danzig1975a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 43, 44, 45]; Danzig1977b [taxonomy: 57]; Danzig1980b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 205]; Danzig1983 [taxonomy: 521]; Danzig1986a [description, distribution, host, illustration, life history, taxonomy: 239, 241]; Danzig1988 [taxonomy: 708]; Hua2000 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 137]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 375]; KotejaZa1981 [taxonomy: 513]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 92]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 108-110]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 74]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 177-178]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 56]; Sharko1986 [biological control, host: 76]; Tang1977 [description, distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 45]; Tang1984b [distribution, host: 125]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 450, 466, 646, 719]; Tao1999 [distribution, host: 32]; TorabiVaHo2010 [distribution, host: 158]; Wang1982c [taxonomy: 143]; Wang1982ZQ [ description, taxonomy: 41, 43]; Wang2001 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 208, 210-211]; Xie1998 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 95-97].



Acanthococcus crenilobatus (Hoy)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus crenilobatus Hoy, 1962: 32, 64. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: South Island, Lake Wakatipu, Lumberbox Creek, on Coprosma sp., 15/11/1958, by J.M. Hoy. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus crenilobatus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 600. Change of combination.



HOST: Rubiaceae: Coprosma sp. [Hoy1962]

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (South Island [Hoy1962]).

BIOLOGY: Adult females found on underside of host plant leaves (Hoy, 1962).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Hoy (1962).

STRUCTURE: Sac of female is tawny and felted (Hoy, 1962).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, apices slightly rounded, all of approximately same size, forming 3 longitudinal lines on each side of abdomen, with 1 or 2 setae on lateral margin of each abdominal segment; enlarged setae with 1 or 2 associated microtubular ducts at base; enlarged setae on anal lobes small (Hoy, 1963).

KEYS: Hoy 1962: 32 (adult female) [New Zealand species of Eriococcidae].

CITATIONS: Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 32, 64]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 83]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 98]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 600]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 178-179]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 97].



Acanthococcus crispus (Boyer de Fonscolombe)

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus crispus Boyer de Fonscolombe, 1834: 204. Type data: FRANCE: Marseille, on "Nopals ou figuiers d'Inde", by C. Rostan. Unknown type status. Described: female. Illust. Notes: According to Daničle Matile-Ferrero, (personal communication, November 20, 1996) there is little chance of finding type material of this species.

Eriococcus crispus; Targioni-Tozzetti, 1869: 726. Change of combination.

Gueriniella serratulae; Lindinger, 1912a: 235. Incorrect synonymy. Notes: Lindinger (1912b, 1933) believed that Coccus crispus was a junior synonym of the margarodid Gueriniella serratulae (Fabricius). However, because G. serratulae is found on Cistus, Daucus, Erica, and olive, and C. crispus was described from "nopals ou figuiers d'Inde", which probably is Opuntia ficus-indica, it is unlikely that G. serratulae and C. crispus are the same. It is evident from the original description that C. crispus is not an eriococcid (Miller & Williams 1976), but we are including it here until the correct family placement can be ascertained. It is possible that this species is a member of the family Dactylopiidae genus Dactylopius.

Acanthococcus crispus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 600. Change of combination.



HOST: Cactaceae: Opuntia ficus-indica [Boyerd1834].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: France [Boyerd1834, Foldi2001].

GENERAL REMARKS: Original brief description by Boyer de Fonscolombe (1834).

STRUCTURE: Adult female is heart shaped and covered by its sac (Boyer de Fonscolombe, 1834).

SYSTEMATICS: The author of this species was incorrectly cited, in most pre-2000 publications, as "Fonscolombe". The correct name is "Boyer de Fonscolombe."

CITATIONS: Borchs1948 [taxonomy: 501]; Boyerd1834 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 204]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 70, 73]; Ferris1955a [taxonomy: 94]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 305]; Hoy1962 [taxonomy: 29]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 83]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 92]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 77, 78]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 600]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 179]; MillerGo1975 [taxonomy: 136]; MillerWi1976 [taxonomy: 118]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance: 102]; Signor1877 [description, taxonomy: 613]; Targio1868 [taxonomy: 726]; TranfaEs1985 [taxonomy: 113]; WilliaBe2009 [catalogue: 18]; Yang1982 [distribution, taxonomy: 101].



Acanthococcus crofti (Froggatt)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus crofti Froggatt, 1916: 430. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, near Uralla, Salisbury Court, on Eucalyptus piperita. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Orange: Agricultural Scientific Collections Trust, New South Wales Agriculture, NSW, Australia. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Type depository information provided by Gullan (personal communication, June 10, 1996).

Acanthococcus crofti; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 600. Change of combination.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus piperita [Frogga1916].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Frogga1916]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Froggatt (1916 and also 1921a).

STRUCTURE: Adult female pear-shaped and reddish brown in color. Sacs are formed half buried in the cracks of the bark, are irregular in form and brown in color (Froggatt, 1916).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: distinct marginal row of enlarged setae (Gullan & Vranjic, 1991).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Adult infestation causes bark to crack, flake and become greasy looking and blackened (Froggatt, 1916).

KEYS: Gullan & Vranjic 1991: 26 (adult female) [Australian species of Eriococcus on Eucalyptus].

CITATIONS: Frogga1916 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 430]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 76-78]; GullanVr1991 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 26]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 83]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 98]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 600]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, economic importance, host, taxonomy: 180]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 99].



Acanthococcus cuneifoliae (González)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus cuneifoliae González, 2009: 115-134. Type data: ARGENTINA: La Pampa, on Larrea cuneifolia, 3/3/1996, by P. González. Holotype female (examined). Type depository: Tucuman: Fundacion e Instituto Miguel Lillo, Universidade Nactional de Tucuman, Argentina. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus cuneifoliae; Hodgson & Miller, 2010: 99. Change of combination.



HOST: Zygophyllaceae: Larrea [Gonzal2009].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina [Gonzal2009].

KEYS: González 2009: 133 (female, adult) [Clave para hembras adultas de las especies de Eriococcus encontradas sobre Larrea en Argentina (Key to the adult females of the species of Eriococcus found on Larrea in Argentina)].

CITATIONS: Gonzal2009 [description, distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 118-121]; HodgsoMi2010 [host, taxonomy: 99].



Acanthococcus curassavicus (Reyne)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus curassavicus Reyne, 1964: 101-114. Type data: NETHERLANDS ANTILLES: Curaçao. Holotype, type designation unknown. Type depository: Amsterdam: Institut voor Taxonomische Zoologie, The Netherlands. Described: both sexes. Illust. Notes: 7 paratypes also in ZMAN and 2 paratypes in USNM.

Acanthococcus curassavicus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 600. Change of combination.



HOST: Malvaceae: Malvastrum spicatum [Reyne1964].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Netherlands Antilles (Curacao [Reyne1964]).

BIOLOGY: Tends to be fairly densely crowded on the host, but does not cause any deformity (Reyne, 1964).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration of male, female and immatures by Reyne (1964).

STRUCTURE: Adult male is red. Adult female is greyish white in color, enclosed in felted white ovisac with hole in posterior end (Reyne, 1964)..

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, apices acute or slightly rounded, setae all approximately same size (Reyne, 1964).

CITATIONS: HodgsoMi2010 [host, taxonomy: 99]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 98]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 600]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 182]; Reyne1964 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 101-114]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 12].



Acanthococcus dacrydii (Hoy)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus dacrydii Hoy, 1962: 66-67. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: North Island, Waithui Saddle, on Dacrydium colensoi, 11/02/1960, by J.M. Hoy. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus dacrydii; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 600. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Podocarpaceae: Dacrydium bidwilli [Hoy1962], Dacrydium colensoi [Hoy1962].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (North Island [Hoy1962]).

BIOLOGY: Female sac occurs on host plant stems and also in the leaf scales of Dacrydium species (Hoy, 1962).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Hoy (1962).

STRUCTURE: Female forms a felted sac (Hoy, 1962).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae short, conical, with rounded apices, marginal setae slightly larger than other setae on dorsum, medial area of abdomen without enlarged setae (Hoy, 1962).

KEYS: Hoy 1962: 32 (adult female) [New Zealand species of Eriococcidae].

CITATIONS: Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 32, 66]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 84]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 98]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 600]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 184-185]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 97].



Acanthococcus danthoniae (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus danthoniae Maskell, 1891: 21, 22. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: South Island, Maruia Springs, Reefton, on Danthonia cunninghamii. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Deitz & Tocker, 1980: 46. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: both sexes. Illust.

Nidularia danthoniae; Lindinger, 1933a: 108. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus danthoniae; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 600. Change of combination.



FOE: HYMENOPTERA : Austrochoreia antipodis [Noyes1988a].

HOSTS: Poaceae [Hoy1962], Danthonia cunninghamii [Maskel1891], Danthonia sp. [Hoy1962]

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (South Island [Maskel1891]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Hoy (1962). Type information provided by Deitz & Tocker (1980). This species has only been collected twice (Hoy, 1962).

STRUCTURE: Sac of female is pure white in color and loose in texture. Male sac is white, similar to female, but smaller. First instars are brownish yellow, elongated, flattish, active, naked. Adult female dull brownish-yellow or sometimes a dull pink. Adult male pinkish or light-red and the dorsal part of the thorax is yellowish (Maskell, 1891).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, rounded apices, marginal setae larger than other dorsal setae, 2 or 3 setae on lateral margin of abdominal segments; microtubular ducts short; macrotubular ducts short; multilocular pores predominantly with 7 loculi (Hoy, 1962).

CITATIONS: Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 323]; DeitzTo1980 [distribution, taxonomy: 3, 46]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 73]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 88]; Green1918 [host: 228]; Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 6, 31, 68]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 84]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 98]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 108]; Maskel1891 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 21, 22]; Maskel1895a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 22]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 600]; MillerGi2000 [biological control, catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 185]; Myers1922 [distribution, taxonomy: 198]; Noyes1988a [biological control: 60, 141]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 12]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 97].



Acanthococcus divaricatae (González)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus divaricatae González, 2009: 115-134. Type data: ARGENTINA: Córdoba, Cruz del Eje, on Larrea divaricata, 01/17/1991, by P. González. Holotype female (examined). Type depository: Tucuman: Fundacion e Instituto Miguel Lillo, Universidade Nactional de Tucuman, Argentina. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus divaricatae; Hodgson & Miller, 2010: 99. Change of combination.



HOST: Zygophyllaceae: Larrea divaricata [Gonzal2009].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina [Gonzal2009].

KEYS: González 2009: 133 (female, adult) [Clave para hembras adultas de las especies de Eriococcus encontradas sobre Larrea en Argentina (Key to the adult females of the species of Eriococcus found on Larrea in Argentina)].

CITATIONS: Gonzal2009 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 121-123]; HodgsoMi2010 [host, taxonomy: 99].



Acanthococcus diversispinus (Leonardi)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus diversispinus Leonardi, 1911a: 15-17. Type data: ARGENTINA: Mendoza, Lujan, Los Papagallos, on Zuccagnia punctata. Unknown type status. Described: female. Illust. Notes: According to S. Marotta (personal communication, June 5, 1996) "I have not found any specimens, on slide or dried, of Eriococcus diversispinus."

Eriococcus diverspinus; Hoy, 1963: 86. Misspelling of species name.

Acanthococcus diverspinus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 600. Change of combination. Notes: This is also a misspelling of the species epithet.



HOST: Fabaceae: Zuccagnia punctata [Leonar1911].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina (Mendoza [Leonar1911]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustrations by Leonardi (1911).

STRUCTURE: Nymphs oval, adult female rotund (Leonardi, 1911).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, with slightly rounded apices, abundant over dorsum (Leonardi, 1911a).

CITATIONS: HodgsoMi2010 [host, taxonomy: 99]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 86]; HurdLi1975 [distribution, host: 106]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 98]; Leonar1911 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 15-17, 249-251]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 108]; Lizery1939 [distribution: 168-169]; MacGil1921 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 145]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 600]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 193]; Morris1919 [taxonomy: 68].



Acanthococcus dubius (Cockerell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus dubius Cockerell, 1896h: 18. Type data: MEXICO: Ciudad de Valles, on unknown shrub, 13/10/1894, by T.D.A. Cockerell. Lectotype female (examined), by subsequent designation Miller & Miller, 1992: 29-33. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Eriococcus quercus toumeyi Cockerell, 1900i: 594. Type data: UNITED STATES: Arizona, Tuscon, on Prosopis velutina, ?/11/1899, by Toumey & Cockerell. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Synonymy by Miller & Miller, 1992: 29-33.

Eriococcus cockerelli Essig, 1913a: 179-181. Type data: MEXICO: Sonora, Nacon Chico, on "Chino" (Cinchona sp?), 01/05/1911, by C.H.T. Townsend. Syntypes, female (examined). Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Ferris, 1955a: 124.

Eriococcus paenulatus Ferris, 1920b: 18-19. Type data: UNITED STATES: California, near Stanford University, on Artemisia californica, by Ferris. Syntypes, female (examined). Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Illust. Synonymy by Miller & Miller, 1992: 29-33.

Eriococcus stanfordianus Ferris, 1920b: 21-22. Type data: UNITED STATES: California, Jasper Ridge, near Stanford University, beneath a stone, ?/11/1917, by Ferris. Syntypes, female (examined). Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Miller & Miller, 1992: 29-33.

Eriococcus villosus Ferris, 1920b: 22-23. Type data: UNITED STATES: California, Santa Clara Co., New Year's Point, on Eriogonum latifolium, by Ferris. Syntypes, female (examined). Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Miller & Miller, 1992: 29-33. Homonym of Eriococcus villosus Froggatt 1916.

Eriococcus toumeyi; Ferris, 1921: 77. Described: female. Illust. Change of status.

Nidularia cockerelli; Lindinger, 1933a: 108. Change of combination.

Nidularia dubia; Lindinger, 1933a: 108. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.

Nidularia paenulata; Lindinger, 1933a: 116. Change of combination.

Nidularia stanfordiana; Lindinger, 1933a: 116. Change of combination.

Nidularia villosa; Lindinger, 1933a: 117. Change of combination.

Nidularia villosula Lindinger, 1943b: 223. Replacement name for Eriococcus villosus Ferris 1920b; synonymy by Lindinger, 1943b: 223.

Eriococcus villosulus; Hoy, 1963: 124. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus dubius; Miller & Miller, 1992: 29-33. Described: female. Illust. Change of combination.

COMMON NAMES: eriococcido incierto [MestreHaBa2001]; uncertain eriococcin [MillerMi1992, Gill1993].



HOSTS: Asclepiadaceae: Asclepias sp. [MillerMi1992]. Asteraceae: Agoseris sp. [MillerMi1992], Ambrosia sp. [MillerMi1992], Artemisia californica [Hoy1963], Artemisia sp. [MillerMi1992], Baccharis drunculiforia [FoldiKo2007], Baccharis sp. [MillerMi1992], Franseria sp. [MillerMi1992], Haplopappus sp. [MillerMi1992], Helianthemum sp. [MillerMi1992], Stephanomeria sp. [MillerMi1992]. Cactaceae: Mammillaria sp. [MillerMi1992]. Cruciferae: Nerisyrenia sp. [MillerMi1992]. Euphorbiaceae: Euphorbia sp. [MillerMi1992]. Fabaceae: Acacia greggii [Hoy1963], Acacia paucispina [Hoy1963], Acacia sp. [MillerMi1992], Calliandra sp. [MillerMi1992], Cassia sp. [Hoy1963], Lupinus sp. [MillerMi1992], Mimosa sp. [MillerMi1992], Prosopis glandulosa [Hoy1963], Prosopis sp. [MillerMi1992], Prosopis velutina [Hoy1963]. Fagaceae: Quercus sp. [MillerMi1992]. Malvaceae: Gossypium sp. [MillerMi1992], Hibiscus sp. [MillerMi1992], Sphaeralcea sp. [MillerMi1992]. Myrtacae: Eugenia sp. [MestreHaBa2001]. Polygonaceae: Eriogonum sp. [MillerMi1992]. Verbenaceae: Lantana sp. [MillerMi1992]

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico (Baja California Norte [Hoy1963], Durango [Hoy1963], San Luis Potosi [MillerMi1992]); United States of America (Alabama [MillerMi1992], Arizona [MillerMi1992], California [MillerMi1992], Colorado [MillerMi1992], Maryland [MillerMi1992], Nevada [MillerMi1992], Oregon [MillerMi1992], Texas [MillerMi1992]). Neotropical: Brazil (Pernambuco [FoldiKo2007]); Cuba [MestreHaBa2001].

BIOLOGY: Females lay between 55 and 150 eggs. This species feeds on roots, crown and undersides of foliage (Miller & Miller, 1992).

GENERAL REMARKS: Miller & Miller (1992) provide a detailed description and illustration.

STRUCTURE: Adult female is narrowly oval and purple to green in color. Ovisac is felted (Miller & Miller, 1992).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, with acute or slightly rounded apices, either abundant over dorsum or forming 3 longitudinal lines on each side of body; microtubular ducts short, with 2 sclerotized area (Miller & Miller, 1992). Acanthococcus dubius is extremely variable and may be a species complex (Miller & Miller, 1992).

KEYS: González & Claps 2011: 211 (female) [Key to the species Acanthococcus with six setae on prothoracic tibiae present in the Neotropical region ]; Foldi & Kozár 2007: 62 (female) [Key to species of Eriococcus discussed here from South America]; Kosztarab 1996: 228 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus dubius; Acanthococcus species of Northeastern North America]; Gill 1993: 156 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus dubius; Acanthococcus species of California]; Miller & Miller 1993: 8 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus dubius; Acanthococcus species of the eastern United States]; Miller & Miller 1992: 6 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus dubius; Acanthococcus species in western North American]; Ferris 1955a: 95-97 (adult female) [as Eriococcus toumeyi, E. villosus, E. stanfordianus; North American species of Eriococcus].

CITATIONS: Balach1959a [structure: 365]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 323]; Cocker1896f [description, distribution, taxonomy: 37]; Cocker1896h [description, taxonomy: 18]; Cocker1898o [taxonomy: 247]; Cocker1899n [distribution: 6]; Cocker1900i [taxonomy: 594]; Cocker1906a [distribution, taxonomy: 32]; Essig1913a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 179-181]; Essig1926 [distribution, host: 274]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 74]; Ferris1920b [description, distribution, host, illlustration, taxonomy: 18-19, 21-23]; Ferris1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 77]; Ferris1955a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 116, 124]; FoldiKo2007 [description, distribution, host: 61-62]; Frogga1916 [taxonomy: 577]; Frogga1921a [taxonomy: 90]; Gill1993 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 156, 163-164]; Gonzal2009 [taxonomy: 134]; GonzalCl2011 [taxonomy: 208-211]; HodgsoMi2010 [host, taxonomy: 99]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 117, 121, 124]; Koszta1996 [description, distribution, host, illustration, life history, taxonomy: 228, 236-239]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 98,113]; KumarLaLl1976 [host: 73]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 108, 116, 117]; Lindin1943b [taxonomy: 223]; Lobdel1929 [taxonomy: 764]; MacGil1921 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 145]; Miller1996 [distribution: 79]; Miller2005 [distribution: 491]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, life history, taxonomy: 194-196]; MillerMi1992 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 4, 6, 29-33]; MillerMi1993 [distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 7, 8, 31]; PooleGe1997 [distribution: 354]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 10, 13]; Townse1896 [distribution: 12, 14]; Willia1985a [distribution, host: 218].



Acanthococcus elaeocarpi (Hoy)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus elaeocarpi Hoy, 1962: 72-73. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: South Island, Oxford, Milford Sound, on Elaeocarpus hookerianus, 13/11/1958, by J.M. Hoy. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus elaeocarpi; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 600. Change of combination.



FOE: HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Adelencyrtoides inconstans [Noyes1988a].

HOST: Elaeocarpaceae: Elaeocarpus hookerianus [Hoy1962].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (South Island [Hoy1962]).

BIOLOGY: Adult females occur on the under sides of leaves (Hoy, 1962).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Hoy (1962).

STRUCTURE: Sac of female tawny and felted (Hoy, 1962).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae narrowly conical, with slightly rounded apices, marginal setae slightly larger than other dorsal setae, noticeable bare area in medial area of abdomen, 2 large-sized setae on lateral margin of each abdominal segment; microtubular ducts elongate, with no sclerotized area (Hoy, 1963).

KEYS: Hoy 1962: 32 (adult female) [New Zealand species of Eriococcidae].

CITATIONS: Berry1995 [biological control, distribution, host: 31, 52]; Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 32, 72]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 86]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 98]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 196-197]; Noyes1988a [biological control: 36, 141]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 97].



Acanthococcus elegans (Fuller)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus elegans Fuller, 1897b: 1345. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Western Australia, on Casuarina sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Notes: The single slide in the USNM is labeled "Eriococcus/ elegans/ Full./ co-type/ W. Australia/ Fuller, col." Although this does not completely agree with the type data in Fuller (1897b) we assume that this material is syntypic.

Nidularia elegans; Lindinger, 1933a: 108. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus elegans; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 600. Change of combination.



HOST: Casuarinaceae: Casuarina humilis? [Fuller1899].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Western Australia [Fuller1897b]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Fuller (1899) provides description and illustration.

STRUCTURE: Adult female is reddish-brown and covered by a secretion of several white filaments which are arranged in 3 distinct rows of curling pyramidal tufts, though this secretion cannot be regarded as a true sac (Fuller, 1899).

CITATIONS: Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 391]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 74]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 80]; Frogga1933 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 367]; Fuller1897b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 1345]; Fuller1899 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 440-441]; Green1922 [taxonomy: 351]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 86]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 98]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 108]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 600]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 197].



Acanthococcus elytranthae (Hoy)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus elytranthae Hoy, 1962: 32, 74, 204. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: South Island, Maruea, on Elytranthe tetrapetala, 18/12/1934, by G. Brittin. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus elytranthae; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 600. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Loranthaceae: Elytranthe tetrapetala [Hoy1962], Peraxilla tetrapetala [HenderSuRo2010].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (South Island [Hoy1962]).

BIOLOGY: Occurs in galls on the leaf of the host (Hoy, 1962).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Hoy (1962). Because Brittin's slide labels mixed up the adult and intermediate (2nd-instar) females, Hoy mistakenly described a very poor specimen, a parasitised 2nd-instar female, and designated it holotype, stating that it was the only adult female available. E. elytranthae is described in Henderson (2006) from the two paratype females to redress that problem.

STRUCTURE: Description based on 1 specimen so details are lacking (Hoy, 1962). Diagnostic features are the combination of small size (length approx. 1.0 mm), shape of anal lobes (approximately triangular), and distribution of enlarged dorsal setae in rows. (Henderson, 2006)

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae broadly conical, with slightly rounded apices, marginal setae slightly larger than other dorsal setae, noticeable bare area in medial area of abdomen, 2 large-sized setae on lateral margin of each abdominal segment (Hoy, 1963). It is morphologically closest to Eriococcus pallidus Maskell, but that species has more elongate dorsal setae and anal lobes, and is much larger (length 1.70 mm). (Henderson, 2006)

KEYS: Henderson 2006: 38-39 (female) [Revised key to genera of Eriococcidae in New Zealand (adult females) Modified from How (1962)]; Hoy 1962: 32 (adult female) [New Zealand species of Eriococcidae].

CITATIONS: Beards1984 [distribution, taxonomy: 86]; Hender2006 [description, taxonomy: 42]; Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 32, 74, 204]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 87]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 99]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 600]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 197-198]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 97].



Acanthococcus emirnensis (Mamet)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus emirnensis Mamet, 1954: 25-27. Type data: MADAGASCAR: Adrivonimamo, on unidentified host, 03/06/1950, by R. Mamet, also Tsimbazaza, on Helichrysum emirnense, 13/02/1950, by A. Robinson. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Mamet gives collection numbers as 232 and 239.

Acanthococcus emirnensis; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 600. Change of combination.



HOST: Asteraceae: Helichrysum emirnense [Mamet1954].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Madagascar [Mamet1954].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Mamet (1954).

STRUCTURE: Sac of adult female white. Adult female ovate (Mamet, 1954).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, apices acute, dorsum covered with setae all about same size; microtubular ducts short, with 2 sclerotized areas (Mamet, 1954).

CITATIONS: Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 87]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 99]; Mamet1954 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 25-27]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 600]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 198].



Acanthococcus ericae (Signoret)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus ericae Signoret, 1875b: 31. Unknown type status, type designation unknown. Described: both sexes. Notes: Matile-Ferrero & Danzig visited the Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna in June of 1997 and were unable to locate any type material of this species.

Eriococcus devoniensis; Lindinger, 1911: 357. Incorrect synonymy.

Nidularia ericae; Lindinger, 1935: 134. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus ericae; Kozár & Walter, 1985: 74. Change of combination. Notes: Miller & Gimpel (1996) incorrectly considered Acanthococcus ericae to be a new combination.



HOSTS: Ericaceae: Calluna vulgaris [Signor1875b], Erica arborea [Signor1875b], Erica carnea [Signor1875b], Erica multiflora [Signor1875b], Erica tetralix [Signor1875b].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Algeria [Hoy1963]; Austria [Hoy1963]; France [Balach1933e, Foldi2001]; Germany [Hoy1963]; Italy [Hoy1963]; Malta [Hoy1963]; Netherlands [TranfaEs1985]; Sardinia [Hoy1963, Pelliz2011]; Spain [Hoy1963].

GENERAL REMARKS: Brief description by Signoret (1875b). Detailed description and illustration by Tranfaglia & Esposito (1985). A distribution record for this species is given by Tranfaglia & Esposito as "Gran Bretagna" and the source is given as Hoy (1963). However, Great Britain is not given in Hoy (1963) or Williams (1985h) which treats the eriococcid fauna of Britain.

STRUCTURE: Adult female is oval with evident segmentation (Tranfaglia & Esposito, 1985).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae narrowly conical, with slightly rounded apices, setae of 2 sizes, scattered over dorsal surface; anal lobes heavily sclerotized but without medial teeth (Tranfaglia & Esposito, 1985). Lindinger (1911 & 1912b) incorrectly considered Eriococcus thymi and E. devoniensis as synonyms of E. ericae (Hoy, 1963).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 75-77 (female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus]; Tang & Hao 1995: 450, 647 (adult female) [as Eriococcus ericae; Eriococcus species]; Tranfaglia & Esposito 1985: 115 (adult female) [as Eriococcus ericae; Eriococcus species of Italy].

CITATIONS: Balach1927 [distribution, host: 188]; Balach1932e [distribution, host: 238]; Balach1933e [distribution, host: 6]; Berro1927 [host: 55]; Bodenh1935 [distribution, host: 260]; Borg1932 [distribution, host: 17]; Brown1967 [chemistry, distribution, host: 131]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 323]; Cocker1899j [taxonomy: 269]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 74]; Flachs1931 [taxonomy: 171]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 305]; GomezM1937 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 13, 346, 348-350]; GomezM1957 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 79]; GomezM1958a [distribution, host: 9, 13]; GomezM1960O [distribution, host: 201]; GomezM1965 [distribution, host: 113]; Goux1931 [distribution, host: 331]; Goux1931a [distribution, host: 73]; Goux1934a [distribution, host: 31]; Goux1936a [taxonomy: 353]; Goux1936b [taxonomy: 298, 299]; Goux1938d [taxonomy: 328]; Goux1948a [taxonomy: 67]; Green1920 [distribution, taxonomy: 118]; Green1927a [taxonomy: 29]; Green1930 [distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 11-12]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 87-88]; Hulden1985 [distribution, host: 59, 60]; Jaap1914 [taxonomy: 136]; KosztaKo1978 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 67]; Kozar1986 [taxonomy: 171-181]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 92]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 110-112]; Leonar1918 [distribution, host: 215]; Leonar1920 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 434]; Lindin1910 [taxonomy: 192]; Lindin1911 [taxonomy: 357]; Lindin1921 [distribution, host: 433]; Lindin1923 [taxonomy: 146]; Lindin1928 [distribution, taxonomy: 103]; Lindin1931 [distribution, host: 115]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 108]; Lindin1934b [taxonomy: 175]; Lindin1935 [taxonomy: 134]; Lindin1938 [distribution, taxonomy: 5]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 548]; Lobdel1937 [taxonomy: 78]; Marcha1908 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 255-257]; Martin1985 [distribution, host: 92]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 600]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 199-200]; OuvrarKo2009 [host, phylogeny, structure, taxonomy: 102-118]; Paoli1915 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 240]; Pelliz2011 [distribution: 312]; PellizKo2011 [distribution: 66]; Perrie1926 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 122]; Pierre1928 [distribution, host: 5, 7]; Reh1926 [taxonomy: 319]; Ross1916 [taxonomy: 27]; Signor1875b [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 31]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 14]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 450, 417,469,647]; Trabut1910 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 71]; Trabut1911 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 53]; TranfaEs1985 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 126-127]; Wunn1926 [taxonomy: 49].



Acanthococcus etbaicus (De Lotto)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus etbaicus De Lotto, 1954a: 215-216. Type data: ERITREA: Debaroa, on Acacia etbaica, 20/06/1952. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust. Notes: There is one holotype and nine paratype on ten slides in the BMNH (Williams, personal communication, May 15, 1996). The BMNH slide number is 1955-243. Paratype in USNM.

Acanthococcus etbaicus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 600. Change of combination.



HOST: Fabaceae: Acacia etbaica [DeLott1954a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Eritrea.

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by De Lotto (1954a).

STRUCTURE: Adult female is completely enclosed in a felted whitish ovisac. Body of young adult is elongate, becoming ovoid at full maturity (DeLotto, 1954a).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae cylindrical, with truncate apices, medial setae slightly larger than other dorsal setae, present over surface; microtubular ducts elongate, with bifurcate orifice (De Lotto, 1954a).

CITATIONS: DeLott1954a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 215, 216]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 88]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 99]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 600]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 203]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 14].



Acanthococcus eucalypti (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus eucalypti Maskell, 1892: 27, 28. Type data: AUSTRALIA: South Australia, Adelaide. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand, Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA, and London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Eriococcus thekes eucalypti; Cockerell, 1899m: 276. Change of status.

Nidularia eucalypti; Lindinger, 1933a: 108. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus eucalypti; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 600. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Myoporum sp. [Maskel1892]. Epacridaceae: Leucopogon parviflorus [KondoHaCo2006]. Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus diversicolor [Maskel1892], Eucalyptus rostrata [Maskel1892], Eucalyptus sp. [Maskel1892]. Pittosporaceae: Bursaria spinosa [Maskel1892], Pittosporum undatum [Maskel1892].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Maskel1892], South Australia [Maskel1892], Tasmania [Maskel1892], Victoria [Maskel1892]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Maskell (1892). Type information from Deitz & Tocker (1980). Hodgson (2002) used this species in a phylogenetic analysis of non-margarodid Coccoidea.

STRUCTURE: Sac of adult female yellow or reddish-brown. Sac of male is lighter in color, more cylindrical and much smaller. Adult female is dark purple or almost black. First-instar nymph red, flattish, elliptical and active (Maskell, 1892).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae nipple shaped, with rounded apices, all approximately same size and covering dorsum (Morrison & Morrison, 1922) except in posteromedial area of abdomen where few or none are present; microtubular ducts elongate, with no sclerotized area, some ducts associated with bases of enlarged setae; marginal line of oral rim tubular ducts in addition to normal macrotubular ducts (Miller, personal observation, 1999).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: This species has been observed to be very destructive to young gum trees (Maskell, 1892).

KEYS: Gullan & Vranjic 1991: 26 (adult female) [Australian Eriococcus species on Eucalyptus].

CITATIONS: Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 324]; Cocker1899m [taxonomy: 276]; CookGu2001 [taxonomy: 61, 63, 64]; CookGu2004 [taxonomy: 444]; DeitzTo1980 [distribution, taxonomy: 46]; Essig1931 [distribution, host: 371]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 74]; Ferris1934 [structure: 146]; Ferris1955a [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 152]; Ferris1957c [taxonomy: 85]; Flande1940 [biological control, distribution: 202]; Frogga1900 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 103]; Frogga1907 [distribution, host: 377]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 74, 80, 90]; Ghesqu1943 [biological control: 402]; GullanCo2001 [taxonomy: 95]; GullanVr1991 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 26, 38]; GwiazdVaDe2006 [phylogenetics: 16]; HardyGuHe2008 [phylogeny: 369-373]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host: 88]; KondoHaCo2006 [host, phylogeny: 23]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 99]; Lidget1898 [distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 92]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 108]; Maskel1892 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 27-28]; Maskel1895a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 22]; Maskel1898 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 244]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 600]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, economic importance, host, taxonomy: 203-204]; MorrisMo1922 [illustration, taxonomy: 23-26]; NanDeWu2013 [phylogenetics: 173]; OuvrarKo2009 [structure: 130]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 99]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 14]; WilliaKo1970 [taxonomy: 75].



Acanthococcus fossilis (Froggatt)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus fossilis Froggatt, 1933: 367. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Australian Capital Territory, Canberra, Paddy's River, on Casuarina cunninghamiana, 21/2/1930, by G.F. Hill. Syntypes, other. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Although there is a slide containing four adult females labeled as type in the ANIC, they must be considered syntypes. In addition, there are three other slides, two containing adult females, one containing first-instar nymphs in ANIC. There also is dry material in the collection that is part of the type series. Type depository information provided by Gullan (personal communication, June 10, 1996).

Acanthococcus fossilis; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 600-601. Change of combination.



HOST: Casuarinaceae: Casuarina cunninghamiana [Frogga1933].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Australian Capital Territory [Frogga1933], New South Wales [Frogga1933]).

BIOLOGY: Adult sacs cluster together toward the tips of branches (Froggatt, 1933).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Froggatt (1933).

STRUCTURE: Adult sacs are a deep biscuit brown. First-instar nymphs are pink and broadly oval. Adult female is brown and oval (Froggatt, 1933).

CITATIONS: CookGu2004 [taxonomy: 444]; Frogga1933 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 367]; GullanCo2001 [taxonomy: 95]; GwiazdVaDe2006 [phylogenetics: 16]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 90]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 99]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 600-601]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 209]; NanDeWu2013 [phylogenetics: 173].



Acanthococcus fossor (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Rhizococcus fossor Maskell, 1884: 136-137. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: North Island, on Gymnelea cunninghami, ?/07/1883, by W. Maskell. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Deitz & Tocker, 1980: 46. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: both sexes. Illust.

Nidularia fossor; Lindinger, 1933a: 108. Change of combination.

Eriococcus fossor; Hoy, 1962: 6, 32, 78, 204. Described: female. Illust. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus fossor; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 601. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: pit making maire scale [Miller1925].



HOSTS: Oleaceae: Gymnelea cunninghami [Maskel1884], Gymnelea lanceolata [Maskel1884], Gymnelea montana [Maskel1884].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (North Island [Maskel1884]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Maskell (1884) and Hoy (1962).

STRUCTURE: Adult female is greenish yellow in color, sometimes brown. In the last stage, after gestation, it becomes dark brown. In the second stage the insect is oval and flatter than adults. The young insects have the general form of a young Acanthococcus hoheriae and are yellow in color. Male insect is red and undergoes its last transformation in a minute white cottony sac (Maskell, 1884).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, base broad, tapering to slightly rounded apex, marginal setae conspicuously larger than others with microtubular ducts associated with base, setae uncommon on dorsum, 1 or 2 setae on lateral margin of each abdominal segment; small boss on medial margin of each anal lobe; microtubular ducts elongate, without a sclerotized area (Hoy, 1962).

KEYS: Hoy 1962: 32 (adult female) [New Zealand species of Eriococcidae].

CITATIONS: Beards1984 [distribution, taxonomy: 86]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 324]; DeitzTo1980 [distribution, taxonomy: 3, 46]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, distribution, host: 66]; Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 6, 32, 78, 204]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 90]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 99]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 108]; Maskel1884 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 136-137]; Maskel1887a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 97]; Maskel1890b [behavior, distribution: 278-280]; Maskel1895a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 20]; Miller1925 [description, distribution, host: 34]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 601]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 209-210]; Myers1922 [distribution, taxonomy: 197]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 15]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 97].



Acanthococcus fuligitectus (Hoy)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus fuligitectus Hoy, 1962: 32, 80. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: North Island, Horopito, on Griselinia littoralis, 10/02/1960, by J.M. Hoy. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus fuligitectus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 601. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Chloanthaceae: Ascarina lucida [Hoy1962]. Cornaceae: Griselinia littoralis [Hoy1962]. Escalloniaceae: Carpodetus serratus [Hoy1962]. Myoporaceae: Myoporum laetum [Hoy1962], Myoporum sp. [Hoy1962]. Violaceae: Melicytus ramiflorus [Hoy1962].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (North Island [Hoy1962], South Island [Hoy1962]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Hoy (1962).

STRUCTURE: Sac of female is closely felted and tawny, usually on leaf surface, but occasionally on stem of host plant. Accompanied by much sooty mold (Hoy, 1962).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, base enlarged, apex slightly rounded, submarginal setae larger than other setae on dorsum, with bases associated with 1 or 2 microtubular ducts, lateral submargin of each abdominal segment with 1 or 2 setae; microtubular ducts elongate without sclerotized area; anal lobes strongly sclerotized, parallel sided with tooth on medial angle (Hoy, 1962).

KEYS: Hoy 1962: 32 (adult female) [New Zealand species of Eriococcidae].

CITATIONS: Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 32, 80]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 90]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 99]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 601]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 211-212]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 97].



Acanthococcus gaultheriae (Hoy)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus gaultheriae Hoy, 1962: 31, 82. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: North Island, Mt. Raupehu, on Gaultheria depressa, 10/03/1958, by J.T. Townsend. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus gaultheriae; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 601. Change of combination.



HOST: Ericaeae: Gaultheria depressa [Hoy1962].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (North Island [Hoy1962]).

BIOLOGY: This species is known only from one locality which was 4,000 feet in elevation. Adult females occurring in stem axils of plants (Hoy, 1962).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Hoy (1962).

STRUCTURE: Sac is grey and brittle (Hoy, 1962).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae narrow, base slightly enlarged, apices slightly rounded, marginal setae noticeably larger than other dorsal setae, lateral margin of each abdominal segment with 2 setae; anal lobes sclerotized, broad basally, tapering to rounded apex with 1 large boss basally and a series of bosses on medial margin on apex; microtubular ducts elongate, without sclerotized area (Hoy, 1962).

KEYS: Hoy 1962: 31 (adult female) [New Zealand species of Eriococcidae].

CITATIONS: Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 31, 82]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 91]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 99]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 601]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 212-213]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 97].



Acanthococcus gibbus (Hoy)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus gibbus Hoy, 1959: 14. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Tasmania, Wynyard, on Leptospermum scoparium, 15/08/1956, by J.M. Hoy. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia. Described: female. Illust. Notes: There are ten paratypes in ANIC (Gullan, personal communication, October 27, 1998).

Acanthococcus gibbus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 601. Change of combination.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Leptospermum scoparium [Hoy1959].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Tasmania [Hoy1959]).

BIOLOGY: Female occupies crevices in the bark on the larger stems of the host plant. There is no indication of a true ovisac (Hoy, 1959).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Hoy (1959).

STRUCTURE: Females are surrounded by small quantities of white wax (Hoy, 1959).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae cylindrical posteriorly, conical anteriorly, apices broadly or narrowly rounded, scattered over dorsal surface except in submarginal and marginal areas where enlarged setae are absent; anal lobes each with 4 enlarged setae; microtubular ducts with bifurcate orifice (Hoy, 1959).

KEYS: Pellizzari & Germain 2010: 52 (female) [Key to the 7 eriococcid species known to occur on Leptospermum spp.]; Hoy 1959: 23 (adult female) [species of Eriococcus which infest Leptospermum spp.].

CITATIONS: Hoy1959 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 14-15]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 91]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 99]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 601]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 213-214]; PellizGe2010 [host, taxonomy: 51,52].



Acanthococcus glanduliferus (Balachowsky)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus glanduliferus Balachowsky, 1933: 36-38. Type data: FRANCE: Salins de Badon, on Salicornia fruticosa, 06/08/1930, by A. Balachowsky. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France; type no. 4941. Described: female. Notes: There are six slides containing nine specimens deposited in the MNHN (Matile-Ferrero, personal communication, November 20, 1996).

Nidularia glanduliferus; Lindinger, 1936: 156. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus glanduliferus; Kozár & Walter, 1985: 74. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Amaranthaceae: Arthrocnemum macrostachyum [KozarKaKo2013]. Chenopodiaceae: Salicornia fruticosa [Balach1933, Foldi2002], Salicornia macrostachya [Balach1933].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: France [Balach1933, Foldi2001].

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description by Balachowsky (1933). Redescription and illustration in Kozar, et al., 2013.

STRUCTURE: Adult female is globular and elongate. Ovisac is globular, white or gray (Balachowsky, 1933).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae cylindrical, apices rounded or truncate, marginal setae noticeably larger than other dorsal setae, forming marginal line around body, lateral area of each abdominal segment with 1 or 2 setae (Balachowsky, 1933).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 75-77 (female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus].

CITATIONS: Balach1933 [description, distribution, host, illustration: 36-38]; Balach1937 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 340]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 305]; Foldi2002 [distribution: 245]; Goux1948a [taxonomy: 67, 69]; Goux1989a [structure: 21]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 91]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 376-377]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 92]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 113-115]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 74]; Lindin1936 [taxonomy: 156]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 214]; OuvrarKo2009 [host, phylogeny, structure, taxonomy: 102-118].



Acanthococcus gracielae González & Claps

NOMENCLATURE:

Acanthococcus gracielae González & Claps, 2011. Type data: ARGENTINA: Salta, Rio Colorado (24°48'S, 62°27'W), on unknown host, 11/6/1993, by Willink, M.C.G. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Tucuman: Fundacion e Instituto Miguel Lillo, Universidade Nactional de Tucuman, Argentina. Described: female. Illust.

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina (Salta [GonzalCl2011]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in González & Clap, 2011.

STRUCTURE: Abundant cone-shaped setae that are transverse lines in the thoracic and abdominal segments; macroconductos microconductos symmetrical "type B" numerous on both surfaces; setae undifferentiated marginal ridges; metacoxas with about 50 pores, 30 dorsal and 20 ventral anal lobes two ventral setae. (González & Clap, 2011)

SYSTEMATICS: Acanthococcus gracielae resembles Acanthococcus granarae, A. piptadeniae, A. dubius and A. arctostaphyli Ferris, 1955, the latter of the Nearctic region, by having six setae on prothoracic tibiae and five in the warm meso and metatorácicas. [Acanthococcus granarae differs from A. gracielae in the following points (A. gracielae brackets): (i) dorsal setae with sharp end (with end just rounded), (ii) pores abundant trilocular quinqueloculares and abdomen (rare), (iii) anal lobes with four ventral setae (two) and frontal lobes present (absent). A. dubius differs from A. gracielae (A. gracielae brackets) by: (i) setae arranged in longitudinal bands (with just rounded end, arranged in lines parallel to the cleavage), (ii) three setae ventral anal lobes (two) and (iii) abundant quinquelocular pores on the abdomen (rare). Acanthococcus arctostaphyli differs from A. gracielae (A. gracielae brackets) by: (i) marginal setae differentiated from the dorsal (undifferentiated), (ii) large dorsal setae arranged in three longitudinal lines (large setae on the margin of the body and head region) (iii) four setae ventral anal lobes (two) and (iv) numerous quinquelocular pores on abdominal segments (low). Acanthococcus piptadeniae differs from A. gracielae the following points (A. gracielae brackets): (i) three setae ventral anal lobes (two), (ii) metacoxas with 6-10 pores (about 50 pores) and (iii) present midplane (absent). (González & Clap, 2011)

KEYS: González & Claps 2011: 211 (female) [Key to the species Acanthococcus with six setae on prothoracic tibiae present in the Neotropical region ].

CITATIONS: GonzalCl2011 [description, distribution, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 207-211].



Acanthococcus granarae González & Claps

NOMENCLATURE:

Acanthococcus granarae González & Claps, 2011: 208-209. Type data: ARGENTINA: Tucumán, Burruyacu (26°30'S, 64°44'W), on unknown host, 11/6/1995, by Willink, M.C.G. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Tucuman: Fundacion e Instituto Miguel Lillo, Universidade Nactional de Tucuman, Argentina. Described: female. Illust.

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina (Tucuman [GonzalCl2011]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in González & Claps, 2011.

STRUCTURE: Dorsal setae with sharp point, larger in a submarginal band along the body microducts "types A and B" on both surfaces, abundant quinquelocular pores on the abdomen, trilocular pores numerous on thorax and head region near spiracles, pores cruciform on the submargen and abundant on the margin and head and thorax; metacoxas about 40 pores, 20-25 dorsal and 10-15 ventral frontal lobes and lobules present anal with four ventral setae. (González & Claps, 2011)

SYSTEMATICS: Acanthococcus granarae is similar to A. dubius, A. piptadeniae, A. gracielae and A. arctostaphyli. Acanthococcus dubius differs from A. granarae (A. granarae brackets) in the following points: (i) dorsal setae forming longitudinal bands (lines are parallel to the segmentation of the body), (ii) 1 type of microducts (two types) and (iii) frontal lobes absent (present). Acanthococcus piptadeniae differs from A. granarae (A. granarae brackets) by: (i) three setae ventral anal lobes (four), (ii) midplane present (absent) and (iii) frontal lobes absent (present). Acanthococcus arctostaphyli differs of A. granarae (A. granarae brackets) by: (i) setae with apex rounded or truncated (with apex) and the dorsal setae of anal lobes of roughly equal size (external seta longest). Granarae Acanthococcus granarae differs from A. gracielae in the following points (A. gracielae brackets): (i) dorsal setae with sharp end (with end just rounded), (ii) pores abundant trilocular quinqueloculares and abdomen (rare), (iii) anal lobes with four ventral setae (two) and frontal lobes present (absent). (González & Claps, 2011)

KEYS: González & Claps 2011: 211 (female) [Key to the species Acanthococcus with six setae on prothoracic tibiae present in the Neotropical region ].

CITATIONS: GonzalCl2011 [description, distribution, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 208-211].



Acanthococcus grandis (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Rhizococcus grandis Maskell, 1892: 29-30. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Victoria, on the roots of Acacia longifolia, by C. French. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.

Nidularia grandis; Lindinger, 1933a: 116. Change of combination.

Eriococcus grandis grandis; Hoy, 1963: 92. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus grandis; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 601. Change of combination.



HOST: Fabaceae: Acacia longifolia [Maskel1892].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Victoria [Maskel1892]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Maskell (1892). Type information by Deitz & Tocker (1980).

STRUCTURE: Adult female is dark red, naked. First-instar nymph is red, flattish and active. Male is unknown (Maskell, 1892).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae slender, scattered over dorsum (Maskell, 1892).

CITATIONS: Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 324]; DeitzTo1980 [distribution, taxonomy: 47]; Frogga1915 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 1059]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 64, 67]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 92-93]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 99]; Lidget1898 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 89]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 116]; Maskel1892 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 29-30]; Maskel1895a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 20]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 601]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 220-221]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 17].



Acanthococcus grandis spinosior (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Rhizococcus grandis spinosior Maskell, 1893b: 230. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Victoria, Myrniong, on Acacia implexa, by J. Lidgett. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female.

Eriococcus grandis spinosior; Hoy, 1963: 93. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus grandis spinosior; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 601. Change of combination.



HOST: Fabaceae: Acacia implexa [Maskel1893b].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Victoria [Maskel1893b]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description by Maskell (1893b). Type information by Deitz & Tocker (1980).

STRUCTURE: Adult female is of same color and form as E. grandis, but smaller (Maskell, 1893b).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female differs from Eriococcus grandis grandis by having more dorsal enlarged setae (Froggatt, 1921a).

CITATIONS: Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 324]; DeitzTo1980 [distribution, host: 47]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 64]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 93]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 99]; Lidget1898 [taxonomy: 89]; Maskel1893b [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 230]; Maskel1895a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 20]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 601]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 221].



Acanthococcus gurneyi (Fuller)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus gurneyi Fuller, 1899: 441. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Western Australia, Perth, on unidentified Rhamnaceae. Unknown type status, type designation unknown. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Whereabouts of type material unknown, probably lost (Gullan, personal communication, June 10, 1996).

Nidularia gurneyi; Lindinger, 1933a: 116. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus gurneyi; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 601. Change of combination.



HOST: Rhamnaceae [Fuller1899].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Western Australia [Fuller1899]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Fuller (1899).

STRUCTURE: Sac is tough and felted. Adult female fills sac, which is white and elongate. Second-instar female is active, pink or lemon-yellow (Fuller, 1899).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, short, stout, numerous over surface (Fuller, 1899).

CITATIONS: Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 75]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 81-82]; Fuller1899 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 441]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 94]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 99]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 116]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 601]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 225]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 17].



Acanthococcus hakeae (Fuller)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus hakeae Fuller, 1897b: 1345. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Western Australia, Perth, on Hakea ilicifolia. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Notes: The USNM has one slide containing three possible syntypes, which is labeled from Swan River, Western Australia, on Hakea ilicifolia. It also contains the word "types" and is apparently in the handwriting of Fuller. According to Gullan (personal communication, June 10, 1996), one slide containing two adult females and labeled with the type collection data, including "ex coll C. Fuller" is in the BMNH.

Nidularia hakeae; Lindinger, 1933a: 116. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus hakeae; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 601. Change of combination.



HOST: Proteaceae: Hakea ilicifolia [Fuller1899].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Western Australia [Fuller1897b]).

BIOLOGY: This species inhabits the deepest crevices of bark, but can easily be dislodged (Fuller, 1899).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Fuller (1899).

STRUCTURE: Female sac is tough and felted, white or buff in color and very convex. Adult female is pink (Fuller, 1899).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, marginal setae apparently larger than other setae on dorsum, setae scattered over dorsal surface, lateral margins of each abdominal segment with 2 setae; anal lobes each with 7-9 enlarged setae (Fuller, 1899).

CITATIONS: Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 391]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 75]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 82]; Fuller1897b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 1345]; Fuller1899 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 441-442]; GwiazdVaDe2006 [phylogenetics: 16]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 94]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 99]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 116]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 601]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 225-226].



Acanthococcus hebes (Hoy)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus hebes Hoy, 1962: 33, 84. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: North Island, 20 miles north of Waiouru, Desert Road, on Hebe odora, 12/02/1960, by J.M. Hoy. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus hebes; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 601. Change of combination.



HOST: Scrophulariaceae: Hebe odora? [Hoy1962].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (North Island [Hoy1962]).

BIOLOGY: Females occur on the upper leaf surface (Hoy, 1962).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Hoy (1962).

STRUCTURE: Sac is white and felted (Hoy, 1962).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, base broad, apices acute, all approximately same size, scattered over surface except absent in medial area of posterior abdominal segments; anal lobes with slightly crenulate medial margin; microtubular ducts elongate, without sclerotized area (Hoy, 1962).

KEYS: Hoy 1962: 33 (adult female) [New Zealand species of Eriococcidae].

CITATIONS: Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 33, 84]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 94]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 99]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 601]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 226-227]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 97].



Acanthococcus humatus (Hoy)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus humatus Hoy, 1962: 88-89. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: South Island, Otira, on roots, under stones, by G. Brittin. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus humatus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 601. Change of combination.



HOST: Undetermined [Hoy1962].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (South Island [Hoy1962]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Hoy (1962).

STRUCTURE: Adult female is elongate-oval (Hoy, 1962).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, apices slightly rounded, base broad, marginal setae noticeably larger than other setae on dorsal surface, without setae in medial area of posterior 2 or 3 segments, 2 or 3 lateral setae on margin of each abdominal segment; anal lobes sclerotized, parallel sided, apex truncate, with medial boss, medial margin crenulate; microtubular ducts apparently absent. This species described from 1 specimen (Hoy, 1962).

KEYS: Hoy 1962: 32 (adult female) [New Zealand species of Eriococcidae].

CITATIONS: Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 32, 88-89]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 95]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 99]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 601]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 233]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 97].



Acanthococcus imperfectus (Fuller)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus imperfectus Fuller, 1897b: 1345. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Western Australia, Perth, on Melaleuca sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Notes: Six syntypes from Swan River, Western Australia, on Melaleuca from the Brain Collection are in the USNM.

Nidularia imperfectus; Lindinger, 1933a: 116. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus imperfectus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 601. Change of combination.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Melaleuca sp. [Fuller1897b]

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Western Australia [Fuller1897b]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Fuller (1899).

STRUCTURE: Female sac is white, elliptical, slightly convex. Adult female is fawn-colored, filling sac (Fuller, 1897b).

CITATIONS: Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 391]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 75]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 82]; Fuller1897b [taxonomy: 1345]; Fuller1899 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 442]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 95]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 99]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 116]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 601]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 234].



Acanthococcus ironsidei (Williams)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus ironsidei Williams, 1973: 83. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Queensland, Nambour, on Macadamia sp., 10/07/1969, by D.A. Ironside. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Brisbane: Queensland Museum, Queensland, Australia. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Paratypes also in the ANIC, BMNH, USNM

Acanthococcus ironsidei; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 601. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: macadamia felted coccid [IronsiSwCo1978].



FOE: COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Chilocorus sp. [GordonHi1990].

HOST: Proteaceae: Macadamia sp. [Willia1973]

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Queensland [Willia1973]).

BIOLOGY: Insects are especially concentrated on the main veins of the host leaves (Williams, 1973).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Williams (1973).

STRUCTURE: Sac of adult female is dirty white or pale yellow. Male puparium is white (Williams, 1973).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae short, cone-shaped, with broad base, apices rounded, all of approximately same size, without medial and mediolateral setae on posterior 4 or 5 abdominal segments, forming 3 longitudinal lines on each side of body; anal lobes with 3 hair-like dorsal setae, medial margins crenulate; microtubular ducts elongate, without sclerotized area (Williams, 1973).

CITATIONS: GordonHi1990 [biological control: 287]; Ironsi1978 [biological control, description, distribution, host, life history: ill]; IronsiSwCo1978 [chemical control, economic importance, host: 29-33]; KalaciEr1988 [biological control, distribution: 119]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 99]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 601]; MillerGi2000 [biological control, catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 240-241]; Richar1981 [taxonomy: 40]; Schich1980 [distribution: 252]; Schich1981 [distribution: 101]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 19]; Willia1973 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 82-83]; Willia1991DJ [distribution, host, illustration: 460, 461].



Acanthococcus irregularis (Froggatt)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus irregularis Froggatt, 1921a: 83. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Uralla, Salisbury Court, on Eucalyptus piperita. Syntypes, female, type designation unknown. Type depository: Orange: Agricultural Scientific Collections Trust, New South Wales Agriculture, NSW, Australia. Described: both sexes. Notes: Type depository information provided by Gullan (personal communication, June 10, 1996).

Acanthococcus irregularis; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 601. Change of combination.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus piperita [Frogga1921a].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Frogga1921a]).

BIOLOGY: Ovisacs have been found on the undersides of bark or twigs and smaller branches. Bark and foliage are usually very discolored with fumagine and the male scales are very abundant (Froggatt, 1921a).

GENERAL REMARKS: Brief description without illustration by Froggatt (1921a).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: distinct marginal row of enlarged setae (Gullan & Vranjic, 1991).

KEYS: Gullan & Vranjic 1991: 26 (adult female) [Australian species of Eriococcus on Eucalyptus species].

CITATIONS: CookGu2004 [taxonomy: 444]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 83]; GullanVr1991 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 26]; GwiazdVaDe2006 [phylogenetics: 16]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 97]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 99]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 601]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 241]; NanDeWu2013 [phylogenetics: 173]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 99].



Acanthococcus isacanthus Danzig

NOMENCLATURE:

Acanthococcus isacanthus Danzig, 1975a: 45. Type data: RUSSIA: Vladivostok, on Spiraea salicifolia, 16/06/1963, by E. Danzig. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Eriococcus isacanthus; Tang & Hao, 1995: 474. Described: female. Illust. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus isacanthus; Köhler, 1998: 378. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Fabaceae: Albizia kalkora [TangHa1995]. Rosaceae: Spiraea salicifolia [Danzig1975a]. Ulmaceae: Ulmus sp. [TorabiVaHo2010]

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China (Henan (=Honan) [Hua2000], Shaanxi (=Shensi) [TangHa1995], Shanxi (=Shansi) [Tao1999]); Iran [TorabiVaHo2010]; North Korea [Danzig1986a]; Russia [Danzig1975a] (Primor'ye Kray [Danzig1986a]).

BIOLOGY: This species appears to be monophagus on the mesophytic Spiraea salicifolia. Females construct sacs in mid June (Danzig, 1986a).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Danzig (1975a). Redescription and illustration in Kozár, et al., 2013.

STRUCTURE: Female is oval, brown. Ovisac is white, with slightly apparent transverse ribs and waxy spines on the margin (Danzig, 1975a).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, apices slightly rounded or acute, all of approximately same size, abundant over dorsal surface; microtubular ducts short, with 2 sclerotized areas (Danzig, 1986a).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 75-77 (female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus]; Kwon & Han 2003a: 156-157 (female) [as Eriococcus isacanthus; Key to the Species of Eriococcus in Korea]; Wang 2001: 208 [as Eriococcus isacanthus; Key to Eriococcus of China]; Tang & Hao 1995: 451, 648 (adult female) [as Eriococcus isacanthus; Eriococcus species]; Danzig 1988: 708 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus isacanthus; Acanthococcus species of the far eastern USSR]; Danzig 1986a: 240 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus isacanthus; Acanthococcus species of the far eastern USSR]; Danzig 1975a: 43 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus isacanthus; Acanthococcus species of the far eastern USSR].

CITATIONS: Danzig1975a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 43, 45, 46]; Danzig1977b [taxonomy: 57]; Danzig1980b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 205, 208, 209]; Danzig1986a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 240, 244]; Danzig1988 [taxonomy: 708]; Hua2000 [distribution, host: 137]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 378]; Koteja1981 [taxonomy: 513]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 92]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 116-118]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 74]; KwonHa2003a [taxonomy, distribution, host: 151]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 242]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 56]; OuvrarKo2009 [host, phylogeny, structure, taxonomy: 102-118]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 451,474,593,648,721]; Tao1999 [distribution, host: 32]; TorabiVaHo2010 [distribution, host: 158]; Wang2001 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 208, 222].



Acanthococcus josgenseni (Morrison)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus jorgenseni Morrison, 1919: 73-74. Type data: ARGENTINA: Misiones, Bomplana, Concordia, on Myricia apiculate, ?/12/1910. Syntypes, female (examined). Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust. Notes: The original description gives the hosts as "Myricia apiculate" and "Myrtaccous plant" and on "an unstated host." Lizer y Trelles (1939) clarified some of these hosts by giving Myrcia apiculata and Psidium guajava as the hosts of this species.

Nidularia jorgenseni; Lindinger, 1933a: 116. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus jorgenseni; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 601. Change of combination.



FOE: HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Aphycus flavus [DeSant1941a].

HOSTS: Compositeae: Baccharis sp. [KozarKo2008]. Myricaceae: Myrcia apiculata [Lizery1939]. Myrtaceae: Psidium guajava [Lizery1939].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina (Misiones [Morris1919]); Brazil (Santa Catarina [KozarKo2008], Sao Paulo [KozarKo2008]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Morrison (1919).

STRUCTURE: Sac of female is elongate, white. Adult female is dark reddish in color and giving off a wine colored stain when boiled in KOH (Morrison, 1919).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, apices rounded, all of approximately same size, abundant over dorsal surface (Morrison, 1919).

KEYS: Kozár & Konczné Benedicty 2008: 140 (adult, female) [as Acanthococcus; Key to species of Acanthococcus found in this survey]; Morrison 1919: 69 (adult female) [as Eriococcus jorgenseni; South American species of Eriococcus].

CITATIONS: DeSant1941 [biological control: 9]; DeSant1941a [biological control, taxonomy: 21, 120]; FoldiKo2007 [taxonomy: 61]; Haywar1941 [biological control, distribution, host: 80, 94]; HodgsoMi2010 [host, taxonomy: 99]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 97]; KondoHaCo2006 [taxonomy: 32]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 92]; KozarKo2008 [distribution: 139]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 116]; Lizery1939 [distribution: 164-5, 167, 169]; Mamet1950 [taxonomy: 21]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 601]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 243-244]; Morris1919 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 69, 74-75]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 19].



Acanthococcus kamahi (Hoy)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus kamahi Hoy, 1958: 196. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: South Island, Wilberg Range, on Weinmannia racemosa, 21/02/1955, by J.M. Hoy. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus kamahi; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 601. Change of combination.



HOST: Cunoniaceae: Weinmannia racemosa [Hoy1958].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (North Island [Hoy1958], South Island [Hoy1958]).

BIOLOGY: Does not appear to build up to high population levels (Hoy, 1958).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Hoy (1958 and 1962).

STRUCTURE: Sac of female is grey and felted (Hoy, 1958).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae cone-shaped, base broad, apices rounded, 2 sizes of setae, larger size present in 3 longitudinal lines on each side of body, smaller size uncommon, most abundant on thorax and head, bare area in medial region of posterior abdominal segments; anal lobes sclerotized, medial margin sometimes with small teeth; microtubular ducts elongate, without sclerotized area (Hoy, 1962).

KEYS: Hoy 1962: 32 (adult female) [New Zealand species of Eriococcidae].

CITATIONS: Hoy1958 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 196]; Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 6, 32, 90]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 97]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 99]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 601]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 244]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 97].



Acanthococcus kaschgariae Danzig

NOMENCLATURE:

Acanthococcus kaschgariae Danzig, 1972b: 339. Type data: MONGOLIA: Bayan-Hongor Aymag, Edrengiyn-Nuru Ridge, 100 km SSW Bayan-Under, on Kaschgaria komorovi roots, 05/09/1970, by I. Kerzhner. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 200-75. Described: female. Illust. Notes: 1 female on same slide as holotype. 4 paratypes on 2 slides with same data in ZMAS (Danzig, personal communication, 1996)

Eriococcus kaschgariae; Tang & Hao, 1995: 474. Described: female. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus kaschgariae; Kozár, 2009: 92. Revived combination.



HOST: Compositeae: Kaschgaria komarovi [Danzig1972b].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Mongolia [Danzig1972b].

BIOLOGY: Lives on the roots of the host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration by Danzig (1972b).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, apices slightly rounded, setae all approximately same size, abundant over dorsal surface (Danzig, 1972b).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 75-77 (female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus]; Tang & Hao 1995: 451, 647 (adult female) [as Eriococcus kawschgariae; Eriococcus species].

CITATIONS: Danzig1972b [distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 339]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 379]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 92]; KozarKaKo2013 [distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 118-120]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 74]; Mateso1976 [taxonomy: 26]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 244-245]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 451, 474, 647]; TerGri1983 [distribution, taxonomy: 881].



Acanthococcus kijabensis (James)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus kijabensis James, 1934a: 270-272. Type data: KENYA: Kijabe, on Hypoestes verticellaris, by H.C. James 19/11/1932. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust. Notes: There are four adult female syntypes on four slides in the BMNH. Type data per personal communication, D.J. Williams (May 23, 1996).

Acanthococcus kijabensis; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 601. Change of combination.



HOST: Acanthaceae: Hypoestes verticellaris [James1934a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Kenya [James1934a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by James (1934a).

STRUCTURE: Test of female is a white, spiny and ovoid sac which completely encloses the insect. Adult is oval in shape and dark red in color (James, 1934a).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, apices acute, of 2 sizes, scattered over dorsal surface (James, 1934a).

CITATIONS: Hall1937 [taxonomy: 125]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 98]; James1934a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 270-272]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 99]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 601]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 247].



Acanthococcus kilinceri Kaydan in Kozár et al.

NOMENCLATURE:

Acanthococcus kilinceri Kaydan in Kozár et al., 2013: 120-123. Type data: TURKEY: Hakkai Road, N: 37°41’644’’; E:043°56’266’’; on Quercus sp., 5/23/2008, by F. Kozár and M.B. Kaydan. Holotype female and first instar (examined). Type depository: Turkey: Kaydan's Personal Collection; type no. 4222. Described: female and first instar. Illust. Notes: 7 paratypes of the same data as holotype, and 6 paratypes deposited in Kaydan’s personal collection (KPCT) and one paratype in the Plant Protection Institute, Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary.



HOST: Fagaceae: Quercus sp. [KozarKaKo2013]

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Turkey [KozarKaKo2013].

BIOLOGY: This species was found on the root crown or stem near to the soil or on the small branch which was lying on the ground. (Kozár, et al., 2013)

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustrations of adult female and first-instar nymph in Kozár, et al., 2013.

STRUCTURE: Adult females reddish; felt-like test cream-white. (Kozár, et al., 2013).

SYSTEMATICS: First instar nymph similar to nymph of A. roboris. Kozár, et al., 2013).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 75-77 (female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus].

CITATIONS: KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 120-123].



Acanthococcus koelreuterius (Wei & Wu)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus koelreuterius Wei & Wu, 2004: 118-128. Type data: CHINA:. Holotype female, by original designation. Described: female. Notes: Unfinished reccord

Acanthococcus koelreuterius; Kozár, 2009: 92. Change of combination.



HOST: Sapindaceae: Koelreuteria paniculata [WeiWu2004].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China [WeiWu2004].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Kozár, et al., 2013.

STRUCTURE: Adult female: the body spindle-shaped, 1.88–2.2 mm long, 1.0–1.15 mm wide. (Kozár, et al., 2013)

SYSTEMATICS: First-instar nymph typical for the genus, morphologicaly near to A. aceris first-instar nymph. (Kozár, et al., 2013)

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 75-77 (female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus].

CITATIONS: Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 92]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 124-126]; WeiWu2004 [host, description: 61-65].



Acanthococcus kowhai (Hoy)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus kowhai Hoy, 1962: 32, 92. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: South Island, Christchurch, Kennedy's Bush, on Sophora tetraptera, 3/10/1914, by G. Brittin. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus kowhai; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 601. Change of combination.



HOST: Fabaceae: Sophora tetraptera [Hoy1962].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (South Island [Hoy1962]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Hoy (1962).

STRUCTURE: No information available.

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, base broad, apices slightly rounded, marginal setae slightly larger than other setae on dorsum, 3 or 4 lateral setae on margin of each abdominal segment; microtubular ducts apparently absent (Hoy, 1962).

KEYS: Hoy 1962: 32 (adult female) [New Zealand species of Eriococcidae].

CITATIONS: Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 32, 92]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 98]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 99]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 601]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 248]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 97].



Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae (Kuwana)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus lagerstroemiae Kuwana, 1907: 182. Type data: JAPAN: Ichijiku and Sarusuberi on Ficus carica and Lagerstroemia indica. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Tokyo: Imperial Agricultural Experiment Station, Tachikawa, Japan. Described: female. Illust.

Nidularia lagerstroemiae; Lindinger, 1933a: 116. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae; Borchsenius, 1960b: 214, 217. Change of combination.

Eriococcus largerstroemiae; Kwon et al., 1995: 295. Misspelling of species name.

Eriococcus lagerostroemiae; Tao, 1999: 32. Misspelling of species name.

Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae; Kozár et al., 2013: 127-129. Revived combination.

COMMON NAME: crapemyrtle scale [Yang1982].



FOES: COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Chilocorus kuwanae [LuoXiZh2000]. HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Grandiclavula spatulata Zang & Huang [ZhangHu2001a].

HOSTS: Buxaceae: Buxus microphylla koreana [ParkKiKi1993]. Combretaceae: Anogeiussus latifolia [Hoy1963], Anogeiussus sp. [Wang2001]. Ebenaceae: Diospyros kaki [ParkKiKi1993]. Euphobiaceae: Mallotus japonicus [ParkKiKi1993]. Euphorbiaceae: Glochidion puberum [Hua2000]. Fabaceae: Dalbergia sp. [Hoy1963], Glycine max [Hua2000]. Lythraceae: Lagerstroemia flosreginae [Tang1984b], Lagerstroemia indica [Kuwana1907], Lagerstroemia japonica [ParkKiKi1993], Lagerstroemia speciosa [KozarKaKo2013]. Moraceae: Ficus carica [Kuwana1907]. Myrtaceae: Myrtus sp. [Kohler1998]. Oleaceae: Ligustrum obtusifolium [KwonHa2003a]. Punicaceae: Punica granatum [TangLi1988]. Rosaceae: Malus pumila [Hua2000], Rubus sp. [Kohler1998]. Ulmaceae: Celtis sinensis [ParkKiKi1993].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: China (Guizhou (=Kweichow) [LuoXiZh2000], Jiangsu (=Kiangsu) [Tao1999], Jiangxi (=Kiangsi) [Hua2000], Sichuan (=Szechwan) [Hua2000]); India [Hoy1963] (Rajasthan [ShafeeAlAg1975]). Palaearctic: China (Gansu (=Kansu)? [Tang1984b], Hebei (=Hopei) [Tao1999], Liaoning [Tao1999], Nei Monggol (=Inner Mongolia)? [Tang1984b], Ningxia (=Ningsia)? [Tang1984b], Qinghai (=Chinghai)? [Tang1984b], Shandong (=Shantung) [Tao1999], Shanxi (=Shansi) [Xie1998], Xingiang Uygur (=Sinkiang) [Hua2000]); Japan [Hoy1963]; Mongolia [TangLi1988]; South Korea [Paik1978]; United Kingdom (England [Hoy1963]).

BIOLOGY: This species has two generations each year. The first adults appear in late April or early May, the second from late August to late October (ParkKiKi, 1993). Zhao et al. (1998) report 3 generations per year in China and that the overwintering stage is nymphal. Additional life history information by Luo et al. (2000).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration by Kuwana (1907) and by Borchsenius (1960b).

STRUCTURE: Adult female is enclosed in sac which is snow white in color. Body is oval or broad elliptical and dark purple in color (Kuwana, 1907). Eggs are purple-red and turn pinkish-red with age (Zhao et al., 1998).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae cylindrical, apices rounded, 2 or 3 sizes of setae, abundant over dorsal surface, frontal lobes present, smaller than basal segment of antenna; anal lobes sclerotized, with crenulations on mesal margin; microtubular ducts elongate, with 1 sclerotized area, orifice bifurcate (Miller, personal observation, 1999).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae can be successfully controlled using a solution of methidathion (Supracide) emulsion (Zhao et al., 1998).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 75-77 (female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus]; Kwon & Han 2003a: 156-157 (female) [as Eriococcus lagerstroemiae; Key to the Species of Eriococcus in Korea]; Wang 2001: 208 [as Eriococcus lagerstroemiae; Key to Eriococcus of China]; Tang & Hao 1995: 449, 646 (adult female) [as Eriococcus lagerstroemiae; Eriococcus species]; Wang 1982c: 144 (adult female) [as Eriococcus lagerstroemiae; Eriococcus species]; Wang 1982ZQ: 41 (adult female) [as Eriococcus lagerstroemiae; Eriococcus species of China]; Borchsenius 1960b: 217 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae; Acanthococcus species of the USSR]; Takahashi 1957: 7 (adult female) [as Eriococcus lagerstroemiae; Some Eriococcus species of Japan].

CITATIONS: AhmedSh1978 [biological control, distribution, host: 167]; Ali1970a [distribution, host: 76]; BhasinRo1954 [distribution, host: 73]; BielenWe1990 [taxonomy: 377]; BielenWe1992 [physiology: 422, 424]; BoratyWi1964 [taxonomy: 91]; Borchs1960b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 214, 217]; FJSNH1938 [taxonomy: 6]; Foldi1983a [taxonomy: 164]; Fulmek1943 [biological control, distribution: 32]; Green1915a [description, distribution, host: 177]; Hartma1916 [distribution, host: 95]; Hashim1982 [taxonomy: 458]; HayatAlAg1975 [biological control, distribution, host: 84]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 99]; Hua2000 [distribution, host: 137]; Ishii1928 [biological control, distribution: 143]; Kawai1972 [distribution: 4]; Kawai1977 [distribution, host: 152, 160]; Kawai1980 [description: 127]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 379]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 92]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 126-128]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 74]; Kuwana1907 [description, distribution, host, illustration: 182-183]; Kuwana1917a [distribution: 167]; Kuwana1917b [distribution, taxonomy: 138]; KwonHa2003a [taxonomy, distribution, host: 151]; KwonPaPa1995 [chemical control, distribution, host, life history, taxonomy: 295-299]; Lindin1907e [taxonomy: 476]; Lindin1908f [taxonomy: 476]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 116]; Lindin1958 [taxonomy: 368]; LuoXiZh2000 [biological control, distribution, host, life history, taxonomy: 35-42]; Mani1976 [biological control, distribution: 64]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, economic importance, host, taxonomy: 251-253]; Paik1978 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 165]; Paik1982 [biological control: 50]; PaikKi1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 42]; ParkKiKi1993 [description, distribution, host, illustration, life history, taxonomy: 83-89]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance: 102]; Ramakr1919a [distribution, host: 46]; Ramakr1919b [distribution, host: 92]; Ramakr1921a [distribution: 342]; Ramakr1924 [distribution, host: 344]; Ramakr1930 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 55]; Sander1909a [catalog, distribution, host, taxonomy: 37]; ShafeeAlAg1975 [biological control, distribution: 80]; Tachik1955 [distribution: 52]; Takaha1957 [taxonomy: 7]; TakahaTa1956 [distribution, host: 3]; Tang1977 [description, distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 43]; Tang1984b [distribution, host: 125]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 449, 475,593,646,722]; TangLi1988 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 67, 70]; Tao1999 [distribution, host: 32]; Trjapi1964 [taxonomy: 1458]; WakuFo1984 [illustration: 311, 313, 314, 317]; WakuMa1981 [distribution, host, structure: 94-102]; Wang1974 [taxonomy: 329]; Wang1982c [taxonomy: 144]; Wang1982ZQ [distribution, host, taxonomy: 41, 42-43]; Wang2001 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 208, 209-210]; Willia1985h [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 374]; Xie1998 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 93-95]; Yang1982 [distribution, taxonomy: 105]; ZeyaHa1993 [biological control: 194]; ZhangHu2001a [biological control: 317]; ZhaoHaZh1998 [chemical control, distribution, host, life history: 12-14].



Acanthococcus lahillei (Leonardi)

NOMENCLATURE:

Gymnococcus lahillei Leonardi, 1911a: 17-19. Type data: ARGENTINA: Raccolto a Cacheuta, on Larrea divaricata and L. cuneata. Syntypes. Type depository: Portici: Dipartimento de Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria di Portici, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Italy. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Personal communication with S. Marotta (June 5, 1996) indicates that dry material of the original specimens is present in the collection in Portici, Italy.

Ovaticoccus lahillei; Boratynski, 1958: 174. Change of combination.

Eriococcus lahillei; González, 2009: 123-127. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus lahillei; Hodgson & Miller, 2010: 99. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Zygophyllaceae: Larrea cuneata [Leonar1911], Larrea cuneifolia [Hoy1963, Gonzal2009], Larrea divaricata [Leonar1911].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina [Leonar1911, Gonzal2009].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of first instar and adult female by Leonardi (1911).

STRUCTURE: Nymph body is rotund. Adult female oval (Leonardi, 1911).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, sides straight or slightly concave, apices rounded, several sizes of setae, abundant over dorsum; protruding anal lobes each with 4 slender enlarged setae; anal ring with pores; antennae 7-segmented (Leonardi, 1911a). This species probably does not belong in Ovaticoccus.

KEYS: González 2009: 133 (female, adult) [Clave para hembras adultas de las especies de Eriococcus encontradas sobre Larrea en Argentina (Key to the adult females of the species of Eriococcus found on Larrea in Argentina)].

CITATIONS: Boraty1958 [distribution, taxonomy: 174]; Gonzal2009 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 123-127]; HodgsoMi2010 [host, taxonomy: 99]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 183]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 105]; Leonar1911 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 251-253]; Leonar1911a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 17-19]; Lizery1939 [distribution, host: 168, 181]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 431-432]; MillerMc1967 [distribution: 507]; Teran1973 [distribution, host: 194-196].



Acanthococcus lanatus (Hempel)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus lanatus Hempel, 1932: 317-318. Type data: BRAZIL: Sao Paulo, Amaro, on Eugenia pitanga, by J. Britto & R. Drummond. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil. Described: female.

Nidularia lanatus; Lindinger, 1933a: 116. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus lanatus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 601. Change of combination.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Eugenia pitanga [Hoy1963].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Sao Paulo [Hoy1963]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description by Hempel (1932).

STRUCTURE: Adult female has a felted sac which it secretes. Form is subspherical. First instars are elliptical (Hempel, 1932).

CITATIONS: CostaL1936 [distribution, taxonomy: 178]; Hempel1932 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 317-318]; HodgsoMi2010 [host, taxonomy: 99]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 99]; KondoHaCo2006 [taxonomy: 32]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 99]; Lepage1938 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 279]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 116]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 601]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 253]; SilvadGoGa1968 [distribution, host: 159].



Acanthococcus latialis (Leonardi)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus latialis Leonardi, 1907b: 144-147. Type data: ITALY: Marino, near Rome, on undetermined host, by F. Silvestri. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Tranfaglia & Esposito, 1985: 130. Type depository: Portici: Dipartimento de Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria di Portici, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Italy. Described: female. Illust.

Nidularia latialis; Lindinger, 1933a: 116. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus latialis; Kozár & Walter, 1985: 74. Change of combination.



HOST: Undetermined [Leonar1907b].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Italy [Leonar1907b].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration of first instar and adult female by Leonardi (1907b). Subsequent description and illustration by Tranfaglia & Esposito (1985).

STRUCTURE: Adult female is oval (Leonardi, 1907b).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae cylindrical, apices rounded, marginal setae on abdomen slightly larger than others, abundant over dorsal surface; anal lobes heavily sclerotized, with teeth on medial margin; microtubular ducts elongate, with 1 sclerotized area (Tranfaglia & Esposito, 1985).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 75-77 (female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus]; Tang & Hao 1995: 450, 647 (adult female) [as Eriococcus latialis; Eriococcus species]; Tranfaglia & Esposito 1985: 116 (adult female) [as Eriococcus latialis; Eriococcus species of Italy].

CITATIONS: BarbagBiBo1995 [distribution: 43]; Goux1938d [taxonomy: 333]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 99-100]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 380]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 92]; KozarKaKo2013 [distribution, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 129-131]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 74]; Leonar1907b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 144-147]; Leonar1918 [distribution, host: 215]; Leonar1920 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 436]; Lindin1907d [taxonomy: 159]; Lindin1912b [host, taxonomy: 349]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 116]; Lindin1935 [taxonomy: 134]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 121]; LongoMaPe1999a [distribution: 150]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 255]; PellizKo2011 [distribution: 66]; Sander1909a [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 37]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 450, 476, 647]; TranfaEs1985 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 116, 128-129].



Acanthococcus lecanioides (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Rhizococcus lecanioides Green, 1915d: 47. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Victoria, Sandringham, on Casuarina distyla, by C. French. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust. Notes: There are 6 adult female syntypes on 1 slide in the BMNH (Williams, personal communication, May 15, 1996).

Eriococcus lecanioides; Hoy, 1963: 100. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus lecanioides; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 602. Change of combination.



HOST: Casuarinaceae: Casuarina distyla [Green1915d].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Victoria [Green1915d]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Green (1915d).

STRUCTURE: Adult female is dark and castaneous brown, naked and smooth. Insect becomes clear in potash (Green, 1915d).

SYSTEMATICS: This species does not appear to belong in Eriococcus based on the illustration in Green (1915d) and may not even be an eriococcid.

CITATIONS: Brown1967 [distribution, host: 131]; Frogga1915 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 1060]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 64]; Frogga1933 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 365]; Green1915d [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 47]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 100]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 99]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 116]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 602]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 256].



Acanthococcus leptospermi (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus leptospermi Maskell, 1891: 22-23. Type data: AUSTRALIA: on Leptospermum laevigatum, by C. French. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: both sexes. Illust.

Acanthococcus leptospermi; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 602. Change of combination.



FOE: COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Chilocorus sp. [GordonHi1990].

HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Kunzea ambigua [Hoy1963], Kunzea corifolia [Hoy1963], Leptospermum ericoides [Hoy1963], Leptospermum flavescens [Hoy1963], Leptospermum juniperinum [Maskel1891], Leptospermum lanigerum [Maskel1891], Leptospermum scoparium [Hoy1963], Leptospermum sericatum [Hoy1963], Melaleuca sp. [Hoy1963]

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (South Australia [Hoy1963], Tasmania [Hoy1963]); New Zealand [Hoy1963].

BIOLOGY: This species establishes itself on the surface of the bark, more often towards the tips of branches (Hoy, 1961).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Maskell (1891). Additional description and illustration by Hoy (1962).

STRUCTURE: Sac of female is dirty white or yellowish, usually accompanied by much black fungus, felted and elliptical. Sac of male is white and smaller than that of female. First-instar nymphs are yellow, naked, active and elliptical. Adult female red, elliptical. Adult male is reddish brown (Maskell, 1891).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, apices rounded, setae of 1 variable size, 3 longitudinal lines on each side of abdomen; microtubular ducts of medium length, without sclerotized areas, orifice bifurcate (Hoy, 1962).

KEYS: Pellizzari & Germain 2010: 52 (female) [Key to the 7 eriococcid species known to occur on Leptospermum spp.]; Hoy 1962: 33 (adult female) [New Zealand species of Eriococcidae].

CITATIONS: Brown1967 [distribution, host: 131]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 324]; CookGu2004 [taxonomy: 444]; DeitzTo1980 [distribution, taxonomy: 47]; EpenhuHeCa2000 [distribution, economic importance, host: 67-70]; Essig1931 [taxonomy: 292, 294, 305, 312]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 76]; Flande1940 [biological control, distribution: 202]; Frogga1900 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 103-104]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 84, 88]; GordonHi1990 [biological control: 287]; GullanMiCo2005 [host, ecology: 166]; GwiazdVaDe2006 [phylogenetics: 16]; Hender2008 [phylogeny: 89-94]; Hoy1953 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 1]; Hoy1954 [distribution, host: 472]; Hoy1954a [distribution, host: 601]; Hoy1959 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 17]; Hoy1961 [distribution, ecology, host: 53-54, 67]; Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 6, 33, 96, 205]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 100]; Hoy1964 [distribution, host: 18]; Kirk1905 [distribution: 4]; Kirk1908 [distribution, host: 118]; KirkCo1909a [distribution, host: 4]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 99]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 116]; Maskel1891 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 22-23]; Maskel1895a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 22]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 602]; MillerGi2000 [biological control, catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 257-258]; NanDeWu2013 [phylogenetics: 73]; PellizGe2010 [host, taxonomy: 51,52]; RossHaOk2012 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 199]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 97]; Zondag1977a [distribution, host: 5].



Acanthococcus lidgetti (Cockerell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Rhizococcus lidgetti Cockerell, 1899k: 88-89. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Victoria, Myrniong, on Acacia estrophiolata, by J. Lidgett. Syntypes, female (examined). Type depositories: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Nidularia lidgetti; Lindinger, 1933a: 116. Change of combination.

Eriococcus lidgetti; Hoy, 1963: 100. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus lidgetti; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 602. Change of combination.



HOST: Fabaceae: Acacia estrophiolata [Cocker1899k].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Victoria [Cocker1899k]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description by Cockerell (1899k).

STRUCTURE: Adult female is dark purple, naked and turns magenta when boiled in KOH (Cockerell, 1988k).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae numerous over dorsal surface (Cockerell, 1899k).

CITATIONS: Cocker1899k [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 88-89]; Frogga1915 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 1060]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 65]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 100]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 99]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 116]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 602]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 258-259]; Willia1985a [distribution, host: 218].



Acanthococcus longisetosus (Foldi & Kozar)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus longisetosus Foldi & Kozar, 2007: 54-56. Type data: BRAZIL: Rio Grande do Sul, Itaimbézinho, Parc national de Asparados, on Annona muricata (Annonaccae), 11/16/1985, by I. Foldi. Holotype female (examined). Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus longisetosus; Kozár & Konczné Benedicty, 2008: 143. Change of combination.



HOST: Annonaceae: Annona muricata [FoldiKo2007].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul [FoldiKo2007]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Foldi & Kozár. (2007)

STRUCTURE: Adult female body outline elongate oval, 2.33 mm long, 1.37 mm wide. Antennae 7 segmented, antennal segments with few hair-like setae, segment III without setae; apical segment with long seta plus three sensory falcate setae. Frontal lobes absent. Eyes near margin on venter. Venter: Labium 3-segmented. Legs well developed. Tarsal digitules knobbed; claw digitules slightly knobbed. Metathoracic coxae with 110-120 translucent pores; femur with about 14-21 translucent pores dorsally at distal end; trochanter with two sensory pores on each side, claw with a denticle. Legs with few hair-like setae, trochanteral seta longest, tarsus with one sensory pore. Disc pores each with 5 loculi, distributed in bands on posterior 4 abdominal segments and scattered elsewhere on rest of abdomen, thorax and head. Long hair-like setae distributed mainly on median and submedian regions; shorter setae in a submarginal band. Microtubular duct absent. Macrotubular ducts of one size sparse throughout. Sessile pores mostly in a sparse submarginal band, absent on last three abdominal segments. Anal lobes each with 3 hair-like setae. Margin: Ventral marginal spinose setae similar to those on dorsum but slightly smaller, sparsely distributed along margin as follows: with a small group on head, with a total of about 7 on thoracle segments, and with 2 spinose setae on abdomen; absent from margins of posterior four abdominal segments. Dorsum: Dorsal spinose setae abundant in a dense group on hear, in a broad band on each thorcic segment, and in a transverse segmental band 2-3 setae wide on each abdominal segment but absent from segment VIII. Macrotubular ducts sparsely distributed throughou. Microtubular ducts scattered among dorsal setae and a microtubular duct present near each dorsal spinose seta. Disc pores absent. Anal ring with 8 hair-like setae. anal lobes about as long as wide, membranous, each with two spinose setae along outer margin and one spinose seta on inner margin, similar to those on dorsum. Suranal setae hai-like. Median sclerotised plate absent. (Foldi & Kozár, 2007)

SYSTEMATICS: A. longisetosus differs from all known species of Eriococcus and Acanthococcus in having abundant strong, long hair-like setae medially on venter of all segments. there are some dimilarities with A. perplexus (Hempel, 1900) and A. jorgenseni (Morrison, 1919) in the arrangement of the dorsal spines and the large number of pores on each posterior coxa (110-120). However, A. longisetosus differs from E. perplexus in the absence of cruciform pores on the most posterior abdominal segments of the venter, and in having many fewer (0-2) ventral submarginal spinose setae (3-5 present on A. jorgenseni). (Foldi & Kozar, 2007)

KEYS: Foldi & Kozar 2007: 62 (female) [as Eriococcus longisetosus; Key to species of Eriococcus discussed here from South America].

CITATIONS: FoldiKo2007 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 54-56]; HodgsoMi2010 [host, taxonomy: 99]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 92]; KozarKo2008 [taxonomy: 143].



Acanthococcus macedoniensis Fetykó & Kaydan in Kozár et al.

NOMENCLATURE:

Acanthococcus macedoniensis Fetykó & Kaydan in Kozár et al., 2013: 130-133. Type data: MACEDONIA: Dorjan, on branches of Quercus ilex, 4/10/2010, by F. Kozár and K. Fetykó. Holotype female (examined). Type depository: Budapest: Plant Protection Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary; type no. 9291. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Paratypes: 3 adult females, same data as holotype



HOSTS: Aceraceae: Acer sp. [KozarKaKo2013]. Carpinaceae: Carpinus betulus [KozarKaKo2013]. Fagaceae: Quercus ilex [KozarKaKo2013].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Macau [KozarKaKo2013]; Macedonia [KozarKaKo2013]; Poland [KozarKaKo2013]; Switzerland [KozarKaKo2013].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Kozár, et al., 2013.

STRUCTURE: Adult female reddish; felt-like test cream-white. (Kozár, et al., 2013)

SYSTEMATICS: The adult female of A. macedoniensis has a high number of enlarged setae on last abdominal segments of dorsum, and two sizes of macrotubular ducts on venter. (Kozár, et al., 2013)

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 75-77 (female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus].

CITATIONS: KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 130-134].



Acanthococcus mancus (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Rhizococcus casuarinae mancus Maskell, 1897: 316. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Notes: Eriococcus mancus Maskell is the senior homonym of E. mancus Ferris 1955a.

Rhizococcus mancus; Froggatt, 1915: 1061. Change of status.

Nidularia chalazgamarum manca; Lindinger, 1933a: 108. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender. Notes: For an explanation of the changed species epithet see Eriococcus chalazgamarum which is a replacement name.

Eriococcus mancus; Hoy, 1963: 101. Change of combination.

Eriococcus chalazgamarum; Hoy, 1963: 78. Incorrect synonymy.

Acanthococcus mancus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 602. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Casuarina distyla [Hoy1963], Casuarina rigida [Hoy1963], Casuarina sp. [Hoy1963], Casuarina suberosa [Hoy1963].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Hoy1963]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Cursory description by Maskell (1897). Type information by Deitz & Tocker (1980).

SYSTEMATICS: Lindinger (1933a) realized when he synonymized the genera Rhizococcus, Eriococcus and Gossyparia with Nidularia that the species Gossyparia casuarinae Maskell (1893b) and Rhizococcus casuarinae Maskell (1893b) would be homonyms. As the first reviser, he apparently proposed the replacement name Nidularia chalazgamarum for Rhizococcus casuarinae and maintained Nidularia casuarinae for what Maskell considered to be Gossyparia. This action is fairly obscure in Lindinger (1933a) and Hoy (1963) incorrectly interpreted it as an invalid replacement name.

CITATIONS: Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 391]; DeitzTo1980 [distribution, taxonomy: 47]; Frogga1915 [description, ditribution, host, taxonomy: 1061]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 65-67]; Frogga1933 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 365]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 101]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 108]; Maskel1897 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 316]; McKeow1945 [distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 337]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 602]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 261].



Acanthococcus matai (Hoy)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus matai Hoy, 1962: 32, 100. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: North Island, Pureora Forest, on Podocarpus spicatus, 22/03/1960, by J.M. Hoy. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus matai; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 602. Change of combination.



HOST: Podocarpaceae: Podocarpus spicatus [Hoy1962].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (North Island [Hoy1962]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Hoy (1962).

STRUCTURE: Female sac is tawny and felted (Hoy, 1962).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae cone shaped, sides straight, bases broad, apices rounded, all setae approximately same size, scattered over surface except in medial area of posterior abdominal segments where absent, microtubular ducts associated with bases of most enlarged setae; anal lobes with conspicuously smaller enlarged setae; enlarged setae long, microtubular ducts without sclerotized area (Hoy, 1962).

KEYS: Hoy 1962: 32 (adult female) [New Zealand species of Eriococcidae].

CITATIONS: Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 32, 100]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 103]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 602]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 263]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 97].



Acanthococcus maximus (Foldi & Kozár)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus maximus Foldi & Kozár, 2007: 56-58. Type data: VENEZUELA: Merida, nearLagunillas, on Psidium guajava (Myrtaxeae), 10/28/1984, by I Foldi. Holotype female (examined). Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus maximus; Kozár & Konczné Benedicty, 2008: 143. Change of combination.



HOST: Myrtacae: Psidium guajava [FoldiKo2007].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul [FoldiKo2007]); Paraguay [FoldiKo2007]; Venezuela [FoldiKo2007].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Foldi & Kozár (2007).

STRUCTURE: Adult female body elongate oval, 2.3-3.0 mm long, 2.0-2.1 mm wide. Antenna 7 segmented; antennal segments with few hair-like setae; segment III without setae; a sensory pore as usual on segment II; apical segment with setae plus 3 sensory falcate setae; 2 preapical segments each with a falcate sensory seta. Frontal lobes well developed. Eyes near margin on venter. Venter: Labium 3-segmented. Legs long; slaw digitules broadly knobbed. Coxae with line of microspines; metathoracic coxae wach with about 40-45 medium-sized translucent pores; femur with about 5-8 translucent pores dorsally at distal end; trochanter with two pores on each side. Claw with a denticle. Legs with few hair-like setae, trochanter with a short seta, and a longer seta; tarsus with one sensory pore. Disc pores, each 3 or 5 locular distributed in broad bands on abdomen and more scattered on other segments. Hair-like setae scattered mainly on submarginal areas, sparse, predominately on median and submedian areas; with 2-4 long setae on head. Microtubular duct absent. Macrotubular ducts of two sizes; both sparsely distributed on all segments. Cruciform pores along margin as far as abdominal segment VII posteriorly, and on submargin where about 15-22 cruciform pores connecting pro- and mesothoracic spiracles. Anal lobes each with 3 hair-like setae. Margin: Spinose setae along margin of venter similar to those dorsally, but smaller and straight. Dorsum: Dorsal spinose setae, strong, broad, predominantly straight, sometimes slightly curved, length variable, in a band along margin and submargin and in broad bands 2-3 seetae wide across all segments. Macrotubular ducts without a bifurcated opening, scattered among dorsal setae. Disc pores absent. Anal ring with pores and 8 hair-like setae. Anal lobes membranous, about as long as wide, each with two spinose setae along inner margin, and one seta on outer margin, similar in seize to those on dorsum. Suranal setae hair-like. Median sclerotised plate absent. (Foldi & Kozar, 2007)

SYSTEMATICS: A. maximus is similar to E. perplexus Hempel, 1900, sharing with it a similar arrangement of dorsal spinose setae, the presence of frontal lobes and the large body size. However, E. perplexus has much smaller spines on the mid-dorsum of the posterior abdominal segments (each about 5 times shorter than the larger marginal spinose setae), whereas those in the position on E. maximus are only 2 times shorter than those on the margin. In addition, the coxal pores on A. maximus are larger and more abundant (about 40-45) than on E. perplexus, which has smaller and fewer pores (about 20). A. maximus also differs from E. perplexus in having a band of about 15-22 cruciform pores on each side between the anterior and posterior spiracles, whereas these are absent on E. perplexus. A. maximus differs from E. longisetosus in having short ventral hair-like setae; from H. paranaensis in the absence of groups of microtubular ducts on dorsum; from A. christopherus in the random distribution of spine-like setae on dorsum, and from A. venezuelaensis in the presence of frontal lobes and twice as many cruciform pores. (Foldi & Kozár, 2007)

KEYS: Foldi & Kozár 2007: 62 (female) [as Eriococcus maximus; Key to species of Eriococcus discussed here from South America].

CITATIONS: FoldiKo2007 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 56-58, 62]; HodgsoMi2010 [host, taxonomy: 99-100]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 92]; KozarKo2008 [taxonomy: 143].



Acanthococcus melnikensis (Hodgson & Trencheva)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus melnikensis Hodgson & Trencheva, 200812-31. Type data: BULGARIA: Pirin Mountains, Melnik, on Quercus pubescens, 04/10/2008, by K. Trencheva. Holotype female, male and first instar. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Synonomy with A. aceris by Gavrilov, 2010.

Acanthococcus melnikensis; Kozár, 2009: 93. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus aceris; Gavrilov, 2010: 38-39. Incorrect synonymy.

Acanthococcus melnikensis; Kozár et al., 2013: 134. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Fagaceae: Myrius communis [HodgsoTr2008], Quercus calliprinos [SpodekBeMe2014], Quercus ithaburensis [SpodekBeMe2014], Quercus pubescens [SpodekBeMe2014].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Bulgaria [KozarKaKo2013]; Cyprus [HodgsoTr2008]; Hungary [HodgsoTr2008]; Israel [SpodekBeMe2014].

BIOLOGY: Females of A. melnikensis produce a white felt-sac that encloses the body in preparation for oviposition. (Spodek, et al., 2014)

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustrations of male, female and nymphs in Hodgson & Trencheva (2008).

STRUCTURE: Adult female broadly oval, largest specimens 3.75 mm wide. Dorsumstrongly nodulose; with spinose setae of two sizes; macrotubular ducts of one size frequent; microtubular ducts frequent. Anal lobes protruding, about twice as long as wide, apically rounded, moderately sclerotized with inner margins conspicuously nodulose. median (dorsal) plate triangular, lightly sclerotised, strongly nodulose. Venter with mainly flagellate setae; macrotubular ducts of 3 sizes, smallest medially; quinquelocular pores freuent; cruciform pores in a wide submarginal band. microtubular ducts absent. Antennae 6 or 7 segmented. Frontal lobes present Legs normal and well developed, coxa without translucent pores. Labium 3 segmented. anal ring with 8 setae. (Hodgson & Trencheva, 2008) First instar nymph oval in outline, rather more pointed posteriorly 410-450 µm long, dorsum 165-175 µm wide (venter wider); anal lobes short but with 3 pairs of truncate spinose setae dorsally in addition to long flagellate apical seta; median plate not detected. Antennae 6 segmented. Dorsal microtubular ducts present, each outer orifice with two large wing-like extensions; quinquelocular pores present ventrally on head, thorax and abdomen; cruciform pores present submarginally on thorax; marginal and dorsal setae mostly spinose and truncate, each with a straight sides converging to a shart point; submedial setae on abdomen all very short with more or less parallel sides; dorsal spinose setae in 4 longitudinal lines; claw with a well-developed denticle. (Hodgson & Trencheva,2008)Adult female: young, small, mounted material in alcohol pale pink to reddish, long and narrow, pointed at both ends; about 1.25-1.8 mm long; venter slightly wider than dorsum; dorsum 475-700 µm wide, total width of mounted speciments about 575-800 µm; older speciments 1.75-3.0 mm long; dorsum 1.35-1.70 mm wide, greatest width of mounted specimens 1.75-1.93 mm. Anal lobes sclerotised comparatively large; median plate present, triangular to rather quadrate. Dorsum covered in truncate spinose setae; those along margin slightly larger. Dorsum also with numerous macrotubular ducts (of one size) and microtubular ducts (each with a divided dermal orifice); venter with macrotubular ducts similar to those on dorsum, restricted to near margin; also with small macrotubular ducts present ventrally on abdomen and metathorax. Quinquelocular pores abundant on abdomen, less frequent more anteriorly; cruciform pores present submarginally, mainly in groups on anterior abdominal segments and thorax. Legs comparatively well developed; metacoxae without pores but with spircules on anterior surfaces; claws with a strong dentible. Antennae 7 segmented; with frontal lobes. Adult male: small, total body length about 1.18-1.32 mm; antennae quite short, about 1\2 total-body length, all segments with fleshy setae and apical 3-5 segments with long or capitate setae; body with few setae, all hair-like, fleshy setae apparently absent from derm; length of fleshy setae on antennae about half width of antennal segments; fleshy setae similar to those on antennae. Wings 4/5th total body length and about 0.43 as wide as long. Head approximately round to roundly oval; length about 190-200 µm, width across genae aobut 220-230 µm. Median crest not demarcated and not reticulated, but with a long dorsal mid-cranial ridge extending posteriorly to about level with anterior margin of dorsal simple eyes. Antennae 10 segmented and filiform. Pronotal ridge well-developed and touching dorsally; pronotal sclerite represented by a small area dorsolaterally, without lateral pronotal setae. Medial pronotal setae absent; post-tergite possibly present, small without post-tergital and antero-spiracular dorsal setae or pores. Prosternum apparently unsclerotised, without a median ridge but transverse ridge fairly well developed; without prosternal setae or pores. Anteprosternal absent. Mesothorax prescutum probably oval sclerotised but not reticulated with 2 or 3 pairs of prescutal setae. Metathorax with 3 hair-like setae medially and 1-2 hairlike setae laterally on each side. Wings hyaline. Posterior legs longest. Fleshy setae present on all segments similar to those on antenna. Abdomen segments I-VII; tergites and sternites unsclerotised and without obvious oval membranous areas in inter-segmental membranes. Penal sheath divided into two sections; a broad anterior part and a short, triangular posterior section. anterior part with anal opening dorsally. the most striking feature of this made is the copulatory apparatus, which is more complex than on any other male know wot the authors and appeas to be highly visious. Second-instar female: Small, oval but more pointed posteriorly; about 0.87-1.05 mm long; venter clearly wider than dorsum; dorsum 685-525 µm wide; total width of mounted specimens about 500-675 µm. anal lobes sclerotised, comparatively large; quadrate mediuan plate present. dorsum with truncate spinose setae; those along margin slightly larger, those submedially on abdominal segments V-VII (sometimes III and IV also) smaller. Dorsum also with numberous microtubular ducts (each dermal orifice with two large wing-like extensions); macrotubular ducts absent from both surfaces. Quinquelocular pores absent from dorsum buth frequent on venter; cruciform pores present submarginally in groups on ventral anterior abdominal segments and thorax. Legs comparatively well developed; claws with a strong dentible. antennae 6 segmented, with well developed frontal lobes. Second-instar male: Small, oval but more pointed posteriorly; about 0.67-0.98 mm long; venter clearlyl wider than dorsum; dorsum 305-350 µm wide, total width or mounted speciment\s about 355-415 µm. anal lobes sclerotised, comparatively large; rectangular median plate present. dorsum with truncate spinose setae; those along margin slightly larger, those submedially on abdominal segments V-VII somewhat smaller (sometimes also on segments II-IV). Dorsum also with numberous microtubular ducts, each dermal orifice with two large wing-like extensions; macrotubular ducts present throughout dorsum and marginally on venter; quinquelocular pores absent from dorsum but frequent on venter. Cruciform pores present submarginally in groups on anterior abdominal segments and thorax. legs comparatively well developed; coxae without pores; claws with a strong dentible. Antennae 7 segmented, with well-developed frontal lobes. (Hodgson & Trencheva, 2008)

SYSTEMATICS: The first instar nymph of A. melnikensis is easily separable from that of A. aceris because the dorsal spinose setae forming the double mid-line are of two sizes, those on abdominal segments II-V being small to minute; and all spines are truncate rather than sharply pointed. Those of E. aceris are sharply pointed and subequal in size. In addition, the 1st instar nymph of A. aceris lacks spinose seta submedially on the head, whereas one is present on each side of A. melnikensis. (Hodgson & Trencheva, 2008) Gavrilov, 2010, stated that since it is not known what the differences between larvae from different localities, different host plants, etc are likely to be significant, that based on a comparison of adults of A. melnikensis and adults of A. aceris in a collection in St. Petersburg from different locations, these two species appeared to be identical and he considered A. melnikensis a new junior synomym of A. aceris. However, Spodek, et al., 2014, compared specimens of A. melnikensis from Israel and A. melnikensis from Greece and Hungary and concluded that they were different species.

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 75-77 (female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus]; Hodgson & Trencheva 2008: 36-37 (adult, female) [as Eriococcus melknikensis; Key for separation of adult female Eriococcida on Quercus sp. in western Palaearctic].

CITATIONS: Gavril2010 [description, taxonomy: 38-39]; HodgsoTr2008 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 12-31]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 93]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 134-139]; KozarKoFe2013 [distribution, taxonomy: 55]; SpodekBeMe2014 [distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 106,112,115,117].



Acanthococcus meridianus (Hoy)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus meridianus Hoy, 1962: 32, 102. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: Auckland Islands, Port Cross, Ranui Cove, on Coprosma foetidissima, 9/11/1954, by E.S. Gourlay. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus meridianus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 602. Change of combination.



HOST: Rubiaceae: Coprosma foetidissima [Hoy1962].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand [Hoy1962] (From Auckland Islands which are south of South Island.).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Hoy (1962).

STRUCTURE: Sac of female is felted, adult female body is rotund (Hoy, 1962).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae cone shaped, sides concave, apices slightly rounded, 2 sizes of setae, large size around body margin, small size scattered over surface, 2 large lateral setae and 1 small lateral seta on margin of each abdominal segment; microtubular ducts elongate, without sclerotized area (Hoy, 1962).

KEYS: Hoy 1962: 32 (adult female) [New Zealand species of Eriococcidae].

CITATIONS: Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 32, 102]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 103]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 100]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 602]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 265]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 97].



Acanthococcus microspinus Kozár & Konczné Benedicty

NOMENCLATURE:

Acanthococcus microspinus Kozár & Konczné Benedicty, 2008: 128-130. Type data: BRAZIL: Goyar, on 11/24/1933 by R. Spitz. Holotype female (examined). Type depository: Eberswalde: Institut fur Pflanzenschutzforschung, Germany. Described: female. Illust.

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil [KozarKo2008].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description in Kozár & Konczné Benedicty (2008).

STRUCTURE: Body elongate oval, 2.616 (2.124-3.497) mm long and 1.709 (1.450-1.709) wide. Antenna 7 segmented. There is one sensory pore on the 2nd segment of the antenna. The 3rd segment is almost parallel sided. On apical segment three sensory falcate setae are found. On the two preapical segments, falcate sensory setae are present. The segments of the antenna are covered with few hairlike setae. Frontal lobe present. eye visible, situated on venter. Venter: Labium two-segmented. Basal segment with two pairs of setae. Stylet loop reaches behine median coxae. Legs long. All coxae with spinulae, posterior coxae, with small number of big translucent pores. Trochanter with two pores on each side. Claw with denticle. Legs with few hairlike setae and with one sensory pore on tarsus. disc pores 3-, and 4-locular, distributed in rare bands on all segments of abdomen and thorax. Venter with a small number of scattered, hair-like setae, of two sizes. in submarginal band setose hair-like setae present in groups of 2-10 setae. Microtubular duct present only on the margin. Macrotubular ducts of two sizes present in a small number on all segements. Cruciform pores numberous in a submarginal band. Dorsum: dorsal setae spine-like, very strong, wide, 5-6 times longer than wide, of different sizes found in groups of 3-5 spines on abdominal margin. On the middorsum setae about the same size in bands. On the penultimate three segments, long spines present. Macrotubular ducts present in small number on all segments. Microtubular ducts, with simple opening, scattered among dorsal setae, on present on the base of spines. Disc pores absent. Anal lobes long, as long as wide, with three equal long spine-like setae. Anal lobes sclerotized. Suranal setae hair-like. On penultimate segments, before the anal ring, sclerotized plate absent. (Kozár & Konczné Benedicty, 2008)

SYSTEMATICS: This species is similar to A. perplexus (Hempel, 1900), but differs by longer spines on dorsal margin and middorsum, greater number of marginal spines, by equal sizes of tibia and tarsus, and expecially by presence of three pair of small microspines in middorsum on three penultimate dorsal segments. It differs from A. venezuelaensis (Foldi & Kozár, 2007) by the presence of three pair of small microspines in middorsum on three penultimate dorsal segments, by longer spines on dorsum, larger sized of legs and antennae, and by absence of spinulae on first legs. (Kozár & Konczné Benedicty, 2008)

KEYS: Kozár & Konczné Benedicty 2008: 140 (adult, female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus found in this survey].

CITATIONS: HodgsoMi2010 [taxonomy: 100]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 93]; KozarKo2008 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 128-130].



Acanthococcus milleri (Hoy)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus milleri Hoy, 1959: 18-19. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Tasmania, Mt. Wellington, on Leptospermum lanigerum, 07/ 08/1956, by J.M. Hoy. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia. Described: female. Illust. Notes: There are eight paratypes in ANIC (Gullan, personal communication, October 27, 1998).

Acanthococcus milleri; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 602. Change of combination.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Leptospermum lanigerum [Hoy1959].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Tasmania [Hoy1959]).

BIOLOGY: Sac of female occurs on the undersides of leaves (Hoy, 1959).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Hoy (1959).

STRUCTURE: Sac of female is white and felted (Hoy, 1959).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, sides slightly concave, apices slightly rounded, setae variable in size, scattered in small numbers over surface of dorsum; hind tibia without pores; membranous plate between lobes (Hoy, 1959).

KEYS: Pellizzari & Germain 2010: 52 (female) [Key to the 7 eriococcid species known to occur on Leptospermum spp.].

CITATIONS: Hoy1959 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 18-19]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 102]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 100]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 602]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 268]; PellizGe2010 [host, taxonomy: 51,52].



Acanthococcus mimus (Hoy)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus mimus Hoy, 1962: 33, 104. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: North Island, Mt. Ruapehu, on Coprosma linariifolia, 09/02/1960, by J.M. Hoy. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus mimus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 602. Change of combination.



HOST: Rubiaceae: Coprosma linariifolia [Hoy1962].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (North Island [Hoy1962]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Hoy (1962).

STRUCTURE: Sac of female is tawny in color and body is elongate oval (Hoy, 1962).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, short, sides slightly concave, apices acute, all setae of approximately same size, scattered over surface; anal lobes with 2 or 3 apical bosses; microtubular ducts elongate, without sclerotized area (Hoy, 1962).

KEYS: Hoy 1962: 33 (adult female) [New Zealand species of Eriococcidae].

CITATIONS: Brown1967 [distribution, host: 131]; Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 33, 104]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 102]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 100]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 602]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 268]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 97].



Acanthococcus montanus (Hoy)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus montanus Hoy, 1962: 33, 106. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: Opuha Catchment, on Celmisia spectabilis, 06/10/1958, by W.E. Lucy. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus montanus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 602. Change of combination.



HOST: Asteraceae: Celmisia spectabilis [Hoy1962].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand [Hoy1962].

BIOLOGY: Females occur in the pits of the tomentose under leaf surface (Hoy, 1962).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Hoy (1962).

STRUCTURE: Sac of female is white and heavily felted (Hoy, 1962).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae elongate, conical, sides straight, apices slightly rounded, setae progressively smaller anteriorly, forming 3 longitudinal lines on each side of abdomen, 3 or 4 lateral setae on margin of each abdominal segment; multilocular pores very scarce on venter; anal lobes large and heavily sclerotized; microtubular ducts medium in length, without sclerotized area (Hoy, 1962)

KEYS: Hoy 1962: 33 (adult female) [New Zealand species of Eriococcidae].

CITATIONS: Beards1984 [distribution, taxonomy: 86]; Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 33, 106]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 102]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 100]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 602]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 271-272]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 97].



Acanthococcus myrsinae (Hoy)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus myrsinae Hoy, 1962: 32, 112. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: South Island, Picnic Point, on Myrsine australis, 06/10/1955, by J.M. Hoy. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus myrsinae; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 602. Change of combination.



HOST: Myrsinaceae: Myrsine australis [Hoy1962].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (South Island [Hoy1962]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Hoy (1962).

STRUCTURE: Female sac is resinous (Hoy, 1962).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae short, cone-shaped, sides straight, apices rounded, bases broad, marginal setae conspicuously longer than other dorsal setae, 2 lateral setae on margin of each abdominal segment; anal lobes sclerotized, rugose, with 2 cylindrical setae on mesal margin; microtubular ducts elongate, without sclerotized area (Hoy, 1962).

KEYS: Hoy 1962: 32 (adult female) [New Zealand species of Eriococcidae].

CITATIONS: Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 32, 112]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 103]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 100]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 602]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 277]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 98].



Acanthococcus neomyrti (Hoy)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus neomyrti Hoy, 1962: 116. Type data: New Zealand: North Island, Ohakune, on Neomyrtus pendunculata, 23/09/1958, by G.B. Rawlings & R. Zondag. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Whakarewarewa: Forest Research Institute, Entomology Collection, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus neomyrti; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 602. Change of combination.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Neomyrtus pendunculata [Hoy1962].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (North Island [Hoy1962]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Hoy (1962).

STRUCTURE: Adult female is oval (Hoy, 1962).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, sides concave, apices slightly rounded, base broad, marginal setae conspicuously larger than other setae on dorsum, except dorsomedial area of thorax and head also with large setae, 3 lateral setae on margin of each abdominal segment; anal lobes each with 1 boss on mesal margin; microtubular ducts elongate, without sclerotized area (Hoy, 1962).

KEYS: Hoy 1962: 32 (adult female) [New Zealand species of Eriococcidae].

CITATIONS: Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 32, 116]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 104]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 100]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 602]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 279-280]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 98].



Acanthococcus nitidulus (Hoy)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus nitidulus Hoy, 1962: 31, 118. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: South Island, on Poa caespitosa, 07/07/1947, by R.D. Dick. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus nitidulus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 602. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Danthonia sp. [Hoy1962], Poa caespitosa [Hoy1962].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (North Island [Hoy1962], South Island [Hoy1962]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Hoy (1962).

STRUCTURE: Sac of female is waxen, shiny and tawny. This species is very large (Hoy, 1962).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae cylindrical, sides concave, apices truncate, setae present only on head, absent elsewhere; macrotubular ducts unusually abundant on dorsum; anal lobes heavily sclerotized, dorsal setae not enlarged (Hoy, 1962).

KEYS: Hoy 1962: 31 (adult female) [New Zealand species of Eriococcidae].

CITATIONS: Berry1995 [biological control, distribution, host: 9, 25, 52]; Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 118]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 104]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 100]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 602]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 280-281]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 98].



Acanthococcus nuerae (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus nuerae Green, 1922: 347, 349. Type data: SRI LANKA: Nuera Eliya, on undetermined tree, ?/03/1898. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust. Notes: There are 3 adult female and 2 immature syntypes on 1 slide in the BMNH (Williams, personal communication, May 15, 1996).

Nidularia nuerae; Lindinger, 1933a: 116. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus nuerae; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 602. Change of combination.



HOST: Undetermined [Green1922].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Sri Lanka [Green1922].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Green (1922).

STRUCTURE: Ovisac of female is white and slightly tinged with ochreous, irregularly oval, conforming to the shape of the bark crevices in which it rests. Adult female turbinate, tapering behind. Young nymphs have conspicuous marginal truncate spines (Green 1922).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae cylindrical, sides straight, apices truncate, setae of 2 or 3 sizes, marginal setae conspicuously larger than other setae on dorsum, 2-4 lateral setae on margin of each abdominal segment; anal lobes heavily sclerotized (Green, 1922).

KEYS: Tang & Hao 1995: 449, 645 (adult female) [Eriococcus species]; Green 1922: 347 (adult female) [Eriococcus species found in Sri Lanka].

CITATIONS: Ali1970a [distribution, host: 77]; Green1922 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 347, 349]; Green1937 [distribution: 296]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 104]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 100]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 116]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 602]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 282-283]; Ramakr1926 [distribution, host: 452]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 449, 483, 645].



Acanthococcus onukii (Kuwana)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus onukii Kuwana, 1902: 51-52. Type data: JAPAN: Honshu, Tokyo, on Arundinaria hindsii var. graminae, by I. Kuwana. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA, and Ibaraki-ken: Insect Taxonomy Laboratory, National Institute of Agricultural Environmental Sciences, Kannon-dai, Yatabe, Tsukuba-shi, (Kuwana), Japan. Described: female. Illust.

Nidularia onukii; Lindinger, 1933a: 116. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus onukii; Kozár & Walter, 1985: 74. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus onuki; Kozár et al., 2013: 76. Misspelling of species name.



FOE: HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Zaomma eriococci [Tachik1979].

HOSTS: Poaceae: Arundinaria nindsii var. graminae [Kuwana1902], Bambusa nana var. normalis [Kuwana1902], Sasa peniculata [Kuwana1902], Sasa sp. [Kuwana1902]

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: China (Fujian (=Fukien) [Hoy1963], Jiangxi (=Kiangsi) [Hua2000], Zhejiang (=Chekiang) [TangHa1995]); Vietnam [Kuwana1902]. Palaearctic: China [FangWuXu2001] [FangWuXu2001]; Japan (Honshu [Kuwana1902], Kyushu [Kuwana1902]); Russia [KozarKaKo2013]; South Korea [Paik1978].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Kuwana (1902). Detailed redescription and illustration in Kozár, et al., 2013.

STRUCTURE: Female sac is strongly convex. Its color is a white to gray. Adult female reddish brown and turns red when boiled in KOH (Kuwana, 1902).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, sides slightly concave, apices acute or slightly rounded, marginal setae slightly larger than other dorsal setae, large setae along body margin, setae abundant over surface; anal lobes heavily sclerotized with teeth on mesal margin; microtubular ducts moderate in length, 2 sclerotized areas, orifice bifurcate (Paik, 1978; Miller, personal observation, 1999).

KEYS: Kwon & Han 2003a: 156-157 (female) [as Eriococcus onukii; Key to the Species of Eriococcus in Korea]; Wang 2001: 208 [as Eriococcus onukii; Key to Eriococcus of China]; Tang & Hao 1995: 450, 647 (adult female) [as Eriococcus onukii; Eriococcus species]; Takahashi 1957: 7 (adult female) [as Eriococcus onukii; Some species of Eriococcus in Japan].

CITATIONS: Borchs1950b [distribution, host: 236]; Cheo1935 [distribution, host: 98]; Danzig1975a [taxonomy: 46]; FangWuXu2001 [distribution, host: 104]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 76]; FJSNH1938 [taxonomy: 6]; Fulmek1943 [biological control, distribution: 32]; Green1922 [taxonomy: 350]; Hoffma1927 [distribution, taxonomy: 75]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 105]; Hua2000 [distribution, host: 137]; Ishii1928 [biological control, distribution: 143]; Kawai1972 [taxonomy: 4]; Kawai1977 [distribution, host: 153]; Kawai1980 [description: 129]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 380]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 93]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 140-142]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 74]; KSPP1972 [taxonomy: 160]; Kuwana1902 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 51-52]; Kuwana1907 [distribution, host: 182]; Kuwana1917a [distribution: 5, 167]; Kuwana1917b [distribution, taxonomy: 138]; KwonHa2003a [taxonomy, distribution, host: 151]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 116]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 285-286]; MillerMiSc1973 [taxonomy: 15]; Misra1924CS [distribution: 350]; Paik1978 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 166]; Paik1982 [biological control: 49]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 33]; Sakai1935 [distribution, host: 298]; Shinji1935b [distribution, taxonomy: 768]; Siraiw1939 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 65]; Tachik1955 [distribution: 52]; Tachik1979 [biological control, distribution: 177]; Takaha1957 [taxonomy: 7]; TakahaTa1956 [distribution, host: 2]; Tang2001 [taxonomy: 3]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 450,483,594-595,647]; Tao1999 [distribution, host: 32]; Trjapi1964 [taxonomy: 1458]; Wang1974 [taxonomy: 329]; Wang2001 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 208, 218-219]; Yang1982 [distribution, taxonomy: 105].



Acanthococcus orariensis (Hoy)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus manukae Mulock, 1954: 115-118. Nomen nudum.

Eriococcus orariensis Hoy, 1954: 465-474. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: Maronan, on Leptospermum scoparium, 13/03/1950, by J.M. Hoy. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Hoy, 1962: 122. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Although Hoy (1962) refers to examining a holotype, there was no holotype originally designated. Hoy was referring to a slide he had marked as holotype, but correctly should have been designated the lectotype. According to Article 74(a) of the ICZN "any author may designate one of the syntypes as the lectotype, by the use of that term or an equivalent expression..."

Nidularia orariensis; Lindinger, 1958: 368. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus orariensis; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 602. Change of combination.

COMMON NAMES: manuka blight [Hoy1961]; manuka scale [Wilson1963].



ASSOCIATE: Fungus: Capnodium walteri Sacc. [EpenhuHeCa2000].

FOE: Fungus: Myrangium thwaitessi [Hoy1961].

HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Leptospermum ericoides [Hoy1954], Leptospermum flavescens [Hoy1954], Leptospermum juniperinum [Hoy1954], Leptospermum lanigerum [Hoy1954], Leptospermum liversidei [Hoy1954], Leptospermum macrocarpum [EpenhuHeCa2000], Leptospermum rotundifolium [EpenhuHeCa2000], Leptospermum scoparium [Hoy1954].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Tasmania [Hoy1954]); New Zealand (North Island [Hoy1954], South Island [Afifi1968]).

BIOLOGY: Each female lays about 50 eggs over a period of several weeks. The eggs hatch within half and hour of being laid and the minute nymphs wander over the plant until they find a suitable place to insert their mouth-parts (Zondag, 1977a). "On plants of Leptospermum scoparium Forst., Eriococcus orariensis Hoy has from two and a partial third to three and a partial fourth generations per year at Palmerston North. The length of the life cycle is influenced by climate, ranging from a mean of 14 weeks at a weekly mean temperature of 63.7F to a mean of 27 weeks at a weekly mean temperature of 50.9F. Under the same environmental conditions there are marked differences in the length of individual life cycles. This factor is responsible for overlapping generations in the field. On plants of L. scoparium infested for 12 months the population composition of E. orariensis tends towards stability with approximately 50 percent first stage nymphs and 18 percent adult females...No evidence of parthenogensis was observed (Hoy, 1961)."

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration of both sexes of adults and the first instar by Hoy (1954). Additional description and illustration by Hoy (1962). Hodgson (2002) used this species in a phylogenetic analysis of non-margarodid Coccoidea.

STRUCTURE: Adult females occur in the bark crevices and stem axils, accompanied by much "sooty mould." Sac is greyish white and closely felted (Hoy, 1954). Adult female is reddish to light brown, oval, approximately 1.25mm long and 1mm wide tapering to the rear.

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae cylindrical, sides straight, apices truncate, setae restricted to posterior abdominal segments, other dorsal setae hair-like; posterior 2 or 3 abdominal segments nodulose (Hoy, 1962).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: This species has been devastating to stands of Leptospermum in New Zealand. An entomogenous fungus, Myrangium thwaitessi is associated with this species (Hoy, 1961).

KEYS: Pellizzari & Germain 2010: 52 (female) [Key to the 7 eriococcid species known to occur on Leptospermum spp.]; Afifi 1968: 203 (male) [Eriococcus species]; Hoy 1962: 31 (adult female) [New Zealand species of Eriococcidae].

CITATIONS: Afifi1968 [description, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 8, 26, 171-175]; AysonGl1955 [distribution, ecology: 51-52]; CraftsRo1962 [distribution, ecology: 168]; EpenhuHeCa2000 [biological control, distribution, ecology, host: 67-70]; Esson1994 [distribution: 7]; Hender2008 [phylogeny: 89-94]; Hodgso2002 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 135]; Hodgso2002 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 135]; HodgsoHa2013 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 797]; Hollow1964 [distribution, host: 664]; Hoy1954 [chemical control, description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 465-474]; Hoy1958a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 258-280]; Hoy1959 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 18]; Hoy1961 [description, distribution, host, illustration, life history, taxonomy: 1-70]; Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 5, 6, 31, 122, 192]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 105]; Hoy1964 [biological control, distribution, ecology,: 18]; Hoy1964a [distribution, host: 57]; Huffak1959 [distribution, host: 268]; KosztaKo1988F [taxonomy: 275]; KotejaZa1972 [taxonomy: 201]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 100]; Lindin1958 [taxonomy: 368]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 602]; MillerGi2000 [biological control, catalogue, description, distribution, economic importance, host, taxonomy: 287-288]; Mulock1954 [distribution, host: 115-118]; PellizGe2010 [host, taxonomy: 51,52]; RidleyBaBu2000 [distribution, economic importance, host, taxonomy: 5, 31, 46-48, 50, 52]; Willia1991DJ [biological control, distribution, host: 461]; Wilson1963 [biological control, distribution, host: 7]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 98]; Zondag1977a [biological control, distribution, economic importance, host, life history: 1-7].



Acanthococcus pallidus (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus pallidus Maskell, 1885a: 29, 30. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: on Myoporum laetum and Elaeocarpus sp. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Deitz & Tocker, 1980: 48. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Notes: Paralectotypes are in BMNH and USNM.

Nidularia pallidus; Lindinger, 1933a: 116. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus pallidus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 602. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: pallid eriococcus [Miller1925].



HOSTS: Atherospermataceae: Laurelia novae-zealandiae [Hoy1963]. Celastraceae: Euonymus europaeus [Hoy1963]. Dodonaeaceae: Dodonaea visocsa [Hoy1963]. Elaeagnaceae: Elaeagnus pungens [Hoy1963]. Elaeocarpaceae: Aristotelia serrata [Hoy1963], Elaeocarpus dentatus [Hoy1963]. Escalloniaceae: Escallonia sp. [Hoy1963]. Fabaceae: Cytisus sp. [Hoy1963]. Fagaceae: Nothofagus menziesii [Hoy1963]. Monimiaceae: Hedycarya arborea [Hoy1963]. Myoporaceae: Myoporum laetum [Hoy1963]. Myrtacae: Meterosideros diffusa [Hoy1963], Meterosideros fulgens [Hoy1963], Meterosideros perforata [Hoy1963], Meterosideros robusta [Hoy1963], Meterosideros scandens [Hoy1963]. Podocarpaceae: Dacrydium cupressinum [Hoy1963]. Proteaceae: Knightia excelsa [Hoy1963]. Rubiaceae: Coprosma propinqua [Hoy1963]. Violaceae: Melicytus ramiflorus [Hoy1963]. Viscaceae: Korthalsella lindsayi [HenderSuRo2010].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (North Island [Hoy1963], South Island [Hoy1963]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed descriptions and illustrations by Maskell (1885) and by Hoy (1962). Type information from Deitz & Tocker (1980).

STRUCTURE: Female is enclosed in an elliptical sac of felted secretion which is yellowish-white in color. The sac totally encloses the insect and is closed at both ends. Adult female greenish grey in color, turning brown after gestation (Maskell, 1885a).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, sides straight or slightly concave, apices slightly rounded, setae all approximately same size, scattered over dorsal surface, except absent in medial area of posterior 2 abdominal segments, 1 or 2 lateral setae on margin of each abdominal segment, setal bases with 1 or 2 associated microtubular ducts; anal lobes with 3 enlarged setae, conspicuously smaller than other enlarged setae; microtubular ducts elongate, without sclerotized area (Hoy, 1962). There has been confusion between this species and E. multispinus. For discussion of the problems involved see the systematics section of E. multispinus.

KEYS: Hoy 1962: 32 (adult female) [New Zealand species of Eriococcidae].

CITATIONS: Britti1916 [taxonomy: 423]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 323]; DeitzTo1980 [distribution, taxonomy: 3, 48]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 76]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 89]; Green1918 [host: 230]; Green1922 [taxonomy: 352]; HardyGuHe2008 [host: 366]; HenderSuRo2010 [host: 21]; Hoy1958 [distribution, host: 185]; Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 6, 32, 124, 201]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 106]; Kirk1907 [host: 172]; Kirk1908 [distribution, host: 118]; KirkCo1909a [distribution, host: 4]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 100]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 116]; Maskel1885a [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 29-30]; Maskel1887a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 95]; Maskel1891 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 21]; Maskel1892 [taxonomy: 31]; Maskel1895a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 22]; Maskel1895b [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 64]; Miller1925 [description, distribution, host, illustration: 35, 64, 65]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 602]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 291-292]; Myers1922 [distribution, taxonomy: 198]; Newste1891 [taxonomy: 166]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 39]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 98].



Acanthococcus papillosus (Morrison)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus papillosus Morrison, 1924a: 145-147. Type data: GALAPAGOS ISLANDS: Indefatigable, Seymour Bay, on Heliotropium parviflorum, 25/04/1923?, by W. Beebe. Syntypes, female (examined). Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Nidularia papillosus; Lindinger, 1933a: 116. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus papillosus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 603. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Amaranthaceae: Alternanthera filifolia [LincanHoCa2010]. Boraginaceae: Heliotropium angiospernum [LincanHoCa2010], Heliotropium parviflorum [Morris1924a], Tiquilia darwinii [LincanHoCa2010], Tiquilia nesiotica [LincanHoCa2010]. Cactaceae: Jasminocereus sp. [LincanHoCa2010]. Euphobiaceae: Ruphorbia equisetiformis [LincanHoCa2010]. Euphorbia: Chamaesyce amplexicaulis [LincanHoCa2010], Croton scouleri [LincanHoCa2010]. Malvaceae: Waltheria ovata [LincanHoCa2010]. Nyctaginaceae: Cryptocarpus pyriformis [LincanHoCa2010].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Galapagos Islands [Morris1924a, LincanHoCa2010].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Morrison (1924a).

STRUCTURE: Sac of female is broadly oval, moderately convex. Adult female is oval, derm clears completely on treatment with caustic potash, except for anal lobes (Morrison, 1924a).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, sides slightly concave, apices acute or slightly rounded, setae of 2 sizes, scattered over dorsum; microtubular ducts short, with 2 sclerotized areas (Morrison, 1924a).

CITATIONS: HodgsoMi2010 [host, taxonomy: 99-100]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 107]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 100]; LincanHoCa2010 [distribution, host: 5]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 116]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 603]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 294-295]; Morris1924a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 145-147]; Wise1977 [distribution, host: 91].



Acanthococcus parabilis (Hoy)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus parabilis Hoy, 1962: 32, 126-7, 200. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: South Island, Oamaru, on unidentified plant, 25/11/1913, by G. Brittin. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus parabilis; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 603. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Scrophulariaceae: Hebe salicifolia [Hoy1962]. Araliaceae: Neopanax arboreum [Hoy1962], Pseudopanax crassifolium [Hoy1962], Pseudopanax edgerleyi [Hoy1962], Schefflera digitata [Hoy1962]. Asteraceae: Brachyglottis repanda [Hoy1962], Cassinia sp. [Hoy1962], Olearia arborescens [Hoy1962]. Liliaceae: Astelia sp. [Hoy1962]. Malvaceae: Hoheria sp. [Hoy1962]. Phyllocladaceae: Phyllocladus sp. [Hoy1962]. Pittosporaceae: Pittosporum colensoi [Hoy1962], Pittosporum eugenioides [Hoy1962], Pittosporum sp. [Hoy1962], Pittosporum tennuifolium [Hoy1962]. Rubiaceae: Coprosma foetidissima [Hoy1962], Coprosma lucida [Hoy1962], Coprosma sp. [Hoy1962]. Scrophulariaceae: Hebe odora [Hoy1962], Hebe sp. [Hoy1962]. Winteraceae: Pseudowintera colorata [Hoy1962].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (North Island [Hoy1962], South Island [Hoy1962]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on a wide range of hosts, this species is very common (Hoy, 1962).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Hoy (1962).

STRUCTURE: Sac is grey to brown in color, heavily felted and tough, becoming brittle at maturity. Insect is accompanied by a large amount of "sooty mould" (Hoy, 1962).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, sides slightly concave, apices slightly rounded, setae of 2 sizes, marginal setae slightly larger than other dorsal setae, all setae arranged in 3 longitudinal lines on each side of body, 2 lateral setae on margin of each abdominal segment; anal lobes with prominent apical tooth; microtubular ducts apparently absent (Hoy, 1962).

KEYS: Hoy 1962: 32 (adult female) [New Zealand species of Eriococcidae].

CITATIONS: Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 32, 126-7, 200]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 107]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 100]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 603]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 295]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 98].



Acanthococcus parvulus (Hoy)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus parvulus Hoy, 1962: 31, 128. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: North Island, Pureora Forest, on Dacrydium cupressinum, 21/03/1960, by J.M. Hoy. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus parvulus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 603. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Podocarpaceae: Dacrydium cupressinum [Hoy1962], Podocarpus dacrydioides [Hoy1962].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (North Island [Hoy1962]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Hoy (1962).

STRUCTURE: Female sac is tawny and felted (Hoy, 1962).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: dorsal setae minute, unenlarged except on posterior 1 or 2 abdominal segments where weakly enlarged; anal lobes unusually broad and short with 2 small enlarged setae (Hoy, 1962).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: This species is subject to extensive parasitism (Hoy, 1962).

KEYS: Hoy 1962: 31 (adult female) [New Zealand species of Eriococcidae].

CITATIONS: Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 31, 128]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 107]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 100]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 603]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, economic importance, host, taxonomy: 297]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 98].



Acanthococcus perplexus (Hempel)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus perplexus Hempel, 1900a: 381-382. Type data: BRAZIL: Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, on undetermined Myrtaceae. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: Sao Paulo: Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo, Brazil, Berlin: Museum fur Naturkunde der Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin, Germany, and USNM, UCEC. Described: female. Illust. Notes: The USNM has 5 pins of dry material labeled "cotype."

Nidularia perplexus; Lindinger, 1933a: 116. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus perplexus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 603. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus perplexus Kozár & Konczné Benedicty, 2008: 130-132. Described: female. Illust. revived status.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eugenia jaboticaba [Hempel1900a], Myrciaria jaboticaba [Hempel1900a], Stenocalyx pitanga [Hempel1900a].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Minas Gerais [Hempel1900a], Sao Paulo [Hempel1900a]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Hempel (1900a, 1920).

STRUCTURE: Body elongate oval, 3.108 (1.994-3.108) mm long and 1.735 (1.217-1.735) wide. Antenna 7 segmented. there is one sensory pore on the 2nd segment and the 3rd segment is almost parallel sided. On apical segment tree sensory falcate setae. On the two preapical segments, long falcate sensory setae present. the segments of the antenna are covered with few hairlike setae. Frontal lobe present. Eye visible, located on venter. Venter: Labium two segmented. Basal segment with two pairs of setae. Stylet loop reaches behind median coxae. Legs long. median and posterior coxae with spinulae, posterior coxae with small number of big translucent pores in groups. Trochanger with two pores on each side. Claw with dentible. Legs with few hairlike setae. Venter with a small number of scattered, hair-like setae, of two sizes. In submarginal band few setose hair-like setae present. microtubular duct absent. Macrotubular ducts of two sizes. Cruciform pores numerous in a submarginal band. Dorsum: Dorsal setae spine-like, 3-4 times longer than wide, of different sizes found in groups of 2-3 spines on abdominal margin. One the middorsum setae about the same size, in bands. On the penultimate three segments, in midline, spines are the same size as elsewhere. Macrotubular ducts present in small number on all segments. Microtubular ducts with simple oval opening scattered among dorsal setae, one present on the base of some spines. Disc pores absent. Anal lobes long, as long as wide, bith three equal long spine-like setae. Anal lobes slightly sclerotized. Suranal setae hair-like. On penultimate segments, before anal ring, sclerotized plate absent. (Kozár & Konczné Benedicty, 2008)

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, curved, sides slightly concave, apices acute, setae of 2 sizes, large size forming 3 longitudinal lines on each side of abdomen, small size scattered over dorsum; microtubular ducts short, with 2 sclerotized areas (personal observation). This species is similar to A. venezuelaensis (Foldi & Kozár, 2007), but differs by shorter tibia than tarsus, larger sizes of legs and antennae, and by absence of spinulae on first legs. (Kozár & Konczné Benedicty, 2008)

KEYS: Kozár & Konczné Benedicty 2008: 140 (adult, female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus found in this survey].

CITATIONS: BiezanFr1939 [distribution, host: 9]; Cocker1902p [taxonomy: 251]; Cocker1906a [distribution, taxonomy: 32]; CostaL1928 [distribution, host: 106]; CostaL1936 [distribution, taxonomy: 178]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 77]; Fonsec1934 [biological control: 275]; GomesC1958 [description, distribution, host: 105]; Hempel1900a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 381-382]; Hempel1900b [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 393-394]; Hempel1920 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 116-117]; HodgsoMi2010 [host, taxonomy: 99-100]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host: 108]; KondoHaCo2006 [taxonomy: 32]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 93]; KozarKo2008 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 130-132]; Laing1929a [taxonomy: 469]; Lepage1938 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 380]; LepageGi1943 [distribution, host: 172]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 116]; Lindin1958 [taxonomy: 368]; MacGil1921 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 145]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 603]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 298]; Monte1930 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 25]; Morris1919 [taxonomy: 69]; Ronna1934 [host: 118]; SilvadGoGa1968a [distribution, host: 159].



Acanthococcus philippinensis (Morrison)

NOMENCLATURE:

Rhizococcus philippinensis Morrison, 1920: 161-164. Type data: PHILIPPINE ISLANDS: Panay, Tibiao, on Ficus sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Specimens labeled as holotype and paratype are deposited in the USNM, but because there is no mention of a type or holotype in the original description, these specimens must be considered syntypes.

Eriococcus philippinensis; Lindinger, 1932f: 205. Change of combination.

Nidularia philippinensis; Lindinger, 1953: 116. Change of combination.

Gossypariella philippinensis; Ali, 1970a: 78. Change of combination. Notes: Ali (1970a) places Eriococcus philippinensis in Gossypariella due to its closeness to the type species Gossypariella siamensis.

Eriococcus philippine; Wang, 1974: 330. Misspelling of species name.

Acanthococcus philippinensis; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 603. Change of combination.



HOST: Moraceae: Ficus sp. [Morris1920]

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Philippines (Panay [Morris1920]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Morrison (1920).

STRUCTURE: Adult female is oval, reddish brown mottled and spotted with lighter yellow (Morrison, 1920).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, sides concave, apices slightly rounded, marginal setae distinctly larger than all other dorsal setae, forming band around body margin; 2 such setae present near anterior apex of head; anal lobes large, heavily sclerotized, nearly fused medially (Morrison 1920).

KEYS: Tang & Hao 1995: 520, 654 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus philippinensis; Rhizococcus species].

CITATIONS: Ali1970a [distribution, host: 78]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 108]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 100]; Lindin1932f [taxonomy: 205]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 116]; Lit1997b [distribution, taxonomy: 92, 93]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 603]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 298-299]; Morris1920 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 161-164]; Takaha1942b [taxonomy: 8]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 520, 537, 654]; Wang1974 [taxonomy: 330].



Acanthococcus phyllocladi (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus phyllocladi Maskell, 1892: 25. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: South Island, Reefton, on Phyllocladus trichomanoides. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Deitz & Tocker, 1980: 48. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Paralectotypes also in USNM.

Nidularia phyllocladi; Lindinger, 1933a: 116. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus phyllocladi; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 603. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: tanekaha scale [Miller1925].



HOSTS: Phyllocladaceae: Phyllocladus alpinus [Maskel1892], Phyllocladus sp. [Hoy1963], Phyllocladus trichomanoides [Hoy1963].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (North Island [Hoy1963], South Island [Hoy1963]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Maskell (1892), and type information by Deitz & Tocker (1980).

STRUCTURE: Female sac is dark yellow, elliptical, convex and closely felted. Sac of male is also dark yellow, but is whitish at the posterior end. Adult female is reddish brown, sometimes with a greenish tinge (Maskell, 1892).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae cone shaped, sides straight, apices round, setae of 2 sizes, largest present around body margin, smaller present in medial areas of thorax, 2 lateral setae on margin of each abdominal segment, without conspicuous enlarged setae in medial and mediolateral areas of abdomen; anal lobes with mesal margin slightly crenulate; microtubular ducts elongate, without sclerotized area (Hoy, 1962).

CITATIONS: Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 323]; Colema1903 [host, taxonomy: 80]; DeitzTo1980 [distribution, taxonomy: 3, 48]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 77]; Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 6, 32, 130]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 108]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 100]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 116]; Maskel1892 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 25]; Maskel1895a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 23]; Miller1925 [description, distribution, host, illustration: 35]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 603]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 299-300]; Myers1922 [distribution, taxonomy: 198]; NanDeWu2013 [phylogenetics, taxonomy: 171, 173-174]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 98].



Acanthococcus pimeliae (Hoy)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus pimeliae Hoy, 1962: 132-3. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: South Island, Springfield, Cass, on Pimelea sp., 03/04/1957, by J.M. Hoy. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus pimeliae; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 603. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Scrophulariaceae: Hebe sp. [Hoy1962]. Thymelaeaceae: Pimelea sp. [Hoy1962]

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (South Island [Hoy1962]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Hoy (1962).

STRUCTURE: Sac of female is grey and felted (Hoy, 1962).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae elongate, conical, apices slightly rounded, base broad, 2 sizes of setae present around body margin, other dorsal setae inconspicuous, 3 lateral setae on margin of each abdominal segment; anal lobes large, heavily sclerotized, tooth on mesal apex; microtubular ducts elongate, without sclerotized area (Hoy, 1962).

KEYS: Hoy 1962: 31 (adult female) [New Zealand species of Eriococcidae].

CITATIONS: Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 31, 132-3]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 109]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 100]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 603]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 300-301]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 98].



Acanthococcus piptandeniae (Hempel)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus piptandeniae Hempel, 1937: 6-8. Type data: BRAZIL: Sao Paulo, Itatinga, on Piptandenia falcata, 17/01/1935, by A. Hempel. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo, Brazil; type no. 710. Described: female. Illust.

Eriococcus peptadeniae; Claps, 1993: 7. Misspelling of species name.

Acanthococcus piptandeniae; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 603. Change of combination.



HOST: Fabaceae: Piptandenia falcata [Hempel1937].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Sao Paulo [Hempel1937]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Hempel (1937). Detailed redescription and illustration of adult and 1st-stage nymph in González & Claps, 2011.

STRUCTURE: Female is enclosed in a felted, fusiform sac. Male sac is cream colored and elliptical. Adult female becomes transparent when boiled in KOH (Hempel, 1937).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, sides straight, apices acute, 2 sizes of setae, marginal setae slightly longer than other dorsal setae (Hempel, 1937). Acanthococcus piptadeniae is similar to A. dubius, A. arctostaphyli , A. gracielae and A. granarae. Acanthococcus dubius differs from A. piptadeniae (A. piptadeniae in brackets) in the following points: (i) a single type of microduct (two types), (ii) antennae with six segments (seven) and (iii) metacoxas with pores 13-38 (6 -10 pores). Acanthococcus arctostaphyli differs from A. piptadeniae (A. piptadeniae in brackets) by: (i) conical setae with rounded tip (with sharp point), (ii) metacoxas with pores 16-96 dorsal and 0-24 ventral (6-10 dorsal and 0-3 ventral) and (iii) anal lobes with four ventral setae (three).

KEYS: González & Claps 2011: 211 (female) [Key to the species Acanthococcus with six setae on prothoracic tibiae present in the Neotropical region ].

CITATIONS: Claps1993 [taxonomy: 7]; GonzalCl2011 [description, distribution, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 209-211]; Hempel1937 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 6-8]; HodgsoMi2010 [host, taxonomy: 99-100]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 109]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 100]; Lepage1938 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 380]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 603]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 301]; SilvadGoGa1968a [distribution, host: 160].



Acanthococcus pituilensis (González)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus pituilensis González, 2009: 115-134. Type data: ARGENTINA: La Rioja, Pituil, on Larrea Cuneifolia, 9/21/1991, by Claps. Holotype female and first instar (examined). Type depository: Tucuman: Fundacion e Instituto Miguel Lillo, Universidade Nactional de Tucuman, Argentina. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus pituilensis; Hodgson & Miller, 2010: 1-102. Change of combination.



HOST: Zygophyllaceae: Larrea cuneifolia [Gonzal2009].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina [Gonzal2009].

KEYS: González 2009: 133 (female, adult) [Clave para hembras adultas de las especies de Eriococcus encontradas sobre Larrea en Argentina (Key to the adult females of the species of Eriococcus found on Larrea in Argentina)].

CITATIONS: Gonzal2009 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 127-133]; HodgsoMi2010 [host, taxonomy: 99-100].



Acanthococcus pohutukawa (Hoy)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus pohutukawa Hoy, 1958: 179, 193, 199. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: North Island, New Plymouth, on Metrosideros excelsa, ?/02/1921, by G. Brittin. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus pohutukawa; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 603. Change of combination.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Metrosideros excelsa [Hoy1958].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (North Island [Hoy1958]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed descriptions and illustrations by Hoy (1958, 1962).

STRUCTURE: Sac of female is closely felted. Adult female is elongate oval (Hoy, 1958).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae elongate, slightly curved, apices acute, marginal setae slightly longer than other dorsal setae, scattered over surface; ventral multilocular pores predominantly with 7 loculi; anal lobes with boss apically; microtubular ducts apparently absent (Hoy, 1962).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Frequently infests Metrosideros excelsa in New Zealand and has been implicated in the death of its host (Hoy, 1958).

KEYS: Hoy 1962: 32 (adult female) [New Zealand species of Eriococcidae].

CITATIONS: Hoy1958 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 179, 193, 199]; Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 6, 17, 32, 136]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 109]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 100]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 603]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 305]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 98].



Acanthococcus popayanensis (Balachowsky)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus popayanensis Balachowsky, 1959a: 365-6. Type data: COLOMBIA: Popayan, on Inga edulis, 16/02/1957. Syntypes. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust. Notes: According to Matile-Ferrero (personal communication, November 20, 1996) "Unfortunately, I am not able for the moment to locate the slides (MNHN 2600) of E. popayanensis Balachowsky, 1959. On the other hand, I found the tube 2600, from which the females (number?) were studied. It contains some ovisacs full of eggs but without the females. I found one adult female only, floating in the alcohol. I leave it as it is for the moment."

Acanthococcus popayanensis; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 603. Change of combination.



HOST: Fabaceae: Inga edulis [Balach1959a].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Colombia [Balach1959a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Balachowsky (1959a).

STRUCTURE: Adult female is oval and completely enclosed in white sac (Balachowsky, 1959a).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, sides straight, apices acute, 2 or 3 sizes of setae, abundant over surface of dorsum, bases of setae often with several associated microtubular ducts; membranous plate anterior of median lobes; microtubular ducts moderate in length with 2 sclerotized areas and a sclerotized projecting orifice (Balachowsky, 1959a).

CITATIONS: Balach1959a [description, distribution, host, illustration: 365-6]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 110]; Kondo2001 [distribution, host: 40]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 100]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 603]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 306].



Acanthococcus populi Matesova

NOMENCLATURE:

Acanthococcus populi Matesova, 1967: 1195. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: Alma-Ata Oblast, Charyn River, Sartagoy, on Populus pruinosa, 22/06/1964, G. Matesova. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust. Notes: 5 paratypes on 2 slides with same data as holotype in ZMAS; a second collection of paratypes from Alma-Ata Oblast, between Chilik and Ayak-Kalkan, on Populus diversifolia, 05/05/1963, Makarov with 3 females on 3 slides (Danzig, personal communication, 1996).

Acanthococcus turanicus Matesova, 1967: 1197. Type data: KAZAKHASTAN: Alma Ata Oblast, Chulac-Tau Ridge, Kzyl-Aus Gorge, on Salix wilhelmsiana, 09/06/1964, by G. Matesova. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 1921. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Kozár et al., 2013: 142. Notes: 15 paratypes on 15 slides from Kazakhstan and Tadzhikistan in ZMAS; paratypes also in AAKA (Danzig, personal communication, 1996)

Acanthococcus populis; Kozár & Walter, 1985: 74. Misspelling of species name.

Eriococcus turanicus; Tang & Hao, 1995: 450. Described: female. Change of combination.

Eriococcus populi; Tang & Hao, 1995: 486. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus populi; Kozár et al., 2013: 142-145. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Salicaceae: Populus diversifolia [Mateso1967], Populus euphratica [KozarKaKo2013], Populus pruinosa [Mateso1967], Populus sp. [TangHa1995], Salix sp. [Mateso1967], Salix wilhelmsiana [Mateso1967].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China (Xizang (=Tibet) [TangHa1995]); Kazakhstan [Mateso1967, TangHa1995] (Alma Ata Oblast [Mateso1967]).

BIOLOGY: In bark crevices of trunk and thick branches. Often in large colonies. Female appears in egg sacs in the begining of May. Egg laying starts in the last days of June. (Kozár, et al., 2014)

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Matesova (1967). Redescription and illustration in Kozár, et al. (2014).

STRUCTURE: Adult female wine red, almost black; felt-like test cream-white. (Kozár, et al., 2014)

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae cylindrical, sides straight, apices round, 2 sizes of setae, larger setae on margin, smaller setae abundant over other part of dorsum, 3 or 4 lateral setae on margin of each abdominal segment, abdominal segment 8 with several setae anterior of anal ring (Matesova, 1967).Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae cylindrical, sides concave basally, apices rounded, marginal setae slightly larger than other dorsal setae, 2 to 4 lateral setae on margin of each abdominal segment, with a few dorsomedial setae on abdominal segment 8 anterior of anal ring (Matesova, 1967). Based on a study of the type material of A. turanicus Matesova (1967), Kozár, et al. (2014) found that the distinguishing characters mentioned by Matesova (1967) for the species are highly variable and that its characters overlap with those of A. populi. Thus they synonymized the two species, with A. turanicus becoming becoming a junior synonym of A. populi.

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 75-77 (female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus]; Wang 2001: 208 [as Eriococcus populi; Key to Eriococcus of China]; Tang & Hao 1995: 646 (adult female) [as Eriococcus populi; Eriococcus species]; Tang & Hao 1995: 498, 646 (adult female) [as Eriococcus populi; Eriococcus species]; Matesova 1967: 1202 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus populi; Acanthococcus species]; Matesova 1967: 1202 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus turanicus; Acanthococcus species].

CITATIONS: Aibaso1974 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 126-132]; Danzig1977b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 50]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy: 207]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 382, 385]; KotejaZa1981 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 513,514]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 93,94]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 142-144]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 74]; Mateso1967 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 1195,1197,1202]; Mateso1971 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 27]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 306-307, 369]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 449,450,486,498,646,725]; Tao1999 [distribution, host: 33]; Wang2001 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 208, 221-222].



Acanthococcus pseudolongisetosus Kozár & Konczné Benedicty

NOMENCLATURE:

Acanthococcus pseudolongisetosus Kozár & Konczné Benedicty, 2008: 133-135. Type data: PERU: Huanuco (3400 m) on undetermined bush and litter, 12/02/1972, by J. Balogh. Holotype female (examined), by monotypy and original designation. Type depository: Budapest: Plant Protection Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary; type no. 4b7769. Described: female. Illust.

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Peru [KozarKo2008].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Kozár & Konczné Benedicty (2008).

STRUCTURE: Adult female elongate oval, 1.632 mm long and 0.803 mm wide. Antenna 6 segmented. There is one sensory pore on the 2nd segment of the antenna and the 3rd segment is almost parallel sided. On apical segment three sensory falcate setae are found. On the two preapical segments, falcate sensory setae are present. The segments of the antenna are covered with few hairlike setae. Frontal lobe present. Eye visible, situated on venter. Venter: Labium two-segmented, basal segment with two pairs of setae. Stylet loop reaches the posterior coxae. Legs long, claw digitules slightly knobbed. Coxae ithout spinulae, posterior coxae, small number of translucent pores. Trochanter with two pores on each side. Legs with few hairlike setae and with one sensory pore on tarsus. Disc pores 7-9 locular, distributed in rare bands on all segments of abdomen and thorax. Venter with a small number of scattered, hair-like setae, of two sizes. Microtubular duct present only on the margin. Macrotubular ducts of one size present in a small number on all segments. Sessile pores present in a submarginal band. Dorsum: Dorsal setae spine-like, 3-6 times longer than wide, of different sizes found in one row on abdominal margin. On the abdominal margin 2 setae present. One the middorsum setae much shorter. Macrotubular ducts present in small number on all segments. Microtubular ducts, with cruciform opening, scattered among dorsal setae. Disc pores absent. Anal ring with 8 hairlike setae. Anal lobes short, twice longer than wide, with two spine-like setae along inner margin, and one setae on outer margin. Anal lobes not sclerotized. suranal setae hair-like. On penultimate segments, before anal ring, a sclerotized plate absent. the cauda not well developed.

SYSTEMATICS: This species is similar to A. dubius (Cockerell, 1896), however, A. dubius has shorter and wider spines on dorsum and dorsal margin and a lot of very small spines all over on dorsum, especially on margin among large spines.

CITATIONS: HodgsoMi2010 [taxonomy: 100]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 93]; KozarKo2008 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 133-135].



Acanthococcus pustulatus (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Rhizococcus pustulatus Maskell, 1893b: 231. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Victoria, Myrniong, on Casuarina sp., by J. Lidgett. Syntypes, female (examined). Type depositories: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Nidularia pustulatus; Lindinger, 1933a: 116. Change of combination.

Eriococcus pustulatus; Hoy, 1963: 110. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus pustulatus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 603. Change of combination.



HOST: Casuarinaceae: Casuarina sp. [Maskel1893b]

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Victoria [Maskel1893b]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Maskell (1893b) and type information by Deitz & Tocker (1980).

STRUCTURE: Adult female is dark red in color, convex. Second stage females are red and subelliptical. First-instar nymph is yellowish red. Male is unknown (Maskell, 1893b).

CITATIONS: Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 324]; DeitzTo1980 [distribution, taxonomy: 48]; Frogga1915 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 1061]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 67]; Frogga1933 [distribution, taxonomy: 365]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 110]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 101]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 116]; Maskel1893b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 231]; Maskel1895a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 21]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 603]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 309-310].



Acanthococcus rata (Hoy)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus rata Hoy, 1958: 191-3. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: North Island, Pohangina Valley, on Metrosideros sp., 11/10/1935. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus rata; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 603. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Metrosideros robusta [Hoy1958], Metrosideros umbellata [Hoy1958].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (North Island [Hoy1958]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Hoy (1958).

STRUCTURE: Ovisac of female is tough and heavily felted, similar in color to the bark of the host (Hoy, 1958).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae narrow, conical, sides straight, apices acute, marginal setae conspicuously larger than other dorsal setae, 2 lateral setae on margin of each abdominal segment; anal-lobe setae on dorsum elongate, curved; multilocular pores on venter predominantly with 7 loculi; microtubular ducts apparently absent (Hoy, 1962).

KEYS: Hoy 1962: 31 (adult female) [New Zealand species of Eriococcidae].

CITATIONS: Brown1967 [distribution, host: 131]; Hoy1958 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 191-3]; Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 6, 31, 140]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 112]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 101]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 603]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 313-314]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 98].



Acanthococcus ribesiae Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Acanthococcus ribesiae Borchsenius, 1960a: 193-5. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female.

Eriococcus ribesiae; Hoy, 1963: 112. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus ribesiae; Kozár, 2009: 93. Revived combination.



HOST: Grossulariaceae: Ribes meyeri [Hoy1963].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Kazakhstan [Hoy1963]; Russia [Danzig1972].

BIOLOGY: In bark crevices of trunk and wide branches. Often in large colonies. Female appears in egg sacs in the end of May. Egglaying finished by the end of July. Heavily infested branches of plants dryed out (Borchsenius, 1960a).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Borchsenius (1960a).

STRUCTURE: Adult female elongated oval, 2.5 mm long. Egg sacs felt-like, cream-white, 2.5 mm long, 1.5 mm wide. (Kozár, et al., 2013)

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, sides straight, apices rounded, marginal setae and medial setae on thorax larger than setae on other parts of dorsum, 2 lateral setae on margin of each abdominal segment (Borchsenius, 1960a).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 75-77 (female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus]; Tang & Hao 1995: 448, 645 (adult female) [as Eriococcus ribesiae; Eriococcus species].

CITATIONS: Borchs1960a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 193-195]; Borchs1963a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 97]; Borchs1973 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 97]; Danzig1972 [distribution, taxonomy: 198]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 112]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 382]; KotejaZa1981 [taxonomy: 514]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 93]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 146-148]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 74]; Mateso1968 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 114]; MatesoMiIu1962a [distribution, economic importance, host, taxonomy: 120]; MillerGi2000 [biological control, catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 316]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 448, 487].



Acanthococcus roboris (Goux)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus roboris Goux, 1931a: 58-63. Type data: FRANCE: Courzieu, on Quercus robur, 28-30/07/1927, by L. Goux. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

Nidularia roboris; Lindinger, 1933a: 116. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus roboris; Borchsenius, 1949: 346. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: oak felt scale [KosztaKo1988F].



FOE: HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Metaphycus zebratus [JaposhCe2010].

HOSTS: Fagaceae: Castanea sativa [Hadzib1983], Castanea sp. [KosztaKo1988F], Quercus boissieri [SpodekBeMe2014], Quercus calliprinos [SpodekBeMe2014], Quercus imeretina [Hadzib1983], Quercus petraea [Goux1931a], Quercus pubescens [Goux1931a], Quercus robur [Goux1931a]. Hippocastanaceae: Aesculus hippocastanum [KozarGuBa1994]. Pterocaryaceae: Pterocarya pterocarpa [Hadzib1983].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [Goux1931a]; Azerbaijan [Goux1931a]; Czech Republic [Kohler1998]; France [Hoy1963, Foldi2001]; Georgia [Marott1993]; Hungary [Hoy1963]; Israel [SpodekBeMe2014]; Italy [Marott1993]; Kazakhstan [Marott1993]; Netherlands [KozarNa1998]; Portugal [KozarFr1995]; Romania [Rogoja1966]; Russia [Marott1993]; Switzerland [KozarGuBa1994]; Turkey [KaydanUlEr2007]; Ukraine (Krym (=Crimea) Oblast [Goux1931a]).

BIOLOGY: This species lays red eggs in June which hatch in the end of July in Hungary (Kosztarab & Kozár, 1988). Lives in bark crevices of trunk and branches, on the stem and base of young twigs, or at base of buds or twig forkings, sometimes under the litter on the roots. Female appears with egg sacs in May. (Kozár, et al., 2013)

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Kosztarab & Kozár (1988). Detailed description and illustrations in Hodgson & Trencheva (2007). Description and illustration of first instar nymph in Kozár, et al., 2013.

STRUCTURE: Adult female is raspberry red in color and oval in shape. Ovisac is white and felted (Goux, 1931a). Adult female: Rather large, 3.25-5 mm long; venter wider than dorsum-dorsum 1.7-3.5 mm widest, greatest total width 4.12mm. More or less oval but slightly more pointed posteriorly. Anal lobes sclerotised, comparatively small, median plate triangular. Dorsum covered in truncate spinose setae; those along margin slightly larger. Dorsum also with numberous macrotubular ducts (of one size) and microtubular ducts (each with a divided dermal oriface); venter with macro- and microtubular ducts similar to those on dorsum, restricted to near margin; also with smaller macrotubular ducts present posteriorly on venter of abdomen and metathorax; quinquelocular pores abundant on abdomen, less frequent more anteriorly; cruciform pores present submarginally; mainly in groups on anterior abdominal segments and thorax. Legs relatively small but normally developed; metacoxae without pores but with spicules; claws with a strong denticle. antennae 7 or 8 segmented, with setae on all segments; frontal lobes present. (C. Hodgson & K. Trencheva, 2008) Second-instar female: Small; oval but more pointed posteriorly; about 1.2-1.45 mm long; venter clearly wider than dorsum; dorsum 457-730 µm wide; total width of mounted specimens about 620-860 µm. Anal lobes sclerotised, comparatively large; median plate present. Dorsum with truncate spinose setae; those along margin slightly larger, those forming longitudinal rows submedially and medially on abdomenal segments II-VII tending to be smaller. Dorsum also with numerous microtubular ducts(each dermal orifice with two large wing-like extensions); macrotubular ducts absent from both surfaces; quinquelocular pores absent from dorsum but frequent on venter. Cruciform pores present submarginally, in groups on anterior abdominal segments and meso- and metathorax. Legs comparatively well developed; claws with a strong denticle. Antennae 6 or 7 segmented, with well-developed frontal lobes. (C. Hodgson & K. Trencheva, 2008) First-instar nymph: Oval in outline, rather more pointed posteriorly, 750-850 µm long, dorsum 350-375 µm wide (verter wider); anal lobs short but with 3 pairs of quit sharply-pointd spinose setae dorsally in addition to long flagellate spical seta; median plate indicate by a small membranous outgrowth with perhaps 1 or 2 protuberances. Antennae 6 segmented; frontal lobes absent; dorsal microtubular ducts present; each outed orifice with two large wing-like extensions; quinquelocular pores present ventrally on head, thorax and abdomen; cruciform pores present submarginally on venter of thorax; marginal and dorsal setae all spinose and sharply pointed, each with a slightly swollen base; dorsal spinose setae in 4 longitudinal lines + marginal setae; claw with a well-developed denticle.

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae cylindrical, sides straight, apices truncate, setae of 2 sizes, marginal setae larger than setae on rest of dorsum, 4-5 lateral setae on each abdominal segment (Kosztarab & Kozár, 1988). According to Hoy (1963) Lindinger (1936) erroneously considered Eriococcus roboris to be a synonym of Nidularia aceris (Signoret) and E. roboris to be a synonym of Nidularia quercus (Comstock) (Lindinger, 1957).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 75-77 (female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus]; Hodgson & Trencheva 2008: 36-37 (adult, female) [as Eriococcus roboris; Key for separation of adult female Eriococcida on Qurcus sp. in wstrn Palaearctic]; Tang & Hao 1995: 450 (adult female) [as Eriococcus roboris; Eriococcus species]; Kosztarab & Kozár 1988: 277 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus roboris; Acanthococcus species of central Europe]; Tereznikova 1982: 35 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus roboris; Acanthococcus species]; Danzig 1971d: 821 (female) [as Acanthococcus roboris; Key to species of family Eriococcidae]; Danzig 1964: 632 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus roboris; Acanthococcus species of the USSR].

CITATIONS: BarbagBiBo1995 [distribution: 43]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy: 346]; Borchs1950b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 120]; Borchs1963a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 188, 191, 196]; Borchs1973 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 191, 196]; BurgesGa1982 [distribution: 108]; CebeciKu2005 [distribution, host: 97-102]; Danzig1964 [taxonomy: 632]; Danzig1971d [taxonomy: 821]; Danzig1975a [taxonomy: 71]; Danzig1977b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 50]; Danzig1978b [taxonomy: 207]; Danzig1980b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 207]; Erdos1957 [biological control, distribution: 370]; FetykoKoDa2010 [distribution: 295]; Foldi2000 [distribution, host: 81]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 305]; FrancoRuMa2011 [distribution: 16,25]; Goux1931a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 58-63, 64]; Goux1943b [distribution, life history: 128]; Goux1948a [taxonomy: 69]; Hadzib1956a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 157, 169]; Hadzib1956b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 50]; Hadzib1983 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 269]; HertinSi1972 [biological control: 132]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 112]; JaposhCe2010 [distribution: 134]; KaydanUlEr2007 [distribution, host: 90-106]; Kiritc1940 [taxonomy: 136]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 382]; Koszta1959 [biological control, distribution, host: 402]; KosztaKo1978 [host, taxonomy: 65, 73]; KosztaKo1988F [biological control, description, distribution, host, illustration, life history, taxonomy: 277, 284-285]; KotejaZa1981 [taxonomy: 514]; Kozar1980 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 66, 67]; Kozar1991 [taxonomy: 81]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 93]; KozarDr1991 [distribution: 362]; KozarFr1995 [distribution, host: 70]; KozarGuBa1994 [distribution, host: 154]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy, phylogeny: 30,35, 148-152]; KozarKo1982 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 204]; KozarKoFe2013 [distribution, taxonomy: 55]; KozarNa1998 [distribution, host: 55]; KozarOrKo1977 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 71]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 74]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 116]; Lindin1936 [taxonomy: 146]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 543]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 121]; LongoMaPe1999a [distribution: 146]; Marott1993 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 160-162]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 316-318]; OuvrarKo2009 [host, phylogeny, structure, taxonomy: 102-118]; PellizCa1991a [distribution: 193]; PellizKo2011 [distribution: 66]; Rogoja1966 [distribution, host: 323]; SpodekBeMe2014 [distribution, host, illustration: 105-106,112,114,115,117]; Supata1956 [taxonomy: 174]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 450, 488-489]; Terezn1959a [taxonomy: 447]; Terezn1959b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 447]; Terezn1959c [distribution, host, taxonomy: 795]; Terezn1960a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 538]; Terezn1963 [distribution, host: 186]; Terezn1966 [distribution, host: 25]; Terezn1967a [distribution: 474]; Terezn1968b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 48]; Terezn1968c [distribution, host, taxonomy: 48, 49]; Terezn1970 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 44]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy: 31]; Terezn1981 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 36-38]; Terezn1982 [distribution, taxonomy: 35]; TerGri1962 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 131, 156]; TerGri1969a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 78]; TerGri1983 [distribution, taxonomy: 879]; Trjapi1964 [taxonomy: 1457]; Tudor1982 [biological control, host: 88]; UlgentKaTo2003 [distribution: 52]; Zahrad1972 [distribution, host: 402]; Zahrad1977 [taxonomy: 121].



Acanthococcus rosannae (Tranfaglia & Esposito)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus rosannae Tranfaglia & Esposito, 1985: 130-132. Type data: ITALY: Monte Faito, on Castanea sativa, 07/05/1983-31/07/1983. Holotype female. Type depository: Portici: Dipartimento de Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria di Portici, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Italy. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus rosannae; Longo et al., 1995: 113. Change of combination. Notes: Miller & Gimpel (1996) erroneously cited the name Acanthococcus rosannae as a new combination. This combination was originally put forth by Longo et al. (1995).



HOST: Fagaceae: Castanea sativa [TranfaEs1985].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Italy [TranfaEs1985]; Sicily [MazzeoLoRu1994].

BIOLOGY: In bark crevices of trunk and branches of its host at elevation about 500 m above see level. Female appears in egg sacs in May. (Kozár, et al., 2013)

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Tranfaglia & Esposito (1985).

STRUCTURE: Adult female is oval-elongate (Tranfaglia & Esposito, 1985).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae cylindrical, sides straight, apices truncate, marginal setae slightly larger than other setae on dorsum, setae abundant over surface, 4 or 5 lateral setae on margin of each abdominal segment; anal lobes heavily sclerotized, medial margin with teeth (Tranfaglia & Esposito, 1985).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 75-77 (female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus]; Tang & Hao 1995: 452, 650 (adult female) [as Eriococcus rosannae; Eriococcus species]; Tranfaglia & Esposito 1985: 116 (adult female) [as Eriococcus rosannae; Eriococcus species of Italy].

CITATIONS: BarbagBiBo1995 [distribution: 43]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 93]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 152-154]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution, taxonomy: 113, 121]; LongoMaPe1999a [distribution: 150]; MazzeoLoRu1994 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 206]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 603]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 319]; PellizKo2011 [distribution: 66]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 452, 489, 650]; TranfaEs1985 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 116, 130-132].



Acanthococcus rugosus (Froggatt)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus rugosus Froggatt, 1933: 367-368. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Euston, Murray River, on Casuarina leuhmanni. Syntypes. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Two slides containing 11 adult females, one of which has the label "type" in Froggatt's handwriting are deposited in ANIC along with some dry syntypic material (Gullan, personal communication, June 10, 1996). This is a senior primary homonym of Eriococcus rugosus Wang (1982b), which has been given the new name Eriococcus wangi.

Acanthococcus rugosus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 603. Change of combination.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Casuarina luehmanni [Frogga1933].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Frogga1933]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Froggatt (1933).

STRUCTURE: First-instar nymph is dull reddish brown. Adult female is brown and giving off a purple tint when boiled in potash (Froggatt, 1933).

SYSTEMATICS: This is a senior primary homonym of Eriococcus rugosus Wang (1982b), which has been given the new name Eriococcus wangi.

CITATIONS: Frogga1933 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 367-368]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 113]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 93, 101]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 603]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, life history, taxonomy: 321-322].



Acanthococcus rusapiensis (Hall)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus rusapiensis Hall, 1937: 124-5. Type data: ZIMBABWE: Rusapi, on Achyropsis sp., 02/10/1932, by W.J. Hall. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust. Notes: There are twelve adult female syntypes on five slides in the BMNH (Williams, personal communication, June 19, 1996).

Acanthococcus rusapiensis; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 603-604. Change of combination.



HOST: Amaranthaceae: Achyropsis sp. [Hall1937]

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Zimbabwe [Hall1937].

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Hall (1937).

STRUCTURE: Early adult female is ovate, dark maroon in color. As it ages it becomes enclosed in a closely felted sac which is either dirty white or straw colored. Second-instar male is small elongate oval and closely felted. Similar in color and appearance to that of the female, but smaller (Hall, 1937).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, sides straight, apices acute, scattered over dorsal surface (Hall, 1937).

CITATIONS: Hall1937 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 124-125]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 114]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 101]; Mamet1950 [distribution, taxonomy: 21]; Mamet1953 [taxonomy: 250]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 603-604]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, life history, taxonomy: 322].



Acanthococcus salicis (Borchsenius)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus salicis Borchsenius, 1938: 135-137. Type data: RUSSIA: Siberia, Guberoro, on Salix sp., 25/06/1934, by S.V. Brown. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 1980b: 208. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. S-T.7. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus salicis; Borchsenius, 1949: 345. Described: female. Illust. Change of combination.

Nidularia salicis; Lindinger, 1957: 544. Change of combination.

Eriococcus salicicola Tang, 1984b: 125. Nomen nudum; discovered by Tang & Hao, 1995: 489. Notes: Tang (1984b) used the name Eriococcus salicicola n. sp. and indicated that it occurred widely in Northwest China on willows. He indicated in the paper's introduction that the new species would be published in the future. We believe this species was described as Gossyparisa [sic] salicicola Borchsenius. This species should be attributed to Tang not Borchsenius.

Gossyparia salicicola Tang in Tang & Li, 1988: 72. Described: female. Synonymy by Tang & Hao, 1995: 595. Notes: In addition to treating this species as a junior synonym of Erioccus salicis Borchsenius, we believe that this the first time that Eriococcus salicicola Tang was described. It was previously mentioned in Tang (1984b), but because there was no description it is now a placed nomen nudum.

Acanthococcus salicis; Kozár, 2009: 93. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Salicaceae: Salix alba [KozarKaKo2013], Salix capitata [TangLi1988], Salix sp. [Borchs1938]

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China (Liaoning [Hua2000], Nei Monggol (=Inner Mongolia) [TangHa1995], Shanxi (=Shansi) [Xie1998], Xingiang Uygur (=Sinkiang) [Tang1984]); Mongolia [Danzig1980b]; Russia [Borchs1938] (Guberoro, Siberia, Maritime Regions) (Khabarovsk Kray [Danzig1980b], Primor'ye Kray [Danzig1980b]); Turkey [KozarKaKo2013].

BIOLOGY: Danzig (1986a) states that this species is oligophagous species living on willow and that egg laying was seen in mid-June. Xu (1983) gives a detailed description of the life history.

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed descriptions and illustrations by Borchsenius (1938) and Danzig (1986a).

STRUCTURE: Ovisac is oval, creamy grey in color (Borchsenius, 1938). Adult female elongate oval, dark violet. Eggs are crimson in color (Danzig, 1980b).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae elongate, slender, curved, sides concave basally, apices rounded, 2 or 3 sizes of setae, abundant on dorsum, several setae on segment 8 anterior of anal ring; anal lobes apparently with 4 setae; microtubular ducts short, with 2 sclerotized areas (Danzig, 1986a).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 75-77 (female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus]; Wang 2001: 208 [as Eriococcus salicis; Key to Eriococcus of China]; Tang & Hao 1995: 449, 645 (adult female) [as Eriococcus salicis; Eriococcus species]; Danzig 1988: 708 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus salicis; Acanthococcus species of the far eastern USSR]; Danzig 1986a: 239 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus salicis; Acanthococcus species of the far eastern USSR]; Danzig 1962a: 43 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus salicis; Far eastern Soviet Acanthococcus species]; Borchsenius 1949: 333 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus salicis; Acanthococcus species of the USSR]; Borchsenius 1938: 134 (adult female) [as Eriococcus salicis; Eriococcus species of the USSR].

CITATIONS: Borchs1938 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 135-7]; Borchs1949 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 58, 62, 333, 345]; Borchs1950b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 120]; Borchs1963a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 23, 225, 231]; Borchs1973 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 231]; Danzig1972b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 339]; Danzig1975a [taxonomy: 43, 44]; Danzig1977b [taxonomy: 57]; Danzig1980b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 205, 208-209]; Danzig1986a [description, distribution, host, illlustration, life history, taxonomy: 239, 244]; Danzig1988 [taxonomy: 708]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 114]; Hua2000 [distribution, host: 137]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 382-383]; KotejaZa1981 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 514]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 93]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 155-157]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 74]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 544]; Lindin1958 [taxonomy: 368]; Mateso1967 [taxonomy: 1194]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, life history, taxonomy: 325-327]; Tang1977 [taxonomy: 45]; Tang1984b [distribution, host: 125]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 449, 489, 595, 645, 726]; TangLi1988 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 72]; Tao1999 [distribution, host: 33]; Wang1982ZQ [taxonomy: 43]; Wang2001 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 208, 211, 220-221]; Xie1998 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 97-99]; Xu1983 [distribution, life history: 77-78]; ZhangHu1980 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 152-153].



Acanthococcus sasae Danzig

NOMENCLATURE:

Acanthococcus sasae Danzig, 1975a: 45. Type data: RUSSIA: Kunashir Island, Sernovodsk, Sasa sp., 11/06/1967, by E. Danzig. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Eriococcus sasae; Tang & Hao, 1995: 490. Described: female. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus sasae; Köhler, 1998: 383. Revived combination.



FOE: HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Zaomma acanthococci [GordhTr1979].

HOST: Poaceae: Sasa sp. [TangHa1995]

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Russia (Kuril Islands [Danzig1975a], Sakhalin Oblast [Danzig1988]).

BIOLOGY: This species is always associated with bamboo growing in open sectors, not extending beneath the forest canopy. An abundant species, females overwintering in leaf axils. Oviposition was noted at the beginning of July, general hatching of the first instars by late July. First instars migrate to young plants (Danzig, 1975a).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Danzig (1975a).

STRUCTURE: Female is round and brown. Ovisac is oval, cream colored, markedly convex, with 2 longitudinal and several transverse ribs. Eggs raspberry-colored (Danzig, 1975a).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, sides straight, apices acute, marginal setae slightly longer than other dorsal setae, setae abundant over surface, without enlarged setae anterior of anal ring on dorsum (Danzig, 1975a).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 75-77 (female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus]; Tang & Hao 1995: 451, 648 (adult female) [as Eriococcus sasae; Eriococcus species]; Danzig 1988: 708 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus sasae; Acanthococcus species of the far eastern USSR]; Danzig 1986: 240 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus sasae; Acanthococcus species of the far eastern USSR]; Danzig 1975a: 43 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus sasae; Acanthococcus species of the far eastern USSR].

CITATIONS: Danzig1975a [description, distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 43, 45-46, 48]; Danzig1977b [taxonomy: 52, 57]; Danzig1978 [taxonomy: 13]; Danzig1980b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 206]; Danzig1986a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 240, 247]; Danzig1988 [taxonomy: 708]; FangWuXu2001 [distribution, host: 104]; GordhTr1979 [biological control: 35]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 383]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 93]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 158-160]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 74]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, life history, taxonomy: 328]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 451, 490, 648].



Acanthococcus serratilobis prominens (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus serratilobis prominens Green, 1915d: 46. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Queensland, Townsville, on undetermined host, by W.W. Froggatt. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Illust. Notes: There are two slides containing eight adult female syntypes and one adult male syntype in the BMNH (Williams, personal communication, May 15, 1996).

Acanthococcus serratilobis prominens; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 603. Change of combination.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus sp. [Green1915d]

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Queensland [Green1915d]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Green (1915d).

STRUCTURE: Differs from typical A. serratilobis in the form of the anal lobes (Green, 1915d).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female differs from E. serratilobis serratilobis by having anal lobes much more prominent and cylindrical (Green, 1915d).

CITATIONS: CookGu2004 [taxonomy: 444]; Frogga1921a [description, taxonomy: 87]; Green1915d [description, distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 46]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 115]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 101]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 604]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 330-331]; MillerGo1975 [taxonomy: 148]; NanDeWu2013 [phylogenetics: 173]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 99].



Acanthococcus serratilobis serratilobis (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus serratilobis Green, 1915d: 45. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Victoria, Mallee, on Eucalyptus gracilis, by C. French #142. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Also in BMNH are four adult female and three first-instar nymph syntypes. Type data per personal communication D.J. Williams (May 23, 1996).

Nidularia serratilobis; Lindinger, 1933a: 116. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus serratilobis serratilobis; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 603. Change of combination.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus gracilis [Green1915d].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Green1915d], Victoria [Green1915d]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Green (1915d).

STRUCTURE: Ovisac is white, strongly convex, broadly oval, narrower behind, closely felted and tough. Adult female is broadly oval (Green, 1915d).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: distinct marginal row of enlarged setae (Gullan & Vranjic, 1991). According to Green (1915d) adult female with: enlarged setae cylindrical, sides straight, apices truncate, marginal setae conspicuously larger than other dorsal setae; anal lobes plate like, heavily sclerotized, medial margin with 1 conical seta; sclerotized plate present on dorsum anterior of anal lobes; tarsal digitals swollen.

KEYS: Gullan & Vranjic 1991: 26 (adult female) [Australian species of Eriococcus infesting Eucalyptus].

CITATIONS: Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 85-7]; Green1915d [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 45]; GullanVr1991 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 26]; GwiazdVaDe2006 [phylogenetics: 16]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 115]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 101]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 116]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 603]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 331]; Pierce1917 [distribution: 99].



Acanthococcus setulosus (Hoy)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus setulosus Hoy, 1962: 146. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: South Island, Riwaka, on Cyathodes fasiculata, 17/08/1924, by G. Brittin. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus setulosus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 603. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Agavaceae: Cordyline australis [Hoy1962]. Epacridaceae: Cyathodes fasciculata [Hoy1962]. Malvaceae: Hoheria sp. [Hoy1962]. Myrsinaceae: Myrsine divaricata [Hoy1962]. Thymelaeaceae: Pimelea sp. [Hoy1962]

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (South Island [Hoy1962]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Hoy (1962).

STRUCTURE: Sac of female is tawny and closely felted (Hoy, 1962).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: elongate setae conical, sides concave, apices slightly rounded, setae all approximately same size, abundant over dorsum; anal lobes with irregular boss on mesal margin; microtubular ducts elongate, without sclerotized area (Hoy, 1962).

KEYS: Hoy 1962: 33 (adult female) [New Zealand species of Eriococcidae].

CITATIONS: Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 33, 146]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 115]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 101]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 604]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 331-332]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 98].



Acanthococcus shiraiwai (Kuwana & Muramatsu)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus shiraiwai Kuwana & Muramatsu, 1931a: 659. Type data: JAPAN: Honshu, Yokohama customs, on unidentified cactus, by H. Shiraiwa. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Ibaraki-ken: Insect Taxonomy Laboratory, National Institute of Agricultural Environmental Sciences, Kannon-dai, Yatabe, Tsukuba-shi, (Kuwana), Japan. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus shiraiwai; Miller, 1996: 79. Change of combination.



HOST: Cactaceae [Hoy1963].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico [Miller1996]. Palaearctic: Japan (Honshu [Hoy1963]).

BIOLOGY: On plant surface. (Kozár, et al., 2013)

GENERAL REMARKS: Brief description and illustration by Kuwana & Muramatsu (1931a).

STRUCTURE: Adult female is oval (Kuwana & Muramatsu, 1931a).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: elongate setae conical, sides straight, apices acute, 2 or 3 sizes of setae, abundant over dorsum (Kuwana & Muramatus, 1931a).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Cactus was from Mexico and intercepted at the Yokohama customs (Kuwana & Muramatsu, 1931a).

CITATIONS: Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 115]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 93]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 160-162]; KuwanaMu1931a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 659]; Miller1996 [distribution: 79]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 332].



Acanthococcus simplex simplex (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus simplex Maskell, 1897: 317. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, on Eucalyptus sp., by W.M. Maskell. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: both sexes. Illust.

Nidularia simplex; Lindinger, 1933a: 116. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus simplex; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 604. Change of combination.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus sp. [Maskel1897]

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Maskel1897]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration by Maskell (1897). Deitz & Tocker (1980) provide type information. This species is the senior primary homonym of Eriococcus paradoxus simplex Maskell (1898), which is now incertae sedis as Cerococcus paradoxus simplex.

STRUCTURE: Sac of female is elliptical, yellow, but frequently obscured by black fungus. Sac of male is of similar form, white in color and slightly smaller. Adult female red, elliptical, filling the sac, but shrivelling at gestation. Adult male and first-instar nymph are also yellowish-red (Maskell, 1897).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: distinct marginal row of enlarged setae (Gullan & Vranjic, 1991). There may be some question whether Eriococcus simplex dealbatus is a separate taxon from E. simplex simplex. See the systematic notes under E. simplex dealbatus for further details.

KEYS: Gullan & Vranjic 1991: 26 (adult female) [Australian species of Eriococcus on Eucalyptus species].

CITATIONS: Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 391]; DeitzTo1980 [distribution, taxonomy: 48]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 78]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 87]; Fuller1897b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 1345]; GullanVr1991 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 26, 38]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 116]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 101]; Lidget1899 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 53]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 116]; Maskel1897 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 317]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 604]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 334-335]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance: 99].



Acanthococcus sophorae (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus sophorae Green, 1929: 375. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: South Island, Dunedin, on Sophora tetraptera, 1921, by J.G. Myers. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust. Notes: There are six adult female syntypes on one slide in the BMNH (Williams, personal communication, May 15, 1996).

Nidularia sophorae; Lindinger, 1933a: 116. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus sophorae; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 604. Change of combination.



HOST: Fabaceae: Sophora tetraptera [Green1929].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (South Island [Green1929]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Green (1929). Subsequent description and illustration in Hoy (1962).

STRUCTURE: Female sac is ochreous, ovate and strongly convex. Adult female is ovate, narrowing posteriorly (Green, 1929).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, sides convex, apices acute or slightly rounded, setae all approximately same size, scattered over surface; anal lobes with apical tooth; microtubular ducts elongate, without sclerotized area (Hoy, 1962).

KEYS: Hoy 1962: 33 (adult female) [New Zealand species of Eriococcidae].

CITATIONS: Gaedik1971 [distribution, host: 338]; Green1929 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 375]; Hoy1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 6, 33, 148, 192]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 116]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 101]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 116]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 604]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 337-338]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 98].



Acanthococcus sordidus (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriocococcus sordidus Green, 1904: 68. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Victoria, Dandenong Ranges, on Helichrysum ferrugineum, by C. French. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust. Notes: There are 9 adult female syntypes on 2 slides in the BMNH (Gullan, personal communication, October 27, 1998).

Nidularia sordidus; Lindinger, 1933a: 116. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus sordidus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 604. Change of combination.



HOST: Asteraceae: Helichrysum ferrugineum [Green1904].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Victoria [Green1904]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Green (1904).

STRUCTURE: Sac of adult female is oblong oval. Color and texture difficult to determine due to excessive black fungus. Sac of male is snowy-white and conspicuous against the black surroundings. Adult female oval (Green, 1904).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae slender, apices acute, forming 3 longitudinal lines on each half of abdomen; anal lobes large, heavily sclerotized, each with 4 enlarged setae (Green, 1904).

CITATIONS: Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 87-88]; Green1904 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 68]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 117]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 101]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 116]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 604]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 338].



Acanthococcus spiniger (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus spiniger Maskell, 1896b: 398. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Oatley, on Eucalyptus sp., by W.W. Froggatt. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Nidularia spiniger; Lindinger, 1933a: 116. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus spiniger; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 604. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus sp. [Maskel1896b], Leptospermum coriaceum [Hoy1963].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Maskel1896b], South Australia [Maskel1896b]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Hoy (1959).

STRUCTURE: Sac of female is white, or with a very faint yellowish tinge, cylindrical, closely felted. Sac of male is similar and smaller. Adult female brown or yellowish brown. First-instar nymphs are yellowish-brown, flattish, elliptical, active (Maskell, 1896b).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: distinct marginal row of enlarged setae (Gullan & Vranjic, 1991). According to Hoy (1959) slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae cylindrical, sides straight, apices truncate, marginal setae conspicuously larger than other setae on dorsum, 4 lateral setae on margin of each abdominal segment; anal lobes cylindrical, heavily sclerotized, with medial teeth.

KEYS: Pellizzari & Germain 2010: 52 (female) [Key to the 7 eriococcid species known to occur on Leptospermum spp.].

CITATIONS: Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 391]; DeitzTo1980 [distribution, taxonomy: 48]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 78]; Frogga1896 [distribution, taxonomy: 382]; Frogga1900 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 105]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 87, 88]; Hoy1959 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 1, 21, 23, 24, 28]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 117]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 101]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 116]; Maskel1896b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 398]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 604]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 339]; PellizGe2010 [host, taxonomy: 51,52]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 99].



Acanthococcus spiraeae Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Acanthococcus spiraeae Borchsenius, 1949: 348-349. Type data: GEORGIA: Tiflis (Tbilisi), on Spiraea hypericifolia twigs, 17/07/1934. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 1996b: 522. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Two paralectotype females on same slide lectotype (Danzig, 1996b).

Nidularia spiraeae; Lindinger, 1957: 543. Change of combination.

Eriococcus spiraeae; Hoy, 1963: 117. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus spiraeae; Kozár, 2009: 93. Revived combination.



FOE: HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Metaphycus spiraeae [Trjapi1964].

HOSTS: Asteraceae: Spirea crenata [Hadzib1983], Spirea hypericifolia [Hadzib1983], Spirea media [Danzig1978a], Spirea salicifolia [Danzig1978a], Spirea sp. [Borchs1949]. Betulaceae: Betula fruticosa [Danzig1978a], Betula platyfylla [Danzig1978a], Duschekia fruticosa [Danzig1978a]. Salicaceae: Salix sp. [Danzig1978a]

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China (Beijing (=Peking) [Tang1984b]); Georgia [Hoy1963]; Kazakhstan [Mateso1968]; Russia [Danzig1988].

BIOLOGY: Lives on branches of host plants. (Kozár, et al., 2013)

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Borchsenius (1949).

STRUCTURE: Adult female body is egg-shaped, raspberry in color. Sac is grayish, compact, entirely covering the insect (Borchsenius, 1949).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, sides concave, apices rounded or slightly acute, 2 or 3 sizes of setae, larger setae present along margin, slightly larger than other setae which are scattered over surface; anal lobes heavily sclerotized, with teeth medially (Borchsenius, 1949).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 75-77 (female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus]; Tang & Hao 1995: 450, 647 (adult female) [as Eriococcus spiraeae; Eriococcus species]; Danzig 1988: 708 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus spiraeae; Acanthococcus species of the USSR]; Borchsenius 1949: 333 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus spiraeae; Acanthococcus species in the USSR].

CITATIONS: Borchs1949 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 48, 333, 348-9]; Borchs1950b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 121]; Borchs1963a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 147, 148, 149]; Borchs1973 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 148]; Danzig1975a [taxonomy: 45]; Danzig1977a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 200]; Danzig1978a [host, taxonomy: 76]; Danzig1988 [taxonomy: 708]; Danzig1996a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 575]; Danzig1996b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 522]; Hadzib1983 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 269]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 117]; Hua2000 [distribution, host: 137]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 384]; KotejaZa1981 [taxonomy: 514]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 93]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 163-165]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 74]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 543]; Mateso1968 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 114]; MillerGi2000 [biological control, catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 340]; Tang1984b [distribution, host: 125]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 450,494-495,647]; Trjapi1964 [distribution, host: 1455].



Acanthococcus sutepensis (Takahashi)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus sutepensis Takahashi, 1942b: 8-10. Type data: THAILAND: Mt. Sutep, on Quercus sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Taichung: Entomology Collection, Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, Wu-feng, Taichung, Taiwan. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus sutepensis; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 604. Change of combination.



ASSOCIATE: HYMENOPTERA Formicidae: Crematogaster sp. [Takaha1942b].

HOST: Fagaceae: Quercus sp. [Takaha1942b]

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Thailand [Takaha1942b].

BIOLOGY: This species is tended by Crematogaster ants (Takahashi, 1942b).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Takahashi (1942b).

STRUCTURE: Adult female has a white secretion, body oval (Takahashi, 1942b).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae cylindrical, sides straight, apices truncate, 2 sizes of setae, larger size on margin, others scattered over remainder of surface, 4 or 5 lateral setae on margins of each abdominal segment; dorsum also with body setae, slightly longer than enlarged setae; antennae 8-segmented; anal lobes weakly nodulose, with 2 enlarged setae (Takahashi, 1942b).

KEYS: Tang & Hao 1995: 453, 650 (adult female) [Eriococcus species].

CITATIONS: Ali1970a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 77]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 118]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 101]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 604]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 352-353]; Takaha1942b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 8-10]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 453, 496, 650].



Acanthococcus tenuis (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus tenuis Green, 1922: 351, 352. Type data: SRI LANKA: Pundaluoya, on undetermined Gramineae, ?/10/1907. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: both sexes. Illust. Notes: There are 4 adult female syntypes on 1 slide in the BMNH (Williams, personal communication, May 15, 1996).

Nidularia tenuis; Lindinger, 1933a: 117. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus tenuis; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 604. Change of combination.



HOST: Poaceae [Hoy1963].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Sri Lanka [Green1922].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration by Green (1922).

STRUCTURE: Ovisac of female is pure white, elongate oval, moderately convex, closely felted. Adult female is very pale greenish-yellow in color. Adult male is purplish brown (Green, 1922).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, sides straight, apices acute, setae all approximately same size, arranged in 3 longitudinal lines on each side of abdomen and thorax except absent in medial and mediolateral areas of posterior abdominal segments (Green, 1922).

KEYS: Tang & Hao 1995: 448, 645 (adult female) [Eriococcus species].

CITATIONS: Ali1970a [distribution, host: 77]; Green1922 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 347, 351-2]; Green1937 [distribution, host: 296]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 118]; Jancke1955 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 286-287]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 101]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 117]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 604]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 354]; Ramakr1926 [distribution, host: 452]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 448, 496-497, 645]; Wang2001 [taxonomy: 217].



Acanthococcus tepperi (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus tepperi Maskell, 1892: 29. Type data: AUSTRALIA: on Eucalyptus globulus. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Gullan & Vranjic, 1991: 35. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia. Described: both sexes. Illust. Notes: Type material also in the BMNH, NZAC and USNM.

Nidularia tepperi; Lindinger, 1933a: 117. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus tepperi; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 604. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus amygdalina [WhithaMoPo1994], Eucalyptus globulus [Maskel1892], Eucalyptus gregsoniana [GullanVr1991], Eucalyptus ridsonii [WhithaMoPo1994], Eucalyptus sp. [Maskel1892], Eucalyptus stellulata [GullanVr1991], Eucalyptus tenuiramis [GullanVr1991], Eucalyptus viminalis [Hoy1963]. Pittosporaceae: Bursaria spinosa [Hoy1963].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Australian Capital Territory [Gullan1991], New South Wales [Hoy1963], South Australia [Hoy1963], Tasmania [Hoy1963]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description by Gullan & Vranjic (1991). Some distribution and associate records may be incorrect since this species is easily confused with A. confusus and A. coriaceus (Gullan & Vranjic, 1991).

STRUCTURE: Sac of female is dirty white or yellowish, elongated, elliptical, often aggregated in masses. Sac of male similar, but smaller. Adult female dark red or brown. First-instar nymph red, flattish, elliptical, active. Adult male is dark red, wings irridescent (Maskell, 1892). Crushed female bodies are orange-brown and turn reddish brown in 10% KOH solution (Gullan & Vranjic, 1991).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae slender to robust, often slightly curved, apices pointed, 2 sizes of setae, large size in marginal areas around body, with longest and most robust setae on posterior abdominal segments, short setae scattered sparsely on head and thorax and on all abdominal segments except absent from last (Gullan & Vranjic, 1991).

KEYS: Gullan & Vranjic 1991: 26 (adult female) [Australian species of Eriococcus infesting Eucalyptus species].

CITATIONS: Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 323]; CookGu2004 [taxonomy: 444]; DeitzTo1980 [distribution, taxonomy: 49]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 79]; Frogga1900 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 106]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 78, 83, 88-9]; GullanCo2001 [taxonomy: 95]; GullanVr1991 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 22, 26, 35-36, 39]; GwiazdVaDe2006 [phylogenetics: 16]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy : 118]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 101]; Lidget1898 [distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 92]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy : 117]; Maskel1892 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 29]; Maskel1895a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 23]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 604]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 354-355]; NanDeWu2013 [phylogenetics: 173]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 99]; WhithaMoPo1994 [host: 488].



Acanthococcus tesselatus (Froggatt)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus tesselatus Froggatt, 1916: 576. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Manly, on Eucalyptus sp., 08/05/1896. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Gullan & Vranjic, 1991: 37. Type depository: Orange: Agricultural Scientific Collections Trust, New South Wales Agriculture, NSW, Australia. Described: female.

Acanthococcus tesselatus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 604. Change of combination.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus sp. [Hoy1963]

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Hoy1963]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Froggatt (1916). Gullan & Vranjic (1991) also provide a description.

STRUCTURE: Sac of female is elongate, often half buried in a crack in the bark surface, white to brown in color. Adult female is bright red, rounded and oval (Froggatt, 1921a).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae slender, conical, apices slightly rounded, all approximately same general size except 1 pair in medial area of abdominal segment 7 slightly longer; dorsum tuberculate, covered in irregularly circular to oval, slightly elevated, sclerotized patches (Gullan & Vranjic, 1991).

KEYS: Gullan & Vranjic 1991: 26 (adult female) [Australian species of Eriococcus which infest Eucalyptus species].

CITATIONS: Frogga1916 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 576]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 89]; GullanVr1991 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 2, 26, 37]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 118]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 101]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 604]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 355-356]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 99].



Acanthococcus tholothrix (Miller & González)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus tholothrix Miller & González, 1975: 146-149. Type data: CHILE: Ńuble, Termas de Chillán, from Nothofagus dombeyi, 22/11/1968, by R.H. González. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Santiago: Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Paratypes in the BMNH and USNM

Acanthococcus tholothrix; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 604. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: dome seta eriococcin [MillerGo1975].



HOSTS: Eucryphiaceae: Eucryphia cordifolia [MillerGo1975]. Fagaceae: Nothofagus dombeyi [MillerGo1975].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Chile (Los Lagos [MillerGo1975]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Miller & González (1975).

STRUCTURE: Adult female produces a felted, gray ovisac on the undersides of the host leaves (Miller & González, 1975).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae nipple shaped, sides straight or convex, apices rounded, setae of 2 or 3 sizes, large size forming 3 or 4 longitudinal lines on each side of body, small size scattered over dorsum; anal lobes heavily sclerotized; claw digitules enlarged; microtubular ducts of medium length, with 1 sclerotized area (Miller & González, 1975).

KEYS: Kondo et al. 2006: 34-35 (female, adult) [Revised key to adult females of the Eriococcidae of Chile]; Hodgson & Miller 2002: 193 (female) [Key to adult females of genera and species of Eriococcidae known from Chile]; Miller & González 1975: 138 (adult female) [Eriococcus species of Chile].

CITATIONS: HardyGuHe2008 [host, phylogeny, structure: 366, 369-373]; HodgsoMi2010 [host, taxonomy: 99-100]; KondoHaCo2006 [taxonomy: 34-35]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 101]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 604]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 358-359]; MillerGo1975 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 146-149]; NanDeWu2013 [phylogenetics, taxonomy: 171, 173-174].



Acanthococcus thymi (Schrank)

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus thymi Schrank, 1801: 146. Unknown type status, type designation unknown. Notes: Lindinger (1933a) considered Eriococcus thymi Schrank (1801) as different from E. thymi Signoret (1875b). Williams (1985h) disagrees in the following statement: "Although there is no original material available, there seems to be no doubt that the specimens examined and identified by Signoret and others identified by Marchal and Goux represent the species described by Schrank on Thymus as C[occus] thymi and on Daphne gnidium as R[hizococcus] gnidii." Matile-Ferrero & Danzig visited the Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna in June of 1997 and were unable to locate any type material of this species.

Eriococcus thymi; Signoret, 1875b: 32. Described: female. Change of combination.

Rhizococcus gnidii Signoret, 1875b: 37. Type data: FRANCE: Estrelle Mountains, near Cannes, on Daphne gnidium. Unknown type status. Described: female. Synonymy by Williams, 1985h: 382. Notes: Matile-Ferrero & Danzig visited the Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna in June of 1997 and were unable to locate type material, but did find specimens labeled as follows: "Cannes/Gall. Mer./Daphne gnidium/gnidii det. Signoret/n°4/coll. Nat. Mus. Wien/Rhizococcus gnidii Sign." Since this label does not contain any indication that it was collected in the Estrelle Mountains which is part of the type locality, this material is probably not part of the type series.

Eriococcus ericae; Lindinger, 1912b: 367. Incorrect synonymy; discovered by Hoy, 1963: 120. Notes: Lindinger (1912b) incorrectly considered E. ericae to be a junior synonym of E. thymi (Hoy, 1963).

Eriococcus gnidii; Lindinger, 1931a: 43. Change of combination.

Nidularia gnidii; Lindinger, 1933a: 166. Change of combination.

Eriococcus devoniensis; Lindinger, 1957: 548. Incorrect synonymy; discovered by Hoy, 1963: 120.

Eriococcus reynei; Lindinger, 1957: 548. Incorrect synonymy; discovered by Hoy, 1963: 120. Notes: Lindinger (1957) incorrectly synonymized E. reynei with E. thymi (Hoy, 1963).

Nidularia thymi; Lindinger, 1957: 548. Change of combination.

Acanthoccocus thymi; Kozár & Walter, 1985: 74. Change of combination. Notes: Miller & Gimpel (1996) incorrectly considered Acanthococcus thymi to be a new combination.

Rhizococcus thymi; Tang & Hao, 1995: 541. Described: female. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus gnidii; Kozár, 2009: 92. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus thymi; Kozár et al., 2013: 166-169. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Artemisia herba-alba [Hoy1963], Artemisia nana [Hoy1963], Artemisia sp. [Hoy1963], Santolina rosmarinifolia [Hoy1963]. Boraginaceae: Anthusa sp. [KaydanUlEr2007]. Chenopodiaceae: Salicornia sp. [Hoy1963], Suaeda vera [Foldi2002]. Compositeae: Centaurea solstitialis [KaydanUlEr2007]. Ericaceae: Calluna sp. [Kohler1998], Erica arborea [Hoy1963], Erica carnea [Hoy1963], Erica scoparia [Hoy1963], Erica tetralix [Hoy1963]. Labiatae: Thymus mastichina [Hoy1963], Thymus sp. [Hoy1963], Thymus vulgaris [Hoy1963]. Labitatae: Teucrium sp. [Kohler1998]. Thymelaeaceae: Daphne gnidium [Signor1875b], Thymelaea villosa [Hoy1963].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: France [Hoy1963, Foldi2001, Foldi2002]; Germany [Hoy1963]; Hungary [KozarKoFe2013]; Israel [Kohler1998]; Italy [Hoy1963]; Portugal [FrancoRuMa2011]; Spain [Hoy1963]; Switzerland [Hoy1963]; Turkey [KaydanUlTo2002].

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Williams (1985h).

STRUCTURE: Adult female is brown, sac is small and white (Signoret, 1875b).

SYSTEMATICS: Lindinger (1933a) incorrectly considered Eriococcus thymi (Signoret) not Schrank to be a junior synonym of E. ericae Signoret. In 1957, he erroneously treated E. devoniensis (Green) and E. reynei Schmutterer as junior synonyms of E. thymi (Schrank).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 75-77 (female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus]; Kozár et al. 2013: 392-396 (female) [as Rhizococcus gnidii; Key to species of Rhizococcux]; Tang & Hao 1995: 519, 653 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus thymi; Rhizococcus species].

CITATIONS: Ali1970 [taxonomy: 76]; BenDov2012 [distribution: 41]; Borchs1948 [taxonomy: 501]; CebeciKu2005 [distribution, host: 97-102]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 324]; Danzig1975a [taxonomy: 42]; DziedzKo1971 [taxonomy: 558]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 79]; Ferris1955a [taxonomy: 94]; Ferris1957c [taxonomy: 85]; Foldi2000 [distribution, host: 81]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 305]; Foldi2002 [distribution: 246]; FrancoRuMa2011 [distribution: 2,16,25]; GomezM1937 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 346, 354-6]; GomezM1948 [distribution, host: 105]; GomezM1954 [distribution, host: 144]; GomezM1957 [distribution, host: 79]; GomezM1958a [distribution, host: 9, 13, 14]; GomezM1960O [distribution, host: 201]; GomezM1968 [distribution, host: 553]; Goux1931 [distribution, host: 331]; Goux1931a [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 73-4]; Goux1934a [distribution, host: 31]; Goux1936a [taxonomy: 353]; Goux1936b [taxonomy: 294, 298]; Goux1938d [taxonomy: 328]; Goux1944 [taxonomy: 137]; Goux1946a [taxonomy: 90]; Goux1948a [taxonomy: 67, 69]; Hoy1962 [taxonomy: 28, 30]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 92, 120]; KaydanUlEr2007 [distribution, host: 90-106]; KaydanUlTo2002 [distribution, host: 255]; Kiritc1940 [taxonomy: 127]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 384-385]; Koteja1974 [taxonomy: 296]; Koteja1986c [taxonomy: 28]; KotejaZa1981 [taxonomy: 501]; Kozar1986 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 172]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 92, 94]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 462-464]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 59]; KozarKoFe2013 [distribution, taxonomy: 55, 56]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 74]; Lindin1912b [distribution, host: 133]; Lindin1914 [taxonomy: 244]; Lindin1931 [distribution, host: 115-6, 121]; Lindin1931a [taxonomy: 43]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 108, 116]; Lindin1935 [taxonomy: 134]; Lindin1938 [taxonomy: 5]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 548]; MacGil1921 [host, taxonomy: 145]; Marcha1909e [host, taxonomy: 198]; Martin1985 [distribution, host: 93]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 360-361]; OuvrarKo2009 [host, phylogeny, structure, taxonomy: 102-118]; PellizKo2011 [distribution: 66]; Schran1801 [taxonomy: 146]; Signor1875b [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 32, 37]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 16]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 519, 541, 653]; Willia1985h [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 382]; WilliaBe2009 [catalogue: 45]; Yang1982 [distribution, taxonomy: 105, 107].



Acanthococcus tokaedae (Kuwana)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus tokaedae Kuwana, 1932c: 146-7. Type data: JAPAN: Honshu, Tokyo City, on Acer trifidum, 13/05/1932, by K. Muramatsu. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Ibaraki-ken: Insect Taxonomy Laboratory, National Institute of Agricultural Environmental Sciences, Kannon-dai, Yatabe, Tsukuba-shi, (Kuwana), Japan. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus tokaedae; Kozár & Walter, 1985: 74. Change of combination.

Eriococcus tokaetae; Tang & Hao, 1995: 589. Misspelling of species name.

COMMON NAME: acer scale [Yang1982].



HOSTS: Aceraceae: Acer trifidum [Kuwana1932c]. Betulaceae: Alnus [Kohler1998]. Hippocastanaceae: Aesculus sp. [Kohler1998]. Pinaceae: Pinus sp. [Hua2000]. Rosaceae: Pyrus sp. [Hua2000], Rosa sp. [Hua2000]

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: China (Sichuan (=Szechwan) [Hua2000]). Palaearctic: China (Hebei (=Hopei) [Hua2000], Xizang (=Tibet) [Wang1981TC]); Japan (Honshu [Kuwana1932c]); South Korea [Paik1978].

BIOLOGY: On twigs and stems. (Kozár, et al., 2013)

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Kuwana (1932c).

STRUCTURE: Sac is dense, grayish white, covered with protruding filaments of white secretions, nearly oval and moderately convex. Female is oval. Male sac is similar to female, but smaller (Kuwana, 1932c).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae cylindrical, sides straight, apices rounded, setae all approximately same general size but marginal setae slightly larger, abundant over surface, without dorsal setae on segment 8 anterior of anal ring; anal lobe with teeth on medial margin (Kuwana, 1932c).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 75-77 (female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus]; Kwon & Han 2003a: 156-157 (female) [as Eriococcus tokaedae; Key to the Species of Eriococcus in Korea]; Wang 2001: 208 [as Eriococcus tokaedae; Key to Eriococcus of China]; Tang & Hao 1995: 450, 647 (adult female) [as Eriococcus tokaedae; Eriococcus species]; Wang 1982c: 143 (adult female) [as Eriococcus tokaedae; Eriococcus species]; Wang 1982ZQ: 41 (adult female) [as Eriococcus tokaedae; Eriococcus species of China]; Wang 1980: 115 (adult female) [as Eriococcus tokaedae; Eriococcus species]; Takahashi 1957: 7 (adult female) [as Eriococcus tokaedae; Some Eriococcus species of Japan].

CITATIONS: HertinSi1972 [biological control: 132]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 121]; Hua2000 [distribution, host: 137]; Kawai1972 [taxonomy: 4]; Kawai1980 [description, distribution: 129]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 385]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 94]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 170-172]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 74]; KSPP1972 [taxonomy: 106]; Kuwana1932c [taxonomy: 146-7]; KwonHa2003a [taxonomy, distribution, host: 151]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 363-364]; Paik1978 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 167]; Takaha1957 [taxonomy: 7]; TakahaTa1956 [distribution, host: 2]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 450, 497, 647]; Wang1980 [description, distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 115, 116]; Wang1981TC [distribution, host, taxonomy: 287]; Wang1982c [taxonomy: 143]; Wang1982ZQ [distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 41, 45]; Wang2001 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 208, 211-212].



Acanthococcus transversus (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus transversus Green, 1922: 351. Type data: SRI LANKA: Maskelyia, on Arundinaria sp?, ?/08/1902, by E.E. Green. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust. Notes: There are three adult female syntypes on 1 slide in the BMNH (Williams, personal communication, May 15, 1996).

Acanthococcus transversus; Kozár & Walter, 1985: 74. Change of combination.

Rhizococcus transversus; Xu & Wu, 1989: 117-119. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus transversus; Kozár, 2009: 94. Revived combination.



FOES: COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Harmonia axyridis [XuWu1989], Harmonia obscurosignata [XuWu1989]. HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Anagyrus quadrimaculatus [XuHeZh1996].

HOSTS: Poaceae: Arundinaria debilis? [Green1922], Arundinaria sp. [Green1922], Bambusa dissemulator var. hispida [Wang1982c], Bambusa textilis [Wang1982c], Bambusa vulgaris [Wang1982c].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: China (Fujian (=Fukien) [Hua2000], Guangxi (=Kwangsi) [Hua2000], Jiangsu (=Kiangsu) [Hua2000], Jiangsu (=Kiangsu) [XuWu1989], Sichuan (=Szechwan) [Hua2000], Zhejiang (=Chekiang) [Hua2000]); India [Green1922]; Sri Lanka [Green1922]; Taiwan [Ali1970a, Hua2000]. Palaearctic: China [XuWu1989] [FangWuXu2001] (Henan (=Honan) [Hua2000]).

BIOLOGY: Found across the axils of leaves, in the angles of branches. (Kozár, et al., 2013)

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Green (1922). Redescriptin and illustration in Kozár, et al., 2013.

STRUCTURE: Female sac is ochreous white, laterally compressed and curved into the shape of a horseshoe. Adult female is olivaceous brown, darker beneath, also curved into a loop (Green, 1922).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, sides straight, apices acute, setae of 2 sizes, larger size present around body margin, smaller size abundant over remainder of dorsum (Green, 1922).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 75-77 (female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus]; Wang 2001: 208 [as Eriococcus transversus; Key to Eriococcus of China]; Tang & Hao 1995: 451, 648 (adult female) [as Eriococcus transversus; Eriococcus species]; Wang 1982c: 143 (adult female) [as Eriococcus transversus; Eriococcus species]; Wang 1982ZQ: 41 (adult female) [as Eriococcus transversus; Eriococcus species of China].

CITATIONS: Ali1970a [distribution, host: 77]; BhasinRo1954 [distribution, host: 90]; FangWuXu2001 [distribution, host: 104]; Green1922 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 347, 351]; Green1937 [distribution, host: 297]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 121]; Hua2000 [distribution, host: 137]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 385]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 94]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 172-174]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 74]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 365-366]; Ramakr1926 [distribution, host: 452]; Takaha1930 [distribution, host, life history: 12, 38]; Tang2001 [taxonomy: 3]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 451, 497, 498, 648]; Wang1974 [taxonomy: 329]; Wang1982c [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 143, 149-150]; Wang1982ZQ [distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 41, 48]; Wang2001 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 208, 217-218]; WangVaXu1998 [distribution, economic importance, host: 81, 186]; XuHeZh1996 [biological control, distribution, host: 71]; XuWu1989 [biological control, distribution, economic importance, host: 117-119]; Yang1982 [distribution, taxonomy: 105].



Acanthococcus tricarinatus (Fuller)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus simplex dealbata; Maskell, 1897: 317-318. Described: female. Incorrect synonymy; discovered by Gullan & Vranjic, 1991: 38.

Eriococcus tricarinatus Fuller, 1897b: 1345. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Western Australia, on Eucalyptus gomphocephala, by C. Fuller. Unknown type status, type designation unknown. Notes: There is one slide in the BMNH labeled "Eriococcus tricarinatus Fuller, W. Australia, ex. coll. C. French," but this may not be part of the type series (Gullan, personal communication, June 10, 1996).

Nidularia tricarinatus; Lindinger, 1933a: 117. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus tricarinatus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 604. Change of combination.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus gomphocephala [Fuller1897b].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Western Australia [Fuller1897b]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description by Fuller (1899). Comments on the status of this species by Gullan & Vranjic (1991).

STRUCTURE: Female sac is elongate-oval, convex. Adult female filling sac, purple or brown in color (Fuller, 1899).

SYSTEMATICS: Maskell (1897) in his original description of Eriococcus simplex var. dealbata indicated that it was very similar to Eriococcus simplex simplex and differed only in the color of the ovisac. In 1897, Fuller gave a very brief description of Eriococcus tricarinatus. Maskell's paper was published in June 1897 and Fuller's paper was printed August 1897. Fuller (1899) gave a more detailed description of E. tricarinatus under a centered heading "13. Eriococcus simplex, var. dealbatus Maskell." He started the description after the heading as follows "Eriococcus tricarinatus, sp. n. (Plate XV, figs. 6, 6a.)" The species name used for figures 6 and 6a is Eriococcus tricarinatus. It is unclear what Fuller really intended. Did he consider E. tricarinatus to be a junior synonym of E. simplex dealbatus or the reverse? Why did he indicate E. tricarinatus to be a new species when it was previously described? Several authors including Hoy (1963) and Deitz & Tocker (1980) listed them as synonyms with E. tricarinatus as the senior synonym. Others, including Cockerell (1899a), Sanders (1906) and Froggatt (1921a) considered them to be separate. Gullan & Vranjic (1991) questioned the synonomy. If E. tricarinatus and E. simplex dealbatus are synonyms, the senior synonym should be E. simplex dealbatus Maskell (June 1897) and the junior synonym should be E. tricarinatus Fuller (August 1897). There also maybe some question as to whether E. simplex dealbatus is a synonym of E. simplex simplex since the only difference mentioned by Maskell in the original description is the color of the ovisac which is prone to variation based on environmental conditions. Therefore, we are considering all three taxa: E. simplex simplex, E. simplex dealbatus and E. tricarinatus to be separate until further study can be conducted.

CITATIONS: Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 391]; DeitzTo1980 [distribution, taxonomy: 46]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 90]; Fuller1897b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 1345]; Fuller1899 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 442]; Green1929 [taxonomy: 376]; GullanVr1991 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 38]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 121]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 101]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 117]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 604]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 366-367]; Sander1906 [taxonomy: 4].



Acanthococcus tripartitus (Fuller)

NOMENCLATURE:

Rhizococcus tripartitus Fuller, 1897b: 1345. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Western Australia, on Casuarina sp., by C. Fuller. Syntypes, female (examined). Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Notes: Slides in USNM indicate that it was collected in Perth in 1897.

Nidularia tripartitus; Lindinger, 1933a: 117. Change of combination.

Eriococcus tripartitus; Hoy, 1963: 122. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus tripartitus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 604. Change of combination.



HOST: Casuarinaceae: Casuarina sp. [Fuller1899]

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Western Australia [Fuller1897b]).

BIOLOGY: Fuller (1899) states that this species is viviparous.

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Fuller (1900).

STRUCTURE: Adult female naked, at first an obscure green (olive), becoming light brown or buff colored with maturity. Body elongate, wedge shaped, tapering at both ends. First-instar nymph elongate, segmented, with very distinct anal tubercles which are spined and bear long setae. Margin of body fringed with spines of which there are also 4 longitudinal and more conspicuous rows on the dorsum (Fuller, 1899).

CITATIONS: Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 391]; Frogga1915 [description, ditribution, host, taxonomy: 1062]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 67-8]; Frogga1933 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 365]; Fuller1897b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 1345]; Fuller1899 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 443]; Green1922 [taxonomy: 351]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 122]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 101]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 117]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 604]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 367].



Acanthococcus tucurincae (Laing)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus tucurincae Laing, 1929a: 467-9. Type data: COLOMBIA: Tucurinca, on undetermined host, by C.C. Gowdey. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust. Notes: There are six adult female syntypes on five slides in the BMNH (Williams, personal communication, May 29, 1996). Although there is a slide containing one adult female that is marked as "type" neither the terms "type" nor "holotype" were used in the original description so the type series must be considered syntypes.

Nidularia tucurincae; Lindinger, 1933a: 117. Change of combination.

Eriococcus henryi; Balachowsky, 1933a: 47. Incorrect synonymy; discovered by Boratynski, 1962: 59.

Eriococcus polyphagus; Balachowsky, 1933a: 47. Incorrect synonymy; discovered by Boratynski, 1962: 59.

Acanthococcus tucurincae; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 604. Change of combination.



HOST: Fabaceae: Ulex spectabilis [Rungs1948].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Colombia [Hoy1963].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed descriptions by Laing (1929a).

STRUCTURE: Ovisac is ovoid, whitish, closely felted, completely enclosing the female except for the caudal opening. Adult female is very dark brown, clearing completely in potash, ovate (Laing, 1929a).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, sides concave basally, convex medially, apices acute, setae all approximately of same general size, abundant over surface (Laing, 1929a).

CITATIONS: Balach1932e [taxonomy: 233]; Balach1933a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 47-48]; Bodenh1943 [distribution, host: 24]; Boraty1962 [distribution, taxonomy: 59]; Goux1931a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 63, 66, 68-72]; HodgsoMi2010 [host, taxonomy: 99-100]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 122]; Kondo2001 [distribution, host: 40]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 101]; Laing1929a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 467-9]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 117]; Lindin1936 [taxonomy: 156]; Lindin1943b [taxonomy: 223]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 604]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 368-369]; Reyne1964 [distribution, taxonomy: 101, 102, 103, 105]; Rungs1948 [distribution, host: 116].



Acanthococcus ulmarius Danzig

NOMENCLATURE:

Acanthococcus ulmarius Danzig, 1975a: 44. Type data: RUSSIA: Southern Primor'ye, Komarovo-zapovednoye, on Ulmus propinqua, 16/07/1969, by E. Danzig. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Gossyparisa spurisa; Tang in Tang & Li, 1988: 75. Described: female. Illust. Misidentification; discovered by Tang & Hao, 1995: 595. Notes: Tang (Tang & Li, 1988) misidentified this species as Gossyparia spuria and also misspelled both the genus and the species as Gossyparisa spurisa.

Eriococcus ulmarius; Tang & Hao, 1995: 499-500. Described: female. Illust. Change of combination.

Eriococcus ulmaxius; Tao, 1999: 33. Misspelling of species name.

Eriococcus ullmarius; Wang, 2001: 208. Misspelling of species name.

Acanthococcus ulmarius; Kozár, 2009: 94. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Ulmaceae: Ulmus dividiana [Wang2001], Ulmus propinqua [Danzig1975a], Ulmus pumila [TangLi1988].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China (Nei Monggol (=Inner Mongolia) [Tao1999]); Mongolia [KwonHa2003a]; North Korea [Danzig1986a]; Russia (Primor'ye Kray [Danzig1975a]).

BIOLOGY: Eggs are laid in mid June (Danzig, 1986a).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Danzig (1975a).

STRUCTURE: Adult female is oval, violet. Ovisac is oval, convex, dirty white, smooth. Eggs are pink (Danzig, 1975a).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae cylindrical, elongate, sides straight except concave basally, apices rounded, large size form longitudinal line medially, setae abundant over surface; anal lobes nodulose (Danzig, 1986a).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 75-77 (female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus]; Kwon & Han 2003a: 156-157 (female) [as Eriococcus ulmarius; Key to the Species of Eriococcus in Korea]; Wang 2001: 208 [as Eriococcus ulmarius; Key to Eriococcus of China]; Tang & Hao 1995: 449, 646 (adult female) [as Eriococcus ulmarius; Eriococcus species]; Danzig 1988: 708 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus ulmarius; Acanthococcus species of the far eastern USSR]; Danzig 1986a: 240 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus ulmarius; Acanthococcus species of the far eastern USSR]; Danzig 1975a: 43 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus ulmarius; Acanthococcus species of the far eastern USSR].

CITATIONS: Danzig1975a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 43, 44]; Danzig1977b [taxonomy: 57]; Danzig1980b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 205, 207]; Danzig1986a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 240, 243]; Danzig1988 [taxonomy: 708]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 386]; KotejaZa1981 [taxonomy: 514]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 94]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 174-176]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 74]; KwonHa2003a [taxonomy, distribution, host: 151]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 370-371]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 449, 499-500, 646, 728]; TangLi1988 [taxonomy: 75]; Tao1999 [distribution, host: 33]; Wang2001 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 208, 214-215].



Acanthococcus uvaeursi (Linnaeus)

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus uvae-ursi Linnaeus, 1761: 266. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Linnean Society of London, England.

Eriococcus bezzii; Lindinger, 1912b: 367. Incorrect synonymy. Notes: Lindinger (1912b) incorrectly considered E. bezzii to be a junior synonym of E. uvaeursi. To distinguish between these species see the systematics remarks.

Eriococcus uvae-ursi; Lindinger, 1912b: 74. Change of combination.

Nidularia uvae-ursi; Lindinger, 1933a: 117. Change of combination.

Eriococcus bahiae; Goux, 1948a: 69. Incorrect synonymy.

Acanthococcus uvae-ursi; Borchsenius, 1949: 45, 47, 334, 349. Described: female. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus uvaeursi; Borchsenius, 1963a: 215. Justified emendation.

COMMON NAME: Linnaeus' felt scale [KosztaKo1988F].



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Artemisia sp. [Tao1999], Eriophyllum sp. [Kohler1998]. Ericaceae: Arbutus sp. [Hoy1963], Arctostaphylos uva-ursi [Hoy1963], Azalea indica [Hoy1963], Azalea sp. [Hoy1963], Erica sp. [KosztaKo1988F], Eubotryoides grayana [Danzig1986], Eubotryoides sp. [KosztaKo1988F], Ledum macrophyllum [Danzig1986], Ledum sp. [KosztaKo1988F], Rhododendron sp. [Hoy1963], Rhododendron tolmachevii [KozarKaKo2013], Vaccinium hirtum [Danzig1986], Vaccinium myrtillus [Danzig1994], Vaccinium praestans [Danzig1986], Vaccinium uliginosum [Hoy1963], Vaccinium vitis-idaea [Danzig1994]. Umbelliferae: Crithmum maritimum [Foldi2000], Crithmum sp. [Kohler1998]

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Austria [Kohler1998]; China (Nei Monggol (=Inner Mongolia) [TangHa1995]); France [Kohler1998]; Germany [Hoy1963]; Italy [KosztaKo1988F, MatilePe2002]; Russia [Hoy1963] (Siberia) (Amur Oblast [Hoy1963], Khabarovsk Kray [Danzig1986], Kuril Islands [Danzig1986], Primor'ye Kray [Danzig1986], St. Petersburg (=Leningrad) Oblast [Hoy1963]); Sweden [KosztaKo1988F, Gertss2001]; Switzerland [Danzig1994]; Ukraine (Zakarpat'ye (=Transcarpathia) Oblast [Terezn1959]).

BIOLOGY: Considered to be a rare montane species. Has been observed at elevations of 2,600m (Kosztarab & Kozár, 1988). This species could have two generations per year (Danzig, 1986).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Danzig (1986a). Original description by Linnaeus in Williams & Gertsson, 2009)

STRUCTURE: Ovisac is oval, cocoon-like, felted, grayish and covers the insect completely. Adult female is dark red and oval (Danzig, 1986a).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, thin, sides straight, marginal setae slightly longer than others, setae in medial and mediolateral areas increasing in size anteriorly, forming 3 longitudinal lines on each side of abdomen; hind legs without translucent pores (Danzig, 1986a). This species was incorrectly synonymized with E. azaleae by Lindinger (1932f) and also with E. bezzii by Ossiannilsson (1951). Eriococcus azaleae has enlarged setae approximately the same size medially and laterally whereas E. bezzii has the medial setae conspicuously smaller than the lateral setae. Goux (1948a) incorrectly synonymized Eriococcus bezzii (Leonardi) and Eriococcus bahiae Ehrhorn (= E. texanus) with E. uvaeursi. Eriococcus uvaeursi has relatively short microtubular ducts while E. bezzii has longer microtubular ducts. Eriococcus bahiae = texanus differs from E. bezzii in the shape of the enlarged setae, the size of the microtubular ducts, lack of teeth on the anal lobes and multilocular pores predominantly with more than 5 loculi.

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 75-77 (female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus]; Wang 2001: 209 [as Eriococcud uvaeursi; Key to Eriococcus of China]; Tang & Hao 1995: 452, 649 (adult female) [as Eriococcus uvaeursi; Eriococcus species]; Danzig 1988: 708 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus uvaeursi; Acanthococcus species of the far eastern USSR]; Kosztarab & Kozár 1988: 277 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus uvaeursi; Acanthococcus species of central Europe]; Danzig 1986: 240 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus uvaeursi; Acanthococcus species of the far eastern USSR]; Danzig 1971d: 821 (female) [as Acanthococcus uvaeursi; Key to species of family Eriococcidae]; Danzig 1964: 632 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus uvaeursi; Acanthococcus species of the far eastern USSR]; Danzig 1962a: 43 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus uvaeursi; Far eastern Soviet Acanthococcus species]; Borchsenius 1949: 334 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus uvaeursi; Acanthococcus species of USSR]; Borchsenius 1938: 135 (adult female) [as Eriococcus uvae-ursi; Eriococcus species of the far eastern USSR].

CITATIONS: Borchs1938 [distribution, host: 135]; Borchs1949 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 45, 47, 334, 349]; Borchs1950b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 121]; Borchs1963a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 214, 215]; Borchs1973 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 215]; Danzig1959 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 443, 446]; Danzig1964 [taxonomy: 632]; Danzig1971d [taxonomy: 821]; Danzig1975a [taxonomy: 43]; Danzig1977b [taxonomy: 53, 57]; Danzig1978 [host, taxonomy: 13]; Danzig1978a [host, taxonomy: 77]; Danzig1980b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 215, 217-218]; Danzig1986a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 240, 253]; Danzig1988 [taxonomy: 708]; Danzig1994 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 47]; DanzigKo1974 [taxonomy: 10]; Flachs1931 [taxonomy: 57]; Foldi2000 [distribution, host: 81]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 305]; Gertss2001 [distribution: 125, 128]; Gertss2008 [taxonomy: 56]; Goux1936a [taxonomy: 352]; Goux1936b [taxonomy: 299]; Goux1948a [taxonomy: 69]; Goux1989a [structure: 21]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 123]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 386]; KosztaKo1978 [host, taxonomy: 76]; KosztaKo1988F [description, distribution, host, life history, taxonomy: 277, 285-286]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, illustration, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 176-179]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 74]; LauberTr1929 [taxonomy: 6]; Lindin1912b [host, taxonomy: 74]; Lindin1923 [distribution: 146]; Lindin1931 [distribution, host: 121]; Lindin1931a [taxonomy: 43]; Lindin1932f [taxonomy: 201]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 117]; Lindin1935 [taxonomy: 135]; Lindin1943b [taxonomy: 223]; Linnae1761 [taxonomy: 266]; MatilePe2002 [distribution, host: 354]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, life history, taxonomy: 371-373]; Ossian1951 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 3, 4]; OuvrarKo2009 [host, phylogeny, structure, taxonomy: 102-118]; PellizKo2011 [distribution: 66]; Rasina1966 [taxonomy: 20]; Schmut1955 [distribution, host: 161]; Schmut1980 [taxonomy: 50]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 452, 500-501, 596, 649]; Tao1999 [distribution, host: 33]; Terezn1959 [distribution: 683-5]; Terezn1959c [taxonomy: 796]; Terezn1959d [taxonomy: 92]; Terezn1960a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 538]; Terezn1963 [distribution, host: 187]; Terezn1963a [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 47-48]; Terezn1963c [distribution, host, taxonomy: 1527]; Terezn1966 [distribution, host: 25]; Terezn1966c [distribution, host, taxonomy: 963]; Terezn1967a [distribution: 475]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy: 28]; Terezn1981 [taxonomy: 40]; Wang2001 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 209, 219-220]; WilliaBe2009 [catalogue: 9,47,48]; WilliaGe2005 [description: 3419-3422].



Acanthococcus venezuelaensis (Foldi & Kozár)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus venezuelaensis Foldi & Kozár, 2007: 60-61. Type data: VENEZUELA: Zulia, near Puerto Chama, on Cassia siamea (Caesalpintaceae, 10/28/1984, by I Foldi. Holotype female (examined). Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus venezuelaensis; Kozár & Konczné Benedicty, 2008: 143. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Leguminosae: Cassia siamea [FoldiKo2007]. Myrtacae: Eugenia [HodgsoMi2010].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Venezuela [FoldiKo2007].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Foldi & Kozár, 2007.

STRUCTURE: Adult female body elongate oval, 2.25-2.38 mm long and 1.45-1.55 mm wide. Antenna 7 segmented; antennal segments with few hair-like setae; apical segment setae plus 3 sensory falcate setae; 2 preapical segments each with a falcate sensory seta. Frontal lobes well developed. Eyes near margin on venter. Venter:

SYSTEMATICS: A. venezuelaensis is similar to A. jorgenseni (Morrison, 1919) and A. maximus in the arrangement of the spinose setae on the dorsum and in the arrangement of cruciform pores on the venter. However, A. venezuelaensis differs from the latter two species in having fewer coxal pores (10-12), fewer cruciform pores and a greater density of dorsal spinose setae. A. venezuelaensis also has 14-16 setae across each of the two posterior abdominal segments, whereas A. jorgenseni and A. maximus have 22-28. In addition, there are large differences in the size of appendages. (Foldi & Kozár, 2007)

KEYS: Foldi & Kozár 2007: 62 (female) [as Eriococcus venezuelaensis; Key to species of Eriococcus discussed here from South America].

CITATIONS: FoldiKo2007 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 60-62]; HodgsoMi2010 [host, taxonomy: 99-100]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 94]; KozarKo2008 [taxonomy: 143].



Acanthococcus ventrispinus Kozár & Konczné Benedicty

NOMENCLATURE:

Acanthococcus ventrispinus Kozár & Konczné Benedicty, 2008: 135-137. Type data: CHILE: Alerce national Park, on Weinmania trichosperma, 01/15/1986, by K. Tetu. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Cunoniaceae: Weinmania [HodgsoMi2010].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Chile [KozarKo2008].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Kozár & Konczné Benedicty (2008).

STRUCTURE: Adult female: Body elongate oval, 2.435 (1.968-2.435) mm long and 1.450 (1.114-1.450) wide. Antenna 7 segmented. There is one sensory pore on the 2nd segment of the antenna and the 3rd segment is almost parallel sided. On apical segment three sensory falcate setae are found. On the two preapical segments, falcate sensory setae are present. the segments of teh antenna are covered with few hairlike setae. Both frontal lobe and frontal tubercles present. Eye situated on venter. Venter: Labium two-segmented. Basal segment with two pairs of setae. Legs long, claw digitules slightly knobbed. All coxae with spinulae, posterior coxae with hight number of small translucent pores. Trochanter with two pores on each side. Legs with few hairlike setae and with one sensory pore on tarsus. Dixc pores 5 locular, distributed in rare bands on all segments of abdomen and thorax. Venter with a small number of scattered ahir-like setae, of two sizes. in submarginal band spine-like setae in groups of 2-10. Microtubular duct present only on the margin. Macrotubular ducts of two sizes, in small number on all segments. Cruciform pores present in small number in a submarginal band. Dorsum: Dorsal setae spine-like, very strong, ide, 1-2 times longer than wide, of different sizes, found in one row on abdominal margin. One the abdominal margin 2-3 setae present on each segment. On the middorsum, setae about the same size in a rare ro. Macrotubular ducts present in small number on all segments. Microtubular ducts with bifurcated opening scattered among dorsal setae, one present on the base of spines. Disc pores absent. Anal lobes long with two short spine-like setae along inner margin. Anal lobes sclerotized. suranal setae hair-like. On penultimate segments, before the anal ring, a sclerotized plate absent.

SYSTEMATICS: This species is similar to A. adenostonae(Ehrhorn, 1898), but the latter has no cruciform pores and the structure of microtubular ducts is different. There are some similarities with A. arenariae Miller and Miller, 1993, but this species has longer spines on dorsum and the groups of spines on ventral submargin not developed, antennae six segmented, and the microtubular ducts are short. The A. microtrichus Miller & Miller, 1993, is different by shorter spines on dorsum and sex segmented antennae.

KEYS: Kozár & Konczné Benedicty 2008: 140 (adult, female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus found in this survey].

CITATIONS: Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 94]; KozarKo2008 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 135-138].



Acanthococcus villosus (Froggatt)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus villosa Froggatt, 1916: 577. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, near Grafton, Clarence River, on Busaria spinosa, by W.W. Froggatt. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Orange: Agricultural Scientific Collections Trust, New South Wales Agriculture, NSW, Australia. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Type depository information provided by Gullan (personal communication, June 10, 1996). Eriococcus villosus Froggatt is the senior primary homonym of Eriococcus villosus Ferris 1920b.

Eriococcus villosus; Hoy, 1963: 124. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.

Acanthococcus villosus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 605. Change of combination.



HOST: Pittosporaceae: Bursaria spinosa [Frogga1921a].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Frogga1916]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration by Froggatt (1921a).

STRUCTURE: Sac is elongate oval, closely felted. Adult female is dull yellowish brown, broadly rounded (Froggatt, 1921a).

SYSTEMATICS: Eriococcus villosus Ferris is a junior primary homonym of E. villosus Froggatt. The former is now known as E. dubius (Miller & Miller, 1992).

CITATIONS: Essig1926 [distribution, host: 274]; Ferris1920b [distribution, host: 7, 19, 22]; Ferris1955a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 97, 176]; Frogga1916 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 577]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 90]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 101]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 117]; Lindin1943b [taxonomy: 223]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 605]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 375].



Acanthococcus willinkae Kozár & Konczné Benedicty

NOMENCLATURE:

Acanthococcus willinkae Kozár & Konczné Benedicty, 2008. Type data: PERU: Huanuco (3400 m), on undertermined bush and litter, 12/02/1972, by J. Balogh. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Budapest: Plant Protection Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary. Described: female. Illust.

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Peru [KozarKo2008].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Kozár & Konczné Benedicty (2008).

STRUCTURE: Adult female: body elongate oval, 1.606 mm long and 0.803 mm wide. Antenna apparently 6 segmented with slight sign of division on the 3rd segment. there is one sensory pore on the 2nd segment of the antenna and the 3rd segment is almost parallel sided. On apical segment three sensory falcate setae are found. On the two preapical segments, falcate sensory setae are present. The segments of the antenna are covered with few hairlike setae. Frontal lobe present. Eye situated on venter. Venter: Labium two-segmented. Stylet loop reaches behind the second coxae. Legs long; claw digitules slightly knobbed. Coxae without spinulae, posterior coxae with small number of translucent pores. Trochanter with two pores on each side. Legs with few hairlike setae and with sensory pore on tarsus. disc pores 7-9 locular, distributed in rare bands on all segments of the abdomen and thorax. Venter with a small number of scattered, hair-like setae of two sizes. microtubular duct present only on the margin. Macrotubular ducts of two sizes, present in small number on all segments. Sessile pores present in a submarginal band. Dorsum: Dorsal setae spine-like of different sizes found in one row on most segments. On the margin 2-4 setae present. Macrotubular ducts present in small number on all segments. Microtubular ducts scattered among dorsal setae. Disc pores absent. Anal ring with eight hairlike setae. Anal lobes short, twice as long as wide, with two sine-like setae along inner margin. anal lobes not sclerotized. Suranal setae hair-like. On penultimate segments, before the anal ring, a sclerotized plate absent.

SYSTEMATICS: this species is similar to A. dubius (Cockerell, 1896), but differs with smaller number of dorsal setae, especially on the dorsal margin. by the presence of multilocular pores and a smaller number of cruciform pores. There is some similarity with A. eriogoni Dhrhorn, 1911) which has much shorter spines, more heavily sclerotized rim around multilocular pores and a smaller number of cruciform pores.

KEYS: Kozár & Konczné Benedicty 2008: 140 (adult, female) [Key to species of Acanthococcus found in this survey].

CITATIONS: HodgsoMi2010 [taxonomy: 100]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 94]; KozarKo2008 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 137-139].



Aculeococcus Lepage

NOMENCLATURE:

Aculeococcus Lepage, 1941: 141. Type species: Aculeococcus morrisoni Lepage, by monotypy.

BIOLOGY: Members of this genus form galls (Lepage, 1941). Induces elongate, pointed, conical galls on upper surface of leaves of host plant. (Hodgson & Miller, 2010)

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration of adult female and first instar nymph in Hodgson & Miller, 2010.

STRUCTURE: Body approximately pear shaped, venter becoming highly swollen anteriorly. Dorsum heavily sclerotized, forming a diamond shaped area, which includes anterior part of head. (Hodgson & Miller, 2010) Slide-mounted adult female with following diagnostic characters: turbinate body form; posterior abdominal segments sclerotized; small anal lobes; legs small but well developed; antennae reduced to 1-segmented stub; dorsal abdomen with stout, acute setae as long as segment that bears them; apparently without macrotubular ducts; quinquelocular pores present. First instar with: nipple-shaped enlarged setae; antennae 3-segmented; distinct anal lobes (Ferris, 1957b).

SYSTEMATICS: Adult females of Aculeococcus differ from many other eriococcid genera in having 1) mouthparts with large apodemes arising from the tentorial box - although these may be absent or poorly developed in youngest adults and probably expand with age (also found in Carpochloroides and Tectococcus), 2) heavily sclerotized, diamond-shaped area mainly dorsal but also including antennae and eyes, (and which probably serves as a plug for the gall opening), 3) greatly reduced legs; 4) hind 2 pairs of legs and posterior spiracles separated from front legs and anterior spiracles by considerable distance, and 5) hind coxae greatly enlarged. (Hodgson & Miller, 2010) Kozar, et al., 2013 kept this species in the family Eriococcidae.

KEYS: Hodgson et al. 2011: 54-55 (female) [Key to the Eriococcidae of the Neotropical Region based on the morphology of adult females]; Hodgson & Miller 2010: 90-96 (female, first instar) [Key to the Genera of the Eriococcidae of South America]; Kozár & Konczné Benedicty 2008: 140-142 (female, adult) [Modified key to genera of the Eriococcidae of Neotropical Region]; Hodgson et al. 2004: 52 (female) [Key to the genera of Eriococcidae]; Tang & Hao 1995: 642 (female) [Key to genera of Calycicoccina].

CITATIONS: Beards1984 [distribution, taxonomy: 85, 103]; Ferris1957b [description, taxonomy: 63]; Ferris1957c [taxonomy: 83]; GullanMiCo2005 [ecology, host, taxonomy: 166]; HaoWuJi1997 [distribution, taxonomy: 71-74]; HodgsoGoMi2004 [taxonomy: 52]; HodgsoMaMi2011 [taxonomy: 54]; HodgsoMi2010 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 10-14]; Hoy1963 [catalog, taxonomy: 31]; Koteja1974 [taxonomy: 301]; Kozar2009 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 111]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 616-620]; KozarKo2008 [taxonomy: 141]; Lepage1941 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 141]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, taxonomy: 20]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy: 3]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy: 436-437]; Wang1974 [taxonomy: 329].



Aculeococcus morrisoni Lepage

NOMENCLATURE:

Aculeococcus morrisoni Lepage, 1941: 141-145. Type data: BRAZIL: Prainha, S. Vicente & Guaruja, Santos, 08/08/1939. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo, Brazil. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Undetermined [Lepage1941].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Sao Paulo [Lepage1941]).

BIOLOGY: This species forms elongate conical leaf galls. The anal opening is at the base of the cone (Lepage, 1941).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed illustration and description of adult female and first instar by Lepage (1941).

STRUCTURE: No information available.

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with following diagnostic characters: turbinate body form; posterior abdominal segments sclerotized; small anal lobes; legs small but well developed; antennae reduced to 1-segmented stub; dorsal abdomen with stout, acute setae as long as segment that bears them. First instar with: nipple-shaped enlarged setae; antennae 3-segmented; distinct anal lobes (Ferris, 1957b).

CITATIONS: Beards1984 [distribution, taxonomy: 95]; Ferris1957b [taxonomy: 63]; Ferris1957c [taxonomy: 83]; HodgsoMi2010 [illustration, taxonomy: 13, 100]; Hoy1963 [catalog, distribution, host, taxonomy: 31]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 94]; Lepage1941 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 144]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 20]; TangHa1995 [distribution, taxonomy: 437-438].



Aculeococcus yongpingensis Tang & Hao

NOMENCLATURE:

Aculeococcus yongpingensis Tang & Hao, 1995: 437-438. Type data: CHINA: Yunnan, Shidian and Yongping, on Lauraceae ?, 01/05/1981. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Shanxi: Entomological Institute, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, China. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Tang & Hao (1995) first described the species with no author specified, therefore they must be considered the authors of the species. Hao et al. (1997) cite this species as "sp. nov." and authored by Tang, but this is incorrect.



HOST: Lauraceae? [TangHa1995].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: China (Yunnan [TangHa1995]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration by Tang & Hao (1995).

STRUCTURE: Adult female completely fills the gall. Female body is bulb shaped (Tang & Hao, 1995). This species induces elongate, pointed, conical galls on upper surface of leaves. (Kozár, et al., 2013) of host plant.

SYSTEMATICS: Body approximately pear shaped, in leaf gall which open upward, about 0.8-1.1 mm in diameter and 1.2 mm in depth. Body fills the gall and with sclerotized dorsum of abdomen covering the gall mouth, body is bulb shaped. (Kozár, et al., 2013)

CITATIONS: HaoWuJi1997 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 71-74]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 94]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 618-620]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 20-21]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 437-438, 586-587, 71]; Tao1999 [distribution: 31].



Affeldococcus Henderson

NOMENCLATURE:

Affeldococcus Henderson, 2007: 27. Type species: Affeldococcus kathrinae, by monotypy and original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration in Henderson (2007).

STRUCTURE: Adult female body elongate-oval, derm membranous. 5-segmented antennae, presence of ventral microduct pores, undifferentiated anal lobes each with only 2 setae on the dorsal surface, and lace of enlarged, differentiated marginal setae and macrotubular ducts.

SYSTEMATICS: All three known stages of Affeldococcus can be distringuished immediately from other genera of Eriococcidae in New Zealand by the submarginal 5- to 7-locolar disc pore clusters, each with associated microtubular duct and drumstick shaped (capitate) setae.

KEYS: Henderson 2007a: 3-4 (female, adult) [Key to genera of Eriococcidae in New Zealand (adult females) Modified from Henderson (2006)].

CITATIONS: Hender2007 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 27]; Kozar2009 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 112,113,115].



Affeldococcus kathrinae Henderson

NOMENCLATURE:

Affeldococcus kathrinae Henderson, 2007: 27-30. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: South Island, Bullock Creek Rd., Punasaisi on epiphyte communities, 4/29/2004 by K. Affeld. Holotype female and first instar, by monotypy and original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female and first instar. Illust. Notes: The mosses, liverworts and lichens will be deposited in the Allan herbarium (CHR), Landcare Research, Lincoln, and the Museum of New Zealand.

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (South Island [new] (All specimens were presumed to be in non-feeding phase unattached to a host plant, so that they could be dislodged during Berlese funnel extraction.)).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustrations in R.C. Henderson (2007).

STRUCTURE: Adult Female: elongate-oval, 0.22-0.38 mm wide, 0.4-0.65 mm long; derm membranous. Eyespots present. Marginal setae on abdomen slightly larger than dorsal setae, drumstick-shaped, with 2 setae on each side of each abdominal segment. Labium 40-47.5 µm long with 3 pairs of setae discernable. Antennae 5 segmented. Anal lobes membranous, not produced beyond body margin. Legs well developed. Apart from the geneally larger size, the adult female can be distinguished from the 2nd- and 1st-instar nymphs by having more numerous disc pores present on both dorsum and venter, and in the presence of a vulva with the internal sclerotized lateral vulvar apophysis each side.

CITATIONS: Hender2007 [description, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 27-31]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 94].



Alpinococcus Henderson

NOMENCLATURE:

Alpinococcus Henderson, 2007a: 4-5. Type species: Alpinococcus elongatus Henderson, by monotypy and original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration in Henderson (2007a).

STRUCTURE: Adult female body elongate, derm membranous. Pair of eyespots present on body margin. Dorsal and marginal setae spinose; marginal setae numberous, not particularly grouped segmentally, dorsal setae sparse. Antennae 2-segmented. Anal lobes sclerotised around margins, otherwise membranous; each lobe with 3 or more stout dorsal setae.

SYSTEMATICS: This genus may be related to the New Caledonian monotypic genus Chazeauana Matile-Ferrero. Features shared are an elongate body shape; reduced antennae, legs reduced, with long distal trochanteral seta and digitules present; cruciform pores present; macrotubular ducts absent; and elongate shape of the anal lobes.

KEYS: Key to genera of Eriococcidae in New Zealand (adul 2007a: 3-4 (female) [Key to the genera of Eriococcidae in New Zealand (adult female) Modified from Henderson (2006)].

CITATIONS: Hender2007a [description, illustration, taxonomy: 4-5]; Kozar2009 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 112].



Alpinococcus elongatus Henderson

NOMENCLATURE:

Alpinococcus elongatus Henderson, 2007a: 1-29. Type data: NEW ZEALAND, MB: Wairau, Red Hill 1070 m, on Schoenus pauciflorus, 03/23/1972, by J.A. de Boer. Holotype female, by monotypy and original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand; type no. 829/1. Described: female. Illust.

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand [new].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration in R. Henderson (2007a).

STRUCTURE: Adult female: Body elongate-oval, 0.68-1.16 mm wide, 2.13-3.85 mm long; derm membranous. Eyespots present on margin posterior to antennae. Marginal setae spinose with a sharply pointed tip, numerous in a band rather than a line. Antennae usually 2-segmented (sometimes antenna on one side 3-segmented). Labium 75-85 µm long with 2 pairs of setae basally and 3 pairs distally. Anal lobes long, outer martin in a continuous line with body margin, tapering to a point with 2 terminal bosses, lobes moderately sclerotised around margins. Legs either much reduced to a vestigial patch, or reduced to a tapering triangular shape of fused segments.

CITATIONS: Hender2007a [description, illustration, taxonomy: 5-7]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 94].



Anophococcus Balachowsky

NOMENCLATURE:

Anophococcus Balachowsky, 1954a: 61. Type species: Eriococcus inermis Green.

Eriococcus; Ferris, 1955a: 94. Incorrect synonymy.

BIOLOGY: Generally found in large colonies. Most species have one yearly generation; usually overwinters in egg, or second nymphal stage; males normally present. (Kozár, et al., 2013)

STRUCTURE: Ovisac ovoid, felt-like, white or grey completely enclosing female body. Adult female elongate-oval, narrowed posteriorly, with anal lobes conical, slightly sclerotised, antennae 6 usually 7 segmented; frontal lobes usually absent, frontal tubercles present, labium 3 segmented, with 18 setae, of these 12 on apical segment, apical setae of labium about half length, or less of the subapical setae, with well developed segments and a weakly developed basal segment with two pairs of hair-like setae, the outer one about half length of the inner ones. (Kozár, et al., 2013)

SYSTEMATICS: Synonymy of this genus with Eriococcus was a subjective decision (Miller & Gimpel, 2000: 106). Some have treated it as a valid genus(Kosztarab & Kozár, 1988; Koteja & Zak-Ogaza, 1981), while others have treated it as a junior subjective synonym of Eriococcus (Hoy, 1963; Williams, 1985a). In Kozár, et al., 2013, Anophococcus was placed in the family, Acanthococcidae Signoret, 1875, but is here kept in Eriococcidae because placement of species outside of the palaearctic are unclear.

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 62-63 (female) [Key to genera of Acanthococcidae]; Pellizzari & Kozár 2011: 58 (female) [Key to the genera of Eriococcidae in Europe]; Kaydan & Kozár 2008: 6 (female) [Eriococcidae genera of the western Paleartic Region]; Kozár & Konczné Benedicty 2008a: 256-257 (female) [Key to Genera of Eriococcidae in Western Palaearctic Region]; Kosztarab & Kozár 1988: 275 (female) [Key to genera of Eriococcidae].

CITATIONS: Balach1954a [description, taxonomy: 61]; Boraty1962 [description, taxonomy: 55]; Borchs1948 [taxonomy: 502]; Borchs1949 [distribution, description, taxonomy: 22]; Danzig1962a [description, taxonomy: 860]; Danzig1975a [taxonomy: 42]; Danzig1980a [description, taxonomy: 205]; Ferris1955a [taxonomy: 94]; Ferris1957c [distribution, taxonomy: 85]; GomezM1937 [description, taxonomy: 322]; Green1922b [description, taxonomy: 20]; HodgsoMi2010 [taxonomy: 45]; Hoy1962a [taxonomy: 510]; Hoy1963 [chemical control, distribution, host, taxonomy: 132]; Kaweck1985 [taxonomy: 27]; KaydanKo2008 [taxonomy: 6]; Koszta1996 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 226]; KosztaKo1978 [description, taxonomy: 76]; KosztaKo1988F [description, distribution, taxonomy: 275, 286, 287, 291]; Koteja1974a [taxonomy: 248]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy: 77]; KotejaZa1981 [description, taxonomy: 501]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 180-256]; KozarKo2008 [taxonomy: 142]; KozarKo2008a [taxonomy: 247]; KozarWa1985 [taxonomy: 73]; Leonar1920 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 426]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 605]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy: 10]; NastChKl1990 [distribution, taxonomy: 120]; Newste1903 [description, taxonomy: 195]; OuvrarKo2009 [host, phylogeny, taxonomy: 101]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 448]; Terezn1969 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 13]; Willia1969a [taxonomy: 325]; Willia1985h [taxonomy: 347].



Anophococcus abaii (Danzig)

NOMENCLATURE:

Acanthococcus abaii Danzig, 1990: 373-376. Type data: IRAN: 143 km NW of Tehran, on Haloxylon sp., 25/09/1986, by M. Abai. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Rhizococcus abaii; Tang & Hao, 1995: 521. Change of combination.

Eriococcus abaii; Miller & Gimpel, 1999: 213. Change of combination.

Anophococcus abaii; Kozár, 2009: 105. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Amaranthaceae: Haloxylon aphylla [Moghad2013a], Haloxylon sp. [Danzig1990]

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Iran [Danzig1990].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration by Danzig (1990).

STRUCTURE: Antennae 7 segmented. Frontal lobe and frontal tubercle well developed. Anal lobe slightly sclerotised, with four enlarged setae, three of which on inner side. (Kozár, et al., 2013)

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: 7-10 enlarged setae on margin of most abdominal segments; marginal setae larger than dorsal setae; anal lobes each with 4 setae (Danzig, 1990).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 182-183 (female) [Key to species of Anophococcus]; Tang & Hao 1995: 520 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus abaii; Rhizococcus species].

CITATIONS: Danzig1990 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 373-376]; Germai2008 [distribution]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 105]; KozarFoZa1996 [distribution: 64]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, physiology, taxonomy: 182, 184-185]; MillerGi1999 [taxonomy: 213]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 111]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 56]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 520, 521]; UlgentKaTo2003 [distribution: 442].



Anophococcus adzharicus (Hadzibeyli)

NOMENCLATURE:

Acanthococcus adzharicus Hadzibeyli, 1960b: 310. Type data: GEORGIA: Adzharia, Zelenyi Mys 18/09/1953, on Gramineae, by Z. Hadzibeyli. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Tbilisi: Plant Protection Institute, Republic of Georgia. Described: female. Notes: 4 paratypes on 1 slide with same data in ZMAS (Danzig, personal communication, 1996)

Eriococcus adzharicus; Miller & Gimpel, 1999: 213. Change of combination.

Anophococcus adzharicus; Kozár et al., 2013: 186. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Poaceae [Hadzib1983], Festuca montana [KozarKaKo2013].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Georgia [Hadzib1983].

BIOLOGY: Overwinters in stage of eggs, in eggsacs, the females lay about 20–38 eggs. Egglaying ended at end of November. Hatching of nymph starts from April, adults appeared in August, with one generation in a year (Hadzibejli, 1960).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most comprehensive description by Hadzibeyli (1960b). Redescription and illustration in Kozár, et al., 2013.

STRUCTURE: Adult female is oval, cream-coloured, latter becomes to violet, up to 2.0 mm long. Ovisac is oval, convex, dirty white, smooth, up to 3.5 mm. Eggs are pink. (Kozár, et al., 2013)

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae along body margin conspicuously larger than on remainder of dorsum; enlarged setae conical; 4 or 5 enlarged setae on margin of each abdominal segment; 3 enlarged setae on each anal lobe (Hadzibeyli, 1960b).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 182-183 (female) [Key to species of Anophococcus].

CITATIONS: Danzig1975a [taxonomy: 54]; Hadzib1960b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 306-307]; Hadzib1983 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 269]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 372]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 91]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 183, 186-188]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 73]; MillerGi1999 [taxonomy: 213]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 119].



Anophococcus agropyri (Borchsenius)

NOMENCLATURE:

Rhizococcus agropyri Borchsenius, 1949: 353, 359. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: Alga, Aktyubinsk Oblast, on Agropyron sp., 18/08/1936, by N. Borchsenius. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 1962a: 852. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 151-36. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Single slide contains 5 specimens. A specimen was selected by Danzig (1962a) as the "holotype"; which must be considered the lectotype.

Rhizococcus graminicola Borchsenius, 1949: 353, 359, 360. Type data: UZBEKISTAN: Tashkent, on undetermined Gramineae. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 39-43. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Köhler, 1998: 396. Notes: Danzig (1962a) first suggested the possibility that R. graminicola was a junior synonym of Eriococcus agropyri, stating that presence of three additional spines on abdominal segments other than the 7th and the ratio of length of anal setae and preanal hairs did not seem to be reliable characters for an independent species.

Rhizococcus obscurus Borchsenius, 1949: 360. Type data: TAJIKISTAN: Ramit District, Jabroz, on Cissus sp., 22/06/1940, by N. Borchsenius. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 14-44. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Kosztarab & Kozár, 1978: 69. Notes: One adult female on 1 slide in ZMAS (personal correspondence, Danzig, 1996).

Eriococcus obscurus; Hoy, 1963: 104. Change of combination.

Eriococcus agropyri; Hoy, 1963: 68. Change of combination.

Eriococcus graminicola; Hoy, 1963: 92. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus agropyri; Kosztarab & Kozár, 1978: 69. Change of combination.

Rhizococcus iljiniae; Tang in Tang & Li, 1988: 75. Described: female. Illust. Misidentification; discovered by Tang & Hao, 1995: 597.

Anophococcus agropyri; Lagowska & Koteja, 1996: 31. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus graminicola; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 601. Change of combination.

Anophococcus agropyri; Kozár et al., 2013: 189. Revived combination.

COMMON NAME: Borchsenius' felt scale [KosztaKo1988F].



FOES: HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Aphycus nitens [KosztaKo1988F], Coccidencyrtus breviventris [KosztaKo1988F], Discodes kopetdagensis [Myarts1981], Parasyrpophagus lindus [KosztaKo1988F], Xana kurdjumovi [KosztaKo1988F]. Mymaridae: Marietta zebra [KosztaKo1988F]. Pteromalidae: Eunotus acutus [KosztaKo1988F], Scutellista sp. [KosztaKo1988F].

HOSTS: Chenopodiaceae: Kalidium gracile [TangLi1988]. Dipsacaceae: Scabiosa sp. [KaydanUlTo2002]. Poaceae: Agropyron cristatum [Mateso1968], Agropyron fragile [Mateso1968], Agropyron repens [Borchs1949], Agropyron sibiricum [Mateso1968], Agropyron sp. [Borchs1949], Agrostis sp. [KosztaKo1988F], Aneurolepidium sp. [KosztaKo1988F], Cynodon dactylon [KozarPaPa1991], Elymus angustus [Mateso1968], Elymus giganteus [Mateso1968], Elymus sp. [KosztaKo1988F], Lolium sp. [KosztaKo1988F]. Vitidaceae: Cissus sp. [Borchs1949]

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Bulgaria [KosztaKo1988F]; China (Nei Monggol (=Inner Mongolia) [TangHa1995]); Crete [PellizPoSe2011]; Greece [Pelliz1993]; Hungary [KosztaKo1988F]; Italy [Marott1993]; Kazakhstan [Marott1993] (Aktyubinsk Oblast [Danzig1962a]); Moldova [Marott1993]; Poland [KosztaKo1988F, SimonKa2011]; Romania [KosztaKo1988F]; Russia (Stavrapol Oblast [Danzig1985]); Sweden [Borchs1949, Gertss2001]; Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Hoy1963]; Turkey [KaydanUlTo2002]; Ukraine [Marott1993] (Krym (=Crimea) Oblast [Terezn1967b]); Uzbekistan [Borchs1949].

BIOLOGY: This is a common steppe-inhabiting mesophilous species. Females were collected from May through October, each laid 98-211 eggs. Probably has more than one generation per year (Kosztarab & Kozár 1988).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most comprehensive treatment by Borchsenius (1949) and by Kosztarab & Kozár (1988).

STRUCTURE: Ovisac gray, white or yellowish, with almost flat dorsum and carinate submargin. Adult female elongate-oval, yellow (Kosztarab & Kozár 1988). Body of slide-mounted first-instar nymph, oval. Antennae six segmented, apical three segments with strong sensory setae as in adult female. Dorsum with six rows of equal long, spines. Tubular ducts absent, on dorsum with four sparse pairs of microtubular ducts. Venter with transverse rows of six small hair-like setae on each abdominal segment; median setae longer than others. Cruciform pores present on thoracic segments. With one pair of quinquelocular pores on each thoracic segment, one near each spiracle, plus one pair on frons. Stylet loop reaching the third abdominal segment. Anal ring normal, with 6 hair-like setae. (Kozár, et al., 2013)

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae around body margin conspicuously larger than on remainder of dorsum; with 2 enlarged setae on margin of each abdominal segment (Kosztarab & Kozár, 1988).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Often becomes a pest (Kosztarab & Kozár, 1988).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 182-183 (female) [Key to species of Anophococcus]; Wang 2001: 225 (female) [as Rhizococcus agropyri; Key to Chinese species of Rhizococcus]; Dziedzicka & Koteja 1996: 561 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus agropyri; Rhizococcus species of Poland]; Tang & Hao 1995: 519, 654 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus agropyri; Rhizococcus species]; Tang & Hao 1995: 519, 654 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus graminicola; Rhizococcus species]; Kosztarab & Kozár 1988: 298 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus agropyri; Rhizococcus species of central Europe]; Danzig 1971d: 823 (female) [as Rhizococcus agropyri; Key to species of family Eriococcidae]; Danzig 1964: 634 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus agropyri; Rhizococcus species of USSR]; Danzig 1962a: 841 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus agropyri; Rhizococcus species of the USSR]; Borchsenius 1949: 353 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus agropyri and R. obscurus; Rhizococcus species of the USSR]; Borchsenius 1949: 353 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus graminicola; Rhizococcus species of the USSR].

CITATIONS: BarbagBiBo1995 [distribution: 42]; Bazaro1968a [host: 77]; Bazaro1971c [host: 91]; Borchs1949 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 57, 353, 359, 360]; Borchs1950b [distribution, host: 123]; CebeciKu2005 [distribution, host: 97-102]; Danzig1962a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 841, 852, 856]; Danzig1964 [taxonomy: 634]; Danzig1971d [taxonomy: 823]; Danzig1985 [taxonomy: 111]; Dziedz1977 [taxonomy: 59, 72]; DziedzKo1971 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 575]; FetykoKoDa2010 [distribution: 296]; Gertss2001 [distribution: 126, 128]; HertinSi1972 [biological control: 132]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 68, 92, 104]; Kaweck1985 [distribution, taxonomy: 29]; KaydanUlEr2007 [distribution, host: 90-106]; KaydanUlTo2002 [distribution, host: 255]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 396]; Koszta1956a [distribution, host: 369]; Koszta1959 [biological control, distribution, host: 402]; KosztaKo1978 [taxonomy: 69]; KosztaKo1988F [biological control, description, distribution, host, illustration, life history, taxonomy: 298, 299-300]; Koteja1974b [structure, taxonomy: 76, 104]; Koteja2000a [distribution: 172]; KotejaZa1966 [distribution, host: 310, 320]; Kozar1971 [distribution, host, illustration, life history, taxonomy: 157, 159-161]; Kozar1980 [distribution, host: 67]; Kozar1985 [distribution: 202]; Kozar1991 [taxonomy: 81]; Kozar1999a [distribution, host: 139]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 106]; Kozar2009a [distribution: 583]; KozarDr1991 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 363]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy, phylogeny: 30,35, 183, 190-192]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 60]; KozarKoFe2013 [distribution, taxonomy: 55]; KozarKoSc1999 [distribution: 112]; KozarOs1987 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 92]; KozarPaPa1991 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 64]; KozarSaSz2009 [catalogue, distribution: 436]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 75]; Kozarz1986 [distribution, taxonomy: 307]; KozarzRe1975 [distribution: 7]; Lagows2002 [distribution: 243]; LagowsKo1996 [distribution: 31]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 121]; LongoMaPe1999a [distribution: 144]; Marott1993 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 155-156]; Mateso1957 [taxonomy: 170]; Mateso1968 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 115]; Mateso1971 [distribution: 26]; Mateso1980 [taxonomy: 6-23]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 601]; MillerGi2000 [biological control, catalogue, description, distribution, economic importance, host, taxonomy: 119-122]; MilonaKoKo2008a [distribution: 143-147]; Myarts1981 [biological control, distribution: 97]; NastChKl1990 [distribution, taxonomy: 120]; NikolsYa1966 [biological control: 165]; Ossian1959 [distribution, host: 194, 195]; Ossian1985 [taxonomy: 146]; OuvrarKo2009 [host, phylogeny, structure, taxonomy: 102-118]; Pelliz1993 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 51-52]; PellizKo2011 [distribution: 66]; PellizPoSe2011 [distribution, host: 294]; Rogoja1966a [description, distribution, host: 432]; SimonKa2011 [distribution: 237]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 519, 521, 528, 597, 654, 732]; Tao1999 [distribution, host: 34-35]; Terezn1959a [taxonomy: 178]; Terezn1963 [distribution, host: 190]; Terezn1963a [description, distribution, taxonomy: 48]; Terezn1963c [distribution: 1527]; Terezn1966a [taxonomy: 544]; Terezn1966b [host, taxonomy: 680]; Terezn1966c [host, taxonomy: 964]; Terezn1967a [distribution: 474]; Terezn1967b [behavior, ecology, life history: 562]; Terezn1968b [distribution: 47]; Terezn1968c [distribution, host: 52, 53]; Terezn1970 [taxonomy: 44]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy: 30]; Terezn1981 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 17-19]; TerGri1983 [distribution, taxonomy: 881]; Tsalev1968 [host, taxonomy: 207]; Tudor1982 [biological control, host: 89]; Wang2001 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 225, 233].



Anophococcus cingulatus (Kiritchenko)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus longispinus Borchsenius, 1937a: 184. Nomen nudum; discovered by Danzig, 1962a: 852.

Eriococcus cingulatus Kiritchenko, 1940: 131-133. Type data: UKRAINE: Crimea, Tuak, on Astragalus sp., 02/09/1928. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 1996b: 521. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 311-58. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Type series consists of one paralectotype on same slide as lectotype. The remaining paralectotypes are from several localities. Danzig (1996b) states "Odessa, on Achillea, 26 females at 2 preparations; same locality on Artemisia roots, 28.V.1936, Yu. Shuvalova, 3 females at one preparation; the Crimea, Tuak, on Astragalus, 16 females at one preparation."

Rhizococcus terrestris Matesova, 1957: 169-170. Type data: KAZAKHSTAN: Usek River, on Clematis songorica, 20/08/1951. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 101. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Kosztarab & Kozár, 1988: 300-301. Notes: In Matesova's description the terms type and ecotypes are used for the holotype and paratypes. Paratypes in AAKA.

Eriococcus terrestris; Hoy, 1963: 118. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus cingulatus orientalis Danzig, 1975: 79. Type data: RUSSIA: Southern Primor'ye, Lazvoskiy Reserve, shores of the Sea of Japan, close to Glazkovka, on Artemisia sp., 07/08/1961, by Danzig. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 87-70. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Kosztarab & Kozár, 1988: 300-301. Notes: Tang & Hao (1995) considered the subspecies A. cingulatus orientalis Danzig to be a valid species in the genus Rhizococcus. If Kosztarab & Kozár (1988) had not considered A. cingulatus orientalis to be a synonym of A. cingulatus cingulatus the name orientalis (Danzig) would be a junior secondary homonym of A. orientalis (Borchsenius)(1956b). There are 2 paratypes on the same slide as the holotype and 3 paratypes on a second slide. There are 4 other paratype slides with 8 females from Primorskiy Kray and 4 slides with 9 females from Vladivostok (Danzig, personal communication, 1996)

Acanthococcus cingulatus terrestris; Matesova in Danzig, 1975a: 54. Change of status. Notes: Acanthococcus terrestris Matesova (1957) was changed in level by Danzig (1975a) to be a subspecies of Acanthococcus cingulatus Kiritchenko (1940). Kosztarab & Kozár (1988) synonomized this with Acanthococcus cingulatus.

Acanthococcus cingulatus; Danzig, 1975a: 62. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus terrestris; Danzig, 1975a: 79. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus singulatus; Ter-Grigorian, 1983: 878. Misspelling of species name.

Acanthococcus cingulatns; Tang in Tang & Li, 1988: 211. Described: female. Illust. Misspelling of species name.

Rhizococcus cingulatus; Kosztarab & Kozár, 1988: 300. Described: female. Change of combination.

Rhizococcus orientalis; Tang & Hao, 1995: 535. Described: female. Change of combination and rank. Notes: Tang & Hao (1995) raised the subspecies A. cingulatus orientalis Danzig (1975) to species rank and placed it in the genus Rhizococcus.

Acanthococcus terrestris; Kozár, 2009: 94. Revived combination.

Anophococcus cingulatus; Kozár et al., 2013: 192-196. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: Kiritchenko's felt scale [KosztaKo1988F].



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Achillea millefolium [Kiritc1940], Artemisia absinthium [Hoy1963], Artemisia austriae [Hoy1963], Artemisia dracunculus [Mateso1968], Artemisia ordosica [TangLi1988], Artemisia schrenciana [Mateso1968], Artemisia sublissingiana [Mateso1968], Centaurea cyanus [Wang2001], Centaurea orientalis [Hoy1963], Pyrethrum sp. [Hoy1963], Taraxacum sp. [Kohler1998]. Caryophyllaceae: Dianthus sp. [Hoy1963]. Dipsacaceae: Scabiosa ucrainica [Hoy1963]. Fabaceae: Astragalus sp. [Hoy1963], Medicago sativa [KozarKaKo2013], Trigonella ruthenica [Wang2001], Trigonella sp. [Hoy1963]. Plantaginaceae: Russelia sp. [KozarKaKo2013]. Poaceae: Koeleria gracilis [Mateso1968], Koeleria macrantha [KozarKaKo2013], Koeleria sp. [KosztaKo1988F], Stipa sp. [KaydanUlEr2007]. Ranunculaceae: Clematis songorica [Mateso1957], Clematis sp. [KosztaKo1988F]. Rosaceae: Potenilla sp. [KosztaKo1988F]. Rubiaceae: Galium sp. [Kohler1998]. Salicaceae: Salix sp. [Wang2001]. Umbelliferae: Trinia sp. [Kohler1998]. Vitidaceae: Vitis sp. [KosztaKo1988F]

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China (Hebei (=Hopei) [Hua2000], Nei Monggol (=Inner Mongolia) [Tao1999]); Hungary [KozarSaSz2009]; Iran [Moghad2013a]; Italy [KozarKaKo2013]; Kazakhstan [Mateso1957]; Mongolia [TangLi1988]; Romania [FetykoKoDa2010]; Russia (Primor'ye Kray [Danzig1986a], Stavrapol Oblast [Danzig1985]); South Korea [Danzig1986a]; Turkey [KaydanUlEr2007]; Ukraine (Krym (=Crimea) Oblast [Terezn1967b], Odessa Oblast [Hoy1963]).

BIOLOGY: A xerophilous species known only from steppes in the former Soviet Union. Males are known. Females present from May to September and each lays about 70 eggs (Kosztarab & Kozár, 1988). Young females and molting last-stage nymph were found in the last part of August (Matesova, 1957). Many of the of specimens Kiritchenko collected were parasitized. This species has one generation per year (Kiritchenko, 1940).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration by Matesova (1957). Additional descriptions by Kiritchenko (1940) and Kosztarab & Kozár (1988).

STRUCTURE: Adult female egg-shaped and of a yellow or rusty dark reddish color. Sac is light brown, white or cream and oval in shape (Matesova, 1957) (Kiritchenko, 1940).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae elongate, conical, apices acute or slightly rounded; marginal setae conspicuously larger than other dorsal setae with 2 or 3 lateral setae on each abdominal segment; microtubular ducts with 2 sclerotized areas (Danzig, 1975a).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 182-183 (female) [Key to species of Anophococcus]; Wang 2001: 225 (female) [as Rhizococcus orientalis, R. cingulatus, R. terrestris; Key to Chinese species of Rhizococcus]; Tang & Hao 1995: 521 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus terrestris, Rhizococcus orientalis; Rhizococcus species]; Danzig 1988: 709 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus cingulatus oreintalis; Acanthococcus species of the USSR]; Kosztarab & Kozár 1988: 299 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus cingulatus; Rhizococcus species of central Europe]; Danzig 1986a: 241 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus cingulatus orientalis; Acanthococcus species of the USSR]; Wang 1982c: 143 (adult female) [as Eriococcus terrestris; Eriococcus species]; Wang 1982ZQ: 41 (adult female) [as Eriococcus terrestris; Eriococcus species of China]; Danzig 1971d: 823 (female) [as Rhizococcus cingulatus; Key to species of family Eriococcidae]; Danzig 1964: 634 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus cingulatus; Rhizococcus species of USSR]; Danzig 1962a: 43 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus cingulatus; Far eastern Soviet Rhizococcus species]; Danzig 1962a: 841 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus terrestris; Rhizococcus species of the USSR].

CITATIONS: Borchs1937a [distribution, host: 18, 184]; Borchs1949 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 50, 52, 62, 352, 356]; Borchs1950b [distribution, host: 122]; Borchs1963a [distribution, host: 102]; Borchs1973 [host: 102]; Danzig1962a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 841, 849-851]; Danzig1964 [taxonomy: 634]; Danzig1971d [taxonomy: 823]; Danzig1975a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 43, 54]; Danzig1977b [taxonomy: 57]; Danzig1980b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 206, 223]; Danzig1982a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 147]; Danzig1985 [taxonomy: 111]; Danzig1986a [taxonomy: 241, 258]; Danzig1988 [taxonomy: 709]; Danzig1996a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 574]; FetykoKoDa2010 [distribution: 296]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 118]; Hua2000 [distribution, host: 138]; KaydanUlEr2007 [distribution, host: 90-106]; Kiritc1940 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 131-133]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 397]; KosztaKo1978 [host, taxonomy: 69]; KosztaKo1988F [description, distribution, host, illustration, life history, taxonomy: 299, 300-301]; Kozar1985a [distribution, host: 311]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 94, 106]; Kozar2009a [distribution: 583]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 183, 193-196]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 60]; KozarKoFe2013 [distribution, taxonomy: 55]; KozarOs1987 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 92]; KozarSaSz2009 [catalogue, distribution: 436]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 75]; Mateso1955 [distribution, host: 202]; Mateso1957 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 169-170]; Mateso1968 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 116, 117]; Mateso1971 [distribution, host: 27]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, life history, taxonomy: 163-166]; Moghad2013a [distribution: 56]; OuvrarKo2009 [host, phylogeny, structure, taxonomy: 102-118]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 10]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 519, 520,523,540,733]; TangLi1988 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 66-67, 68]; Tao1999 [distribution, host: 35]; Terezn1963b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 153]; Terezn1967a [distribution: 474]; Terezn1967b [behavior, ecology, life history: 561]; Terezn1968b [distribution: 47]; Terezn1968c [distribution: 49]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy: 30]; Terezn1981 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 22]; TerGri1969a [taxonomy: 101]; TerGri1983 [distribution, taxonomy: 878]; UlgentKaTo2003 [distribution: 442]; Wang1982c [taxonomy: 143]; Wang1982ZQ [taxonomy: 41, 42]; Wang2001 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 225, 226, 232].



Anophococcus confusus (Miller & Gimpel)

NOMENCLATURE:

Rhizococcus confusus Danzig, 1962a: 854. Type data: RUSSIA: Leningrad Oblast, Priozersk district, on dead needles on soil, 06/08/1956, by E. Danzig. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust. Notes: There also are 2 paratypes on 1 slide in ZMAS.

Eriococcus confusus; Kawecki, 1985: 29. Change of combination.

Anophococcus confusus; Lagowska & Koteja, 1996: 31. Described: other. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus danzigae; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 605. Change of combination and replacement name for Eriococcus confusus Danzig (1962a). Notes: Though the combination Acanthococcus confusus was never published by Miller & Gimpel (1996) it was this implicit change of combination which made necessary their proposed replacement name Acanthococcus danzigae Miller & Gimpel. Acanthococcus confusus Danzig (1962a) is a junior secondary homonym of Acanthococcus confusus Maskell (1892). Since both A. confusus Maskell and A. confusus Danzig have been transferred to Eriococcus, the homonymy persists and the species epithet danzigae remains valid.

Eriococcus danzigae; Miller & Gimpel, 1999: 213. Change of combination.

Rhizococcus confusus; Kozár, 2009: 106. Revived combination.

Anophococcus confusus; Kozár et al., 2013: 197. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Pinaceae: Pinus sp. [Kohler1998]. Poaceae? [KozarKaKo2013].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Netherlands [KozarKaKo2013]; Poland [LagowsKo1996]; Russia (St. Petersburg (=Leningrad) Oblast [Danzig1962a]).

BIOLOGY: On grasses and dry pine needle on soil. (Danzig, 1962a)

GENERAL REMARKS: Best description and illustration by Danzig (1962a).

STRUCTURE: Adult female is up to 2 mm long. (Kozár, et al., 2013)

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, apices rounded, marginal setae larger than other dorsal setae, 2 or 3 setae on lateral margin of each abdominal segment; microtubular ducts short with two sclerotized areas (Danzig, 1962a). For details regarding the homonymy of this species, see the notes under Acanthococcus danzigae.

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 182-183 (female) [Key to species of Anophococcus]; Tang & Hao 1995: 519, 653 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus confusus; Rhizococcus species]; Dziedzicka & Koteja 1971: 561 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus confusus; Rhizococcus species of Poland]; Danzig 1964: 634 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus confusus; Rhizococcus species of USSR]; Danzig 1962a: 841 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus confusus; Rhizococcus species of USSR].

CITATIONS: Danzig1962a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 854]; Danzig1964 [taxonomy: 634]; Dziedz1977 [taxonomy: 59]; DziedzKo1971 [distribution, taxonomy: 575]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 397-398]; Koteja1971a [distribution, host: 322]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy: 76]; KotejaZa1981 [illustration: 514]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 183, 197-199]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 75]; Lagows2002 [distribution: 243]; LagowsKo1996 [distribution: 31]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 600, 605]; MillerGi1999 [taxonomy: 213]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 185-186]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy: 519, 525 ,653].



Anophococcus evelinae (Kozár)

NOMENCLATURE:

Rhizococcus evelinae Kozár, 1983: 144-146. Type data: YUGOSLAVIA: Portoroz, on Bromus sp., 25/04/1981, by F. Kozár. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Budapest: Hungarian Natural History Museum, Zoological Department, Hungary; type no. 1562. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Paratype in ZMAS.

Acanthococcus evelinae; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 600. Change of combination.

Eriococcus evelinae; Miller & Gimpel, 1999: 213. Change of combination.

Rhizococcus evelinae; Kozár, 2009: 106. Revived combination.

Anophococcus evelinae; Kozár et al., 2013: 200. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Bromus sp. [Kozar1983a], Cynodon dactylon [Kozar1985].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Greece [Kozar1985]; Slovenia [KozarKaKo2013]; Yugoslavia [Kozar1983a].

BIOLOGY: On leaves. (Kozár, et al., 2013)

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration by Kozár (1983a).

STRUCTURE: Adult female is yellow in life (Kozár, 1983a).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae nearly cylindrical, with truncate or slightly rounded apices, marginal setae conspicuously larger than other dorsal setae, with 4 or 5 setae on lateral margin of each abdominal segment; microtubular ducts short, with 2 sclerotized areas (Kozár, 1983a).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 182-184 (female) [Key to species of Anophococcus]; Tang & Hao 1995: 520, 655 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus evelinae; Rhizococcus species].

CITATIONS: Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 398]; Kozar1983a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 144-146]; Kozar1985 [distribution, host: 202, 204]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 106]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy, phylogeny: 30,35, 184, 200-202]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 75]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 600]; MillerGi1999 [taxonomy: 213]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 206]; MilonaKoKo2008a [distribution: 143-147]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 520, 527-528, 655].



Anophococcus formicicola (Newstead)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus formicicola Newstead, 1897a: 102. Type data: ALGERIA: Constantine, on wooded slope of the Mansourah, on Cynodon dactylon, 1896, by A.E. Eaton. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust. Notes: There are pieces of possibly 4 adult female syntypes on 1 slide in the BMNH (Williams, personal communication, May 15, 1996).

Erococcus formicicola; Newstead, 1907a: 16. Misspelling of genus name.

Nidularia formicicola; Lindinger, 1933a: 108. Change of combination.

Eriococcus formicicola; Borchsenius, 1937a: 182. Misidentification; discovered by Kosztarab & Kozár, 1988F: 301.

Eriococcus cynodontis Kiritchenko, 1940: 133-136. Type data: UKRAINE: Crimea, Kekenies (Opolznevoe), on Cynodon dactylon, 01/09/1928, Kiritchenko. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 1996b: 521. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 378-58. Described: female. Illust. Notes: In addition to the lectotype there are 14 females on 3 slides.

Rhizococcus cynodontis; Danzig, 1962a: 844. Described: female. Illust. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus cynodontis; Tereznikova, 1981: 26. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus formicicola; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 600. Change of combination.

Rhizococcus formicicola; Kozár, 2009: 106. Change of combination.

Anophococcus formicicola; Kozár et al., 2013: 202-205. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: Bermuda-grass felt scale [KosztaKo1988F].



ASSOCIATE: HYMENOPTERA Formicidae: Camponotus sp. [Newste1897a].

FOE: HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Eucoccidophagus breviventris [KosztaKo1988F].

HOSTS: Crassulaceae: Sedum sp. [KozarPaPa1991]. Poaceae: Cynodon dactylon [Newste1907a, Kiritc1940, Hoy1963], Elymus furcatus [KozarPaPa1991], Festuca sp. [KozarGuBa1994], Hyparrhenia hirta [KozarPaPa1991], Setaria sp. [LongoMaRu1989]

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Algeria [Newste1907a, Hoy1963]; Bulgaria [KosztaKo1988F]; Crete [PellizPoSe2011]; Croatia [MastenSi2008]; Cyprus [KozarKaKo2013]; Greece [Kozar1985]; Hungary [KosztaKo1988F]; Italy [KozarTrPe1984]; Malta [Hoy1963]; Russia (Caucasus [KosztaKo1988F]); Sicily [LongoMaPe1995]; Slovenia [KozarKaKo2013]; Spain [Hoy1963]; Switzerland [KozarGuBa1994]; Turkey [KaydanUlEr2007]; Ukraine (Krym (=Crimea) Oblast [Kiritc1940]); Yugoslavia [Kozar1983a].

BIOLOGY: Based on information taken by the collector the species lives underground in the company of ants Campanotus sp. After rains the ants bring the species above ground (Newstead, 1897a).Females collected from July through September found on blades of grass. Males unknown (Kosztarab & Kozár, 1988).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Newstead (1897a). Most detailed description and illustration by Kosztarab & Kozár (1988). Redescription and illustrations in Kozár, et al. (2013)

STRUCTURE: Adult female is elongate ovate. Sac of female is short ovate, white and closely felted. Sac of male has same color and texture as that of the female (Newstead, 1897a).Egg sac oval, snow white. Adult female elongate oval. This species is rare, but sometimes found in high densities (Kosztarab & Kozár, 1988).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, apices acute, marginal setae noticeably larger than others on dorsum (Newstead, 1897a). Eriococcus formicicola Gavalov (1928a) is a primary homonym of Eriococcus formicicola Newstead (1897a) and a junior synonym of Acanthococcus insignis Newstead (Hoy, 1963).Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae narrowly conical, apices rounded, marginal setae noticeably larger than other setae on dorsum, 4 setae on lateral margin of each abdominal segment; microtubular ducts short, with 2 sclerotized areas (Kosztarab & Kozár, 1988). Eriococcus cynodontis was incorrectly synonomized with E. insignis by Borchsenius (1949) and Hoy (1963). Kosztarab & Kozár (1988) apparently treat Eriococcus formicicola Newstead of Borchsenius (1937a) to be an misidentification of Rhizococcus cynodontis (Kiritchenko).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 182-184 (female) [Key to species of Anophococcus]; Tang & Hao 1995: 520, 654 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus cynodontis; Rhizococcus species]; Kosztarab & Kozár 1988: 299 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus cyondontis; Rhizococcus species of central Europe]; Danzig 1971d: 822 (female) [as Rhizococcus cynodontis; Key to species of family Eriococcidae]; Danzig 1964: 634 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus cynodontis; Rhizococcus species of USSR]; Danzig 1962a: 840 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus cynodontis; Rhizococcus species of the USSR].

CITATIONS: Balach1927 [distribution, host: 189, 207]; BarbagBiBo1995 [distribution: 43]; Borchs1937a [distribution, host: 182]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy: 357]; Borg1932 [distribution, host: 17]; CebeciKu2005 [distribution, host: 97-102]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 391]; Danzig1962a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 840, 844-845]; Danzig1964 [taxonomy: 634]; Danzig1971d [taxonomy: 822]; Danzig1996a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 574]; Danzig1996b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 521]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 74]; Gavalo1928a [taxonomy: 31]; GomezM1946 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 96-101]; GomezM1957 [distribution, host: 79]; GomezM1958 [distribution, host: 55]; GomezM1958a [distribution, host: 8, 14]; GomezM1960O [distribution, host: 201]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 90, 96]; KaydanKiKo2005a [distribution, host: 400]; KaydanUlEr2007 [distribution, host: 90-106]; Kiritc1940 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 133-136]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 398]; KosztaKo1978 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 69, 70, 71]; KosztaKo1988F [description, distribution, host, illustration, life history, taxonomy: 301]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy: 76]; Kozar1980 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 67]; Kozar1981 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 90]; Kozar1983a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 144]; Kozar1985 [distribution, host: 202, 204]; Kozar1991 [taxonomy: 81]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 106]; Kozar2009a [distribution: 583]; KozarGuBa1994 [distribution, host: 154]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy, phylogeny: 30,35, 184, 202-205]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 60]; KozarKoFe2013 [distribution, taxonomy: 55]; KozarKoSc1999 [distribution: 112]; KozarOrKo1977 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 71]; KozarPaPa1991 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 64]; KozarSaSz2009 [catalogue, distribution: 436]; KozarSu1979 [biological control, distribution, host, taxonomy: 234]; KozarTrPe1984 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 6]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 75]; Lindin1912b [distribution, host: 130]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 108]; Lindin1935 [taxonomy: 134]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 121]; LongoMaPe1999a [distribution: 145]; LongoMaRu1989 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 175-176]; Martin1985 [distribution, host: 92]; MastenSi2008 [catalogue, distribution, host: 105-119]; MeszarAdBa1984 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 73]; MeszarAdBa984a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 106]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 600]; MillerGi2000 [biological control, catalogue, description, distribution, host, life history, taxonomy: 182-184, 208-209]; MilonaKoKo2008a [distribution: 143-147]; Newste1897a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 102]; Newste1906 [distribution, host: 71]; Newste1907a [behaviour, distribution, host: 16]; OuvrarKo2009 [host, phylogeny, structure, taxonomy: 102-118]; PellizKo2011 [distribution: 67]; PellizPoSe2011 [distribution, host: 294]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 520, 526, 654]; Terezn1981 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 26, 27]; TerGri1983 [taxonomy: 880]; Trabut1910 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 71]; Trabut1911 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 53]; Tsalev1968 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 207]; UlgentKaTo2003 [distribution: 442]; ZakOga1966 [distribution, host: 80]; ZakOga1967 [distribution, host: 213].



Anophococcus granulatus (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus granulatus Green, 1931: 263-265. Type data: ICELAND: Haukstaoir, on Festuca rubra, by C.H. Lindroth. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Goteborg: Department of Entomology, Naturhistoriska Museet, Sweden. Described: both sexes. Illust. Notes: There are several slides of this species in the BMNH, but no types (Williams, personal communication, May 15, 1996).

Nidularia granulatus; Lindinger, 1933a: 116. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus granulatus; Ossiannilsson, 1955: 4-5. Change of combination.

Rhizococcus granulatus; Kozár & Walter, 1985: 75. Change of combination.

Anophococcus granulatus; Kozár et al., 2013: 205-208. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Festuca ovina [Green1931], Festuca rubra [Green1931].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: France [Green1931, Foldi2001]; Hungary [KozarKaKo2013]; Iceland [Green1931].

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Green (1931). Redescription and illustration in Kozár, et al., 2013.

STRUCTURE: Ovisac is grey or ochreous, closely felted, ovate and rounded at both extremities. Adult female is ovate. Adult male has well developed wings and a pair of long white filaments (Green, 1931).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, apices slightly rounded or acute, marginal setae noticeably longer than other setae on dorsum (Green, 1931).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 182-183 (female) [Key to species of Anophococcus].

CITATIONS: Danzig1968 [distribution, taxonomy: 304]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 305]; Goux1935a [description, distribution, host: 92]; Goux1940 [taxonomy: 65]; Goux1948a [taxonomy: 69]; Goux1989a [structure: 21]; Green1931 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 263-265]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 93]; Jancke1955 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 289-290]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 398]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 106]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 183, 205-208]; KozarKoFe2013 [distribution, taxonomy: 55]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 75]; Kozarz1986 [distribution, taxonomy: 307]; KozarzRe1975 [distribution: 7]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 116]; Lindin1936 [taxonomy: 156]; Lindro1931 [distribution, host: 154-155]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 221-222]; Ossian1955 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 4-5]; OuvrarKo2009 [host, phylogeny, structure, taxonomy: 102-118].



Anophococcus herbaceus (Danzig)

NOMENCLATURE:

Rhizococcus herbaceus Danzig, 1962: 22-24. Type data: RUSSIA: St. Petersburg Oblast (Leningrad), Zelenogorsk, on undetermined Gramineae, 23/08/1955, by E. Danzig. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus herbaceus; Tereznikova, 1981: 29. Change of combination.

Eriococcus herbaceus; Kawecki, 1985: 28. Change of combination. Notes: Miller & Gimpel (1999) erroneously cite this combination as new.

Anophococcus herbaceus; Nast et al., 1990: 120. Described: unknown. Change of combination. Notes: Koteja is thought to have authored the chapter in Nast et al. (1990) in which the nomenclatural changes are made.

COMMON NAME: Danzig's felt scale [KosztaKo1988F].



HOSTS: Cyperaceae: Carex sp. [KosztaKo1988F]. Juncaceae: Luzula nemorosa [Koteja1964], Luzula sp. [KosztaKo1988F]. Poaceae: Brachypodium sp. [KosztaKo1988F], Calamagrostis sp. [KosztaKo1988F], Cynodon dactylon [Kozar1985], Piptatherum miliaceum [KozarPaPa1991].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Greece [Kozar1985]; Hungary [KozarKoFe2013]; Poland [KosztaKo1988F, SimonKa2011]; Russia (St. Petersburg (=Leningrad) Oblast [Danzig1962], Stavrapol Oblast [Danzig1985]); Turkey [KaydanUlEr2007]; Ukraine (Zakarpat'ye (=Transcarpathia) Oblast [Danzig1962]).

BIOLOGY: This is a rare boreal species. Females have been collected each month from June through September in Poland (Kosztarab & Kozár, 1988).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description by Danzig (1962) and Kosztarab & Kozár (1988).

STRUCTURE: Ovisac is elongate-oval, white. Adult female is elongate-oval, greenish (Kosztarab & Kozár,1988).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae cylindrical, apices truncate or slightly rounded, marginal setae conspicuously larger than other setae on dorsum, 3 lateral setae on margin of each abdominal segment; microtubular ducts small with 2 sclerotized areas (Danzig, 1962). "Probably the suggestion (Dziedzicka & Koteja, 1971) that "A. herbaceus is only a variety of A. insignis is justified"(Danzig, 1986a).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 182-183 (female) [Key to species of Anophococcus]; Tang & Hao 1995: 520, 654 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus herbaceus; Rhizococcus species]; Danzig 1988: 709 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus herbaceus; Acanthococcus species of the far eastern USSR]; Kosztarab & Kozár 1988: 299 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus herbaceus; Rhizococcus species of central Europe]; Danzig 1971d: 823 (female) [as Rhizococcus herbaceus; Key to species of family Eriococcidae]; Dziedzicka & Koteja 1971: 561 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus herbaceus; Rhizococcus species of Poland]; Danzig 1964: 634 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus herbaceus; Rhizococcus species of the USSR]; Danzig 1962a: 840 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus herbaceus; Rhizococcus species of the USSR].

CITATIONS: CebeciKu2005 [distribution, host: 97-102]; Danzig1962 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 22-24]; Danzig1962a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 840, 847]; Danzig1964 [taxonomy: 633]; Danzig1971d [taxonomy: 823]; Danzig1975a [taxonomy: 42]; Danzig1978a [taxonomy: 76]; Danzig1985 [taxonomy: 111]; Danzig1986a [taxonomy: 262]; Danzig1988 [taxonomy: 709]; Dziedz1977 [taxonomy: 59, 71]; DziedzKo1971 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 557, 572-573]; Kaweck1985 [distribution, taxonomy: 28]; KaydanUlEr2007 [distribution, host: 90-106]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 398-399]; KomosiPo1967 [distribution, host: 684]; KosztaKo1978 [host, taxonomy: 68]; KosztaKo1988F [description, distribution, host, life history, taxonomy: 301]; Koteja1964 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 177]; Koteja1971a [distribution, host: 322]; Koteja1974b [structure, taxonomy: 76, 104]; Koteja1983a [distribution, host: 675]; Koteja2000a [distribution: 172]; KotejaLi1976 [structure: 666]; KotejaZa1966 [distribution, host: 310, 320]; KotejaZa1969 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 363]; KotejaZa1981 [illustration: 514]; KotejaZa1983 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 477]; Kozar1985 [distribution, host: 202]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 106]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy, phylogeny: 30,35, 183, 209-211]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 60]; KozarKoFe2013 [distribution, taxonomy: 55]; KozarPaPa1991 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 64-65]; KozarWa1985 [distribution : 75]; Lagows2002 [distribution: 243]; LagowsKo1996 [distribution: 31]; MillerGi1999 [taxonomy: 213-214]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 229-231]; MilonaKoKo2008a [distribution: 143-147]; NastChKl1990 [distribution, taxonomy: 120]; SimonKa2011 [distribution: 237]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 520, 528-529, 654]; Terezn1966 [distribution, host: 27]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy: 73]; Terezn1981 [taxonomy: 29]; UlgentKaTo2003 [distribution: 442]; ZakOgaKo1964 [distribution, host: 420, 425, 435].



Anophococcus iljinae (Danzig)

NOMENCLATURE:

Rhizococcus iljiniae Danzig, 1972b: 339. Type data: MONGOLIA: Bayan-Hongor Aymag, 110 km S. Shine-Djinst, on Iljinia regelii roots, 30/08/1970, E. Nartshuk. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 7-71. Described: female. Illust. Notes: There is 1 female paratype on the same slide as the holotype and a second slide with 2 females and the same data. A third slide contains 2 additional paratypes from different location in Mongolia (Danzig, personal communication, 1996)

Acanthococcus iljiniae; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 601. Change of combination.

Eriococcus iljiniae; Miller & Gimpel, 1999: 214. Change of combination.

Anophococcus iljinae; Kozár et al., 2013: 212-214. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Chenopodiaceae: Iljinia regelii [Danzig1972b], Kalideum gracile [TangLi1988].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China (Nei Monggol (=Inner Mongolia) [Hua2000], Xizang (=Tibet) [Hua2000]); Mongolia [Danzig1972b].

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Danzig (1972b).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae cylindrical, apices rounded or truncate, marginal setae conspicuously larger than all other setae on dorsal surface, 3 lateral setae on margin of each abdominal segment (Danzig, 1972b). Tang & Li (1988) included this species in their book on Inner Mongolian Chinese Coccoidea. In 1995 Tang & Hao realized that the specimens that they considered to be R. iljiniae were a misidentification of Acanthococcus agropyri.

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 182-183 (female) [Key to species of Anophococcus]; Tang & Hao 1995: 520, 654 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus iljiniae; Rhizococcus species].

CITATIONS: Danzig1972b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 339]; Hua2000 [distribution, host: 138]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 399]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 106]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 184, 212-214]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 75]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 601]; MillerGi1999 [taxonomy: 214]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 233-234]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 520, 529, 654]; TangLi1988 [description, distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 75, 77, 78].



Anophococcus inermis (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus inermis Green, 1915a: 176. Type data: UNITED KINGDOM: England, Camberley, Surrey, Virginia Water, on Agrostis setacea, ?/08/1914, by E.E. Green. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Williams, 1985h: 370. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust. Notes: In addition to the lectotype there are five paralectotypes adult females on the same slide and an additional slide contains six paralectotype adult females in the BMNH (Williams, personal communication, May 29, 1996).

Nidularia inermis; Lindinger, 1933a: 156. Change of combination.

Greenisca inermis; Borchsenius, 1948: 502. Change of combination.

Anophococcus inermis; Balachowsky, 1954a: 61. Change of combination.

Rhizococcus inermis; Danzig, 1962a: 854. Illust. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus inermis; Danzig, 1977b: 39. Change of combination. Notes: Miller & Gimpel (1996) erroneously listed Acanthococcus inermis as a new change of combination. This combination was first proposed by Danzig (1977b).

Anophococcus inermis; Kozár, 2009: 94. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Agrostis setacea? [Green1915a], Deschampsia flexuosa [Willia1985h], Festuca ovina [Willia1985h], Koeleria askoldensis [Danzig1986a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: France [Willia1985h]; Georgia [Green1915a]; Germany [KosztaKo1988F]; Lithuania [MalumpOsPy2010]; Netherlands [Jansen2001]; Poland [KosztaKo1988F, SimonKa2011]; Romania [FetykoKoDa2010]; Russia (Caucasus [Danzig1986a], Irkutsk Oblast [Danzig1986a], Primor'ye Kray [Danzig1986a], St. Petersburg (=Leningrad) Oblast [KosztaKo1988F]); Ukraine [Willia1985h] (Zakarpat'ye (=Transcarpathia) Oblast [Terezn1959]); United Kingdom (England [Willia1985h]).

BIOLOGY: Ovisacs are nearly always attached to dry and dead blades, seldom on the green parts (Green, 1915a). On the upper surface of the leaves. Feed on leaves of grasses. Females collected from July to September. (Kozár, et al., 2013)

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration by Green (1915a). Detailed description, illustration and type information by Williams (1985h).

STRUCTURE: Adult female is elongate oval. Ovisac is white, slightly tinged with pale ochreous, closely felted, comparatively smooth. Male puparium similar in color and substance, but smaller and flatter (Green, 1915a). Eggs are yellow (Danzig, 1986a).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, apices rounded, restricted to anal lobe, other setae small, only slightly enlarged; anal lobes with 2 large setae; microtubular ducts small, with 2 sclerotized areas (Williams, 1985h). This species was originally the type of the genus Greenisca Borchsenius, 1948. Later, Borchsenius and Danzig (1966) replaced the misidentified type species with An. gouxi. (Kozár, et al., 2013)

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 182-183 (female) [Key to species of Anophococcus]; Dziedzicka & Koteja 1996: 561 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus inermis; Rhizococcus species of Poland]; Tang & Hao 1995: 518, 652 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus inermis; Rhizococcus species]; Danzig 1988: 709 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus inermis; Rhizococcus species of the USSR]; Danzig 1986a: 241 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus inermis; Rhizococcus species of the USSR]; Williams 1985h: 357 (adult female) [as Eriococcus inermis; British species of Eriococcus]; Danzig 1971d: 823 (female) [as Rhizococcus inermis; Key to species of family Eriococcidae]; Danzig 1964: 634 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus inermis; Rhizococcus species of the USSR]; Danzig 1962a: 841 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus inermis; Far eastern Soviet Rhizococcus species].

CITATIONS: Balach1934c [distribution, host, taxonomy: 130-131]; Balach1937c [distribution, host, life history: 6]; Balach1954a [taxonomy: 61, 62, 63, 64]; BoratyWi1964 [taxonomy: 91]; BoratyWi1964a [taxonomy: 108]; Borchs1948 [taxonomy: 502]; Borchs1949 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 47, 48, 53, 367-368]; Borchs1950b [distribution, host: 126]; BorchsDa1966 [taxonomy: 41]; Danzig1962a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 854]; Danzig1964 [taxonomy: 634]; Danzig1971d [taxonomy: 823]; Danzig1975a [taxonomy: 43, 62, 64]; Danzig1977b [taxonomy: 57]; Danzig1980b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 226]; Danzig1984 [taxonomy: 241]; Danzig1986a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 241, 262]; Danzig1987 [taxonomy: 579]; Danzig1988 [taxonomy: 709]; Dziedz1977 [taxonomy: 5]; DziedzKo1971 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 576]; Ferris1921 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 77]; Ferris1957c [taxonomy: 86]; FetykoKoDa2010 [distribution: 296]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 305]; Goux1937a [taxonomy: 93]; Goux1948 [taxonomy: 16]; Goux1948a [taxonomy: 68]; Green1915a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 176]; Green1920 [distribution, taxonomy: 117-118]; Green1921 [taxonomy: 149]; Green1922b [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 20]; Green1923d [distribution, life history: 211]; Green1928 [description, host, taxonomy: 9]; Green1928a [distribution, host: 30]; Hoy1962 [taxonomy: 23]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 133-134]; Ivanov1973 [taxonomy: 25]; Jansen2001 [distribution: 200]; Kaweck1985 [distribution, taxonomy: 29]; Kiritc1935 [distribution: 1]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 399]; Komosi1977 [host: 22]; KomosiPo1967 [taxonomy: 684]; KosztaKo1978 [host, taxonomy: 67]; KosztaKo1988F [description, distribution, host, life history, taxonomy: 286]; Koteja1974b [structure, taxonomy: 76, 104]; KotejaZa1966 [taxonomy: 309]; KotejaZa1969 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 363]; KotejaZa1981 [taxonomy: 511]; KotejaZa1983 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 477]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 94]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 182, 214-217]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 75]; Lagows2002 [distribution: 243]; LagowsKo1996 [distribution: 31]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 116]; Lindin1936 [taxonomy: 156]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 549]; MalumpOsPy2010 [description, distribution, host: 258]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 601]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 235-236]; NastChKl1990 [distribution, taxonomy: 120]; OuvrarKo2009 [host, phylogeny, structure, taxonomy: 102-118]; Schmut1956b [distribution, host: 66]; Schmut1980 [taxonomy: 50]; SimonKa2011 [distribution: 237]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 518, 529-530, 652]; Terezn1959 [distribution: 683-5]; Terezn1959a [taxonomy: 179]; Terezn1959d [taxonomy: 93]; Terezn1966 [taxonomy: 27]; Willia1985h [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 370-372]; ZakOgaKo1964 [distribution, host: 420, 426].



Anophococcus insignis (Newstead)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus insignis Newstead, 1891: 164-165. Type data: ENGLAND: Cheshire, Ince, on Agrostis sp., 1890. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Williams, 1985h: 372-374. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust. Notes: In addition to the lectotype adult female, there are three paralectotype adult females on the same slide in the BMNH (Williams, personal communication, May 29, 1996).

Eriococcus greeni; Lindinger, 1912b: 367. Incorrect synonymy. Notes: Lindinger (1912b) incorrectly treated Eriococcus greeni as a junior synonym of E. insignis. These taxa are considered as distinct by Hoy (1963) and Williams (1985h).

Eriococcus formicicola; Gavalov, 1928a: 31. Described: female. Misidentification; discovered by Borchsenius, 1949: 357.

Nidularia insignis; Lindinger, 1933a: 116. Change of combination.

Eriococcus socialis; Lindinger, 1936: 156. Incorrect synonymy. Notes: Lindinger (1936) incorrectly synonymized E. socialis with E. insignis (Hoy, 1963 & Williams, 1985h).

Eriococcus saratogensis Rau, 1938: 157-159. Type data: UNITED STATES: New York, Saratoga Springs, on Hystrix patula, 09/11/1936, by Rau. Holotype female, by original designation. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Miller & Miller, 1992: 48-51. Notes: The location of type material is unknown, but Miller and Miller (1993) have studied topotypes.

Rhizococcus insignis; Borchsenius, 1949: 357-358. Described: female. Illust. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus insignis; Tereznikova, 1975: 39. Change of combination. Notes: Miller & Miller (1992) cited Acanthococcus insignis as a new combination, but Tereznikova (1975) had already put forth this combination.

Anophococcus insignis; Nast et al., 1990: 120. Change of combination. Notes: Koteja is thought to have authored the chapter in Nast et al. (1990) in which the nomenclatural changes are made.

Eriococcus chaoticus Goux, 1991: 49-50. Type data: FRANCE: Hautes-Pyrénées, Artigues, on undetermined Gramineae, 12/08/1953, by L. Goux. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Kozár et al., 2013: 218.

Acanthococcus chaoticus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 599. Change of combination.

Eriococcus insignis; Miller & Gimpel, 2000: 236. Revived combination.

Anophococcus insignis; Kozár, 2009: 106. Revived combination.

Rhizococcus chaoticus; Kozár, 2009: 106. Change of combination.

COMMON NAMES: conspicuous felt scale [KosztaKo1988F]; remarkable eriococcin [MillerMi1992]; remarkable felt scale [Arnett1985].



FOES: HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Baeocharis pascuorum [KosztaKo1988F], Cheiloneurus paralia [JaposhCe2010], Metaphycus nitens [KosztaKo1988F], Metaphycus petitus [JaposhCe2010], Trichomasthus rhizococci [KosztaKo1988F]. Pteromalidae: Scutellista obscura [KosztaKo1988F].

HOSTS: Asteraceae: Cichorium intybus [PodsiaKo1976], Cichorium sp. [KosztaKo1988F], Hieracium pilosella [Terezn1963]. Caprifoliaceae: Linnaea borealis [Gertss1997]. Caryophyllaceae: Silene sp. [KosztaKo1988F]. Cyperaceae: Carex sp. [KosztaKo1988F]. Dennstaedtiaceae: Pteridium sp. [KosztaKo1988F]. Fabaceae: Trifolium medium [Gertss1997], Ulex sp. [Hoy1963]. Guttiferae: Hypericum sp. [Kohler1998]. Juncaceae: Luzula sp. [KosztaKo1988F]. Labiatae: Thymus sp. [Terezn1963]. Poaceae [Goux1991], Agropyron cristatum [Mateso1968], Agropyron repans [MillerMi1992], Agrostis capillaris [KozarKaKo2013], Agrostis rupestris [Terezn1963], Agrostis sp. [Hoy1963], Agrostis vulgaris [Hoy1963], Andropogon sp. [Kohler1998], Anthoxanthum odoratum [Terezn1963], Anthoxanthum sp. [KosztaKo1988F], Arrhenatherum elatius [Kozar1985], Avenastrum pubescens [PodsiaKo1976], Avenastrum sp. [KosztaKo1988F], Brachypodium sp. [PodsiaKo1976], Bromus inermis [PodsiaKo1976], Bromus mollis [Hoy1963], Bromus sp. [Hoy1962], Calamagrostis adrundinacea [Hoy1962], Cynodon dactylon [Hoy1963], Dactylis glomerata [Hoy1963], Deschampsia flexuosa [KozarKaKo2013], Deschampsia sp. [KosztaKo1988F], Elymus sp. [MillerMi1992], Festkuca ovina [KozarKaKo2013], Festuca pratensis [PodsiaKo1976], Festuca rubra [PodsiaKo1976], Festuca sp. [KosztaKo1988F], Holcus lanatus [Hoy1963], Hystrix patula [Hoy1963], Koeleria askoldensis [KozarKaKo2013], Koeleria sp. [KosztaKo1988F], Nardus sp. [KosztaKo1988F], Phalaris sp. [Kohler1998], Phleum phleoides [Terezn1963], Phleum pratense [MillerMi1992], Poa sp. [KosztaKo1988F], Stipa sp. [Kohler1998]. Polygonaceae: Rumex sp. [Hoy1963]. Pteridaceae: Pteris sp. [Hoy1963]. Rosaceae: Malus sylvestris [MillerMi1992], Spiraea douglasii. Saxifragaceae: Saxifraga sp. [KosztaKo1988F]. Ulmaceae: Ulmus sp. [Kohler1998]. Urticaceae: Urtica dioica [Hoy1963], Urtica sp. [Kohler1998]

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (California [MillerMi1992], Idaho [MillerMi1992], Minnesota [MillerMi1992], New York [MillerMi1992], Washington [MillerMi1992]). Palaearctic: Armenia [Hoy1963]; Austria [KosztaKo1988F]; Bulgaria [KosztaKo1988F]; Czechoslovakia [KosztaKo1988F]; Denmark [KosztaKo1978, Gertss2001]; France [Goux1991] [Hoy1963, Foldi2001]; Georgia [KozarKaKo2013]; Germany [Hoy1963]; Hungary [KosztaKo1988F]; Iraq [Hoy1963]; Italy [Hoy1963]; Kazakhstan [Mateso1968]; Netherlands [Jansen2001]; Norway [Kozarz1986]; Poland [KosztaKo1978, SimonKa2011]; Romania [FetykoKoDa2010]; Russia (Kuril Islands [Danzig1986a], Moscow Oblast [Hoy1963], Primor'ye Kray [Danzig1986a], Sakhalin Oblast [Danzig1986a], St. Petersburg (=Leningrad) Oblast [Hoy1963]); Sicily [Hoy1963]; Sweden [KosztaKo1988F]; Ukraine [Hoy1963] (Krym (=Crimea) Oblast [Hoy1963]); United Kingdom (Channel Islands [Hoy1963, MalumpBa2012], England [Hoy1963], Scotland [Hoy1963]).

BIOLOGY: A common steppe inhabiting mesophilous species. Adults have been observed in June. First instars appeared during the first part of June. Adult females present again in August and September. Based on this information, there seem to be two generations per year, at least in central Europe. Males known in United States (Kosztarab & Kozár, 1988). Schmutterer (1952) observed one yearly generation and eggs overwintering.

GENERAL REMARKS: Miller & Miller (1992) provide a detailed illustration and description as does Willilams (1985h).Detailed description and illustration by Goux (1991).

STRUCTURE: Adult females are dark red, elongate-oval. Ovisac is tough, yellowish-white; produced on leaves of host (Miller & Miller, 1992).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae cylindrical, apices truncate posteriorly, acute or slightly rounded on thorax and head, marginal setae conspicuously larger than other setae on dorsum, 4 or 5 lateral setae on margin of each abdominal segment; ventral multilocular pores primarily with 7 loculi; microtubular ducts short, with 2 sclerotized areas (Williams, 1985h).Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, apices acute or slightly rounded, marginal setae conspicuously larger than other dorsal setae with 4 or 5 setae on lateral margin of each abdominal segment (Goux, 1991).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: This species damages timothy grass in the northwestern United States (Kosztarab & Kozár, 1988).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 182-184 (female) [Key to species of Anophococcus]; Kosztarab 1996: 227 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus insignis; Acanthococcus species of Northeastern North America]; Tang & Hao 1995: 520, 654 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus insignis; Rhizococcus species]; Gill 1993: 157 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus insignis; Acanthococcus species of California]; Miller & Miller 1993: 7 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus insignis; Acanthococcus species in the United States]; Miller & Miller 1992: 5 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus insignis; Acanthococcus species in the western United States]; Danzig 1988: 709 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus insignis; Rhizococcus species of the far eastern USSR]; Kosztarab & Kozár 1988: 299 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus insignis; Rhizococcus species of central Europe]; Danzig 1986a: 241 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus insignis; Rhizococcus species of USSR]; Williams 1985h: 358 (adult female) [as (Eriococcus insignis; British species of Eriococcus]; Danzig 1971d: 822 (female) [as Rhizococcus insignis; Key to species of family Eriococcidae]; Danzig 1964: 634 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus insignis; Rhizococcus species of USSR]; Danzig 1962a: 840 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus insignis; Far eastern Soviet Rhizococcus species].

CITATIONS: Archan1937 [taxonomy: 128, 139, 140]; Arnett1985 [distribution, economic importance: 239]; BarbagBiBo1995 [distribution: 43]; Bazaro1968a [taxonomy: 77]; Bodenh1943 [description, distribution, host: 22, 28]; BoratyWi1964 [taxonomy: 92]; Borchs1937 [taxonomy: 38]; Borchs1937a [distribution, host: 180, 184, 188]; Borchs1949 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 47-50, 52-53, 353]; Borchs1950b [distribution, host: 122]; Borchs1950c [distribution, host: 368]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 323]; Danzig1959 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 446-451]; Danzig1962a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 841]; Danzig1962b [distribution, taxonomy: 27]; Danzig1964 [taxonomy: 633]; Danzig1971d [taxonomy: 822]; Danzig1975a [taxonomy: 43, 62]; Danzig1977b [taxonomy: 57]; Danzig1978 [taxonomy: 13]; Danzig1980b [description, distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 223, 225-226]; Danzig1986a [description, distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 241, 262]; Danzig1988 [taxonomy: 709]; Dziedz1977 [taxonomy: 59]; DziedzKo1971 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 561-562]; Elliot1933 [distribution: 142]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 75]; FetykoKoDa2010 [distribution: 296]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 305]; Fulmek1943 [taxonomy: 32, 56]; Gavalo1928a [taxonomy: 31]; Gavalo1932 [host, taxonomy: 134]; Gertss1997 [distribution, host: 115]; Gertss2001 [distribution: 126]; Gill1993 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 157, 165]; GomezM1968 [description, distribution, host: 553]; Goux1931 [distribution: 332]; Goux1931a [structure: 63]; Goux1935a [taxonomy: 92]; Goux1940 [taxonomy: 65]; Goux1948a [taxonomy: 69]; Goux1989a [structure: 21]; Goux1991 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 49-50]; Green1915a [distribution, host: 176]; Green1920 [description, distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 116-117]; Green1922b [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 20]; Green1923d [distribution, host: 211]; Green1925b [distribution, host: 517]; Green1926a [distribution, host: 182-183]; Green1927a [distribution, host: 28]; Green1928 [description, host, taxonomy: 8]; Green1928a [distribution, host: 30]; Hadzib1983 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 269]; HertinSi1972 [biological control: 132]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 95, 114]; Ivanov1973 [taxonomy: 25]; Janets1949 [taxonomy: 156]; Jansen2001 [distribution: 200]; JaposhCe2010 [p. 133]; Kaweck1985 [distribution, taxonomy: 30]; Kiritc1928 [distribution, host: 112]; Kiritc1931 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 311]; Kiritc1940 [taxonomy: 132, 135]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 399]; KomosiPo1967 [distribution, host: 684]; Koszta1996 [description, distribution, host, illustration, life history, taxonomy: 227, 241-243]; KosztaKo1978 [host, taxonomy: 69]; KosztaKo1988F [biological control, description, distribution, host, life history, taxonomy: 303-304]; Koteja1964 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 178]; Koteja1971a [distribution, host: 322]; Koteja1974b [structure, taxonomy: 76, 104]; Koteja1983a [distribution, host: 675]; Koteja2000a [distribution: 172]; Koteja2000d [distribution: 242]; KotejaLi1976 [structure: 666]; KotejaZa1966 [distribution, host: 310, 319]; KotejaZa1969 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 363]; KotejaZa1981 [illustration: 514]; KotejaZa1983 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 477]; Kozar1971 [distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 157, 158]; Kozar1980 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 67]; Kozar1985 [distribution, host: 202, 204]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 106]; Kozar2009a [distribution: 583]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy, phylogeny: 30, 35]; KozarKoFe2013 [distribution, taxonomy: 55]; KozarKoSc1999 [distribution: 112]; KozarSaSz2009 [catalogue, distribution: 436]; KozarSu1979 [biological control, distribution, host, taxonomy: 234]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 75]; Kozarz1986 [distribution, taxonomy: 307]; KozarzRe1975 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 7, 17]; Kunkel1967 [taxonomy: 46]; Lagows2002 [distribution: 243]; LagowsKo1996 [distribution: 31]; Lindin1912b [host, taxonomy: 61]; Lindin1923 [taxonomy: 146]; Lindin1931 [distribution, host: 121]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 116]; Lindin1935 [taxonomy: 134]; Lindin1936 [taxonomy: 156]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 121]; LongoMaPe1999a [distribution: 144]; MalumpBa2012 [distribution: 26]; Mateso1955 [distribution, host: 202]; Mateso1968 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 116]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 599]; MillerGi2000 [biological control, catalogue, description, distribution, economic importance, host, life history, taxonomy: 161, 236-240]; MillerMi1992 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 5, 48-51]; MillerMi1993 [distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 7, 39]; NastChKl1990 [distribution, taxonomy: 120]; Newste1891 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 164-165]; Newste1903 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 198-200]; Ossian1951 [distribution, taxonomy: 3-4]; Ossian1959 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 195]; OuvrarKo2009 [host, phylogeny, structure, taxonomy: 102-118]; PellizKo2011 [distribution: 67]; PodsiaKo1976 [distribution, host: 89]; PooleGe1997 [distribution: 354]; Rau1938 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 157-159]; Reyne1951 [taxonomy: xl]; Reyne1954b [taxonomy: 235]; Schmut1952 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 378, 407, 410]; Schmut1955 [host, taxonomy: 160]; Schmut1959 [illustration: 42]; Schmut1974 [taxonomy: 48]; Schmut1980 [taxonomy: 50]; SimonKa2011 [distribution: 237]; Siraiw1939 [taxonomy: 66]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 19]; Sugony1962 [taxonomy: 184]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 520, 530-531, 654]; Terezn1959a [taxonomy: 179]; Terezn1959c [taxonomy: 795, 796, 797]; Terezn1960a [distribution, host: 538]; Terezn1963 [distribution, host: 188, 189, 190, 191]; Terezn1966 [distribution: 25]; Terezn1967a [distribution: 474]; Terezn1967b [behavior, ecology, life history: 562]; Terezn1968b [distribution, host: 47]; Terezn1968c [distribution, host: 45, 52, 53]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy: 30]; Terezn1981 [taxonomy: 29]; TerGri1983 [taxonomy: 879]; Trjapi1964 [taxonomy: 1457]; Wang2001 [taxonomy: 231]; Willia1985h [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 372]; Wunn1925 [distribution, host: 123]; Wunn1925a [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 203]; Wunn1926 [distribution, host: 40, 45, 48-50]; Zahrad1959a [taxonomy: 540]; Zahrad1977 [taxonomy: 121]; ZahradRo1995 [distribution: 205]; ZakOga1966 [distribution, host: 80]; ZakOgaKo1964 [distribution, host: 420, 425].



Anophococcus kondarensis (Borchsenius)

NOMENCLATURE:

Rhizococcus kondarensis Borchsenius, 1949: 353-354. Type data: TADZHIKISTAN: Gissar Ridge, Kondara River, 21/07/1940, by N. Borchsenius. Lectotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 183-42. Described: female. Illust. Notes: One female on same slide as lectotype (Danzig, personal communication, 1996).

Eriococcus kondarensis; Hoy, 1963: 98. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus kondarensis; Ter-Grigorian, 1983: 880. Change of combination. Notes: Miller & Gimpel (1996) erroneously cited Acanthococcus kondarensis as a new combination when in fact, Ter-Grigorian (1983) was the first to use this combination.

Eriococcus kondarensis; Miller & Gimpel, 2000: 247. Revived combination.

Rhizococcus jondarensis; Kozár, 2009: 106. Revived combination.

Anophococcus kondarensis; Kozár et al., 2013: 221. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Agropyron ripens [KozarKaKo2013], Agropyron sp. [Borchs1949], Bromus sp. [Kohler1998], Hordeum [Kohler1998].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China (Xingiang Uygur (=Sinkiang) [Tang1984b]); Iran [Moghad2013a]; Russia [KozarKaKo2013]; Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Danzig1962a]; Turkey [KozarKaKo2013]; Uzbekistan [Hoy1963].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration by Borchsenius (1949).

STRUCTURE: Adult female is elongate, sac is oval or elongate and white or cream colored (Borchsenius, 1949).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical and elongate, apices acute or slightly rounded, marginal setae conspicuously larger than other setae on dorsum, 3 lateral setae on margins of each abdominal segment; microtubular ducts short, with 2 sclerotized areas (Danzig, 1962a).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 182-183 (female) [Key to species of Anophococcus]; Tang & Hao 1995: 519, 653 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus kondarensis; Rhizococcus species]; Borchsenius 1949: 352 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus kondarensis; Rhizococcus species of the USSR].

CITATIONS: Babaev1980 [distribution, host: 57]; Bazaro1962 [distribution, host: 63]; Bazaro1963 [distribution, host: 67]; Bazaro1968a [distribution, host: 77]; Bazaro1971c [host: 90]; Borchs1949 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 57, 58, 353-354]; Borchs1950b [distribution, host: 122]; Danzig1962 [description: 24]; Danzig1962a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 840, 847]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 98]; Hua2000 [distribution, host: 138]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 400]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 106]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 221-223]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 75]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 601]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 247-248]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 56]; OuvrarKo2009 [host, phylogeny, structure, taxonomy: 102-118]; Tang1984b [distribution, host: 126]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 519, 531-532, 653]; TerGri1983 [distribution, taxonomy: 880]; Wang1974 [taxonomy: 333].



Anophococcus kotejai Kozár & Kaydan in Kozár et al.

NOMENCLATURE:

Anophococcus kotejai Kozár & Kaydan in Kozár et al., 2013: 222-225. Type data: GREECE: Voula, on [Cynodon dactylon], 7/30/1983. by F. Kozár. Holotype female (examined). Type depository: Budapest: Plant Protection Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary; type no. 2262a. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Paratypes: 1 adult female, same data as holotype (PPI: 2262a), in the same slide with holotype. Deposited in PPH.



HOST: Poaceae: Cynodon dactylon [KozarKaKo2013].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Greece [KozarKaKo2013].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Kozár, et al., 2013.

SYSTEMATICS: The adult female of An. kotejai differs from nearest species (An. cingulatus, An. confusus) by absence of frontal lobes, from An. kondarensis by six segmented antennae and strong, long marginal enlarged setae. (Kozár, et al., 2013)

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 182-183 (female) [Key to species of Anophococcus].

CITATIONS: KozarKaKo2013 [distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 183, 222-224].



Anophococcus lerzanae Kaydan & Kozár in Kozár et al.

NOMENCLATURE:

Anophococcus lerzanae Kaydan & Kozár in Kozár et al., 2013: 226-228. Type data: TURKEY: Van-Gürpýnar road, on Bromus sp., 6/24/2010, by M.B. Kaydan. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Turkey: Kaydan's Personal Collection; type no. 4712. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae: Bromus sp. [KozarKaKo2013]

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Turkey [KozarKaKo2013].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Kozár, et al., 2013.

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 182-183 (female) [Key to species of Anophococcus].

CITATIONS: KozarKaKo2013 [distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 183, 225-228].



Anophococcus oblongus (Borchsenius)

NOMENCLATURE:

Rhizococcus oblongus Borchsenius, 1949: 54, 56, 353, 358. Type data: TADZHIKISTAN: Shaartuz District, on Cynodon dactylon leaves, 12/06/1944, by N. Borchsenius. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 13-44. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Lectotype to be designated by Danzig (1996). 2 paralectotype females on same slide as lectotype; 1 additional adult female paralectotype on 1 slide all in ZMAS

Eriococcus oblongus; Hoy, 1963: 104. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus oblongus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 602. Change of combination.

Anophococcus oblongus; Kozár et al., 2013: 228- 230. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Agropyron sp. [Mateso1968], Avena fatua [TangHa1995], Cynodon dactylon [Borchs1949], Festuca sp. [Mateso1968]. Verbenaceae: Vitex sampsoni [Hua2000]. Vitaceae: Cissus sp. [Wang2001], Cissus sp. [KozarKaKo2013]

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: China (Jiangxi (=Kiangsi) [Hua2000]). Palaearctic: China (Xizang (=Tibet) [TangHa1995]); Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Borchs1949].

GENERAL REMARKS: Best description and illustration by Borchsenius (1949).

STRUCTURE: Adult female is elongate. Sac is also elongate or oval, white or greyish (Borchsenius, 1949).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae cylindrical, sides slightly concave, apices rounded or blunt, marginal setae conspicuously larger than other setae on dorsal surface, 4 or 5 lateral setae on margin of each abdominal segment(Borchsenius, 1949).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 182-184 (female) [Key to species of Anophococcus]; Wang 2001: 225 (female) [as Rhizococcus oblongus; Key to Chinese species of Rhizococcus]; Tang & Hao 1995: 519, 653 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus oblongus; Rhizococcus species]; Danzig 1962a: 840 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus oblongus; Rhizococcus species of the USSR]; Borchsenius 1949: 353 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus oblongus; Russian species of Rhizococcus].

CITATIONS: Bazaro1963 [distribution, host: 67]; Bazaro1968a [distribution, host: 77]; Bazaro1971c [distribution, host: 90]; Borchs1949 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 54, 56, 353, 358]; Borchs1950b [distribution, host: 123]; Danzig1962a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 840, 841]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 104]; Hua2000 [distribution, host: 138]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 400]; Kozar1983a [taxonomy: 146]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 106]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 184, 228-230]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 75]; Mateso1968 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 116]; Mateso1971 [distribution, host: 27]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 602]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 283-284]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 519,533-534,599,736]; Tao1999 [distribution, host: 35]; Wang2001 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 225, 231].



Anophococcus oxyacanthus (Danzig)

NOMENCLATURE:

Acanthococcus oxyacanthus Danzig, 1975a: 55. Type data: RUSSIA: Vladivostok, Akademgorodok, railway embankment, on Melilotus sp., 17/08/1949, by N. Borchsenius. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Rhizococcus oxyacanthus; Kozár & Walter, 1985: 75. Change of combination.

Eriococcus oxyacanthus; Miller & Gimpel, 1999: 214. Change of combination.

Anaphococcus oxyacanthus; Kozár et al., 2013: 231. Misspelling of genus name.

Anophococcus oxyacanthus; Kozár et al., 2013: 231-233. Change of combination.



HOST: Fabaceae: Melilotus sp. [Danzig1975a]

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Russia (Primor'ye Kray [Danzig1975a] (Maritime district)).

BIOLOGY: Ovisacs constructed from late July to mid August, but last stage nymphs were still seen (Danzig, 1986a).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Danzig (1975a).

STRUCTURE: Female is oval and brown and the ovisac is grey (Danzig, 1975a).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae elongate, narrow, conical, sides straight, apices acute, setae of 2 sizes, restricted to marginal areas of body; anal lobes with 3 slender, elongate enlarged setae; microtubular ducts small, with 2 sclerotized areas (Danzig, 1975a).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 182-183 (female) [Key to species of Anophococcus]; Tang & Hao 1995: 520, 655 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus oxyacanthus; Rhizococcus species]; Danzig 1988: 709 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus oxyacanthus; Acanthococcus species of the USSR]; Danzig 1986a: 241 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus oxyacanthus; Acanthococcus species of the USSR]; Danzig 1975a: 43 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus oxyacanthus; Acanthococcus species of the far eastern USSR].

CITATIONS: Danzig1975a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 43, 55]; Danzig1977b [taxonomy: 57]; Danzig1980b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 206]; Danzig1986a [description, distribution, host, illustration: 241, 258]; Danzig1988 [taxonomy: 709]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 400]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 106]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 182, 231-233]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 75]; MillerGi1999 [taxonomy: 215]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 290-291]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 535-536].



Anophococcus pannonicus Kozár & Konczné Benedicty in Kozár et al.

NOMENCLATURE:

Anophococcus pannonicus Kozár & Konczné Benedicty in Kozár et al., 2013: 234-239. Type data: HUNGARY: Fehérszék, 8/15/2002, on Festuca sp. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Budapest: Plant Protection Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary; type no. 6538. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Agropyron sp. [KozarKaKo2013], Artemisia sp [KozarKaKo2013], Bromus sp. [KozarKaKo2013], Cynodon dactylon [KozarKaKo2013], Cynodon sp. [KozarKaKo2013], Dactylis glomerata [KozarKaKo2013], Festuca sp. [KozarKaKo2013]

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Hungary [KozarKaKo2013].

BIOLOGY: Females were found from April till October. It probably has two generations.

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illusgtration in Kozár, et al., 2013.

STRUCTURE: Adult female oval. Antennae 6 (rarely 7) segmented; segments with a few hair-like setae; apical segment also with 3 sensory falcate setae; two preapical segments also with 1 sensory falcate seta. Frontal lobe absent, Eyes situated on venter near margin. Cuticula with spinulae both on dorsum and venter. (Kozár, et al., 2013)

SYSTEMATICS: An. pannonicus differs from all species included in Anophococcus genus by having only one enlarged spine on margin of segments. (Kozár, et al., 2013)

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 182-183 (female) [Key to species of Anophococcus].

CITATIONS: KozarKaKo2013 [distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy, phylogeny: 35,182, 234-239].



Anophococcus parvispinus (Lindinger)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus parvispinus Goux, 1948: 5-6. Type data: FRANCE: Camargue, Ričges, on Artemisia gallica, 26/06/1946, by L. Goux. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France; type no. 4946. Described: both sexes. Illust. Homonym of Eriococcus parvispinus Chaffin 1923; discovered by Lindinger, 1957: 550. Notes: Through the courtesy of Matile-Ferrero (personal communication, November 20, 1996) we have seen a xerox copy of the slide labels on the two slides containing two specimens in the MNHN.

Anophococcus parvispinus; Balachowsky, 1954a: 61, 64. Change of combination.

Nidularia parviseta; Lindinger, 1957: 550. Change of combination and replacement name for Eriococcus parvispinus Goux 1948.

Eriococcus parvisetus; Hoy, 1963: 107. Change of combination.

Greenisca parvispinus; Kozár & Walter, 1985: 75. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus parvisetus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 603. Change of combination.

Anophococcus parvispinus; Kozár, 2009: 94. Revived combination.

Anophococcus parvispinus; Kozár et al., 2013: 239. Revived combination.

Greenisca parviseta; Pellizzari & Williams, 2013: 410. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.



HOST: Asteraceae: Artemisia gallica [Goux1948, Foldi2002].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: France [Goux1948, Foldi2001, Foldi2002].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustrations of all stages by Goux (1948). Redescription and illustrations of adult female in Kozár, et al., 2013.

STRUCTURE: Adult female at time of sac formation is reddish orange and varies throughout the life cycle (Goux, 1948).

SYSTEMATICS: Eriococcus parvispinus Goux 1948 is preoccupied by Eriococcus parvispinus Chaffin 1923. Lindinger (1957) proposed Nidularia parvisetus as a replacement name.

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 182-183 (female) [Key to species of Anophococcus].

CITATIONS: Balach1954a [taxonomy: 61, 64]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 305]; Foldi2002 [distribution: 245]; Goux1948 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 5-16]; Goux1948a [taxonomy: 67, 69]; Goux1989a [structure: 21]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 107]; KotejaZa1981 [taxonomy: 512]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 94]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 182, 239-242]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 75]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 550]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 603]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 296-297]; OuvrarKo2009 [host, phylogeny, structure, taxonomy: 102-118].



Anophococcus pseudinsignis (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus pseudinsignis Green, 1921: 149-150. Type data: UNITED KINGDOM: England, Kent, Thurnham, on Festuca?, ?/09/1920. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Williams, 1985h: 378-380. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust. Notes: In addition to the lectotype adult female, there are two paralectotype adult females on the same slide in the BMNH (Williams, personal communication, May 29, 1996).

Nidularia pseudinsignis; Lindinger, 1933a: 116. Change of combination.

Rhizococcus pseudinsignis; Borchsenius, 1949: 354-5. Described: female. Illust. Change of combination.

Rhizococcus graminicola; Ossiannilsson, 1959: 195. Misidentification; discovered by Danzig, 1962a: 845.

Acanthococcus pseudinsignis; Tereznikova, 1975: 73. Change of combination. Notes: Miller & Gimpel (1996) erroneously cited Acanthococcus pseudinsignis as a new combination; the combination was originally proposed by Tereznikova (1975).

Anophococcus pseudinsignis; Nast et al., 1990: 120. Change of combination. Notes: Koteja authored the chapter in Nast et al. (1990) in which the nomenclatural changes are made.

Rhizococcus pseudinsignis; Kozár, 2009: 106. Revived combination.

Anophococcus pseudinsignis; Kozár et al., 2013: 242. Revived combination.

COMMON NAME: boreal felt scale [KosztaKo1988F].



FOES: HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Adelencyrtus breviventris [KosztaKo1988F], Anaphycus subapterus [KosztaKo1988F], Coccophagus sp. [KosztaKo1988F], Marietta picta [KosztaKo1988F], Rhopus sp. [KosztaKo1988F]. Pteromalidae: Enargopelte obscura [KosztaKo1988F].

HOSTS: Asteraceae: Achillea millefolium [KozarKaKo2013], Achillea sp. [Kohler1998], Taraxacum sp. [KosztaKo1988F]. Caryophyllaceae: Dianthus crinitus [KaydanUlEr2007]. Cyperaceae: Carex sp. [KosztaKo1988F]. Juncaceae: Luzula sp. [KosztaKo1988F]. Poaceae: Agropyron ponticum [KozarKaKo2013], Agropyron repens [KozarKaKo2013], Agropyron sp. [Green1921], Agropyrum elongatum [Foldi2002], Agrostis capillaris [KozarKaKo2013], Agrostis vulgaris [Green1921], Alopecurus pratensis [KozarKaKo2013], Alopecurus sp. [KosztaKo1988F], Ammophila sp. [KosztaKo1988F], Andropogon sp. [KosztaKo1988F], Anthoxanthum sp. [KosztaKo1988F], Arrhenaterum elatius [Green1921], Brachypodium pinnatum [Green1921], Brachypodium sylvaticum [KozarKaKo2013], Bromus inermis [KaydanUlEr2007], Bromus sp. [KaydanUlEr2007], Calamagrostis sp. [KosztaKo1988F], Cynodon dactylon [Kozar1985, KaydanKiKo2005a], Dactylis sp. [KosztaKo1988F], Deschampsia flexuosa [Green1921], Festuca sp. [Green1921], Holcus lanatus [Green1921], Holcus mollis [KozarKaKo2013], Holcus sp. [KosztaKo1988F], Koeleria glauca [KozarTrPe1984], Phragmites sp. [KosztaKo1988F], Setaria sp. [KozarTrPe1984]. Scrophulariaceae: Veronica chamaedrys [KozarKaKo2013], Veronica sp. [KosztaKo1988F]

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Greenland [Gertss2005a]. Palaearctic: Austria [KozarKaKo2013]; Bulgaria [KosztaKo1988F]; Czechoslovakia [KosztaKo1988F]; France [Foldi2002]; Germany [Green1921]; Hungary [KosztaKo1988F]; Italy [KosztaKo1988F, MatilePe2002]; Poland [KosztaKo1988F, SimonKa2011]; Slovenia [KozarKaKo2013]; Sweden [KosztaKo1988F, Gertss2001]; Tunisia [KozarKaKo2013]; Turkey [KaydanUlEr2007]; Ukraine (Zakarpat'ye (=Transcarpathia) Oblast [KosztaKo1988F]); United Kingdom (England [Green1921, MalumpBa2012]); Yugoslavia [KosztaKo1988F].

BIOLOGY: This species has one yearly generation, eggs overwinter. Adults appear during the first part of June, start laying 29-78 eggs per female from the end of June. Dziedzicka & Koteja (1971) collected adult females each month from April through September.

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed descriptions and illustrations by Williams (1985h) and by Kosztarab & Kozár (1988).

STRUCTURE: Adult female is elongate, rather narrow, yellow. Ovisacs are elongate-oval, white to light yellow and usually placed at the junction of the blade with the stem of the grass, where they are practically concealed from view (Green, 1921).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, sides slightly concave, apices slightly rounded anteriorly, rounded or truncate posteriorly, setae of 2 sizes, marginal setae largest, smaller setae scattered over remainder of dorsum, 3 or 4 lateral setae on margin of each abdominal segment; ventral multilocular pores predominantly with 7 loculi; microtubular ducts short, with 2 sclerotized areas (Williams, 1985h). It is sometimes difficult to distinguish this species from An. insignis. At present the main differences are the 3 marginal setae on the abdominal segment VII in An. pseudinsignis compared with 4 in An. insignis. The dorsal setae on the head and thorax in An. pseudinsignis are quite robust and are much longer than the setae on the posterior abdominal setae, whereas all the dorsal setae in An. insignis are short and usually slender, although those on the head and thorax are often wider than the abdominal setae. At present both species are here regarded as distinct, but intermediates may be found to warrant further research. (Kozár, et al., 2013)

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 182-183 (female) [Key to species of Anophococcus]; Tang & Hao 1995: 520, 654 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus pseudinsignis; Rhizococcus species]; Kosztarab & Kozár 1988: 299 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus pseudinsignis; Rhizococcus species of central Europe]; Williams 1985h: 358 (adult female) [as Eriococcus pseudinsignis; British species of Eriococcus]; Danzig 1971d: 823 (female) [as Rhizococcus pseudinsignis; Key to species of family Eriococcidae]; Dziedzicka & Koteja 1971: 561 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus pseudinsignis; Rhizococcus species of Poland]; Danzig 1962a: 840 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus pseudinsignis; Rhizococcus species of the USSR].

CITATIONS: BarbagBiBo1995 [distribution: 43]; BoratyWi1964 [taxonomy: 92]; Borchs1949 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 354-5]; Borchs1950b [distribution, host: 122]; Borchs1950c [distribution, host: 368]; CebeciKu2005 [distribution, host: 97-102]; Danzig1962 [description, taxonomy: 24]; Danzig1962a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 845]; Danzig1964 [taxonomy: 633]; Danzig1971d [taxonomy: 823]; DanzigKo1974 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 10, 11]; Dziedz1977 [taxonomy: 59]; DziedzKo1971 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 569]; Foldi2002 [distribution: 245]; Gertss2001 [distribution: 126, 128]; Gertss2005a [distribution, host: 331-337]; Goux1940 [taxonomy: 65]; Green1921 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 149-50]; Green1922b [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 20]; Green1923d [distribution: 211]; Green1928 [description, host, taxonomy: 9]; Green1928a [host: 31]; HertinSi1972 [distribution, host: 132]; Hodgso2005 [description: 39-43]; HodgsoHa2013 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 797]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 110]; Kaweck1985 [distribution, taxonomy: 31]; KaydanKiKo2005a [distribution, host: 400]; KaydanUlEr2007 [distribution, host: 90-106]; Kiritc1940 [taxonomy: 135]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 400-401]; KosztaKo1978 [host, taxonomy: 68]; KosztaKo1988F [biological control, description, distribution, host, life history, taxonomy: 304]; Koteja1964 [distribution, taxonomy: 177]; Koteja1971a [distribution, host: 322]; Koteja1974b [structure, taxonomy: 76, 104]; Koteja1976 [structure: 272]; Koteja1983a [distribution, host: 675]; KotejaZa1969 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 364]; KotejaZa1983 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 477]; Kozar1983a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 146]; Kozar1985 [distribution, host: 202, 204]; Kozar1999a [distribution, host: 139]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 106]; Kozar2009a [distribution: 583]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 183, 242-244]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 60]; KozarKoFe2013 [distribution, taxonomy: 55]; KozarKoSc1999 [distribution: 112]; KozarOrKo1977 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 71]; KozarSaSz2009 [catalogue, distribution: 436]; KozarTrPe1984 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 6]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 75]; Lagows2002 [distribution: 243]; LagowsKo1996 [distribution: 31]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 116]; Lindin1936 [taxonomy: 156]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 121]; LongoMaPe1999a [distribution: 146]; MalumpBa2012 [distribution: 26]; MatilePe2002 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 354]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 603]; MillerGi2000 [biological control, catalogue, description, distribution, host, life history, taxonomy: 307-309]; NastChKl1990 [distribution, taxonomy: 120]; Ossian1959 [distribution: 195]; Ossian1985 [distribution, host: 146]; OuvrarKo2009 [host, phylogeny, structure, taxonomy: 102-118]; PellizKo2011 [distribution: 67]; Schmut1952 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 68-70,80,83,378,407]; Schmut1952b [distribution, host: 19, 21]; Schmut1955a [distribution, host: 102]; Schmut1980 [taxonomy: 50]; SimonKa2011 [distribution: 237]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 520, 537-538, 654]; Terezn1966 [distribution, host: 25]; Terezn1975 [taxonomy: 73]; Terezn1981 [biological control, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 35]; Wang1982b [taxonomy: 442]; Willia1985h [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 378-380]; Zahrad1959a [taxonomy: 540]; Zahrad1977 [taxonomy: 121].



Anophococcus salsolae (Borchsenius)

NOMENCLATURE:

Rhizococcus salsolae Borchsenius, 1949: 363. Type data: TADZHIKISTAN: Shaartuz District, Kuyuk Ridge, on Salsola sp. (saline plant), 10/06/1944, by N. Borchsenius. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. 11-44. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Lectotype to be designated by Danzig (1996). 1 female paralectotype on same slide as lectotype. 5 additional paralectotype females on 2 slides all in ZMAS

Anophococcus salsolae; Balachowsky, 1954a: 61. Change of combination.

Eriococcus salsolae; Hoy, 1963: 114. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus salsolae; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 604. Change of combination.

Anophococcus salsolae; Kozár, 2009: 94. Revived combination.



HOST: Chenopodiaceae: Salsola sp. [Borchs1949]

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Borchs1949].

BIOLOGY: On branches and roots. (Kozár, et al., 2013)

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Borchsenius (1949).

STRUCTURE: Adult female is oval. Sac is greyish or white (Borchsenius, 1949).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: dorsal setae hair like, very small, scattered over surface of dorsum; anal lobes with 2 slightly enlarged dorsal setae (Danzig, 1962a). Lectotype from the collection of the Zoological Institute RAS, St Petersburg,designated in Danzig & Gavrilov, 2011: female, “Rhizococcus salsolae Borchs., Tadzhikistan, Mikojanabadskii [now Kubadiyanskiy] region, Kujuk mountains, on Salsola, 10 VI 1944 (N. Borchsenius), N 126”. Slide N 11-44, black spot near female. Paralectotypes also designated: 1 female on the same slide and 1 female on the other slide but with the same lable.

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 182-183 (female) [Key to species of Anophococcus]; Tang & Hao 1995: 519, 652 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus salsolae; Rhizococcus species]; Danzig 1962a: 841 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus salsolae; Rhizococcus species of the USSR]; Borchsenius 1949: 353 (adult female) [as Rhizococcus salsolae; Rhizococcus species of the USSR].

CITATIONS: Balach1954a [taxonomy: 61]; Borchs1949 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 53, 56, 353, 363]; Borchs1950b [distribution, host: 123]; Danzig1962a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 841, 854]; DanzigGa2011 [taxonomy: 272]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 114]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 401]; KotejaZa1981 [taxonomy: 512]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 94]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, structure: 182, 246-248]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 75]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 604]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, life history, taxonomy: 327]; Myarts1982 [biological control: 41]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 519, 539, 652].



Anophococcus sanguinairensis (Goux)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus sanguinairensis Goux, 1993: 68-69. Type data: FRANCE: Corse, Ajaccio, on the road to Sanguinaires, on unidentified Gramineae, 01/09/1950, by L. Goux. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus sanguinairensis; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 604. Change of combination.

Rhizococcus sanguinairensis; Kozár, 2009: 106. Change of combination.

Anophococcus sanguinairensis; Kozár et al., 2013: 248. Change of combination.



HOST: Poaceae [Goux1993].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Corsica [Foldi2003]; France [Goux1993]; Iran [Moghad2013a]; Turkey [KozarKaKo2013].

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustrtaion by Goux (1993).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae cylindrical, sides concave basally, apices truncate posteriorly and rounded anteriorly, marginal setae conspicuously larger than all other dorsal setae (Goux, 1993).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 182-183 (female) [Key to species of Anophococcus].

CITATIONS: Foldi2001 [distribution: 305]; Foldi2003 [distribution: 149]; Goux1993 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 68-69]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 106]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 183, 248-250]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 604]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, life history, taxonomy: 327-328]; Moghad2013a [distribution: 57]; OuvrarKo2009 [host, phylogeny, structure, taxonomy: 102-118].



Anophococcus selmae Kaydan & Kozár in Kozár et al.

NOMENCLATURE:

Anophococcus selmae Kaydan & Kozár in Kozár et al., 2013: 251-252. Type data: TURKEY: Erzincan-Tercan road, N: 39°38’384’’, E: 39°47’864’’, on Phalaris sp., 7/8/2010, by M. B. Kaydan & F. Kozár. Holotype female (examined). Type depository: Turkey: Kaydan's Personal Collection; type no. 4790. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae: Phalaris sp. [KozarKaKo2013]

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Turkey [KozarKaKo2013].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Kozár, et al., 2013.

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 182-184 (female) [Key to species of Anophococcus].

CITATIONS: KozarKaKo2013 [distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 184, 251-253].



Anophococcus socialis (Goux)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus socialis Goux, 1931a: 63, 64-67. Type data: FRANCE: Tamaris-sur-Mer, on unidentified Gramineae, 29/08/1929, by L. Goux. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France; type no. 4951. Described: both sexes. Illust. Notes: There are nine slides with twenty-two specimens in the MNHN (Matile-Ferrero, personal communication, November 20, 1996).

Eriococcus franceschinii Balachowsky, 1934b: 98-101. Type data: ITALY: Corsica, Restonica, Foręt, Aitone, on undetermined Gramineae, 10/08/1933, by A. Balachowsky. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France; type no. 4940. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Kozár et al., 2013: 254. Notes: There are six slides containing ten specimens deposited in the MNHN (Matile-Ferrero, personal communication, November 20, 1996).

Nidularia franceschinii; Lindinger, 1936: 156. Change of combination.

Rhizococcus franceschinii; Kozár & Walter, 1985: 75. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus franceschinii; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 601. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus socialis; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 604. Change of combination.

Rhizococcus socialis; Kozár, 2009: 106. Change of combination.

Anophococcus socialis; Kozár et al., 2013: 252,254-256. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Poaceae [Balach1934b, Goux1931a], Cynodon dactylon [KozarKaKo2013].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Corsica [Balach1934b]; France [Goux1931a, Foldi2001].

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Goux (1931a). Most detailed description and illustration by Balachowsky (1934b). Redescription and illustration in Kozár, et al., 2013.

STRUCTURE: Ovisac is white to cream in color. First instar is yellow and oval. Adult female is reddish, ovoid (Goux, 1931a).Adult female is yellow and oval (Balachowsky, 1934b).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female as E. socialis with: enlarged setae conical, sides straight, apices acute, 2 sizes of setae, larger setae present on margin, smaller setae scattered over rest of dorsum; anal lobes with 2 enlarged setae (Goux, 1931a). Lindinger(1936) erroneously considered Eriococcus socialis as a junior synonym of E. insignis (Hoy, 1963 & Williams, 1985h).Slide-mounted adult female as E. franceschinii with: enlarged setae conical, apices rounded or truncate, marginal setae conspicuously larger than other dorsal setae forming a marginal band around body, 4 or 5 setae on lateral margin of each abdominal segment; anal lobe apparently with only 2 large-sized conical setae (Balachowsky, 1934a). The specimens in the type series of An. franceschinii with well developed 7 segmented antennae belong to An. pseudinsignis.

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 182-183 (female) [Key to species of Anophococcus].

CITATIONS: Balach1934 [taxonomy: 38]; Balach1934b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 89-101]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 305]; Foldi2003 [distribution: 149]; Goux1931a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 63, 64-67]; Goux1933a [taxonomy: 116]; Goux1940 [taxonomy: 65]; Goux1944 [host, taxonomy: 137]; Goux1989a [structure: 21]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 92, 116]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 398]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 106]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 183, 252, 254-256]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 75]; Lindin1936 [taxonomy: 156]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 601, 604]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 210-211, 336]; OuvrarKo2009 [host, phylogeny, structure, taxonomy: 102-118].



Apezococcus Ferris

NOMENCLATURE:

Apezococcus Ferris, 1955a: 79. Type species: Apezococcus idiastes Ferris, by monotypy and original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Generic characters discussed by Ferris 1955a.

STRUCTURE: This genus does not form sacs. The body is almost bare of secretion (Ferris, 1955a).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: 2-segmented antennae; no legs; quinquelocular pores; no macrotubular ducts; anal ring without setae but with a few pores (Ferris, 1955a).

CITATIONS: Arnett1985 [distribution, taxonomy: 239]; Ferris1955a [description, distribution, taxonomy: 79]; Ferris1957b [taxonomy: 66]; Ferris1957c [distribution, host, taxonomy: 83]; Kozar2009 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 111]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, taxonomy: 21]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy: 13]; PooleGe1997 [distribution: 354].



Apezococcus idiastes Ferris

NOMENCLATURE:

Apezococcus idiastes Ferris, 1955: 79. Type data: UNITED STATES: Texas, Sheffield, along Pecos River, on Aristida sp. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Antonina dakotensis Kosztarab & McDaniel, 1969: 111. Type data: UNITED STATES: South Dakota, Custer County, Custer State Park, on Bouteloua hirsuta, 05/08/1967. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Ben-Dov, Hodgson & Miller, 1997: 203.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Aristida sp. [Ferris1955a], Bouteloua hirsuta [KosztaMc1969], Sporobulus sp. [Ferris1955a]

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Arizona [Ferris1955a] (Sunset Crater, Flagstaff; House Rock Valley), South Dakota [KosztaMc1969], Texas [Ferris1955a] (Pecos River near Sheffield; Mt. Franklin, El Paso; 35 miles E. of Eagle Pass.)).

BIOLOGY: Kosztarab & McDaniel (1969) assume that this species has one yearly generation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Ferris (1955a).

STRUCTURE: Occurring at base of culms in leaf sheath (Ferris, 1955a).

SYSTEMATICS: This species is characterized in the adult female by having: an anal ring without setae; no legs; 2-segmented antennae; and short acorn-shaped setae (Ferris, 1955a).

CITATIONS: Arnett1985 [distribution, taxonomy: 239]; BenDovHoMi1997 [taxonomy: 203]; Ferris1955a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 79-80]; Ferris1957c [taxonomy: 83]; Hoy1963 [catalog, distribution, host, taxonomy: 31]; KosztaMc1969 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 111-114]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 94]; KumarLaLl1976 [distribution: 42]; Miller2005 [distribution: 491]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 21-22]; PooleGe1997 [distribution: 354].



Apiococcus Hempel

NOMENCLATURE:

Apiococcus Hempel, 1900a: 401. Type species: Apiococcus gregarius Hempel, by original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Generic characters discussed by Hempel (1900a), (1901), and Ferris (1957c).

STRUCTURE: Insects are in a hard test which is usually brown or black and somewhat rough with a small orifice at one side Slide-mounted adult female with following diagnostic characters: without anal lobes; without legs; antennae reduced to 1- or 2-segmented stubs; anal ring without setae or pores; without protruding anal lobes; with dorsal nipple-shaped setae; quinquelocular pores present; macrotubular ducts absent (Ferris, 1957c).

SYSTEMATICS: Apiococcus differs from all other eriococcid genera in having 2 elongate invaginations near the anal area which contain many loculate pores. It also is rotund, has distinctively supoate-shaped setae, lacks legs, has 1-segmented antennae, and forms a test on the host. (Hodgson & Miller, 2010)

KEYS: Hodgson et al. 2011: 54-55 (female) [Key to the Eriococcidae of the Neotropical Region based on the morphology of adult females]; Hodgson & Miller 2010: 90-92 (female, first instar) [Key to the Genera of the Eriococcidae of South America]; Kozár & Konczné Benedicty 2008: 140-142 (female, adult) [Modified key to genera of the Eriococcidae of Neotropical Region]; Hodgson et al. 2004: 52 (female) [Key to the genera of Eriococcidae].

CITATIONS: Balach1948b [taxonomy: 257]; Ferris1922b [taxonomy: 247]; Ferris1957c [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 83-84]; GonzalCl2013 [description, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 19-23]; Green1922 [taxonomy: 354]; Hempel1900a [description, distribution, taxonomy: 401]; Hempel1901 [taxonomy: 116]; HodgsoMaMi2011 [taxonomy: 54]; HodgsoMi2010 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 14-22]; Hoy1962 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 12, 13, 210]; Hoy1963 [catalog, taxonomy: 31]; Kozar2009 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 111]; KozarKo2008 [taxonomy: 141]; Lepage1938 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 376]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 179]; MacGil1921 [distribution, taxonomy: 210, 211]; MillerGi2000 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 22-24]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy: 13].



Apiococcus asperatus Hempel

NOMENCLATURE:

Apiococcus asperatus Hempel, 1900a: 405. Type data: BRAZIL: State of Sao Paulo, Ypiranga. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil. Described: female. Notes: Syntypes also in USNM.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Eugenia sp. [Lepage1938]

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Sao Paulo [Hempel1900a] (Hoy (1963) may have confused state of Sao Paulo in the original description with the city of the same name.)).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Hempel (1900a).

STRUCTURE: Forming thick test that is hard, black, with small tubercles. Found singly on twigs (Hempel, 1901).

KEYS: González & Claps 2013: 20 (female) [Key to the galls made by four species of Apiococcus]; González & Claps 2013: 20 (female) [Key to the species in the genus Apiococcus].

CITATIONS: Cocker1902p [taxonomy: 252]; CostaL1922 [taxonomy: 125]; CostaL1928 [distribution, host: 106]; CostaL1936 [distribution, taxonomy: 176]; GonzalCl2013 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 20]; Hempel1900a [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 404-405]; Hempel1901 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 117]; HodgsoMi2010 [host, taxonomy: 100]; Hoy1963 [catalog, distribution, host, taxonomy: 32]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 94]; Lepage1938 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 376]; MacGil1921 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 211]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 22-23]; SilvadGoGa1968a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 158].



Apiococcus globosus Hempel

NOMENCLATURE:

Apiococcus globosus Hempel, 1900a: 405. Type data: BRAZIL: State of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil; type no. 15.641. Described: female.



HOST: Myrtaceae [Hempel1900a].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Sao Paulo [Hempel1900a]).

BIOLOGY: This species is found on the bark of the plant host (Hempel, 1901).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Hempel (1900a).

STRUCTURE: Forming a hard globular test, white with a creamy tinge, smooth externally (Hempel, 1901).

KEYS: González & Claps 2013: 20 (female) [Key to the galls made by four species of Apiococcus]; González & Claps 2013: 20 (female) [Key to the species in the genus Apiococcus]; González & Claps 2013: 20 (female) [Key to the species in the genus Apiococcus].

CITATIONS: Cocker1902p [taxonomy: 252]; CostaL1922 [taxonomy: 125]; CostaL1928 [distribution, host: 106]; CostaL1936 [distribution, taxonomy: 177]; GonzalCl2013 [description, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 20-21]; Hempel1900a [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 405]; Hempel1901 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 118]; HodgsoMi2010 [host, taxonomy: 100]; Hoy1963 [catalog, distribution, host, taxonomy: 32]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 94]; Lepage1938 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 376]; MacGil1921 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 211]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 23]; SilvadGoGa1968a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 158].



Apiococcus gregarius Hempel

NOMENCLATURE:

Apiococcus gregarius Hempel, 1900a: 402. Type data: BRAZIL: State of Sao Paulo, Ypiranga. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil; type no. 15.639. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Syntypes also in USNM.



HOST: Myrtaceae [Hempel1900a].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Sao Paulo [Hempel1900a]).

BIOLOGY: This species is found crowded on stems (Hempel, 1901).

GENERAL REMARKS: Described and illustrated by Ferris (1957c), first instar described by Hempel (1900a).

STRUCTURE: Forms a hard, spherical test that is brown in color with a slightly roughened surface (Hempel, 1901).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female is characterized by having: dorsal nipple-shaped setae; dorsal and ventral quinquelocular pores; no setae on the anal ring; no macrotubular ducts; reduced antennae; and no legs (Ferris, 1957c).

KEYS: González & Claps 2013: 20 (female) [Key to the galls made by four species of Apiococcus]; González & Claps 2013: 20 (female) [Key to the species in the genus Apiococcus].

CITATIONS: Cocker1902p [taxonomy: 252]; CostaL1922 [taxonomy: 125]; CostaL1928 [distribution, host: 106]; CostaL1936 [distribution, taxonomy: 177]; Ferris1957c [taxonomy: 83]; GonzalCl2013 [description, structure, taxonomy: 20]; Hempel1900a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 402]; Hempel1901 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 116]; HodgsoMi2010 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 15-18, 100]; Hoy1963 [catalog, distribution, host, taxonomy: 32]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 94]; Lepage1938 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 376]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 179]; MacGil1921 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 211]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 23]; SilvadGoGa1968a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 158].



Apiococcus singularis Hempel

NOMENCLATURE:

Apiococcus singularis Hempel, 1900a: 403. Type data: BRAZIL: State of Sao Paulo, Ypiranga. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil; type no. 19. Described: female. Notes: Syntypes also in USNM.



HOST: Myrtaceae [Hempel1900a].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Sao Paulo [Hempel1900a]).

BIOLOGY: This species is found scattered singly on twigs (Hempel, 1901).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Hempel (1900a).

STRUCTURE: Forming a black test that is rough externally (Hempel, 1901). First-instar nymphs showed significant differences between what are assumed to be male and female crawlers. First-instar females and males body elliptical and clear yellow. They were presumed to be females as the marginal and dorsal spinose setae are approximately the same shape as those on the adult female. the shape of the marginal and dorsal spinose setae on the presumed male are elongate and stoutly spinose. (Hodgson & Miller, 2010)

SYSTEMATICS: The first-instar nymphs of Apiococcus are easily separated from those of other genera from the neotropics in having a band of loculate pores dorsally across abdominal segment 1. (Hodgson & Miller, 2010)

KEYS: González & Claps 2013: 20 (female) [Key to the galls made by four species of Apiococcus]; González & Claps 2013: 20 (female) [Key to the species in the genus Apiococcus].

CITATIONS: Cocker1902p [taxonomy: 252]; CostaL1922 [taxonomy: 125]; CostaL1928 [distribution, host: 106]; CostaL1936 [distribution, taxonomy: 177]; GonzalCl2013 [description, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 21-22]; Hempel1900a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 403-404]; Hempel1901 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 117]; HodgsoMi2010 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 19-22, 100]; Hoy1963 [catalog, distribution, host, taxonomy: 32]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 94]; Lepage1938 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 376]; MacGil1921 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 211]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 24]; SilvadGoGa1968a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 158].



Apiomorpha Rübsaamen

NOMENCLATURE:

Brachyscelis Schrader, 1863: 2. Type species: Brachyscelis pileata Schrader. Subsequently designated by Lindinger, 1937: 179. Homonym of Brachyscelis Germar, 1834 (Coleoptera); discovered by Rübsaamen, 1894: 201. Notes: Described and illustrated by Ferris (1957b) and Gullan (1984a). Early major work by Froggatt (1931).

Apiomorpha Rübsaamen, 1894: 201. Replacement name for Brachyscelis Schrader, 1863.

Brachiomorpha Ferris, 1957b: 66. Unavailable name. Notes: According to Morrison & Morrison (1966), "From the usage, this seems to be a lapsus for Apiomorpha Rübsaamen."

BIOLOGY: Adult females induce some of the largest and most conspicuous of all scale insect galls. The galls are sexually dimorphic and are found only on Australasian Eucalyptus species. This is the largest genus of strictly gallicolus coccoids (Beardsley, 1984). Adult females can be very long lived and have been recorded as living vor over five years. (Cook & Gullan, 2001) Females have three instars, and males have five (Gullan, 1981).

GENERAL REMARKS: This genus occurs almost exclusively in Australia, though Apiomorpha pedunculata is recorded from Papua New Guinea (Gullan, 1984).

STRUCTURE: The relatively species-specific galls of the adult females are usually many times larger than the small, tubular galls of the males. (Mills & Cook, 2010) They are typically woody with a small apical opening through which the female mates and the first-instar nymphs (crawlers) leave the gall. Adult females do not leave their galls, but feed, mate and reproduce within the gall that each initiated as a crawler. Gall shape is generally species-specific and provides a useful character for differentiating currently recognised morphology-based species. The insect, rather than host plant, controls the shape of the gall (Cook & Gullan 2008) and several species of Apiomorpha can induce galls on the one host plant – each inducing its own distinctive gall (Cook & Gullan 2008).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with following diagnostic characters: body turbinate; antennae 5-segmented or less; mouth parts small; legs 3-segmented with tibia and tarsus fused and femur and trochanter fused; coxa and femur with translucent pores; anal lobes elongate, with 1 or 2 spine-like setae; multilocular pores with 7 or more loculi; spine-like setae present on all but one species. First instar with: 6-segmented antennae; legs 5-segmented; body margin with row of enlarged, spine-like setae, each seta winged by horizontal, hyaline membrane (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Hardy et al. 2011: 502-504 (female) [Key to the adult females of genera of felt scales on Eucalyptus and Corymbia]; Gullan, P. J. 1984: 10 (adult female) [Adult females and female galls of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Atkins1886 [description, taxonomy: 275]; AustinYeCa2004 [ecology, host: 220]; Balach1942 [distribution, description, host: 44]; Beards1974a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 342]; Beards1984 [taxonomy: 80, 84, 85, 103]; Brown1959SW [distribution, host, taxonomy: 294]; BruesMeCa1954 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 108, 165]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 328]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 393]; Cocker1899m [taxonomy: 276]; Cook2000 [distribution, host, physiology: 255-263]; Cook2001 [chemistry, taxonomy: 265-266]; Cook2001a [description, distribution: 166]; CookGu2004 [taxonomy: 441]; CookGuSt2000 [description, physiology: 880-894]; CoxWi1987 [chemistry: 15]; ElliotDe1985 [behaviour, host: 25]; Fernal1903b [catalog, taxonomy: 39]; Ferris1921b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 91]; Ferris1957b [description, taxonomy: 60]; Ferris1957c [taxonomy: 84]; Frogga1893 [taxonomy: 353]; Frogga1894c [taxonomy: 111, 113]; Frogga1898a [taxonomy: 488]; Frogga1917 [description, taxonomy: 506]; Frogga1921a [description, taxonomy: 114, 115]; Frogga1931 [taxonomy: 431]; Fuller1896 [host, taxonomy: 209]; Fuller1897 [taxonomy: 1345]; Fuller1899 [description, taxonomy: 444]; Gill1993 [taxonomy: 153]; Giraul1939 [biological control, distribution: 16]; Gullan1978 [distribution, structure, taxonomy: 59]; Gullan1983 [structure: 25-29]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 8]; Gullan1984b [taxonomy: 381]; GullanCo2001 [taxonomy: 92]; GullanCrCo1997 [distribution, ecology, host: 137-146]; GullanJo1989 [distribution, taxonomy: 321-329]; GullanKo1997 [behaviour: 36, 37, 38, 43]; GullanMiCo2005 [ecology, host, taxonomy: 166]; HardyBeGu2011 [host, taxonomy: 498,502-503]; HardyCo2010 [ecology, taxonomy: 257]; HardyGu2007 [host, illustration, taxonomy: 106-108]; HardyGu2010 [host: 2]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, taxonomy: 33]; Jarvis1911 [behaviour, distribution: 64]; Koszta1987 [ecology: 216]; Koteja1974 [structure, taxonomy: 269, 275, 295, 298]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy: 77]; KotejaZa1972 [taxonomy: 207]; Kozar2009 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 112]; Kunkel1967 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 46]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 179]; LinKoGu2013 [molecular data, phylogeny: 257]; MacGil1921 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 204]; Maskel1897 [taxonomy: 294]; McKeow1945 [distribution, host: 338]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, taxonomy: 22]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, taxonomy: 24-25]; MillsCo2010 [description,, physiology: 83]; MillsMaRi2011 [taxonomy: 55-63]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy: 13-14]; Podsia2002a [structure: 73]; RossPeSh2010 [physiology: 8]; Rubsaa1894 [taxonomy: 201]; Schrad1863 [host, taxonomy: 2]; Schrad1863a [description, taxonomy: 6, 7]; Schrad1863b [taxonomy: 191]; Short1947 [description, taxonomy: 257-258]; Signor1868 [distribution, taxonomy: 525]; Signor1877 [taxonomy: 592]; Stadel1893 [taxonomy: 231]; SzentIWo1962 [distribution, host: 20-22]; Tepper1893 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 265]; Theron1968 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure: 87-99]; Weidne1974 [taxonomy: 438]; Willia1991DJ [distribution, host, taxonomy: 461]; WilliaWa1990 [description, taxonomy: 47-49]; WoodwaEvEa1970 [distribution, host: 430].



Apiomorpha amarooensis Brimblecombe

NOMENCLATURE:

Apiomorpha amarooensis Brimblecombe, 1959a: 157. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Queensland, Amaroo, Millmerran on Eucalyptus pilligaensis, ?/04/1955, by J. Macqueen. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Fortitude Valley:Queensland Museum, Queensland, Australia; type no. 5744. Described: both sexes. Illust. Notes: There are also three paratypes in the QMFV.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus pilligaensis [Gullan1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Queensland [Gullan1984]).

BIOLOGY: Female gall occurs on stem, male gall occurs on leaf of host (Gullan, 1984).

GENERAL REMARKS: The species is described and illustrated in detail by Brimblecombe (1959a) and Gullan (1984).

STRUCTURE: Female gall fusiform, apex obtuse. Male gall tubular, apex dilated (Gullan, 1984).

SYSTEMATICS: The adult female is characterized by having: abdominal segment IX with ventral and dorsal lengths subequal, not fused with abdominal segment VIII; abdominal segment IX with posterior margin fused with anal lobes; body not slender; dorsum of head and thorax without spine-like setae; segment IX and anal lobes slender, rarely heavily sclerotized; spine-like setae restricted to dorsum of last 3 segments (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult female) [Adult females and female galls of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Brimbl1959a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 157, 162]; Gullan1983 [structure: 28]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy : 115]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 33]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 94]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 25-26].



Apiomorpha annulata Froggatt

NOMENCLATURE:

Apiomorpha annulata Froggatt, 1930: 469-470. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Queensland, no other locality, on Eucalyptus sp. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Gullan, 1984: 71. Type depository: Fortitude Valley:Queensland Museum, Queensland, Australia. Described: both sexes. Illust.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus acmenioides [Gullan1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Queensland [Gullan1984]).

BIOLOGY: Female galls are found on stems of host plant while galls of the male occur on the leaf near the midrib (Gullan, 1984).

GENERAL REMARKS: Gullan (1984) photographed male and female galls and described the adult female.

STRUCTURE: Female gall cylindrical to ovoid, apex truncate. Male gall is tubular with apex dilated (Gullan, 1984).

SYSTEMATICS: The adult female is characterized by having: abdominal segment IX longer ventrally than dorsally; abdomen attenuate not curvilinearly tapered to base of anal lobes; anal ring not concealed by sclerotized shield; anal lobes not papillose; ventral spine-like setae never in complete row across segment VIII and absent from segment IX; hind legs <1100µ long; multilocular pores predominantly with other than 7-loculi; antennae 4-segmented (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult female) [Adult females and female galls of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Frogga1930 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 469]; Frogga1931 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 435, 436, 454]; Gullan1983 [structure: 26, 28]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy : 69]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 34]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 94]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 26]; MillsCo2010 [physiology: 83]; MillsMaRi2011 [molecular data, taxonomy: 56]; Weidne1974 [distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 459].



Apiomorpha attenuata (Froggatt)

NOMENCLATURE:

Brachyscelis attenuata Froggatt, 1898: 375. Type data: AUSTRALIA: South Australia, on Eucalyptus sp., 1885. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Gullan, 1984: 114. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia. Described: both sexes. Illust.

Apiomorpha attenuata; Froggatt, 1921a: 116. Described: both sexes. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus camaldulensis [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus camaldulensis obtusa [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus goniocalyx [Gullan1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Cook2000], Northern Territory [Gullan1984], Queensland [Gullan1984], South Australia [Gullan1984], Victoria [Gullan1984]).

BIOLOGY: There are two forms of this species. The female gall occurs on the stem of host while the males can occur on the stem, abaxial or adaxial leaf surfaces or on the pedicel or calyx tube of flower bud (Gullan, 1984).

GENERAL REMARKS: The most comprehensive treatment of this species is by Gullan (1984) who described the adult female, female gall, male gall and provided photographs of the galls.

STRUCTURE: Female gall is narrow and fusiform, apex truncate. Male gall is tubular, apex dilated (Gullan, 1984).

SYSTEMATICS: The adult female is characterized by having: abdominal segment IX with ventral and dorsal lengths subequal, not fused with abdominal segment VIII; abdominal segment IX with posterior margin fused with anal lobes; body not slender; dorsum of head and thorax without spine-like setae; segment IX and anal lobes robust, sclerotized on mature individuals; segment IX and anal lobes with 0-7 spine-like setae, segment VIII with 0-9 such setae (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult female) [Adult females and female galls of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Brimbl1959a [taxonomy: 159]; Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 257]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 40]; Frogga1898 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 375]; Frogga1917 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 506-507]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 116]; Frogga1931 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 435, 441, 449]; Gullan1983 [structure: 28]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy : 111]; Houard1923 [host, illustration: 608, 609]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 34]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 94]; Lidget1899 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 59]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 26-27]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 98].



Apiomorpha baeuerleni (Froggatt)

NOMENCLATURE:

Brachyscelis baeuerleni Froggatt, 1893: 369. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Ballina, by Bäuerlen. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Gullan, 1984: 41. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia. Described: female. Illust.

Brachyscelis rugosa Froggatt, 1893: 369. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Allalong, near Maitland, on Eucalyptus sp. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Gullan, 1984: 41. Type depository: Orange: Agricultural Scientific Collections Trust, New South Wales Agriculture, NSW, Australia. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Gullan, 1984: 39.

Brachyscelis bäuerleni; Froggatt, 1893: 372. Described: female. Illust. Misspelling of species name.

Apiomorpha bäuerleni; Rübsaamen, 1894: 208. Described: female. Change of combination. Notes: Rübsaamen (1894) misspelled the species epithet as A. bäuerleni.

Apiomorpha rugosa; Cockerell, 1896b: 328. Change of combination.

Apiomorpha globosa Froggatt, 1921: 125. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Murrumbidgee River, on a property called Wooloondool, west of Hay, on red gum Eucalyptus sp. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Gullan, 1984: 41. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia. Described: female. Synonymy by Gullan, 1984: 39.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus camaldulensis [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus dealbata [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus tereticornis [Gullan1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Gullan1984], Northern Territory [Gullan1984], Queensland [Gullan1984], South Australia [Gullan1984], Victoria [Gullan1984]).

BIOLOGY: This species occurs on the stem of the host (Gullan, 1984).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description of adult female and female gall provided by Gullan (1984) with photos of the female gall.

STRUCTURE: Female gall is spheroidal, apex truncate. Male gall is unknown (Gullan, 1984).

SYSTEMATICS: The adult female is characterized by having: abdominal segment IX longer ventrally than dorsally; abdomen attenuate not curvilinearly tapered to base of anal lobes; anal ring not concealed by sclerotized shield; anal lobes papillose; spine-like setae in single row on dorsum of segments II-VIII; multilocular pores on anterior half of abdominal segment IX (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult female) [Adult females and female galls of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Borchs1958b [illustration, taxonomy: 771]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 328]; Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 256, 257, 259, 261]; Cook2000 [physiology: 256]; CookGu2002 [life history: 261]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 44]; Frogga1893 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 369]; Frogga1898a [description, distribution, taxonomy: 492]; Frogga1917 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 508]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 117]; Frogga1931 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 435, 437, 441, 449]; Gullan1983 [structure: 28]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy : 39]; Houard1923 [description: 612, 613, 620, 621]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 34]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 94]; Lidget1899 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 61]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 27-28]; MillsCo2010 [physiology: 85]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 98]; Rubsaa1894 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 208]; Tepper1893 [distribution, host: 272].



Apiomorpha calycina (Tepper)

NOMENCLATURE:

Brachyscelis calycina Tepper, 1893: 271. Type data: AUSTRALIA: South Australia at Murray Ridge, Goolwa and Kangaroo Island. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Gullan, 1984: 91. Type depository: Adelaide: South Australian Museum, South Australia, Australia. Described: both sexes. Illust.

Brachyscelis neumanni Tepper, 1893: 271. Type data: Australia: South Australia, Murray Bridge, on E. dumosa. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Gullan, 1984: 92. Described: both sexes. Illust. Synonymy by Froggatt, 1898a: 494. Notes: Gullan, (1984) points out that there is some question about the status of the lectotype and paralectotype series since they are from Goolwa not Murray Bridge.

Brachyscelis umbellata Froggatt, 1894b: 336. Type data: Australia: New South Wales, Cobar, on E. dumosa. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Gullan, 1984: 92. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia; type no. 1995. Described: both sexes. Synonymy by Gullan, 1984: 89.

Apiomorpha calycina; Cockerell, 1896b: 328. Change of combination.

Apiomorpha neumanni; Cockerell, 1896b: 328. Change of combination.

Apiomorpha umbellata; Cockerell, 1896b: 328. Change of combination.

Apiomorpha calycina neumani; Fernald, 1903b: 40. Misspelling of species name. Notes: This is a change of level from species to subspecies of A. neumanni(Fernald, 1903b).



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus dumosa [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus gracilis [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus incrassata [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus kochii [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus leptocalyx [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus longicornis [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus odorata [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus oleosa [Gullan1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Gullan1984], South Australia [Gullan1984], Victoria [Gullan1984], Western Australia [Gullan1984]).

BIOLOGY: Female gall occurs usually on stem, but occasionally on bud, calyx tube or peduncle of a fruit, pedicel of umbel of host plant or on the side of another gall. Male gall occurring on stems, both sides of leaves often near midrib and sometimes on the female gall (Gullan, 1984).

GENERAL REMARKS: A detailed treatment of the adult female, female gall, and male gall in addition to photos of galls are given by Gullan (1984).

STRUCTURE: Female gall obconical to cylindrical, apex truncate. Male gall conical, apex truncated (Gullan, 1984).

SYSTEMATICS: The adult female is characterized by having: abdominal segment IX with ventral and dorsal lengths subequal, not fused with abdominal segment VIII; abdominal segment IX with posterior margin fused with anal lobes; body, segment IX, and anal lobes very slender; segment IX shorter than total length of remainder of abdomen; antennae 5-segmented; cephalic apodemes present (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult female) [Adult females and female galls of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Brown1967 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 130]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 328]; Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 258]; CookGu2002 [life history: 261]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 40]; Ferris1957b [taxonomy: 62]; Frogga1894a [taxonomy: 76]; Frogga1894b [distribution, host: 336-338]; Frogga1898 [distribution, host: 371-372]; Frogga1898a [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 491, 493]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 143]; Frogga1931 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 434, 436, 440]; Gullan1979 [distribution, taxonomy: 6]; Gullan1983 [structure: 28]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy : 89]; GullanCrCo1997 [distribution, host: 141, 142, 144, 145]; Houard1923 [description, taxonomy: 617, 619, 620, 621, 622]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 45]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 95]; Lidget1899 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 59]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 545]; Meyer1987 [illustration, physiology: 135, 138]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 29-30]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 98]; Tepper1893 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 271]; Weidne1974 [taxonomy: 460].



Apiomorpha citricola Schrader nomen nudum

NOMENCLATURE:

Brachyscelis citricola Schrader, 1863: 5. Nomen nudum; discovered by Froggatt, 1917: 506. Notes: Gullan (1984) states that "Schrader (1863 and 1863b) mentioned the name citricola, as well as five other specific names, in relation to the etymology of these species. Schrader made no further reference to B. citricola which, because it was never described or illustrated, is a nomen nudum."

Apiomorpha citricola; Froggatt, 1917: 506. Change of combination.

CITATIONS: Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 40]; Frogga1917 [taxonomy: 506]; Frogga1921a [taxonomy: 115]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy : 127]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 46]; Lidget1899 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 59]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, taxonomy: 30]; Schrad1863 [taxonomy: 5]; Schrad1863b [taxonomy: 191]; Signor1868 [distribution, taxonomy: 525]; Signor1869 [taxonomy: 849]; Signor1877 [taxonomy: 597].



Apiomorpha conica (Froggatt)

NOMENCLATURE:

Brachyscelis conica Froggatt, 1893: 365. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Yass, Goulburn and Cooma on E. viminalis, by W. W. Froggatt; also, Victoria, on Eucalyptus sp., by F. O. Hill. Unknown type status. Described: both sexes. Illust. Notes: There is a slide in the USNM labeled as cotype but it is of uncertain authenticity. It contains the abdominal segment nine and anal lobes of an adult female. The slide is labeled "Apiomorpha/conica(Frog)/Cotype/on Eucalyptus sp./N.S.W. W.W.W. Froggatt Coll. #30"

Apiomorpha conica; Rübsaamen, 1894: 209. Change of combination.

Apiomorpha similis Rübsaamen, 1894: 210. Unknown type status. Synonymy by Froggatt, 1898a: 493. Notes: Types of Rübsaamen in the ZMHB apparently were destroyed during World War II (Gullan, 1984).

Brachyscelis similis; Froggatt, 1898a: 493. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus amomapholia [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus bridgesiana [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus camaldulensis [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus cephalocarpa [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus deanei [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus dives [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus globulus [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus goniocalyx [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus gunnii [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus huberana [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus largiflorens [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus nicholii [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus nitida [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus obliqua [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus ovata [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus punctata [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus radiata [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus regnans [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus robusta [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus rubida [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus tereticornis [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus viminalis [Gullan1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia [Gullan1984] (Australian Capital Territory [Gullan1984], New South Wales [Gullan1984], Queensland [Gullan1984], South Australia [Gullan1984], Tasmania [Gullan1984], Victoria [Gullan1984]).

BIOLOGY: Female gall occurs on stem, but occasionally occurring amongst buds or fruit of an umbel or on the side of the bud. Male gall occurs on both sides of leaves near midrib, also on stems (Gullan, 1984). Cook & Gullan (2002) provide information on gall and insect development under glasshouse conditions (summarized in table 2, page 262).

GENERAL REMARKS: The most comprehensive treatment of this species is by Gullan (1984) who described the adult female, female gall, and male gall and provided photos of the galls.

STRUCTURE: Female gall variable in shape, ellipsoidal to obovoid, often fusiform, apex truncate. Male gall tubular, apex dilated (Gullan, 1984).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female is characterized by having: abdominal segment IX with ventral and dorsal lengths subequal, not fused with abdominal segment VIII; abdominal segment IX with posterior margin fused with anal lobes; body not slender; dorsum of head and thorax without spine-like setae; segment IX and anal lobes robust, sclerotized on mature individuals; segment IX and anal lobes with about 7 spine-like setae, segment VIII with 2-97 such setae; spine-like setae present in rows on dorsum of segments II-IV; hind legs 1120-2100µ long (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult female) [Adult female and female gall of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Beards1984 [distribution, host, illustration: 89]; Brimbl1959a [taxonomy: 159]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 328]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 393]; Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 257, 260]; CookGu2002 [life history: 261]; Docter1925 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 157-158]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 40]; FoldiCa1985 [distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 34, 45]; Frogga1893 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 365-366]; Frogga1894a [taxonomy: 76]; Frogga1898a [description, distribution, taxonomy: 492]; Frogga1917 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 508-509]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 118]; Frogga1931 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 435, 440, 441]; Fuller1896a [biological control: 699]; Gullan1978 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 4-8]; Gullan1983 [structure: 28]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy : 104]; Houard1923 [illustration, taxonomy: 610, 611, 618]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 34]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 95]; Lidget1899 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 59]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 545]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 30-31]; MillerWi1995aDR [taxonomy: 200]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 98]; Rubsaa1894 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 209, 210]; Tepper1893 [distribution, host: 272]; Weidne1974 [distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 442].



Apiomorpha cucurbita Fuller

NOMENCLATURE:

Apiomorpha regularis cucurbita Fuller, 1897b: 1346. Nomen nudum; discovered by Gullan, 1984: 126. Notes: Only a new variety name and a locality are given for this species epithet; thus it is a nomen nudum.

Apiomorpha cucurbita Fuller, 1899: 446. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Western Australia, Kimberley, by R. Helms. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Gullan (1984) was unable to locate any material of this species except an aborted gall from Fuller's original collection.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus [Gullan1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Western Australia [Gullan1984]).

BIOLOGY: Female gall occurs on the stem of the host (Gullan, 1984).

GENERAL REMARKS: The only specimens known of this species are galls. No females have been examined (Gullan, 1984). Most detailed description and illustration by Gullan (1984).

STRUCTURE: Female gall ellipsoidal, apex truncate. Male gall not observed. Adult females are unknown (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult female) [Adult female and female galls of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 393]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 40]; Frogga1917 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 119]; Frogga1931 [taxonomy: 434]; Fuller1897b [distribution, taxonomy: 1346]; Fuller1899 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 446]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy : 126]; GullanJo1989 [distribution, taxonomy: 321]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 35]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 95]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 32].



Apiomorpha densispinosa Gullan

NOMENCLATURE:

Apiomorpha densispinosa Gullan, 1984: 98. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Victoria, NW corner of Lake Albacutya about 15 km WNW Yaapeet, Big Desert, 35°42'S, 141°52'E, 13/7/1979, by M.S. Harvey. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia. Described: both sexes. Illust.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus behriana [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus dumosa [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus incrassata [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus largiflorens [Gullan1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (South Australia [Gullan1984], Victoria [Gullan1984]).

BIOLOGY: Female occurs mostly on the stem, but also on pedicel or calyx tube of a fruit, on a peduncle of an umbel or on a gall of another female. Male galls occur only on the adaxial surface of leaves (Gullan, 1984).

GENERAL REMARKS: This species is described in detail by Gullan (1984) including the adult female, galls of both sexes and photos of the galls.

STRUCTURE: Female gall is fusiform, apex truncate and circular. Male gall tubular with dilated apex (Gullan, 1984).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female is characterized by having: abdominal segment IX with ventral and dorsal lengths subequal, not fused with abdominal segment VIII; abdominal segment IX with posterior margin fused with anal lobes; body not slender; dorsum of head and thorax with small spine-like setae; anal lobes with mucronate apices (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult female) [Adult females and female galls of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 256, 257]; CookGu2002 [life history: 261]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 98]; GullanCrCo1997 [distribution, host: 141]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 95]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 32-33].



Apiomorpha dipsaciformis (Froggatt)

NOMENCLATURE:

Brachyscelis dipsaciformis Froggatt, 1895: 202. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Queensland, north Queensland. Unknown type status female. Described: female. Illust. Notes: The type material has apparently been lost except for 4 galls that are housed in ASCT. These galls apparently do not contain specimens of females (Gullan, 1984).

Apiomorpha dipsaciformis; Cockerell, 1896b: 328. Change of combination.

Brachycelis depsaciformis; Froggatt, 1898a: 493. Misspelling of species name.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus crebra [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus moluccana [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus pilligaensis [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus siderophloia [Gullan1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Queensland [Gullan1984]).

BIOLOGY: Female gall occurring on stem, male gall occurring in irregular clusters attached to stem or leaf (Gullan, 1984).

GENERAL REMARKS: Adult female, female gall, and male gall described by Gullan (1984).

STRUCTURE: Female gall ellipsoidal, surface covered with erect, narrow, attenuate bracts, apex forming cone or pyramid. Male gall irregularly tubular, apex not dilated (Gullan, 1984).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female is characterized by having: abdominal segment IX longer ventrally than dorsally; abdomen attenuate not curvilinearly tapered to base of anal lobes; anal ring partially concealed by sclerotized shield; spine-like setae present or absent on segment IX; body 1.2-1.7 times as long as wide; antennae 4- or 5-segmented (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult female) [Adult females and female galls of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 328]; Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 257]; Cook2001 [chemistry: 266]; CookGu2002 [life history: 261]; CookGuSt2000 [description, taxonomy: 884, 885, 888]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 40]; Frogga1895 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 202]; Frogga1898a [description, distribution, taxonomy: 493]; Frogga1917 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 510]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 120]; Frogga1930 [distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 471]; Frogga1931 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 434, 437, 446]; Gullan1983 [structure: 28]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy : 37]; Houard1923 [taxonomy: 622, 623]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 35]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 95]; Lidget1899 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 59]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 33]; Weidne1974 [taxonomy: 454].



Apiomorpha duplex (Schrader)

NOMENCLATURE:

Brachyscelis duplex Schrader, 1863: 2. Type data: AUSTRALIA: possibly from Sydney area. Unknown type status. Notes: The types of this species were destroyed during World War II in 1943 (Gullan 1984).

Apiomorpha duplex; Cockerell, 1896b: 328. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus camfieldii [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus conglomerata [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus crebra [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus drepanophylla [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus eugenioides [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus globoidea [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus haemastoma [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus melanophloia [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus obliqua [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus occidentalis [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus phaeotricha [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus pilularis [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus piperita [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus racemosa [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus saligna [Gullan1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Gullan1984], Queensland [Gullan1984], Victoria [Gullan1984]).

BIOLOGY: Female gall found on stems singly or in colonies with male galls. Male gall found on leaves or the blade-like appendages of the female gall, possibly on stems (Gullan, 1984). Cook & Gullan (2002) provide information on gall and insect development under glasshouse conditions (summarized in table 2, page 262).

GENERAL REMARKS: Adult female, female gall, and male gall described by Gullan (1984) also with illustration of adult female; also described and illustrated by Froggatt (1931). Photo of gall (Froggatt 1930).

STRUCTURE: Female gall 4-sided, very large (sometimes up to 20 cm in length), with 2 attenuate, sometimes curled, blade-like appendages. Gall body with ridged corners where sides meet. Male fall 4-sided with ridged corners. Apex with 2 opposite sides elongated to form flattened extensions, sometimes these partially concealing circular apical orifice (Gullan, 1984).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female is characterized by having: abdominal segment IX longer ventrally than dorsally; abdomen curvilinearly tapered to base of anal lobes; spiracles fimbriate trilabiate; anal ring not invaginated; tibiotarsus never falciform (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult female) [Adult females and female galls of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 328]; Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 258, 260]; CookGu2002 [life history: 261]; Ehrhor1912 [description, host: 179]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 41]; Frogga1893 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 358]; Frogga1894c [taxonomy: 111]; Frogga1898a [description, taxonomy: 490]; Frogga1917 [taxonomy: 510]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 120]; Frogga1923 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 6, 7]; Frogga1930 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 471]; Frogga1931 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 432, 434, 435, 445]; Fuller1896a [description: 695]; Gullan1983 [structure, illustration: 26, 27, 28]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy : 24]; GullanJo1989 [taxonomy: 322]; Houard1923 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 623]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 35]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 95]; Lidget1899 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 59]; McKeow1945 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 338]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 34-35]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 98]; Schrad1863 [taxonomy: 2]; Schrad1863b [taxonomy: 190]; Signor1868 [distribution, taxonomy: 525]; Signor1869 [catalogue: 851]; Signor1877 [description, taxonomy: 596]; Silves1939 [taxonomy: 700]; Tepper1893 [distribution, host: 272]; Tillya1926 [distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 173]; Weidne1941 [taxonomy: 150]; Weidne1974 [taxonomy: 441].



Apiomorpha excupula (Fuller)

NOMENCLATURE:

Brachyscelis excupula Fuller, 1896: 216. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Port Stephens district. Unknown type status female. Described: both sexes. Illust. Notes: Type material is unknown (Gullan, 1984).

Apiomorpha excupula; Cockerell, 1899m: 393. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus crebra [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus drepanophylla [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus microtheca? [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus paniculata [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus populnea [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus siderophloia [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus woollsiana [Gullan1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Gullan1984], Queensland [Gullan1984]).

BIOLOGY: Female galls are found on stems and male galls are found in irregular clusters on stem or base of female gall (Gullan, 1984).

GENERAL REMARKS: Adult female, female and male gall described and galls photographed by Gullan (1984).

STRUCTURE: Female gall ellipsoidal, covered with narrow, flattened bracts and brown, sometimes with a glaucous hue. Male galls tubular, apex not distinctly dilated (Gullan, 1984).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted female is characterized by having: abdominal segment IX longer ventrally than dorsally; abdomen attenuate not curvilinearly tapered to base of anal lobes; anal ring at least partially concealed by sclerotized shield; spine-like setae present or absent on segment IX; body 1.2-1.7 times as long as wide; antennae 6-segmented (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult female) [Adult females and female galls of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Brimbl1959c [taxonomy: 380-381]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 393]; Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 257]; Cook2001 [chemistry: 266]; CookGuSt2000 [description, taxonomy: 884, 885, 888]; Fernal1903b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 41]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 41]; Frogga1917 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 511]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 434]; Frogga1930 [taxonomy: 471]; Frogga1931 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 434, 437, 447]; Fuller1896 [distribution, taxonomy: 216]; Gullan1983 [structure: 28]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy : 35]; Houard1923 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 623]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 36]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 95]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 35]; Perkin1932 [distribution, host, taxonomy: xi]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 14]; Weidne1974 [illustration, taxonomy: 437].



Apiomorpha frenchi Froggatt

NOMENCLATURE:

Apiomorpha frenchi Froggatt, 1921a: 124. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Victoria, Werribee River, on Eucalyptus rostrata by C. French. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Gullan, 1984: 103. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia; type no. 25. Described: female. Illust.

Apiomorpha longmani Froggatt, 1930: 469. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Queensland, on Eucalyptus sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Fortitude Valley:Queensland Museum, Queensland, Australia; type no. 1784. Described: both sexes. Illust. Synonymy by Gullan, 1984: 101. Notes: Although there is a slide labeled as "holotype", it must be considered as a syntype since no mention of a type can be found in the original description.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus camaldulensis [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus dealbata [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus tereticornis [Gullan1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia [Gullan1984] (Australian Capital Territory [Gullan1984], New South Wales [Gullan1984], Queensland [Gullan1984], Victoria [Gullan1984]).

BIOLOGY: Female galls are produced on the stems of the host plant. Male galls are produced on stems and leaves, particularly near the midrib on the lower surface (Gullan, 1984).

GENERAL REMARKS: The most comprehensive treatment of this species is by Gullan(1984) who described the adult female, female gall, male gall, and gave photos of the galls. Ferris (1957b) described and illustrated the adult female.

STRUCTURE: Female gall ovoid, ellipsoidal or cylindrical, apex usually truncate. Male gall ovoid, ellipsoidal or cylindrical (Gullan, 1984).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female is characterized by having: abdominal segment IX with ventral and dorsal lengths subequal, not fused with abdominal segment VIII; abdominal segment IX with posterior margin fused with anal lobes; body not slender; dorsum of head and thorax without spine-like setae; segment IX and anal lobes robust, sclerotized on mature individuals; segment IX and anal lobes with about 7 spine-like setae, segment VIII with 2-97 such setae; spine-like setae rare or absent on dorsum of segments II-IV (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1894: 10 (adult female) [Adult females and female galls of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Brimbl1959c [taxonomy: 373]; Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 256, 257]; CookGu2002 [life history: 261]; Ferris1957b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 61]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 124]; Frogga1930 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 469]; Frogga1931 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 435, 436, 445, 447]; Gullan1983 [structure: 28]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy : 101]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 37]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 95]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 35-36]; Weidne1974 [taxonomy: 441]; Willia1991DJ [illustration: 460]; WoodwaEvEa1970 [illustration: 428].



Apiomorpha gullanae Cook

NOMENCLATURE:

Apiomorpha gullanae Cook, 2003: 327-333. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Queensland, 2 km. SW of Dunmore State Forest Station (27ş35'S, 151ş05'E, on Eucalyptus sideroxylon, 5/2/1995, by L.G. Cook. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia; type no. Apio R. Described: female. Notes: Additional material from the hologype specimen includes frozen gut tissue and genomic DNA stored in the School of Botany and Zoology at The Australian National University.



HOSTS: Myrtacae: Eucalyptus decorticans [Cook2003], Eucalyptus fibrosa [Cook2003], Eucalyptus microcarpa [Cook2003], Eucalyptus populnea [Cook2003], Eucalyptus sideroxylon [Cook2003].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Queensland [Cook2003]).

BIOLOGY: Reporduction in A. gullanae is probably parthnogenetic, and it may represent the first known occurrence of asexual reproduction in Apiomorpha.

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description, illustration and photographs in Cook (2003).

STRUCTURE: Adult female: Abdomen curvilinealy tapered to anal lobes; Eyes conspicuous, anterio-lateral to forelegs. Anal lobes moderately sclerotized, comprising a pair of medial lobes and a pair of lateral lobes. Lateral lobes taper near apex and terminate in 2 subequal spines. First-instar nymph: Body discoidal, yellow with darker horizontal patches in life.

SYSTEMATICS: The bilobed anal lobes of the adult female of Apiomorpha gullanae readily distinguish it from other species of Apiomorpha, which all possess a pair of sclerotised long single-lobed anal lobes. The medial lobe is much shorter than the lateral lobe; a cluster of robust spines with fanned bases occur medially on the dorsum of the thorax and abdominal segments I-VII; middle and hind legs of approximately the same length; a curvilinearly tapered body. Galls of females resemble those of the A. pharetrata species group, are cigar-shaped, up to 13 mm long and 3 mm wide, and occur only on leaves. Crawlers have simple pores; a feature found only in crawlers of the A. pharetrata. Otherwise, the adult females and crawlers do not closely resemble those of the A. pharetrata.

CITATIONS: Cook2003 [description, distribution, host, illustration, life history, phylogeny, physiology, structure, taxonomy: 327-333]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 95]; RossHaOk2012 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 199].



Apiomorpha helmsii Fuller

NOMENCLATURE:

Apiomorpha Helmsii Fuller, 1897b: 1346. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Western Australia, Midland Junction, Swan River, on Eucalyptus, by R. Helms. Lectotype female (examined), by subsequent designation Gullan, 1984: 98. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: both sexes.

Apiomorpha helmsii; Fuller, 1899: 447. Justified emendation.

Apiomorpha helmsi; Froggatt, 1931: 432. Described: both sexes. Misspelling of species name.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus campaspe [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus redunca [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus wandoo [Gullan1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia [Gullan1984] (Western Australia [Gullan1984]).

BIOLOGY: Female galls are produced on stems, umbels and galls of other females. Male galls are found on both leaf surfaces with no tendency to grow near the midrib (Gullan, 1984).

GENERAL REMARKS: The most comprehensive treatment of this species is by Gullan (1984) who described the adult female, both sexes of gall, and gave photos of the galls.

STRUCTURE: Female gall obconical to obovoid to fusiform, apex usually truncate. Male gall tubular, apex dilated (Gullan, 1984).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female is characterized by having: abdominal segment IX with ventral and dorsal lengths subequal, not fused with abdominal segment VIII; abdominal segment IX with posterior margin fused with anal lobes; body not slender; dorsum of head and thorax with small spine-like setae; anal lobes with bifurcate apices (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult female) [Adult females and female galls of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Beards1984 [description: 91]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 393]; Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 257]; CookGu2002 [life history: 261]; CookGuSt2000 [illustration: 883]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 42]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 125]; Frogga1931 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 432, 434, 441, 444]; Fuller1897b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 1346]; Fuller1899 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 447]; Gullan1983 [structure: 28]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy : 96]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 37]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 95]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 36-37]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 98]; Short1947 [taxonomy: 259]; Weidne1974 [taxonomy: 460].



Apiomorpha hilli Froggatt

NOMENCLATURE:

Apiomorpha hilli Froggatt, 1921a: 126. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Northern Territory, Port Darwin, by Banks & Hill. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Gullan, 1984: 56. Type depository: Orange: Agricultural Scientific Collections Trust, New South Wales Agriculture, NSW, Australia. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus miniata [Gullan1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Northern Territory [Gullan1984], Western Australia [Cook2000]).

BIOLOGY: Female galls are found on stems (Gullan, 1984).

GENERAL REMARKS: Descriptions, illustrations, and photos of adult female and galls by Gullan (1984).

STRUCTURE: Female gall resembles the fruit of the host plant and is ovoid, with apex truncate and surmounted by a pointed cap that partially detaches. Male galls are unknown (Gullan, 1984).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female is characterized by having: abdominal segment IX longer ventrally than dorsally; abdomen attenuate not curvilinearly tapered to base of anal lobes; anal ring not concealed by sclerotized shield; anal lobes not papillose; ventral spine-like setae in row across segment VIII and present above anal ring on segment IX (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult female) [Adult females and female galls of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Beards1984 [description: 91]; Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 257]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 126]; Frogga1931 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 432, 435, 452]; Gullan1983 [structure, illustration: 26, 27, 28]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 54]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 37]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 95]; McKeow1945 [distribution, illustration: 339]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 37-38]; Weidne1974 [taxonomy: 454].



Apiomorpha intermedia Gullan

NOMENCLATURE:

Apiomorpha intermedia Gullan, 1984: 108. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Victoria, E. side of Syphon Road about .5 km S. Goat Track Victoria Valley, Grampians, on Eucalyptus aromaphloia, 21/10/1976, by P.J. Gullan. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia. Described: both sexes. Illust.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus aromaphloia [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus macrorhyncha? [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus nitida [Gullan1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Queensland [Cook2000], Victoria [Gullan1984]).

BIOLOGY: Female galls are found on stems of the host plant. Male galls are found on stems, fruits and leaves (Gullan, 1984).

GENERAL REMARKS: Gullan (1984) described the adult female, female gall, male gall, and provided photos of the galls.

STRUCTURE: Female gall cylindrical, often tending to be fusiform or ovoid, apex truncate. Male gall tubular with dilated apex (Gullan, 1984).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female is characterized by having: abdominal segment IX with ventral and dorsal lengths subequal, not fused with abdominal segment VIII; abdominal segment IX with posterior margin fused with anal lobes; body not slender; dorsum of head and thorax without spine-like setae; segment IX and anal lobes robust, sclerotized on mature individuals; segment IX and anal lobes with about 7 spine-like setae, segment VIII with 2-97 such setae; spine-like setae present in rows on dorsum of segments II-IV; hind legs 960-1070µ long (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult female) [Adult female and female gall of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 257]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy : 108]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 95]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 38].



Apiomorpha karschi Rübsaamen

NOMENCLATURE:

Apiomorpha karschi Rübsaamen, 1894: 211. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Queensland, probably southern Queensland. Unknown type status. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Types of Rübsaamen in the ZMHB apparently were destroyed during World War II (Gullan, 1984).

Brachyscelis fletcheri Fuller, 1896: 215. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Ham Common, Richmond; also North Willoughby and the Parramatta District, on several species of Eucalyptus. Unknown type status female. Described: both sexes. Illust. Synonymy by Gullan, 1984: 72. Notes: The types of this species have apparently been lost (Gullan 1984).

Apiomorpha fletcheri; Cockerell, 1896b: 328. Change of combination.

Apiomorpha karischi; Fuller, 1897b: 1345. Misspelling of species name.

Brachyscelis (Apiomorpha) karaschi; Froggatt, 1898a: 494. Change of combination. Notes: This is a misspelling of the species epithet as well as a new combination.

Brachyscelis turbinata Lidgett, 1899: 37. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Victoria, Myrniong, on Eucalyptus goniocalyx. Unknown type status female. Described: both sexes. Synonymy by Weidner, 1974: 453. Notes: The location of the types of this species is unknown (Gullan 1984).

Apiomorpha karschi fletcheri; Fernald, 1903b: 42. Change of status.

Apiomorpha turbinata; Fernald, 1903b: 45. Change of combination.

Apiomorpha fletscheri; Docters van Leeuwen, 1925: 153. Misspelling of species name.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus camaldulensis [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus cypellocarpa [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus dealbata [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus globosus [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus goniocalyx [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus kochii [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus largiflorens [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus ovata [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus regnans [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus siderophloia [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus tereticornis [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus wandoo [Gullan1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Australian Capital Territory [Cook2000], New South Wales [Gullan1984], Queensland [Gullan1984], Victoria [Gullan1984], Western Australia [Gullan1984]).

BIOLOGY: Female galls are produced on the stems of the host plant. Male galls are produced on the adaxial surface of leaves (Gullan, 1984).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description, illustrations and photographs provided by Gullan (1984).

STRUCTURE: Female galls consist of a globular, woody, hypertrophic swelling, they can aggregate to form large irregular masses of varying size and shape. Male galls are slender, tubular, apex not dilated (Gullan, 1984).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female is characterized by having: abdominal segment IX fused with abdominal segment VIII (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult female) [Adult females and female galls of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 328]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 393]; Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 256, 257]; CookGu2002 [life history: 261]; Docter1925 [distribution, taxonomy: 153]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 42]; Ferris1957b [taxonomy: 60]; Frogga1898a [description, taxonomy: 493-494]; Frogga1917 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 512-513]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 127]; Frogga1929 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 375-376]; Frogga1930 [distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 472]; Frogga1931 [description, distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 433, 434, 445]; Fuller1896 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 215]; Fuller1897b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 1345]; Fuller1899 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 444]; Gullan1983 [structure: 28]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy : 72]; GullanCrCo1997 [distribution, host: 141, 142]; GullanJo1989 [taxonomy: 322]; Houard1923 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 617, 628]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 36, 38]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 95]; Lidget1899 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 60]; Lidget1901a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 77]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 545]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 38-40]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 98]; Rubsaa1894 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 211]; Schich1981 [distribution: 101]; Weidne1974 [illustration, taxonomy: 442].



Apiomorpha longiloba Brimblecombe

NOMENCLATURE:

Apiomorpha longiloba Brimblecombe, 1959a: 160. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Queensland, Barakula, on E. crebra, 10/08/1939. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Fortitude Valley:Queensland Museum, Queensland, Australia; type no. 5748. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus crebra [Gullan1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Queensland [Gullan1984]).

BIOLOGY: Female galls found on twigs (Gullan, 1984).

GENERAL REMARKS: A comprehensive description was given by Gullan (1984) of the adult female, female gall, and a photo of the gall. The species is also described by Brimblecombe (1959a).

STRUCTURE: Female gall solitary, green, four-sided with each corner flanged, apex depressed (Gullan, 1984).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female is characterized by having: abdominal segment IX with ventral and dorsal lengths subequal, not fused with abdominal segment VIII; abdominal segment IX with posterior margin fused with anal lobes; body, segment IX, and anal lobes very slender; segment IX shorter than total length of remainder of abdomen; antennae apparently 2-segmented (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult female) [Adult females and female galls of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Brimbl1959a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 160-161]; Brimbl1959c [taxonomy: 397-398]; Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 258]; Gullan1983 [structure: 28]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy : 88]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 38]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 95]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 40].



Apiomorpha macqueeni Froggatt

NOMENCLATURE:

Apiomorpha sp. 1 Rübsaamen, 1894: 221. Described: female. Illust. Unavailable name; discovered by Houard, 1923: 606. Notes: Apiomorpha species 1 was described by Rübsaamen (1894) but without a species epithet.

Apiomorpha macqueeni Froggatt, 1929: 375. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Queensland, Millimerran, on Eucalyptus pilligaensis. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia; type no. 1741. Described: female. Illust. Notes: The syntype series including 4 adult females is in ANIC; 1 slide is labelled holotype but must be considered a syntype since no mention of a type occurs in the original description.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus pilligaensis [Gullan1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Queensland [Gullan1984]).

BIOLOGY: Female galls are produced on stems of host plant. Male galls are produced on leaves (Gullan, 1984).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description by (Gullan, 1984). Photographs of male and female galls are provided.

STRUCTURE: Female gall variable in form, fusiform to obconical, apex distinctly truncate. Male galls are small cylindrical tubes (Gullan, 1984).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female is characterized by having: abdominal segment IX with ventral and dorsal lengths subequal, not fused with abdominal segment VIII; abdominal segment IX with posterior margin fused with anal lobes; body, segment IX, and anal lobes very slender; segment IX as long as or longer than total length of remainder of abdomen; each anal lobe with a subapical spine-like seta (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult female) [Adult females and female galls Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Brimbl1959c [taxonomy: 383]; Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 256, 258, 261]; Frogga1929 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 375]; Frogga1931 [distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 433, 434, 436, 439]; Gullan1983 [structure: 28]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy : 84]; Houard1923 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 606]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 38]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 95]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 40-41]; Rubsaa1894 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 221]; Weidne1974 [illustration, taxonomy: 437].



Apiomorpha maliformis Fuller

NOMENCLATURE:

Apiomorpha maliformis Fuller, 1897b: 1346. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Western Australia, Swan River near Perth, on Eucalyptus patens. Unknown type status female. Described: female. Notes: Fuller's type material has not been located (Gullan, 1984). The original description is of the gall only, but the later description (Fuller 1899) describes the adult female and the female and male galls.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus patens [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus todtiana [Gullan1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Western Australia [Gullan1984]).

BIOLOGY: Female galls occur on stem of host while male galls occur on leaf (Gullan, 1984).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Gullan (1984).

STRUCTURE: Female gall spheroid, apex truncate. Male gall tubular, apex dilated (Gullan, 1984).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female is characterized by having: abdominal segment IX longer ventrally than dorsally; abdomen attenuate not curvilinearly tapered to base of anal lobes; anal ring not concealed by sclerotized shield; anal lobes not papillose; ventral spine-like setae never in complete row across segment VIII and absent from segment IX; hind legs >1200µ long; 9-locular pores predominant on body (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult female) [Adult females and female galls of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 393]; Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 258]; CookGu2002 [life history: 261]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 42]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 129]; Frogga1931 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 435, 439, 449]; Fuller1897b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 1346]; Fuller1899 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 446]; Fulmek1943 [biological control: 10]; Gullan1983 [structure, illustration: 26, 28]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy : 58]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 38]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 95]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 41-42]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 98].



Apiomorpha malleeacola Gullan

NOMENCLATURE:

Apiomorpha malleeacola Gullan, 1984: 18. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Western Australia, 34 km NNW Kojonup, on Eucalyptus falcata var. ecostata, 29/3/1978. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Perth: Spider and Insect Collection, Western Australian Museum, Western Australia, Australia. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus dumosa [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus falcata ecostata [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus flocktoniae [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus leptocalyx [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus leptopoda [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus oleosa [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus socialis [Gullan1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Northern Territory [Gullan1984], South Australia [Gullan1984], Victoria [Gullan1984], Western Australia [Gullan1984]).

BIOLOGY: Female galls are produced on the stems, buds, fruits or occasionally on the peduncle of an umbel or a leaf petiole of the host plant (Gullan, 1984).

GENERAL REMARKS: Original description and photographs of galls by Gullan (1984).

STRUCTURE: Female gall variable in form, mostly ovoid, apex acute to obtuse, two forms of the species exist. Male galls are unknown (Gullan, 1984).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female is characterized by having: abdominal segment IX longer ventrally than dorsally; abdomen curvilinearly tapered to base of anal lobes; spiracles trilabiate or subfimbriate trilabiate; anal ring invaginated (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult female) [Adult females and female galls of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 256, 257, 260]; CookGu2002 [life history: 261]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy : 18]; GullanCrCo1997 [distribution, host: 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145]; GullanJo1989 [distribution, host, taxonomy : 321, 323]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 95]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 42].



Apiomorpha minor (Froggatt)

NOMENCLATURE:

Brachyscelis minor Froggatt, 1893: 363. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Wollongong, on stunted Eucalyptus sp. and E. haemastoma, by Botany and Berowera. Unknown type status. Described: both sexes. Illust. Notes: Types have not been designated since there is some question whether the material in ASCT is authentic (Gullan, 1984).

Apiomorpha sp. 2 Rübsaamen, 1894: 221. Unknown type status. Unavailable name; discovered by Gullan, 1984: 64.

Apiomorpha minor; Cockerell, 1896b: 328. Change of combination.

Apiomorpha dumosa Froggatt, 1930: 468. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Victoria, near Mildura, by W.S. Campbell. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Gullan, 1984: 67. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia. Described: both sexes. Synonymy by Gullan, 1984: 64.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus andrewsii [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus baxteri [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus camfieldii [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus capitellata [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus dives [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus eugenioides [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus globoidea [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus goniocalyx [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus haemastoma [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus macrorhyncha [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus obliqua [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus oblonga [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus pilularis [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus polyanthemos [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus radiata [Gullan1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Australian Capital Territory [Cook2000], New South Wales [Gullan1984], Queensland [Gullan1984], Victoria [Gullan1984]).

BIOLOGY: Female gall is produced on stems. Male galls occur on stems and leaves especially near midrib on one or both surfaces (Gullan, 1984). Cook & Gullan (2002) provide information on gall and insect development under glasshouse conditions (summarized in table 2, page 262).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration of adult female and description and photograph of male and female galls by Gullan (1984). Symbionts, or lack thereof, discussed by Buchner (1957b). Used in molecular phylogenetic analysis to examine the origins of galling in eriococcids (Cook & Gullan, 2004).

STRUCTURE: Female gall ovoid to ellipsoidal, apex truncate. Male gall tubular, apex dilated (Gullan, 1984).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female is characterized by having: abdominal segment IX longer ventrally than dorsally; abdomen attenuate not curvilinearly tapered to base of anal lobes; anal ring not concealed by sclerotized shield; anal lobes not papillose; ventral spine-like setae never in complete row across segment VIII and absent from segment IX; hind legs <1100µ long; multilocular pores predominantly with 7-loculi (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult female) [Adult females and female galls of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Brimbl1959c [taxonomy: 383-5]; Buchne1957b [taxonomy: 502]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 328]; Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 256, 257, 259, 262]; CookGu2002 [life history: 261]; CookGu2004 [taxonomy: 441,444]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 42]; Frogga1893 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 363]; Frogga1898a [description, distribution, taxonomy: 491]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 130]; Frogga1930 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 468]; Frogga1931 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 435, 437, 453]; Gullan1983 [structure: 26, 28]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy : 64]; GwiazdVaDe2006 [phylogenetics: 16]; Houard1923 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 612]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 38]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 95]; Lidget1899 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 60]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 42-43]; MillsCo2010 [host, life history, phylogeny: 82-89]; MillsMaRi2011 [molecular data, taxonomy: 56]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 98]; RossHaOk2012 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 199]; Rubsaa1894 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 221]; Tepper1893 [distribution, host: 272]; Weidne1974 [illustration, taxonomy : 445].



Apiomorpha munita malleensis Gullan

NOMENCLATURE:

Apiomorpha munita malleensis Gullan, 1984: 31. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Victoria, Broken Bucket Reserve, 19 km NNW Yanac, Big Desert, on Eucalyptus dumosa, 13/02/1977. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia. Described: both sexes. Illust.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus astringens [Cook2001], Eucalyptus calycogona [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus decipiens [Cook2001], Eucalyptus dumosa [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus gomphocephala [Cook2001], Eucalyptus gracilis [Cook2001], Eucalyptus incrassata [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus socialis [Cook2001], Eucalyptus wandoo [Cook2001].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (South Australia [Gullan1984], Victoria [Gullan1984], Western Australia [Gullan1984]).

BIOLOGY: Female galls produced on either stems or the galls of other females. Male galls grow almost exclusively on the body or appendages of the galls of females, rarely on stems and never on leaves (Gullan, 1984).

GENERAL REMARKS: Original description, illustration and photographs by Gullan (1984).

STRUCTURE: Female gall usually four sided with 3-4 broad blade-like appendages. Male gall tubular, apex sometimes slightly dilated (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult female) [Adult female and female galls of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Cook2001 [distribution, host: 266, 267, 269]; CookGu2002 [life history: 261]; CookGu2004 [taxonomy: 444]; CookGuSt2000 [description, taxonomy: 885, 887, 888]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy : 31]; GullanCrCo1997 [distribution, host: 141, 142, 144]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 95]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 44].



Apiomorpha munita munita (Schrader)

NOMENCLATURE:

Brachyscelis munita munita Schrader, 1863: 2. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Kiandra, Snowy Mountains, 14/04/1975. Neotype female, by subsequent designation Gullan, 1984: 30. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia. Described: female.

Brachyscelis munita foliosa Tepper, 1893: 273. Type data: not given in description. Unknown type status. Synonymy by Hoy, 1963: 39. Notes: Name was proposed provisionally and based solely on gall.

Brachyscelis munita reducta Tepper, 1893: 273. Type data: not given in description. Unknown type status. Synonymy by Hoy, 1963: 39. Notes: Description based on gall.

Brachyscelis tricornis Froggatt, 1893: 361. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Queensland, Rockwood, on Eucalyptus siderophloia, by J.J. Fletcher. Unknown type status female. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Froggatt, 1921a: 131. Notes: Considered by Gullan (1984) as a nomen dubium. According to Gullan (1984) "type specimens of Brachyscelis tricornis are unknown. Froggatt probably did not designate types."

Apiomorpha cornifex Rübsaamen, 1894: 205. Unknown type status female. Described: female. Synonymy by Froggatt, 1898a: 490. Notes: Considered by Gullan (1984) as a nomen dubium. Types of Rübsaamen in the ZMHB apparently were destroyed during World War II (Gullan, 1984).

Apiomorpha munita; Rübsaamen, 1894: 205. Described: female. Change of combination.

Apiomorpha munita foliosa; Cockerell, 1896b: 328. Change of combination.

Apiomorpha munita reducta; Cockerell, 1896b: 328. Change of combination.

Apiomorpha tricornis; Cockerell, 1896b: 328. Change of combination. Notes: Considered by Gullan (1984) as a nomen dubium.

Apiomorpha munita munitior Fuller, 1899: 445. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Western Australia, near Swan River. Unknown type status. Synonymy by Hoy, 1963: 39. Notes: Description based on gall. Considered by Gullan (1984) as a nomen dubium.

Brachyscelis munita elongata Lidgett, 1901a: 77. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Myrniong, Victoria, Eucalyptus gonioclayx. Unknown type status. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Gullan, 1984: 30. Notes: "No specimens are known from Lidgett" (Gullan, personal communication, April 29, 1998). This name has not been used since its original description in 1901 except for when it was considered as a junior synonym of Apiomorpha munita munita by Gullan (1984). Gullan does not explicitly synonymize Brachyscelis munita elongata Lidgett, but simply treats it as another reference to A. munita munita.

Apiomorpha munita tricornis; Fernald, 1903b: 43. Change of status. Notes: Considered by Gullan (1984) as a nomen dubium.

COMMON NAME: eucalyptus four-horned gall [Hockin1980].



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus aromaphloia [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus bridgesiana [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus cephalocarpa [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus cinerea [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus crebra [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus foecunda [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus globulus [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus goniocalyx [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus gracilis [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus grandis [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus kitsoniana [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus mannifera [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus melanophloia [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus microcorys [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus nortonii [Cook2001], Eucalyptus obliqua [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus oleosa [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus ovata [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus paniculata [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus pilligaensis [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus poperita [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus populnea [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus radiata [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus reinifera [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus robusta [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus rubida [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus saligna [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus seeana [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus siderophloia [Frogga1893], Eucalyptus sideroxylon? [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus tereticornis [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus viminalis [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus wandoo [Gullan1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Australian Capital Territory [Cook2000], New South Wales [Gullan1984], Queensland [Gullan1984], South Australia [Gullan1984], Tasmania [Gullan1984], Victoria [Lidget1901a]).

BIOLOGY: Female galls are found on stems or on galls of other females. Male galls are almost exclusively on galls of females, rarely on stems, never on leaves. Often in dense aggregations giving name "vegetable coral" (Gullan, 1984). Cook & Gullan (2002) provide information on gall and insect development under glasshouse conditions (summarized in table 2, page 262).

STRUCTURE: Female galls four-sided, usually with four broad, blade-like appendages (Gullan, 1984).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female is characterized by having: abdominal segment IX longer ventrally than dorsally; abdomen attenuate not curvilinearly tapered to base of anal lobes; anal ring at least partially concealed by sclerotized shield; spine-like setae absent from segment IX; body 1.4-2.6 times as long as wide (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult female) [Adult females and female galls of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Beards1984 [distribution, host, illustration: 89]; Buchne1957b [taxonomy: 482]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 328]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 393]; Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 256, 257]; Cook2001 [chemistry, description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 265-277]; CookGu2002 [life history: 261]; CookGuSt2000 [behaviour, taxonomy: 880, 882, 884, 885, 887]; Docter1925 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 151]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 42]; Ferris1957b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 61]; Frogga1893 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 359]; Frogga1894c [taxonomy: 111]; Frogga1898a [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 489-490]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 131]; Frogga1931 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 434, 435, 441, 451]; Fuller1897b [distribution, taxonomy: 1346]; Fuller1899 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 445]; Gullan1979 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 4-5]; Gullan1983 [structure: 28]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy : 27]; Hockin1980 [distribution, illustration: 98]; Houard1923 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 618, 619]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 39]; Koteja1974a [taxonomy: 248]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy: 77]; Koteja1980 [illustration: 1]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 95]; Lidget1898 [taxonomy: 80]; Lidget1899 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 60]; Lidget1901a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 77]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 545]; McKeow1945 [distribution, illustration: 339]; McLach1880 [taxonomy: 146]; Meyer1987 [illustration, physiology: 135, 137]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 44-46]; MillsCo2010 [physiology: 83,86]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 99]; RossHaOk2012 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 199]; Rubsaa1894 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 205]; Schrad1863 [taxonomy: 2]; Schrad1863b [taxonomy: 189]; Signor1868 [distribution, taxonomy: 525]; Signor1869 [catalogue: 861]; Signor1877 [taxonomy: 597]; Tepper1893 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 271, 273]; Tillya1926 [behavior, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 173]; Weidne1974 [taxonomy: 459]; Willia1991DJ [illustration: 463]; WoodwaEvEa1970 [illustration: 429].



Apiomorpha munita tereticornuta Gullan

NOMENCLATURE:

Apiomorpha munita tereticornuta Gullan, 1984: 30. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Victoria, Blackburn Reserve, off Lake Road, on Eucalyptus melliodora, 09/02/1979. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus behriana [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus blakelyi [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus calycogona [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus conica? [Cook2001], Eucalyptus coolabah [Cook2001], Eucalyptus cosmophylla? [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus dura [Cook2001], Eucalyptus fasciculosa [Cook2001], Eucalyptus fibrosa [Cook2001], Eucalyptus haemastoma? [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus largiflorens [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus leucoxylon [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus melliodora [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus microcarpa [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus moluccana [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus pilligaensis [Cook2001], Eucalyptus polyanthemos [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus polybractea [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus populnea [Cook2001], Eucalyptus siderophloia [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus sideroxylon [Cook2001].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Australian Capital Territory [Cook2000], New South Wales [Gullan1984], Queensland [Gullan1984], South Australia [Gullan1984], Victoria [Gullan1984]).

GENERAL REMARKS: First instar illustrated by Ferris (1957b), adult female described and illustrated by Gullan (1984) with photographs of male and female galls.

STRUCTURE: Mature galls four sided with cylindrical or narrow, blade-like appendages which continue basally as indistinct corner ridges on the body of the gall (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult female) [Adult female and female galls of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 256, 257]; Cook2001 [distribution, host: 266, 267, 269]; CookGu2002 [life history: 261]; CookGuSt2000 [illustration, taxonomy: 883, 885, 887, 888]; Frogga1894c [taxonomy: 111]; Frogga1907 [description, taxonomy: 382]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy : 30]; GullanMiCo2005 [illustration: 162]; GullanSt1997 [distribution, host: 235]; GwiazdVaDe2006 [phylogenetics: 16]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 95]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 46-47].



Apiomorpha nookara Mills et al.

NOMENCLATURE:

Apiomorpha nookara Mills et al., 2011: 57-62. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Arakoon, Arakoon Road, S30°53’29".6,E153°04'06.1", on Eucalyptus racemosa, 7/26/2008, by L.G. Cook. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia; type no. LGC1098. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Additional material of the holotype specimen (LGC01098) includes gut and ovary tissue stored at -70°C in the School of Biological Sciences at The University of Queensland (Australia) and genomic DNA stored at -20°C at the same institution (both labeled LGC01098); holotype material also includes DNA sequence data: partial 18S SSU rDNA (Genbank accession: JN863287), partial 28S LSU rDNA (Genbank accession: JN863288) and partial COI (Genbank accession: JN863289).



HOST: Myrtacae: Eucalyptus racemosa [MillsMaRi2011].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [MillsMaRi2011]).

BIOLOGY: Apiomorpha nookara has been found only on E. racemosa, the narrow-leaved scribbly gum (Eucalyptus subgen. Eucalyptus sect. Cineraceae, ser. Psathyroxylon; sensu Brooker 2000). Prior to the synonymies recognised by Pfeil and Henwood (2004), the populations of scribbly gum from which A. nookara has been collected were known as E. signata F. Muell. (Mills, et al., 2011)

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description, illustration and photographs in Mills, et al., 2011.

STRUCTURE: Abdomen tapered to anal lobes. Integument mostly membranous in young adult females but moderately to heavily sclerotised in older specimens. Abdominal segment VIII longer ventrally than dorsally. Gall ovoid to ovo-cylindrical attached to plant stem at gall base. Young galls red or green, turning brown or grey when older. Apex of gall blunt. Outer opening of gall irregular. Apical orifice of inner chamber (in which female resides) circular.. Inner chamber similar in shape to that of adult female. (Mills, et al., 2011) Gall of adult male is small and tubular, flared at the apical opening and found on a leaf. (Mills, et al., 2011)

SYSTEMATICS: Analysis of the mtDNA COII region suggests that A. nookara is closely related to A. minor. Although there is little support for most relationships within Apiomorpha using this gene region, there was strong bootstrap support for a sister relationship between A. minor and A. nookara. Apiomorpha nookara is also morphologically similar to members of the A. minor species group (A. minor, A. sessilis and A. annulata). (Mills, et al., 2011) The two-chambered gall of the adult female of A. nookara clearly distinguishes the species from all other described species of Apiomorpha. Only one other described species (A. variabilis) has two cavities within the gall, but the galls of adult females of A. variabilis are much larger. Tthe galls of A. nookara are ovoid to ovo-cylindrical rather than pyriform like those of A. variabilis. The adult female of A. variabilis is also different from A. nookara. Most strikingly, A. variabilis has many more spine-like setae than A. nookara on abdominal segments AIII-AV. (Mills, et al., 2011)

CITATIONS: MillsMaRi2011 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 57-63].



Apiomorpha ovicola (Schrader)

NOMENCLATURE:

Brachyscelis ovicola Schrader, 1863: 2. Type data: AUSTRALIA. Unknown type status female. Described: both sexes. Illust. Notes: The types of this species were destroyed in 1943 during World War II (Gullan 1984).

Brachyscelis glabra Tepper, 1893: 278. Type data: AUSTRALIA: South Australia, Kangaroo Flat, Mount Lofty Ranges, on Eucalyptus rostrata, ?/02/1884. Syntypes, by original designation. Type depository: Adelaide: South Australian Museum, South Australia, Australia. Illust. Synonymy by Froggatt, 1894c: 76. Notes: This species was described on the basis of only the female gall and since no mention of a type was made in the original description, the type series must be considered as syntypes.

Apiomorpha ovicola; Cockerell, 1896b: 328. Change of combination.

Brachyscelis floralis Froggatt, 1898: 376. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Central Australia. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Orange: Agricultural Scientific Collections Trust, New South Wales Agriculture, NSW, Australia. Described: both sexes. Illust. Synonymy by Gullan, 1984: 47.

Apiomorpha floralis; Fernald, 1903b: 41. Change of combination.

Apiomorpha ovicola glabra; Fernald, 1903b: 43. Change of status.

Apiomorpha glabra; Short, 1947: 259. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus behriana [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus camaldulensis [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus crebra [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus drepanophylla [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus fasciculsoa [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus gracilis [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus largiflorens [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus leucoxylon [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus melanophloia [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus melliodora [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus microcorys [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus microtheca [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus moluccana [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus paniculata [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus pilligaensis [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus polybractea [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus populnea [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus porosa [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus siderophloia [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus sideroxylon [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus tereticornis [Gullan1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Gullan1984], Northern Territory [Gullan1984], Queensland [Gullan1984], South Australia [Gullan1984], Victoria [Gullan1984]).

BIOLOGY: Female gall is found on stems and occasionally on the calyx tube of a bud or fruit, occurring singly or in aggregations often with male galls. Male galls are mainly found on leaves, but sometimes on the stem (Gullan, 1984).

GENERAL REMARKS: Descriptions of the adult female, female gall, male gall, and a photo of the galls are presented by Gullan (1984) in addition to a line drawing of the female.

STRUCTURE: Female gall ovoid to fusiform, apex rounded to distinctly truncate. Male galls tubular with apex sometimes slightly dilated, squat (Gullan, 1984).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female is characterized by having: abdominal segment IX longer ventrally than dorsally; abdomen attenuate not curvilinearly tapered to base of anal lobes; anal ring not concealed by sclerotized shield; anal lobes papillose; spine-like setae in medial cluster, often with well defined posteromarginal row on dorsum of segments II-VIII; larger dorsal spine-like setae forming mediolongitudinal band on thorax and abdomen; dorsomedial thoracic spine-like setae clustered between intersegmental lines (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult female) [Adult females and female galls of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Cocker1896 [taxonomy: 328]; Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 256, 258]; CookGu2002 [life history: 261]; Docter1925 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 153]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 43]; Frogga1893 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 367]; Frogga1894a [taxonomy: 76]; Frogga1894c [taxonomy: 111]; Frogga1898 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 376]; Frogga1898a [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 491]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 133]; Frogga1931 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 432, 434, 439, 443]; Fuller1897b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 1346]; Fuller1899 [taxonomy: 445]; Gullan1979 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 4-7]; Gullan1983 [illustration, structure: 26, 28]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 46]; Houard1923 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 607, 608, 611, 612, 613]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 40]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 95]; Lidget1899 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 60]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 47-48]; MillsCo2010 [physiology: 85]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 98]; Schrad1863 [taxonomy: 2]; Schrad1863b [taxonomy: 189]; Short1947 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 258, 259]; Signor1868 [distribution, taxonomy: 525]; Signor1869 [catalogue: 863]; Signor1877 [description, host, taxonomy: 596]; Silves1939 [description, illustration, host: 699]; Stadel1893 [host, taxonomy: 231-232]; Tepper1893 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 272, 278]; Weidne1974 [illustration, taxonomy: 457].



Apiomorpha ovicoloides (Tepper)

NOMENCLATURE:

Brachyscelis ovicoloides Tepper, 1893: 277. Type data: AUSTRALIA: South Australia, Moonta, Yorke's Peninsula, on Eucalyptus incrassata, by T. Jones. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Gullan, 1984: 53. Type depository: Adelaide: South Australian Museum, South Australia, Australia. Described: both sexes. Illust. Notes: Froggatt (1894b) and others (Froggatt (1898a), Lidgett (1899), Houard (1923), Hoy (1963), and Weidner (1974)) considered this species to be a synonym of either Apiomorpha ovicola or A. pileata. This synonymy is incorrect (Gullan 1984).

Apiomorpha pileata ovicoloides; Cockerell, 1896b: 76. Change of status.

Apiomorpha ovicoloides; Fernald, 1903b: 43. Change of combination.

Apiomorpha egeria Short, 1947: 257. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Western Australia, Rottnest Island, by J.R.T. Short, 12/12/1945. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Gullan, 1984: 54. Type depository: Adelaide: South Australian Museum, South Australia, Australia. Described: both sexes. Illust. Synonymy by Gullan, 1984: 50.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus anceps [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus angulosa [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus campaspe [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus clelandii [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus dumosa [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus gomphocephala [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus incrassata [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus leptocalyx [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus longicornis [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus loxophleba [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus microtheca [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus wandoo [Gullan1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Gullan1984], South Australia [Gullan1984], Victoria [Gullan1984], Western Australia [Gullan1984]).

BIOLOGY: Female galls are produced mostly on stems, occasionally on the calyx tube of a fruit. Male galls found on leaves, sometimes stems and rarely on the gall of a female (Gullan, 1984).

GENERAL REMARKS: Descriptions and illustrations presented by Gullan (1984) including adult female, female and male gall. Detailed descriptions and illustrations given by Short (1947). Male described by Theron (1968).

STRUCTURE: Female gall ovoid, apex rounded to distinctly truncate. Male galls tubular, apex dilated (Gullan, 1984).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female is characterized by having: abdominal segment IX longer ventrally than dorsally; abdomen attenuate not curvilinearly tapered to base of anal lobes; anal ring not concealed by sclerotized shield; anal lobes papillose; spine-like setae in medial cluster, often with well defined posteromarginal row on dorsum of segments II-VIII; larger dorsal spine-like setae forming mediolongitudinal band on thorax and abdomen; dorsomedial thoracic spine-like setae clustered on or near intersegmental lines (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult female) [Adult females and female galls of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 328]; Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 258]; CookGu2002 [life history: 261]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 43]; Frogga1894a [taxonomy: 76]; Frogga1894c [taxonomy: 112]; Frogga1898a [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 491-492]; Gullan1983 [structure: 28]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 50]; GullanCrCo1997 [distribution: 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145]; Houard1923 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 611]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 36]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 95]; Lidget1899 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 60]; Lindin1958 [taxonomy: 366]; Meyer1987 [physiology: 135, 136]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 48-50]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 99]; Short1947 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 257]; Tepper1893 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 277]; Theron1968 [structure: 93]; Weidne1974 [taxonomy: 448].



Apiomorpha pedunculata (Fuller)

NOMENCLATURE:

Brachyscelis pedunculata Froggatt, 1894a: 76. Nomen nudum; discovered by Fuller, 1896: 212. Notes: Manuscript name of Olliff.

Brachyscelis pedunculata Fuller, 1896: 212. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Sydney region. Unknown type status. Described: female. Illust. Notes: "Fuller (1896a) did not mention types or give a definite type locality. No specimens that bear Olliff's or Fuller's name as collector or identifier, or the words `sp. nov.' have been found. Type specimens were probably never designated for this species (Gullan, 1984)."

Apiomorpha pedunculata; Fernald, 1903b: 43. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus amplifolia [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus blakelyi [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus camaldulensis [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus crebra [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus leptophylla [SzentIWo1962], Eucalyptus propinqua [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus punctata [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus resinifera [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus rostrata [SzentIWo1962], Eucalyptus saligna [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus siderophloia [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus tereticornis [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus viminalis [Gullan1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia [Gullan1984] (Australian Capital Territory [Cook2000], New South Wales [Gullan1984], Queensland [Gullan1984]); Papua New Guinea [Gullan1984].

BIOLOGY: Female galls are produced on stems singly or in clusters. Male galls are produced singly on stems, petioles or leaf blades of host plant (Gullan, 1984).

GENERAL REMARKS: The most comprehensive treatment is by Gullan (1984) who described the adult female, female gall, male gall and provided photos of the galls.

STRUCTURE: Female gall large, fusiform, pedunculate, apex truncate. Male gall tubular, apex dilated (Gullan, 1984). Adult female elongate-lanceolate (Williams & Watson, 1990).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female is characterized by having: abdominal segment IX with ventral and dorsal lengths subequal, not fused with abdominal segment VIII; abdominal segment IX with posterior margin fused with anal lobes; body not slender; dorsum of head and thorax without spine-like setae; segment IX and anal lobes slender, rarely heavily sclerotized; spine-like setae not restricted to dorsum of last 3 segments; tibiotarsus of all legs falciform (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult female) [Adult female and female galls of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Brimbl1959a [taxonomy: 159]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 338]; Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 258, 259]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 43]; Frogga1894a [taxonomy: 76]; Frogga1898a [taxonomy: 494]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 135]; Frogga1931 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 435, 439, 440, 447]; Fuller1896 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 212]; Gullan1983 [structure: 28]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy : 117]; Houard1923 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 616]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 41]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 95]; KozarWiKo2009 [taxonomy: 2]; Lidget1899 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 61]; Meyer1987 [illustration, physiology: 135, 138]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 50-51]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 99]; Silves1939 [host, illustration: 699]; SzentISt1966 [taxonomy: 104]; SzentIWo1962 [distribution, host: 20]; Weidne1974 [taxonomy: 441]; WilliaWa1990 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 46, 47, 49, 232].



Apiomorpha pharetrata (Schrader)

NOMENCLATURE:

Brachyscelis pharetrata Schrader, 1863: 3. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, in neighborhood of Sydney on Eucalyptus sp. Unknown type status. Described: both sexes. Illust. Notes: According to Weidner (1974), the types were destroyed during the war in Hamburg in 1943.

Brachyscelis pharatrata; Fuller, 1896: 699. Misspelling of species name.

Apiomorpha pharetrata; Cockerell, 1896b: 328. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Myrtacae: Eucalyptus corymbosa [Frogga1931], Eucalyptus cosmophylla [Brown1967], Eucalyptus imitans [CookGu2008]. Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus baxteri [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus capitellata [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus globoidea [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus gummifera [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus macrorhyncha [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus pauciflora [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus pilularis [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus rubida [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus sieberi [Gullan1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Australian Capital Territory [Cook2000], New South Wales [Gullan1984], South Australia [Gullan1984], Victoria [Gullan1984]).

BIOLOGY: Female gall occurs on leaf blades, petioles, stems, or buds. Male galls are attached to the female gall (Gullan, 1984). Galls are typically green and relatively smooth or slightly papillose. (Cook & Gullan, 2008) Cook & Gullan (2002) provide information on gall and insect development under glasshouse conditions (summarized in table 2, page 262).

GENERAL REMARKS: Gullan (1984) provided detailed descriptions and illustration of the adult female and provided comprehensive data on the male and female galls.

STRUCTURE: Female galls produced upon the leaves often springing from the midrib and aborting the foliage. The gall is oval, with the apex truncate. The male galls consist of a mass of coalesced tubes turned down and enfolded in a smooth rounded mass of tissue which spring out of the side of the female gall and is concave on the gall-tube side. (Froggatt, 1931)

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female is characterized by having: abdominal segment IX with ventral and dorsal lengths subequal, not fused with abdominal segment VIII; abdominal segment IX with posterior margin truncate ventrally; venter of head without spine-like setae; multilocular pores present on dorsum in anterolateral margins of most segments (Gullan, 1984). In 1984, A. thorntoni was synonomyzed with A. pharetrata based on the appearance of the adult females. However, they were treated as form I (A. pharetrata, and form II A. thorntoni by Cook and Gullen (2000, 2002) based on the differences in their galls. They were removed from synonymy and recognised as distict biological species, distinguished by differences in chromosomes. (Cook & Gullen, 2008)

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult female) [Adult females and female galls of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Beards1984 [distribution, host, illustration: 89]; Brown1967 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 130]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 378]; Cocker1899m [taxonomy: 393]; Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 256, 258, 259, 260, 262]; CookGu2002 [life history: 261]; CookGu2008 [description, distribution, host, structure, taxonomy: 251-257]; CookGuSt2000 [behaviour, taxonomy: 880, 884, 885, 889]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 43]; Ferris1957b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 61]; Frogga1893 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 370]; Frogga1894c [taxonomy: 111]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 136]; Frogga1930 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 472]; Frogga1931 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 432,440-441]; Fuller1896 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 215]; Fuller1896a [biological control: 699]; Gallar1930 [distribution, host: 40]; Gullan1978 [taxonomy: 59]; Gullan1979 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 4-5]; Gullan1983 [structure: 26, 28]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy : 79]; Houard1923 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 617, 632]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 41]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 95]; Lidget1899 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 61]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 51-52]; MillsCo2010 [physiology: 86]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 99]; Schrad1863 [taxonomy: 3]; Schrad1863b [taxonomy: 190]; Signor1868 [distribution, taxonomy: 525]; Signor1877 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 595]; Tepper1893 [distribution, host: 272]; Theron1968 [illustration, structure: 88, 89]; Weidne1974 [taxonomy: 461].



Apiomorpha pileata (Schrader)

NOMENCLATURE:

Brachyscelis pileata Schrader, 1863: 3. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Possibly near Sydney. Unknown type status. Described: both sexes. Notes: The types were destroyed in 1943 in the World War II and no neotype has been designated (Gullan, 1984).

Brachyscelis piliata; Signoret, 1869: 865. Misspelling of species name.

Apiomorpha pileata; Cockerell, 1896b: 328. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus acmenioides [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus amygdalina [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus camfieldii [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus considerniana [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus globoidea [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus haemastoma [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus nicholii [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus pilligaensis [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus piperita [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus pulchella [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus racemosa [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus radiata [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus regnans [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus robusta [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus sieberi [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus tereticornis [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus umbra [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus virgata [Gullan1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Gullan1984], Queensland [Gullan1984], Victoria [Gullan1984]).

BIOLOGY: Female galls are produced on stems and rarely on a bud or fruit. Male galls are produced usually on leaves especially near midrib, but sometimes occur on petiole, stem or fruit of the host plant (Gullan, 1984). Cook & Gullan (2002) provide information on gall and insect development under glasshouse conditions (summarized in table 2, page 262).

GENERAL REMARKS: Gullan (1984) described adult female, female gall, male gall and provided illustration of female and crawler. Ferris (1957b) illustrated adult female.

STRUCTURE: Female galls are ovoid to ellipsoidal, apex truncate. Male gall tubular, apex dilated (Gullan, 1984).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female is characterized by having: abdominal segment IX longer ventrally than dorsally; abdomen curvilinearly tapered to base of anal lobes; spiracles fimbriate trilabiate; anal ring not invaginated; tibiotarsus falciform (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult female) [Adult females and female galls of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Ashmea1900 [taxonomy: 343]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 328]; Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 256, 258]; CookGu2002 [life history: 261]; Docter1925 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 158]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 44]; Ferris1957b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 60, 61]; Ferris1957c [distribution, taxonomy: 84]; Frogga1893 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 362]; Frogga1894a [taxonomy: 76]; Frogga1894c [taxonomy: 112]; Frogga1898 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 372]; Frogga1898a [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 490]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 137]; Frogga1923 [description, illustration: 5]; Frogga1931 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 432, 434, 435-436]; Gullan1983 [structure, illustration: 26, 27, 28]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy : 21]; Hockin1980 [distribution, illustration: 98]; Houard1923 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 614, 615]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 41]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 95]; Lidget1899 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 60]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 179]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 52-53]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy: 13]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 99]; Raymen1954 [distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 189]; Schrad1863 [illustration, taxonomy: 3]; Schrad1863b [taxonomy: 190]; Signor1868 [taxonomy: 525]; Signor1869 [taxonomy, list of species: 865]; Signor1877 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 593]; Tepper1893 [distribution, host: 272]; Tillya1926 [distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 173]; Weidne1974 [taxonomy: 455].



Apiomorpha pomaphora Gullan & Jones

NOMENCLATURE:

Apiomorpha pomaphora Gullan & Jones, 1989: 321-329. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Western Australia, Kalbarri National Park, 15 km ENE of Kalbarri, on Eucalyptus eudesmioides, 22/08/1987, by P.J. Gullan. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Perth: Spider and Insect Collection, Western Australian Museum, Western Australia, Australia; type no. 89/3. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Paratypes in WAMP and ANIC.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus eudesmioides [GullanJo1989], Eucalyptus gittinsii [GullanJo1989].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Western Australia [GullanJo1989]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Gullan & Jones (1989) including adult female, male and female galls, and immatures.

STRUCTURE: Adult female abdomen curvilinearly tapered to base of anal lobes. Mature gall of the adult female is ellipsoidal to ovoid, truncate apex with a smooth or jagged flange and a pointed operculum. Living gall usually uniformly light green, occasional specimen greyish brown. Gall of male tubular with slightly to distinctly dilated apex. Living gall uniformly light green, greyish green to brown and wrinkled longitudinally when dry. Immature gall tubular, apex not dilated, turned inward to conceal orifice (Gullan & Jones, 1989).

CITATIONS: Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 257]; GullanJo1989 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 321-329]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 95]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 53-54].



Apiomorpha regularis (Tepper)

NOMENCLATURE:

Brachyscelis regularis Tepper, 1893: 273. Type data: AUSTRALIA: South Australia, Murray Bridge, Lyndoch, on Eucalyptus rostrata. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Adelaide: South Australian Museum, South Australia, Australia. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Although a holotype has been mentioned in the literature, it cannot be considered as such since there is no mention of a type in the original description. Several authors including Froggatt (1898a), Houard (1923), Cockerell (1899a), Hoy (1963), and Weidner (1974) erroneously treated A. regularis as a synonym of A. conica (Gullan, 1984).

Brachyscelis pedunculata Froggatt, 1894a: 76. Nomen nudum; discovered by Gullan, 1984: 120. Notes: Froggatt (1894a) first mentioned A. pedunculata without a description and attributed the name to Olliff who had used it in a manuscript but never published it. Froggatt considered it to be the senior synonym of regularis based on the date of Olliff's manuscript. This of course is erroneous. Fuller (1896a) published Olliff's name pedunculata which is a valid species.

Apiomorpha regularis; Cockerell, 1896b: 328. Change of combination.

Brachyscelis conica; Froggatt, 1898a: 493. Described: both sexes. Illust. Misidentification; discovered by Gullan, 1984: 119.

Apiomorpha conica; Cockerell, 1899a: 393. Misidentification; discovered by Gullan, 1984: 120.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus decipiens [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus foecunda [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus incrassata [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus oleosa [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus rostrata? [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus salmonophloia [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus socialis [Gullan1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Gullan1984], Northern Territory [Gullan1984], South Australia [Gullan1984], Victoria [Gullan1984], Western Australia [Gullan1984]).

BIOLOGY: Female gall is produced on stems or on the peduncle of an umbel. Male gall is produced on both leave surfaces (Gullan, 1984). Cook & Gullan (2002) provide information on gall and insect development under glasshouse conditions (summarized in table 2, page 262).

GENERAL REMARKS: The most comprehensive treatment of the species is by Gullan (1984) who described the adult female, female gall, and male gall and included photos.

STRUCTURE: Female gall is fusiform and often pedunculate, apex small and usually truncate. Male gall tubular, apex dilated (Gullan, 1984).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female is characterized by having: abdominal segment IX with ventral and dorsal lengths subequal, not fused with abdominal segment VIII; abdominal segment IX with posterior margin fused with anal lobes; body not slender; dorsum of head and thorax without spine-like setae; segment IX and anal lobes slender, rarely heavily sclerotized; spine-like setae not restricted to dorsum of last 3 segments; tibiotarsus of middle and hind legs never falciform; anal lobes >1700µ long(Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult female) [Key to adult female and female galls of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 328]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 393]; Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 258]; CookGu2002 [life history: 261]; CookGuSt2000 [life history: 882]; Frogga1894a [taxonomy: 76]; Frogga1898a [description, distribution, taxonomy: 492, 494]; Frogga1917 [taxonomy: 509]; Fuller1897a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 9]; Fuller1897b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 1346]; Fuller1899 [taxonomy: 446]; Gullan1983 [structure, illustration: 27, 28]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy : 119]; GullanCrCo1997 [distribution, host: 141, 142]; Houard1923 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 610]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 34]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 95]; Lidget1899 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 61]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 545]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 54-55]; Tepper1893 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 273]; Weidne1974 [taxonomy: 459].



Apiomorpha rosaeformis (Froggatt)

NOMENCLATURE:

Brachyscelis rosaeformis Froggatt, 1895: 204. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Manning River, Wingham, on large Eucalyptus leaf with five female galls and surmounted with gall masses. Unknown type status. Described: both sexes. Illust. Notes: Type material has not been located (Gullan, 1984).

Apiomorpha rosiformis; Cockerell, 1896b: 328. Change of combination and misspelling of species epithet.

Brachyscelis rosaeforma; Froggatt, 1898a: 495. Described: female. Misspelling of species name.

Apiomorpha rosaeformis; Fernald, 1903b: 44. Change of combination.

Apiomorpha fusiformis Froggatt, 1930: 470. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Queensland, on unknown Eucalyptus sp. Holotype female. Type depository: Fortitude Valley:Queensland Museum, Queensland, Australia; type no. 5146. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Gullan, 1984: 82. Notes: The original description was based on a single specimen and therefore is considered the holotype. In addition, there are unopened galls also deposited in QMFV.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus acmenioides [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus capitellata [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus crebra [Gullan1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Gullan1984], Queensland [Gullan1984]).

BIOLOGY: Female gall is produced on both leaf surfaces, especially near the midrib. Male gall is attached to the maternal gall (Gullan, 1984).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Gullan (1984) who also provides photographs of the galls.

STRUCTURE: Female gall cylindrical to fusiform, apex truncate. Male galls are compound (Gullan, 1984).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female is characterized by having: abdominal segment IX with ventral and dorsal lengths subequal, not fused with abdominal segment VIII; abdominal segment IX with posterior margin truncate ventrally; venter of head without spine-like setae; multilocular pores absent from dorsum (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult) [Adult females and female galls of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 328]; Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 258]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 44]; Frogga1895 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 204]; Frogga1898a [description, taxonomy: 494]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 138]; Frogga1930 [distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 473]; Frogga1931 [distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 434, 436, 442-443]; Gullan1983 [structure: 26, 28]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy : 82]; Houard1923 [taxonomy: 617, 619]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 42]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 95]; Lidget1899 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 62]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 55-56]; Weidne1974 [taxonomy: 461].



Apiomorpha sessilis (Froggatt)

NOMENCLATURE:

Brachyscelis sessilis Froggatt, 1895: 203. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Wallsend near Newcastle, on rough barked Eucalyptus, by W.W. Froggatt. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Gullan, 1984: 69. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia. Described: female. Illust.

Apiomorpha sessilis; Cockerell, 1896b: 328. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus agglomerata [MillsCo2010], Eucalyptus conglomerata [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus deformis [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus globoidea [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus macrorhyncha [MillsCo2010], Eucalyptus oblonga [MillsCo2010], Eucalyptus pilularis [MillsCo2010], Eucalyptus rossi [MillsCo2010].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Gullan1984], Queensland [Gullan1984]).

BIOLOGY: Female galls are produced on stems of host (Gullan, 1984).

GENERAL REMARKS: Adult female and female gall illustrated, described, and photographed by Gullan (1984).

STRUCTURE: Female gall cylindrical, apex truncate. Male galls unknown (Gullan, 1984).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female is characterized by having: abdominal segment IX longer ventrally than dorsally; abdomen attenuate not curvilinearly tapered to base of anal lobes; anal ring not concealed by sclerotized shield; anal lobes not papillose; ventral spine-like setae never in complete row across segment VIII and absent from segment IX; hind legs <1100µ long; multilocular pores predominantly with other than 7-loculi; antennae 5-segmented (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult) [Adult females and female galls of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 328]; Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 256, 257, 259]; CookGu2002 [life history: 261]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 44]; Frogga1895 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 203]; Frogga1898a [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 493]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 139]; Frogga1931 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 435, 445, 452]; Gullan1983 [structure: 26, 28]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy : 67]; Houard1923 [description, taxonomy: 628]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 42]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 95]; Lidget1899 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 61]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 56-57]; MillsCo2010 [phylogeny: 83]; MillsMaRi2011 [molecular data, taxonomy: 56]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 99]; Weidne1974 [taxonomy: 453].



Apiomorpha sloanei (Froggatt)

NOMENCLATURE:

Brachyscelis sloanei Froggatt, 1898: 373. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Clear Hills, Wagga Wagga, on "white gum" Eucalyptus sp., by T.G. Sloane. Unknown type status female. Described: female. Illust. Notes: "No type specimens or material that was collected prior to the original species descriptions have been located (Gullan, 1984)."

Apiomorpha sloanei; Fernald, 1903b: 45. Change of combination.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus drepanophylla [Gullan1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Gullan1984], Queensland [Gullan1984], Victoria [Gullan1984]).

BIOLOGY: Female galls are produced on the stems of the host plant both singly and in clusters. Male galls are produced on the adaxial leaf surface (Gullan, 1984).

GENERAL REMARKS: The most comprehensive treatment of this species is by Gullan (1984) who described the adult female, male and female gall, and provided photographs of the galls.

STRUCTURE: Female galls fusiform and twig-like, apex truncate. Male galls are tubular, apex not obviously expanded, but with a serrated apical rim (Gullan, 1984).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female is characterized by having: abdominal segment IX with ventral and dorsal lengths subequal, not fused with abdominal segment VIII; abdominal segment IX with posterior margin fused with anal lobes; body, segment IX, and anal lobes very slender; segment IX as long as, or longer than, total length of remainder of abomen; each anal lobe without a subapical spine-like seta (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult female) [Adult females and female galls of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 256, 258]; CookGu2002 [life history: 261]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 45]; Frogga1898 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 373]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 140]; Frogga1931 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 434, 440]; Gullan1983 [structure: 28]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy : 86]; Houard1923 [illustration, taxonomy: 608, 615]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 42]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 95]; Lidget1899 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 62]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 57]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 99]; Weidne1974 [behavior, taxonomy: 456-457].



Apiomorpha spinifer Froggatt

NOMENCLATURE:

Apiomorpha spinifer Froggatt, 1930: 470. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Queensland, Stanthorpe, on Eucalyptus sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia. Described: female. Notes: Although the syntypes have a "holotype" label, these were added after the description of Froggatt, and he did not mention types in his description; therefore only a lectotype can be designated as a primary type.

Apiomorpha pharetrata; Theron, 1968: 87. Described: male. Illust. Misidentification; discovered by Gullan, 1984: 76.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus baxteri [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus cephalocarpa [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus cosmophylla [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus delegatensis [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus dives [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus elata [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus macrorhyncha [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus obliqua [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus pauciflora [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus radiata [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus regnans [Gullan1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Australian Capital Territory [Gullan1984], New South Wales [Gullan1984], Queensland [Gullan1984], South Australia [Gullan1984], Victoria [Gullan1984]).

BIOLOGY: Female gall is produced on or near midrib of leaves. Male gall occurs in clusters attached to the maternal gall (Gullan, 1984). Cook & Gullan (2002) provide information on gall and insect development under glasshouse conditions (summarized in table 2, page 262).

GENERAL REMARKS: Adult female described and illustrated, female and male gall described and photographed by Gullan (1984). Adult male described by Theron (1968) but under name A. pharetrata. Hodgson (2002) used this species in a phylogenetic analysis of non-margarodid Coccoidea.

STRUCTURE: Female gall cylindrical to fusiform, apex truncate. Male galls are compound, tubular (Gullan, 1984).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female is characterized by having: abdominal segment IX with ventral and dorsal lengths subequal, not fused with abdominal segment VIII; abdominal segment IX with posterior margin truncate ventrally; with 2-5 spine-like ventral setae near apex of head (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult female) [Adult females and female galls of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Beards1984 [distribution, host, illustration: 89]; Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 258, 260]; CookGu2002 [life history: 261]; CookGu2004 [taxonomy: 444]; CookGuSt2000 [illustration, taxonomy: 883, 884, 885, 886, 887]; Frogga1930 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 470]; Frogga1931 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 434, 436, 442]; Gullan1978 [taxonomy: 59]; Gullan1983 [structure, illustration: 26, 27, 28]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy : 76]; GwiazdVaDe2006 [phylogenetics: 16]; Hodgso2002 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 135]; Hodgso2005 [taxonomy: 26]; HodgsoHa2013 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 797]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 43]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 95]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 57-58]; RossHaOk2012 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 199]; Theron1968 [taxonomy: 87]; Weidne1974 [taxonomy: 461].



Apiomorpha strombylosa (Tepper)

NOMENCLATURE:

Brachyscelis strombylosa Tepper, 1893: 277. Type data: AUSTRALIA: South Australia, Murray Bridge, on Eucalyptus incrassata. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Gullan, 1984: 61. Type depository: Adelaide: South Australian Museum, South Australia, Australia. Described: female. Illust.

Brachyscelis crispa Froggatt, 1894a: 76. Nomen nudum; discovered by Gullan, 1984: 58.

Brachyscelis crispa Fuller, 1896: 697. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Booral. Unknown type status female. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Froggatt, 1898a: 492. Notes: It is possible that specimens in the collection at ASCT are part of the type series (Gullan 1984).

Apiomorpha strombylosa; Cockerell, 1896b: 328. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus behriana [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus crebra [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus decipiens [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus drepanophylla [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus incrassata [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus melliodora [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus moluccana [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus oleosa [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus paniculata [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus polyanthemos [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus punctata [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus siderophloia [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus socialis [GullanCrCo1997], Eucalyptus transcontinentalis [Gullan1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Australian Capital Territory [Cook2000], New South Wales [Gullan1984], Queensland [Gullan1984], South Australia [Gullan1984], Tasmania [Gullan1984], Victoria [Gullan1984], Western Australia [Gullan1984]).

BIOLOGY: Female gall is produced on stems of host. Male gall is produced on both leaf surfaces, petioles and stems (Gullan, 1984). Cook & Gullan (2002) provide information on gall and insect development under glasshouse conditions (summarized in table 2, page 262).

GENERAL REMARKS: Described, illustrated and photographed by Gullan (1984).

STRUCTURE: Female gall subspheroidal surface covered with irregular protuberances or conical projections, apex often distinctly truncate, sometimes depressed. Male galls tubular, apex dilated. There is a western and eastern form (Gullan, 1984).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female is characterized by having: abdominal segment IX longer ventrally than dorsally; abdomen attenuate not curvilinearly tapered to base of anal lobes; anal ring not concealed by sclerotized shield; anal lobes not papillose; ventral spine-like setae never in complete row across segment VIII and absent from segment IX; hind legs >1200µ long; 9-locular pores not predominant on body; venter sometimes with spine-like setae on posterolateral margin of segment VIII (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult female) [Adult females and female galls of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Buchne1957b [taxonomy: 484]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 328]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 393]; Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 256, 258, 260]; CookGu2002 [life history: 261]; CookGu2004 [taxonomy: 444]; CookGuSt2000 [illustration, life history: 882, 883]; Docter1925 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 153]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 45]; Frogga1894a [taxonomy: 76]; Frogga1898a [description, host, taxonomy: 491-492]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 140]; Frogga1931 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 435, 439, 450]; Fuller1896 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 213]; Fuller1896a [biological control, ecology: 697]; Fuller1897b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 1346]; Fuller1899 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 445]; Gullan1983 [illustration, structure: 26, 28]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy : 58]; GullanCrCo1997 [distribution, host: 141, 142, 144]; Houard1923 [illustration, description, taxonomy: 621, 622]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 43]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 95]; Lidget1898 [distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 94]; Lidget1899 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 61]; Meyer1987 [physiology: 135, 138]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 58-60]; MillsMaRi2011 [taxonomy: 56]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 99]; RossHaOk2012 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 199]; Tepper1893 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 272, 277]; Tillya1926 [distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 173]; Weidne1974 [taxonomy: 445, 448, 458].



Apiomorpha subconica (Tepper)

NOMENCLATURE:

Brachyscelis subconica Tepper, 1893: 274. Type data: AUSTRALIA: South Australia, Murray Bridge, on Eucalyptus uncinata. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Gullan, 1984: 125. Type depository: Adelaide: South Australian Museum, South Australia, Australia. Described: both sexes. Illust. Notes: Additional type data: This is the information given in the original publication. The specimen selected by Gullan (1984) as the lectotype has 3 labels that give 2 different localities; they are: Queenscliffe, 7.3.1886, Tepper, E. santalifolia; and Goolwa, 28.1.1886, A. Lietz, E. uncinata. Paralectotypes in SAMA.

Brachyscelis conica; Froggatt, 1894a: 76. Misidentification; discovered by Gullan, 1984: 122.

Apiomorpha conica subconica; Fernald, 1903b: 41. Change of combination and rank.

Apiomorpha conica; Lindinger, 1957: 545. Misidentification; discovered by Gullan, 1984: 122.

Apiomorpha subconica; Gullan, 1984: 122. Described: both sexes. Illust. Change of status. Notes: Froggatt (1894a) and (1898a), Lidgett (1899), Houard (1923), Lindinger (1957), Hoy (1963), and Weidner (1974) erroneously considered this species to be a junior synonym of Apiomorpha conica (Gullan, 1984).



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus cneorifolia [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus decipiens [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus diversicolor [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus foecunda [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus uncinata [Gullan1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia [Gullan1984] (South Australia [Gullan1984], Victoria [Gullan1984], Western Australia [Gullan1984]).

BIOLOGY: Female gall is produced on stems and rarely on the calyx tube of fruit. Male gall is usually found on leaves, occasionally on the female gall (Gullan, 1984).

GENERAL REMARKS: The most comprehensive treatment of this species is by Gullan (1984) who describes the adult female, female gall, and male gall and provides photographs of the galls.

STRUCTURE: Female gall squat to elongate, fusiform. Male galls tubular, apex rim irregular (Gullan, 1984).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female is characterized by having: abdominal segment IX with ventral and dorsal lengths subequal, not fused with abdominal segment VIII; abdominal segment IX with posterior margin fused with anal lobes; body not slender; dorsum of head and thorax without spine-like setae; segment IX and anal lobes slender, rarely heavily sclerotized; spine-like setae not restricted to dorsum of last 3 segments; tibiotarsus of middle and hind legs never falciform; anal lobes <1400µ long (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult female) [Adult females and female galls of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Buchne1957b [taxonomy: 328]; Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 256, 258]; CookGu2002 [life history: 261]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 41]; Frogga1894a [taxonomy: 76]; Frogga1898a [description, distribution, taxonomy: 492]; Gullan1979 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 4-6]; Gullan1983 [structure: 28]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy : 122]; Houard1923 [taxonomy: 610]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 35]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 95]; Lidget1899 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 59]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 545]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 60-61]; Tepper1893 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 274]; Weidne1974 [taxonomy: 459].



Apiomorpha tepperi Gullan

NOMENCLATURE:

Brachyscelis ellipsoidalis Tepper, 1893: 272. Nomen nudum; discovered by Lidgett, 1899: 60. Notes: Description by Tepper 1893 "Brachyscelis ellipsoidalis, sp. nov. On Euc. sp., Fraser Range, W.A (Elder Exploring Expedition)." This does not constitute a valid description.

Apiomorpha ellipsoidalis; Fernald, 1903b: 41. Change of combination.

Apiomorpha tepperi Gullan, 1984: 42. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Western Australia, Great Eastern Highway, 80 km E. Southern Cross, on Eucalyptus leptopoda, 03/04/78. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia. Described: both sexes. Illust.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus burracoppinensis [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus leptopoda [Gullan1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Western Australia [Gullan1984]).

BIOLOGY: Female gall is produced only on stems of host plant (Gullan, 1984).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description of adult female, female gall, and immature male gall, illustration of female, and photos of galls given by Gullan (1984).

STRUCTURE: Female gall woody, spheroidal to ellipsoidal, apex obtuse. Adult male galls not known (Gullan, 1984).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female is characterized by having: abdominal segment IX longer ventrally than dorsally; abdomen attenuate not curvilinearly tapered to base of anal lobes; anal ring not concealed by sclerotized shield; anal lobes papillose; spine-like setae in single row on dorsum of segments II-VIII; multilocular pores absent from abdominal segment IX (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult female) [Adult females and adult female galls of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 257]; CookGu2002 [life history: 261]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 41]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 115]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy : 42]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 46]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 95]; Lidget1899 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 60]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 61]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 98]; Tepper1893 [distribution, host: 272]; Weidne1974 [taxonomy: 457].



Apiomorpha thorntoni (Froggatt)

NOMENCLATURE:

Brachyscelis thorntoni Froggatt, 1893: 371. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Newcastle by R. Thornton. Syntypes, female. Described: both sexes. Notes: The location of the types is unknown (Gullan, 1984)

Brachyscelis nux Fuller, 1896: 214. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Bungendore, by A. M. Lea. Unknown type status. Described: female. Synonymy by Froggatt, 1898a: 495. Notes: The location of the type material is unknown (Gullan, 1984)

Apiomorpha nux; Cockerell, 1896b: 328. Change of combination.

Brachyscelis thorthoni; Lidgett, 1899: 61. Misspelling of species name.

Apiomorpha thorntoni; Cockerell, 1899m: 393. Change of combination.

Apiomorpha thorntoni nux; Fernald, 1903b: 45. Change of combination.

Apiomorpha pharetrata; Gullan, 1984: 78-82. Incorrect synonymy; discovered by Cook & Gullan, 2008: 51-57.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus amygdalina [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus macrorhyncha [CookGu2008], Eucalyptus piperata [Frogga1931, Gullan1984], Eucalyptus youmanni [CookGu2008].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Australian Capital Territory [Cook2000], New South Wales [Frogga1931], Victoria [Cook2000]).

BIOLOGY: Female gall occurs on leaf blades, petioles, stems, or buds. Galls are typically red to reddish-brown with deep longitudinal ridges/fissures. Male galls are attached to the female gall (Gullan, 1984).

GENERAL REMARKS: Ferris (1957b) gave an illustration of the adult female.

STRUCTURE: The galls are compound and differ from those of Apiomorha pharetrata in the female galls being smaller, ribbed on the sides, and are often red. The attached mass of male galls being much more irregular in form and wrinkled. (Froggatt, 1931)

SYSTEMATICS: Anal segment conical, with the exception of the basal margin reddish-brown. In general structure like that of Apiomorpha pharetrata, but the anal appendage rugose on the ventral surface, and curving outward. (Froggatt, 1931) In 1984, A. thorntoni was synonomyzed with A. pharetrata based on the appearance of the adult females. However, they were treated as form I (A. pharetrata, and form II A. thorntoni by Cook and Gullen (2000, 2002) based on the differences in their galls. They were removed from synonymy and recognised as distict biological species, distinguished by differences in chromosomes. (Cook & Gullen, 2008)

CITATIONS: Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 256,258-260,262]; CookGu2002 [life history: 261-262]; CookGu2008 [description, distribution, host, structure, taxonomy: 51-57]; CookGuSt2000 [behaviour, taxonomy: 880,884-885,889]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 45]; Frogga1893 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 371-2]; Frogga1895 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 204]; Frogga1898a [description, host, taxonomy: 494]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 142-143]; Frogga1930 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 473]; Frogga1931 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 442]; Fuller1896 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 1-9]; Fuller1896a [biological control: 699]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 79-82]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 43-44]; Lidget1899 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 61]; Meyer1987 [illustration, physiology: 135,138]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue,, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 51-52]; MillsCo2010 [physiology: 86]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 99]; Tepper1893 [description, distribution, host: 272].



Apiomorpha urnalis (Tepper)

NOMENCLATURE:

Brachyscelis urnalis Tepper, 1893: 271. Type data: AUSTRALIA: South Australia, Murray Bridge, on Eucalyptus uncinata, 12/12/1892. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia; type no. 1741. Described: both sexes. Illust. Notes: A gall of the female in ANIC is labeled as the holotype, but there is no mention of a type in the original description, thus, it along with the "paratypes" must be considered as syntypes. Tepper in his description indicates that the Eucalyptus species is similar to uncinata but is definitely different.

Brachyscelis schraderi Froggatt, 1894a: 76. Nomen nudum; discovered by Froggatt, 1898a: 494. Notes: This is a nomen nudum; Froggatt 1894a mentioned it as a manuscript name of Olliff without any description. It was ultimately described by Fuller (1896) as B. shraderi (sic.). Froggatt 1894a considered B. urnalis to be a junior synonym of B. schraderi, but since B. schraderi was a nomen nudum, it was unavailable and B. urnalis takes precedence.

Brachyscelis shraderi Fuller, 1896: 214. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Tamworth, by A. M. Lea. Unknown type status female. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Froggatt, 1898a: 494. Notes: Described as a manuscript name of Olliff. For a discussion of the spelling of this name see notes for Brachyscelis schraderi.

Apiomorpha urnalis; Cockerell, 1896b: 328. Change of combination.

Brachyscelis urinalis; Froggatt, 1898a: 493. Misspelling of species name.

Brachyscelis schraderi Froggatt, 1898a: 494. Unjustified emendation. Notes: Fuller (1896) consistently misspelled Schrader's name as "Shrader" and named his species accordingly. Based on the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature Article 32(c)(ii) shraderi is the correct spelling of the species epithet because there is no clear evidence of an inadvertent error in the original publication.

Brachyscelis uranalis; Froggatt, 1898a: pl. 4. Misspelling of species name.

Apiomorpha urnalis schraderi; Fernald, 1903b: 46. Change of status.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus calycogona [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus dumosa [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus fasciculosa [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus goniocalyx [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus gracilis [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus largiflorens [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus leucoxylon [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus macrocarpa [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus melliodora [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus pilligaensis [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus polyanthemos [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus sideroxylon [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus spathulata [Gullan1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia [Gullan1984] (Australian Capital Territory [Cook2000], New South Wales [Gullan1984], Queensland [Gullan1984], South Australia [Gullan1984], Victoria [Gullan1984]).

BIOLOGY: Female gall is produced on stems and occasionally on fruit. Male gall is produced on twigs and on the galls of females (Gullan, 1984).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Gullan (1984) who also photographed male and female galls. Ferris (1957b) also described and illustrated the adult female.

STRUCTURE: Female gall urn-shaped, apex truncate. Male galls very small, apex truncate (Gullan, 1984).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female is characterized by having: abdominal segment IX with ventral and dorsal lengths subequal, not fused with abdominal segment VIII; abdominal segment IX with posterior margin fused with anal lobes; body, segment IX, and anal lobes very slender; segment IX shorter than total length of remainder of abdomen; antennae 5-segmented; cephalic apodemes absent (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult female) [Adult females and female galls of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Brimbl1959a [taxonomy: 162]; Buchne1957b [taxonomy: 483]; Buchne1965 [taxonomy: 276]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 328]; Cocker1899m [taxonomy : 393]; Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 256, 259]; CookGu2002 [life history: 261]; Docter1925 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 154]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 45]; Ferris1957b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 62]; Frogga1894a [taxonomy: 76]; Frogga1898 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 371]; Frogga1898a [description, distribution, taxonomy: 493]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 144]; Frogga1930 [distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 473]; Frogga1931 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 434, 438, 445]; Fuller1896 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 214]; Gullan1983 [structure: 28]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 92]; GullanCrCo1997 [distribution, host: 141, 142, 144, 145]; Houard1923 [description, taxonomy: 617, 618, 620]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 44]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 95]; Lidget1898 [distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 93]; Lidget1899 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 62]; Meyer1987 [illustration, physiology: 135, 137]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 61-63]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 99]; Tepper1893 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 271]; Weidne1974 [taxonomy: 445].



Apiomorpha variabilis (Froggatt)

NOMENCLATURE:

Brachyscelis variabilis Froggatt, 1893: 364. Type data: AUSTRALIA: several locations given: New South Wales: Thornleigh, on Eucalyptus piperita, by W.W. Froggatt; Newcastle, on Eucalyptus sp., by R. Thornton; Cambewarra, on Eucalyptus sp., by W. Bäuerlen; Lismore, on Eucalyptus sp., by R. Thornton. Unknown type status female. Described: both sexes. Illust. Notes: "It appears that Froggatt did not designate any type specimens for A. variabilis, and several localities were cited in the original descriptions. No specimens that date from the original description have been located. Three slide-mounted adult females, that are housed in the Australian National Insect Collection in Canberra, bear Froggatt's handwriting. They were referred to by Froggatt (1931) but were not mentioned in the original description of the species. These galls were apparently collected after 1893 (Gullan, 1984)."

Apiomorpha variabilis; Cockerell, 1896b: 328. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus acmenioides [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus camfieldii [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus haemastoma [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus intermedia [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus pilularis [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus piperita [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus planchoniana [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus racemosa [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus sieberi [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus umbra [Gullan1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Gullan1984], Queensland [Gullan1984]).

BIOLOGY: Female gall is produced on stems of host plant (Gullan, 1984).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and photograph of female galls and description and illustration of adult female by Gullan (1984).

STRUCTURE: Female gall large and pyriform, woody, truncate to rounded apex, structurally complex. Male gall is unknown (Gullan, 1984).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female is characterized by having: abdominal segment IX longer ventrally than dorsally; abdomen attenuate not curvilinearly tapered to base of anal lobes; anal ring not concealed by sclerotized shield; anal lobes not papillose; ventral spine-like setae never in complete row across segment VIII and absent from segment IX; hind legs >1200µ long; 9-locular pores not predominant on body; venter without spine-like setae (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult) [Adult females and female galls of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 328]; Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 258, 259, 260]; CookGu2002 [life history: 61]; CookGu2002 [life history: 261]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 46]; Frogga1893 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 364]; Frogga1894c [taxonomy: 112]; Frogga1898 [taxonomy: 374]; Frogga1898a [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 492]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 145]; Frogga1931 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 432, 435, 439, 450]; Gullan1983 [structure: 28]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy : 62]; Houard1923 [illustration, taxonomy: 609, 611]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 45]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 95]; Lidget1899 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 62]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 63-64]; MillsCo2010 [physiology: 85]; MillsMaRi2011 [molecular data, structure, taxonomy: 56]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 99]; Tepper1893 [distribution, host: 272]; Weidne1974 [taxonomy: 453].



Apiomorpha withersi Froggatt

NOMENCLATURE:

Apiomorpha withersi Froggatt, 1931: 434. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Gilgandra, on Eucalyptus piligaensis. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Although a holotype is mentioned, Froggatt did not designate a type in the original description, and because there are a number of specimens in the type series, these specimens must be considered syntypes until a lectotype is designated.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus crebra [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus gracilis [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus largiflorens [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus microcarpa [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus moluccana [Gullan1984], Eucalyptus pilligaensis [Gullan1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Gullan1984], Queensland [Gullan1984], South Australia [Gullan1984], Victoria [Cook2000]).

BIOLOGY: Female gall is produced on stems and male gall is produced on both leaf surfaces (Gullan, 1984).

GENERAL REMARKS: A detailed description of the adult female plus descriptions of the male and female gall are given by Gullan (1984); a photograph of the gall also is presented.

STRUCTURE: Female gall ovoid, apex rounded or slightly truncate. Male galls tubular, apex dilated, squat (Gullan, 1984).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female is characterized by having: abdominal segment IX longer ventrally than dorsally; abdomen attenuate not curvilinearly tapered to base of anal lobes; anal ring not concealed by sclerotized shield; anal lobes papillose; spine-like setae in medial cluster, often with well-defined posteromarginal row on dorsum of segments II-VIII; dorsal spine-like setae not forming mediolongitudinal band on thorax and abdomen (Gullan, 1984).

KEYS: Gullan 1984: 10 (adult female) [Adult females and female galls of Apiomorpha].

CITATIONS: Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 256, 258]; CookGu2002 [life history: 261]; Frogga1931 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 439, 444]; Gullan1983 [structure: 28]; Gullan1984 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 44]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 45]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 96]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 64-65]; MillsCo2010 [physiology: 85]; Short1947 [taxonomy: 259].



Ascelis Schrader

NOMENCLATURE:

Ascelis Schrader, 1863: 6. Type species: Ascelis praemollis Schrader, by monotypy.

Cystococcus; Cockerell, 1902g: 114. Incorrect synonymy; discovered by Gullan & Cockburn, 1986: 632.

STRUCTURE: Forming small galls on Melaleuca and Eucalyptus species (Gullan, personal communication, October 27, 1998).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: posterior sclerotized operculum around entire body; without legs; antennae reduced to stub; without tubular ducts (Ferris, 1957b).

KEYS: Hardy & Gullan 2007: 108 (female, adult) [Key to the adult females of genera of felt scales on Eucalyptus and Corymbia].

CITATIONS: Atkins1886 [description, taxonomy: 275]; Beards1974a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 342]; Beards1984 [distribution, taxonomy: 84, 85, 103]; BruesMeCa1954 [taxonomy: 165]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 328]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 393]; Cocker1899m [taxonomy: 276]; Cocker1902g [taxonomy: 114]; Ferris1921b [taxonomy: 91]; Ferris1957b [description, taxonomy: 62]; Ferris1957c [taxonomy: 84]; Frogga1894 [taxonomy: 209]; Frogga1894a [taxonomy: 75]; Frogga1894c [taxonomy: 112]; Frogga1898a [description, taxonomy: 495]; Frogga1921a [description, taxonomy : 114, 153]; Fuller1897b [taxonomy: 1346]; Fuller1899 [description, taxonomy: 461]; Gullan1983 [behavior, distribution: 28]; Gullan1984b [taxonomy: 381]; GullanMiCo2005 [ecology, host, taxonomy: 166]; HardyBeGu2011 [host, taxonomy: 498]; HardyGu2007 [host, illustration, taxonomy: 106-108]; Hoy1962 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 11, 13, 201, 206]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, taxonomy: 46]; Koteja1974 [taxonomy: 298]; Kozar2009 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 112]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 179, 183]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy: 204]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, taxonomy: 65]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy: 16]; Schrad1863a [taxonomy: 6, 7]; Schrad1863b [taxonomy: 191]; Signor1868 [distribution, taxonomy: 525]; Signor1877 [description, host, taxonomy: 598]; Tepper1893 [description, taxonomy: 269, 278]; Theron1968 [structure: 90]; Tillya1926 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 173]; Willia1991DJ [taxonomy: 461]; WoodwaEvEa1970 [distribution, host: 430].



Ascelis attenuata Froggatt

NOMENCLATURE:

Ascelis attenuata Froggatt, 1894: 214. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Thornleigh, on Eucalyptus piperita, ?/01/1894. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Illust. Notes: According to Gullan (personal communication, March 18, 1998), there is no type material in ASCT



HOST: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus piperita [Frogga1894].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Frogga1894]).

BIOLOGY: Galls of female swell out on either side of the leaf, with the apical orifice on the upper side (Froggatt, 1894).

GENERAL REMARKS: Brief description and illustration by Froggatt (1894).

STRUCTURE: Female galls are very small, reddish brown and flat. Adult female is pale yellow with a long and slender cylindrical anal appendage, truncate at the tip and surrounded at the base by a broad dark brown ring or band (Froggatt, 1894).

CITATIONS: Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 328]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 48]; Frogga1894 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 214]; Frogga1898a [taxonomy: 496]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 153]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 47]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 96]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 65-66]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 99].



Ascelis melaleucae Fuller

NOMENCLATURE:

Ascelis melaleucae Fuller, 1897b: 1346. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Swan River, on Melaleuca sp. Syntypes, female, by original designation. Described: both sexes. Notes: Whereabouts of type material unknown (Gullan, personal communication, June 10, 1996).



HOST: Myrtaceae: Melaleuca sp. [Hoy1963]

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Western Australia [Hoy1963]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Fuller (1899).

STRUCTURE: Adult yellow sub-globose, body unsegmented. Gall is wider than high, same color as bark of host, apex conical. Galls have two chambers, lower is where the female sits and the upper contains several male pupae in white mealy cocoons (Fuller, 1899).

CITATIONS: Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 393]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 48]; Fuller1897b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 1346]; Fuller1899 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 461]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 48]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 96]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 66].



Ascelis praemollis Schrader

NOMENCLATURE:

Ascelis praemollis Schrader, 1863: 367. Type data: AUSTRALIA. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Berlin: Museum fur Naturkunde der Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin, Germany. Described: both sexes. Illust. Notes: Original photos of Schrader's type gall material are in the ZMHB and the ANIC, according to Weidner in personal communication to Gullan.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus capitellata [Hoy1963], Eucalyptus corymbosa [Hoy1963].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Hoy1963]).

GENERAL REMARKS: An illustration of an adult female is given by Ferris (1957b). Detailed description by Froggatt (1894).

STRUCTURE: Female gall is round, green to dull yellow in color and grows singly or in groups of 2-3. First-instar female pale yellow, roundish, eyes small and black. Adult females of varying size, shapelessly round, wrinkled and pale yellow. First-instar males are with the first-instar females in the female gall, about 20-30 per gall and they remain long after the females have gone. First-instar males are pink to salmon red. Adult male is crimson to reddish brown (Froggatt, 1894).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female without legs or antennae; posterior end of body heavily sclerotized, forming a short cylinder in which the sclerotization extends entirely about the body without interruption and has its end invaginated. The external opening of this invagination seems to be closed by a dehiscent sclerotized cap which is connected by 3 internal, heavily sclerotized rods with the internal wall of the cylinder (Ferris, 1957b).

CITATIONS: Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 328]; Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 256, 259]; CookGu2004 [taxonomy: 444]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 48]; Ferris1957b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 62]; Frogga1894 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 211]; Frogga1894c [taxonomy: 113]; Frogga1898a [description, taxonomy: 495]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 153]; GwiazdVaDe2006 [phylogenetics: 16]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 47]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 96]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 179]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 66-67]; NanDeWu2013 [phylogenetics: 173]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 99]; Schrad1863a [taxonomy: 7]; Signor1868 [taxonomy: 525]; Signor1869 [catalogue: 867]; Signor1877 [description, taxonomy: 599]; Weidne1974 [illustration: 443].



Ascelis schraderi Froggatt

NOMENCLATURE:

Ascelis schraderi Froggatt, 1894: 213. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, in neighborhood of Sydney, on Eucalyptus corymbosa, by W.W. Froggatt. Syntypes, female, by original designation. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: both sexes. Illust. Notes: Probable syntypic material is in BMNH and two slides were prepared from this material by Gullan in 1985. Gullan (personal communication, March 18, 1998) states that there are 3 collections of A. schraderi in the ASCT, but their collection data is poor. There is one lot that was collected in 1899 and is therefore old enough to possibly be syntypic.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus corymbosa [Hoy1963].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Hoy1963]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Froggatt (1894).

STRUCTURE: Female gall irregular, round, pale yellow to reddish brown. Female first instars pale yellow, flat. Adult female pale yellow, irregular, wrinkled. Male first instars are pale yellow to bright crimson (Froggatt, 1894).

CITATIONS: Beards1984 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 85, 92]; Brown1967 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 130]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 328]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 48]; Frogga1894 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 213-214]; Frogga1898a [taxonomy: 495]; Frogga1907 [description, taxonomy: 383]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 154]; Fuller1899 [taxonomy: 461]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 47-48]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 96]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 67-68]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 99]; Tillya1926 [distribution, taxonomy: 173].



Asiacornococcus Tang & Hao

NOMENCLATURE:

Asiacornococcus Tang & Hao, 1995: 587. Type species: Eriococcus exiguus Maskell, by monotypy and original designation.

STRUCTURE: Adult female body oval in form, red in color, enclosed in white waxy sac like rice. Antennae 3-5 segmented. Eyes visible on the body margin. Mouthparts developed. Basal segment of labium with one pair of setae. Legs well developed; tibia with four setae, tarsus and claw with digitules, slightly knobbed. Thoracic spiracles slightly sclerotised around. Anal lobes produced, with inner margins smooth and apical setae longer than anal ring setae. Anal ring with pores in rows and 6-8 setae. Dorsal setae on body acorn-shaped, distributing 4 or 5 longitudinal rows, marginal, submarginal and medial ones, but absent on the last abdominal segment. Dorsum with macrotubular ducts and microtubular ducts in quantity, quinquelocular pores on both surfaces. (Kozár, et al., 2013)

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female Eriococcus-like but antennae 5-segmented or less (Tang & Hao, 1995).

KEYS: Tang & Hao 1995: 642 (female) [Key to genera of Calycicoccina].

CITATIONS: KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, structure, taxonomy: 9, 621-628]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, taxonomy: 68]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 587]; Xie1998 [taxonomy: 99].



Asiacornococcus exiguus (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus exiguus Maskell, 1897a: 243. Type data: CHINA: Hong Kong, on unidentified host. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Notes: According to Miller et al. (1973) there is also type material in UCDC.

Nidularia exiguus; Lindinger, 1933a: 108. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus exiguus; Kozár & Walter, 1985: 74. Change of combination.

Asiacornococcus exiguus; Tang & Hao, 1995: 588. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Rosaceae? [Hoy1963], Rosa sp. [Wang2001]

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Hong Kong [Maskel1897a]; Taiwan [TangHa1995]. Palaearctic: China [Maskel1897a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Brief description by Maskell (1897a) and a more detailed description and illustration are in Maskell (1898).

STRUCTURE: Sac of female is yellow and loosely felted. Adult female is brownish-yellow and elliptical in form. Male is unknown (Maskell, 1898).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with 3-segmented antennae (Tang & Hao, 1995).

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 621 (female) [Key to species of Asiacornococcus]; Wang 2001: 207 (female) [as Eriococcus exiguus; Key to species of Eriococcus]; Tang & Hao 1995: 439, 643 (adult female) [Asiacornococcus species].

CITATIONS: Ali1970a [catalogue, distribution, host: 76]; Cheo1935 [distribution, host: 98]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 391]; DeitzTo1980 [distribution, taxonomy: 46]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 74]; Ferris1936 [distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 11-12]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 89]; Hua2000 [distribution: 137]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 376]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 96]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 622-624]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 74]; Kuwana1927 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 70]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 108]; MartinLa2011 [catalogue, distribution: 45]; Maskel1897a [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 243]; Maskel1898 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 243-244]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 68]; MillerMiSc1973 [taxonomy: 7]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 14]; Tang2001 [taxonomy: 3]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 439, 588, 643]; Tao1999 [distribution: 31]; Wang1974 [taxonomy: 329]; Wang2001 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 207, 212]; Wu1935 [distribution: 176]; Yang1982 [distribution, taxonomy: 104].



Asiacornococcus japonicus (Kuwana)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus japonicus Kuwana, 1902: 50-51. Type data: JAPAN: Kyushu, Chikujo-gun, on Symplocos myrtacea, by I. Kuwana. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA, and Ibaraki-ken: Insect Taxonomy Laboratory, National Institute of Agricultural Environmental Sciences, Kannon-dai, Yatabe, Tsukuba-shi, (Kuwana), Japan. Described: female. Illust.

Nidularia iaponica; Lindinger, 1933a: 116. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.

Nidularia iaponicus Lindinger, 1943b: 264. Unjustified emendation.

Acanthococcus japonicus; Kozár & Walter, 1985: 74. Change of combination.

Asiacornococcus japonicus; Tang & Hao, 1995: 439. Described: female. Change of combination.



HOST: Symplocaceae: Symplocos myrtacea [Kuwana1902].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Japan (Kyushu [Kuwana1902]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Kuwana (1902).

STRUCTURE: Female sac is convex, elliptical, and pale straw colored. Female is oval, and eggs are brown (Kuwana, 1902).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with 5-segmented antennae (Tang & Hao, 1995). This species has been confused with Nidularia japonica Kuwana, 1918 by Hoy (1963) and was also incorrectly considered a senior secondary homonym by Lindinger (1943b). Nidularia japonica is currently placed in the Kermesidae.

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 621 (female) [Key to species of Asiacornococcus]; Tang & Hao 1995: 438 (adult female) [Asiacornococcus species]; Takahashi 1957: 7 (adult female) [as Eriococcus japonicus; Some Eriococcus species of Japan].

CITATIONS: Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 75]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 97]; Kawai1972 [distribution, taxonomy: 4]; Kawai1977 [distribution, host: 152]; Kawai1980 [distribution: 131]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 378-379]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 96]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 624-625]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 74]; Kuwana1902 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 50-51]; Kuwana1907 [distribution, host: 182]; Kuwana1917a [distribution: 167]; Kuwana1917b [distribution, taxonomy: 138]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 116]; Lindin1943b [taxonomy: 264]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 69]; MillerMiSc1973 [taxonomy: 10]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 19]; Takaha1957 [taxonomy: 7]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 438, 439, 587].



Asiacornococcus kaki (Kuwana in Kuwana & Muramatsu)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus kaki Kuwana in Kuwana & Muramatsu, 1931a: 659. Type data: CHINA: Taken in quarantine in Japan, Kyushu, Nagasaki, on Diospyros kaki, by K. Tanaka. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Ibaraki-ken: Insect Taxonomy Laboratory, National Institute of Agricultural Environmental Sciences, Kannon-dai, Yatabe, Tsukuba-shi, (Kuwana), Japan. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus kaki; Kozár & Walter, 1985: 74. Change of combination.

Asiacornococcus kaki; Tang & Hao, 1995: 439. Described: female. Illust. Change of combination.

Asiacornococcus khaki; Miller & Gimpel, 2000: 69. Misspelling of species name.



FOES: COCCINELLIDAE Coleoptera: Chilocorus hupehanus [ZhangWaCh1993]. HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Metaphycus eriococcus [DangWa2002].

HOSTS: Ebenaceae: Diospyros kaki [KuwanaMu1931a]. Lythraceae: Lagerstroemia flosreginae [Tao1999], Lagerstroemia speciosa [KozarKaKo2013]. Moraceae: Ficus carica [Tao1999]. Rosaceae: Prunus armeniaca [Tao1999]. Ternstroemiaceae: Ternstroemia sp. [Wang1982c]. Theaceae: Camellia oleosa [Wang1982c].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: China (Guangdong (=Kwangtung) [Tao1999], Guangxi (=Kwangsi) [TangHa1995], Guizhou (=Kweichow) [Tao1999], Hubei (=Hupei) [Tao1999], Hunan [Hua2000], Sichuan (=Szechwan) [Tao1999], Yunnan [Tao1999], Zhejiang (=Chekiang) [TangHa1995]). Palaearctic: China [KuwanaMu1931a] (Taken in quarantine in Japan from China.) (Anhui (=Anhwei) [Hua2000], Beijing (=Peking) [TangHa1995], Hebei (=Hopei) [Tao1999], Heilongjiang (=HeilungKiang) [Tao1999], Henan (=Honan) [Hua2000], Jilin (=Kirin) [Tao1999], Liaoning [Tao1999], Shaanxi (=Shensi) [Tao1999], Shandong (=Shantung) [Tao1999], Shanxi (=Shansi) [TangHa1995], Xizang (=Tibet) [Wang1981TC]).

BIOLOGY: Specimens were collected in Nagasaki customs on a plant from China (Kuwana & Muramatsu, 1931a).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Kuwana & Muramatsu (1931a).

STRUCTURE: Female oval. Antennae 3 segmented. Eyes situated on venter near margin. Anal lobes slightly developed, with two enlarged setae one larger, other spinelike, smaller than dorsal setae. (Kozár, et al., 2013)

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with 4-segmented antennae (Tang & Hao, 1995). According to Tang & Hao (1995) adult female in the key have 4 segmented antennae. However on their drawing there are only 3, but in the drawing by Tang (1977) there are four segments drawn. On the drawing of Wang (1982a), the antennae is also shown as 3 segmented. The antennal segment number was 3 in slides which we examined. It is thought that there might be some cryptic species covered under this name or there might be big individual variation among the populations. (Kozár, et al., 2013)

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 621 (female) [Key to species of Asiacornococcus]; Wang 2001: 207 (female) [as Eriococcus kaki; Key to species of Eriococcus]; Tang & Hao 1995: 439 (adult female) [Asiacornococcus species]; Wang 1982c: 143 (adult female) [as Eriococcus kaki; Eriococcus species]; Wang 1982ZQ: 41 (adult female) [as Eriococcus kaki; Eriococcus species of China]; Wang 1980: 115 (adult female) [as Eriococcus kaki; Eriococcus species].

CITATIONS: ChenHuLi1987 [distribution: 203]; ChenWo1936 [distribution, host: 105]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 97]; Hsu1935 [taxonomy: 580]; Hua2000 [distribution, host: 137]; HuHeWa1992 [distribution, illustration: 180]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 379]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 96]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 626-628]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 74]; KuwanaMu1931a [description, distribution, host: 659]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 69-70]; Tang1977 [description, distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 41]; Tang1984b [distribution, host: 126]; Tang2001 [taxonomy: 3]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 416,439,440,588,711]; TangJiWa1998 [chemical control: 31-32]; Tao1999 [distribution, host: 31]; Wang1974 [taxonomy: 329]; Wang1980 [description, distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 115-116]; Wang1981TC [distribution, host, taxonomy: 287]; Wang1982c [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 143, 147-148]; Wang1982ZQ [distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 41, 45-46]; Wang2001 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 207, 212-213]; Wu1935 [distribution: 176]; Xie1998 [description, distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 99-101]; Yang1982 [distribution, taxonomy: 104]; ZhangHu1980 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 149-151]; ZhangWaCh1993 [biological control, distribution: 174].



Atriplicia Cockerell & Rohwer

NOMENCLATURE:

Atriplicia Cockerell & Rohwer, 1909: 169. Type species: Atriplicia gallicola Cockerell and Rohwer, by monotypy.

BIOLOGY: Forms galls on its host (Cockerell & Rohwer, 1909).

GENERAL REMARKS: Lindinger (1933a) considered it to be a junior synonym of Nidularia and Ferris (1955a) and Lindinger (1914) considered it to be a junior synonym of Eriococcus.

KEYS: Gill 1993: 155 (female) [Key to the California Genera of Eriococcidae].

CITATIONS: Arnett1985 [distribution, taxonomy: 239]; Beards1984 [distribution, taxonomy: 85, 95]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy: 43]; CockerRo1909SA [description, taxonomy: 169]; Ferris1921b [taxonomy: 60]; Ferris1955a [taxonomy: 95, 130]; Ferris1957c [taxonomy: 85]; Gill1993 [taxonomy: 168]; GullanMiCo2005 [ecology, host, taxonomy: 166]; Hoy1962 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 13, 23, 28-30]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, taxonomy: 48]; Koteja1980b [taxonomy: 589]; KotejaZa1981 [taxonomy: 502]; Kozar2009 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 111]; Lindin1914 [taxonomy: 116]; Lindin1931a [taxonomy: 43, 90]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 116]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 180]; MacGil1921 [distribution: 145]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, taxonomy: 71]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy: 19]; PooleGe1997 [distribution: 354]; Sander1909a [catalog, taxonomy: 37].



Atriplicia gallicola Cockerell & Rohwer

NOMENCLATURE:

Atriplicia gallicola Cockerell & Rohwer, 1909: 169. Type data: UNITED STATES: Colorado, Trinidad, on Atriplex canescens, 09/11/1908, by L.C. Bragg. Syntypes, female (examined). Type depositories: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA, London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK, and Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female.

Eriococcus gallicola; Lindinger, 1914: 116. Change of combination.

Nidularia gallicola; Lindinger, 1933a: 116. Change of combination.

Eriococcus gallicolus Ferris, 1955a: 130. Unjustified emendation.

COMMON NAME: atriplex gall scale [Gill1993].



HOSTS: Chenopodiaceae: Atriplex canescens [Hoy1963], Atriplex sp. [Ferris1955a]

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (California [Hoy1963], Colorado [Hoy1963], New Mexico [Hoy1963]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Ferris (1955a) provides a description and illustration.

STRUCTURE: Adult female oval, reddish pink in life, dull crimson when boiled in potash, not enclosed in ovisac. The gall consists of the sub-globular swollen base of the Atriplex leaf, the sides being folded upwards, leaving an open slit above, the margins of which are curled outward. The end of the leaf makes a pointed process at the end of each gall (Ferris, 1955a).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with anal-lobe setae slender, not enlarged (Ferris, 1955a).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: A parasite was found from this insect which resembled Encyrtinae and Aphelininae (Gill, 1993).

CITATIONS: Ali1970 [catalogue, taxonomy: 76]; Arnett1985 [distribution, taxonomy: 239]; Beards1984 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 85, 95]; CockerRo1909SA [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 169]; Felt1918 [description: 127]; Ferris1955a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 130]; Ferris1957c [taxonomy: 85]; Gill1993 [distribution, host: 169, 201]; GullanMiCo2005 [host, ecology: 166]; Hoy1962 [taxonomy: 23]; Hoy1963 [catalog, distribution, host, taxonomy: 48]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 96]; Lindin1914 [taxonomy: 116]; Lindin1931a [taxonomy: 43, 90]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 116]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 180]; MacGil1921 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 145]; McDani1963 [taxonomy: 112]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 71-72]; PooleGe1997 [distribution: 354]; Sander1909a [catalog, distribution, host, taxonomy: 37]; Willia1985a [distribution, host: 218].



Balticococcus Koteja

NOMENCLATURE:

Balticococcus Koteja, 1988c: 512. Type species: Balticococcus oblicus Koteja, by monotypy and original designation. Notes: We can see no basis for separating this genus from Eriococcus and note that Koteja (1988c) writes "I am quite aware that the described forms may belong to some recent genera or may even be synonymous with some recent species."

GENERAL REMARKS: This genus contains two fossil species both found in Baltic amber (Koteja, 1988c). It is based on the first instar only.

SYSTEMATICS: First-instar nymph with: dorsal enlarged setae across abdominal segments; about 5 setae on apical antennal segment (Koteja, 1988c). In Kozár, et al., 2013 Balticococcus was placed in the family Acanthococcidae Signoret, 1875, but is here kept in Eriococcidae because placement of species.outside of the palaearctic are unclear.

KEYS: Koteja 2000: 182 [Key to genera of fossil eriococcids].

CITATIONS: Koteja1988c [description, taxonomy: 512]; Koteja2000c [taxonomy: 207]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 587-588]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, taxonomy: 72].



Balticococcus oblicus Koteja

NOMENCLATURE:

Balticococcus oblicus Koteja, 1988c: 512-514. Type data: DENMARK: Jutland, Baltic amber, 03/05/1952, by C.V. Henningsen. Holotype immature, by original designation. Type depository: Copenhagen: Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen, Department of Entomology, Denmark. Illust.



HOST: Baltic Amber [Koteja1988c].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Denmark [Koteja1988c].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration by Koteja (1988c).

SYSTEMATICS: First instar in amber with: enlarged setae conical, slightly curved, sides slightly concave, apices acute, all setae of approximately same size, mediolateral setae present from head to segment 7, medial setae present on head to segment 1, 1 lateral seta on margin of each abdominal segment; anal lobes each apparently with 3 enlarged setae (Koteja, 1988c). Very similar to many first instars of contemporary species of Eriococcus.

KEYS: Koteja 1988c: 506 (first instar) [Eriococcidae first instars].

CITATIONS: Koteja1988c [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 512-514]; Koteja2000c [distribution, taxonomy: 207]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 96]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 587-588]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, taxonomy: 72].



Balticococcus spinosus Koteja

NOMENCLATURE:

Balticococcus spinosus Koteja, 1988c: 514-517. Type data: POLAND: Baltic amber, near Gdansk. Holotype immature, by original designation. Type depository: Warsaw: Museum of Earth, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland; type no. 15493. Described: first instar. Illust.



HOST: Baltic Amber [Koteja1988c].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Poland [Koteja1988c].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration by Koteja (1988c).

SYSTEMATICS: First instar in amber with: enlarged setae conical, slightly curved or straight, sides slightly concave or straight, apices slightly rounded, all setae of approximately same general size except decreasing anteriorly and mediolateral setae on segments 7 and 6 largest, setae forming 3 complete longitudinal lines on each side of body, 1 lateral seta on margin of each abdominal segment; anal lobes each with 3 enlarged setae (Koteja, 1988c). Very similar to many first instars of contemporary species of Eriococcus.

KEYS: Koteja 1988c: 506 (first instar) [Eriococcidae first instars].

CITATIONS: Koteja1988c [description, distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 514-517]; Koteja1998a [taxonomy: 194]; Koteja2000c [distribution, taxonomy: 207]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 96]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 588]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, taxonomy: 72-73].



Borchseniococcus Kaydan & Kozár

NOMENCLATURE:

Borchseniococcus Kaydan & Kozár, 2008: 2-4. Type species: Borchseniococcus duzgunesae Kaydan & Kozár.

BIOLOGY: Feed on the roots of herbaceous plants (Kozár, et al., 2013)

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description in Kozár, et al., 2013.

STRUCTURE: The genus Borchseniococcus is unique in having the following combination of characters (1) reduced anal lobes, (2) reduced anal ring, (3) spine-like setae absent, and (4) dorsal multilocular pores absent. Adult female: Venter. antennae 7 segmented; frontal tubercle present. Multilocular pores, each with 5-10 loculi and macrotubular ducts both present in small numbers, scattered over derm. Legs short, with tibia shorter than tarsus. Claw with denticle. All coxae with spinulae; posterior coxae also with small pores. Microtubular ducts absent. Cruciform pores present on submargin of thorax. Ventral setae short and hair-like. Dorsum: Spine-like setae absent. anal lobes not well developed; dorsal surface of each lobe with two hari-like setae, ventral surface of each lobe with a short apical seta and shorter subapical seta. Anal ring sclerotized but not well developed and lacking anal ring pores but ith six strong setae, all shorter than diameter of ring. Cauda absent. Macrotubular ducts heavily sclerotized, each with inner ductules ending in a simple sclerotized pore; terminal gland not observed. Microtubular ducts few, short.

SYSTEMATICS: The genus shows some similarities with Pseudochermes Nitsche, namely the undeveloped anal lobes, sclerotized anal ring, and the setose hair-like setae on dorsum. In Kozár, et al., 2013, Borchseniococcus was placed in the family, Acanthococcidae Signoret, 1875, but is here kept in Eriococcidae because placement of species outside of the palaearctic are unclear.

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 62-63 (female) [Key to genera of Acanthococcidae]; Kaydan & Kozár 2008: 6 (female) [Eriococcidae genera of the western Paleartic Region]; Kozár & Konczné Benedicty 2008a: 256 (female) [Key to Genera of Eriococcidae in Western Palaearctic Region].

CITATIONS: ErkiliKaKo2011 [distribution: 16]; KaydanKo2008 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 4-6]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 9,257-259]; KozarKo2008a [taxonomy: 148].



Borchseniococcus duzgenesae Kaydan & Kozár

NOMENCLATURE:

Borchseniococcus duzgenesae Kaydan & Kozár, 2008: 16-17. Type data: TURKEY: I?dir-Tuzluca-Gaziler road, N: 40°06'717", E: 043°34'183",993 m altitude, 06/28/2005, on Panderia pilosa by M. B. Kaydan. Holotype female, by monotypy and original designation. Type depository: Van: Plant protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Yüzüncü Yil University, Van, Turkey. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Chenopodiaceae: Panderia pilosa [new].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Turkey [KaydanKo2008].

BIOLOGY: On the root under cavities with honeydew secretion.

GENERAL REMARKS: Original description and illustration of adult female in Kaydan & Kozár (2008)

STRUCTURE: Adult females dark-yellow to dark brown (Kaydan & Kozár, 2008).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide mounted adult female elongate oval, 1.25 (1.35-1.83) mm long and 0.83 (.075-0.89) wide. Frontal tubercle present. Eyes situated on venter near margin.

CITATIONS: ErkiliKaKo2011 [distribution: 16]; KaydanKo2008 [description, host, structure: 18-19]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 96]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy, phylogeny: 30,35, 258-260].



Bryococcus Henderson

NOMENCLATURE:

Bryococcus Henderson, 2007a: 7-8. Type species: Bryococcus (h) hippodamus Henderson.

Briococcus; Kozár, 2009: 95. Misspelling of genus name.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration in R. Henderson (2007a).

STRUCTURE: Adult female body rotund-oval, derm membranous. eyespots not seen Dorsal and marginal setae sparse, spinose, often minute, larger setae on posterior abdomen; ventral setae spinose on posterior abdominal segments, a few minute setae elsewhere. Antennae 6-segmented. Anal lobes sclerotised, short and broad, with rounded apices curving towards median. Legs well developed but small for body.

SYSTEMATICS: Bryococcus can be distinguished immediately from other genera of Eriococcidae in new Zealand by: (1) the presence of uniquely stalked 5-locular disc pores on the dorsum and on ventral submargins; (2) the sclerotised, horse collar-shaped rim surrounding the clypeolabral shield, and (3) the lateral lobules on dorsal margins of posterior abdomen.

KEYS: Henderson 2007a: 3-4 (female, adult) [Key to genera of Eriococcidae in New Zealand (adult female)].

CITATIONS: Hender2007a [description, illustration: 7-8]; Kozar2009 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 112,115].



Bryococcus hippodamus Henderson

NOMENCLATURE:

Bryococcus hippodamus Henderson, 2007a: 8-9. Type data: NEW ZEALAND, FD: Resolution I, Disappointment Cove. under moss on log, 05/1982, by CF Butcher. Holotype female. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand; type no. 82-187f. Described: female. Illust.

Briococcus hippodamus Kozár, 2009: 95.

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration in R. Henderson (2007a).

STRUCTURE: The adult female body is elongate-oval, 0.85-1.35 mm wide, 1.1-1.8 mm long, derm membranous. Eyespots not seen. Marginal setae on abcomen 7.5 µm long, slightly larger than on thorax. Antennae 6 segmented. Slypeolabral shield enclosed within a wide sclerotized rim. Anal lobes sclerotised, short, broadly rounded at apex and recurved towards median. Anal ring ventral, with 2 rows of cells and 6 short setae. Legs well developed but proportionately small for body. Dorsal setae sparse, small, more spinose on posterior abdomen. Ventral abdominal setae lanceolate.

CITATIONS: Hender2007a [description, illustration: 8-9]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 96].



Bystracoccus Hodgson et al.

NOMENCLATURE:

Bystracoccus Hodgson et al., 2013: 317-330. Type species: Bystracoccus mataybae Hodgson, Isaias & Oliveira.

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustrations in Hodgson, et al. (2013).

CITATIONS: HodgsoIsOl2013 [behaviour, description, distribution, host, illustration, life history, structure, taxonomy: 317-330].



Bystracoccus mataybae Hodgson et al.

NOMENCLATURE:

Bystracoccus mataybae Hodgson et al., 2013: 317-330. Type data: BRAZIL:Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, in leaf gall on Matayba guianensis, 7/9/2011, by D. Oliveira. Holotype female and first instar (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Belo Horizonte: Taxanomic Collection of UFMG , Brazil. Described: female and first instar. Illust.



HOST: Sapindaceae: Matayba guianensis Aubl. [HodgsoIsOl2013].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Minas Gerais [HodgsoIsOl2013]).

BIOLOGY: Inducing galls on the leaf of Matayba guianensis (Sapindaceae), with gall opening on upper (adaxial) leaf surface. Each gall with a funnel-shaped outer chamber and a roundish inner chamber. Gall opening slightly recessed on upper leaf surface but forming a round convex mound on lower leaf surface; each mature gall 5-6 mm wide. Body of insect flask-shaped with a flat "bottom" and a short "neck", latter with heavily sclerotised dorsal plate on apex that fills inner cavity opening. Body red (but white when stored in alcohol). (Hodgson, et al., 2013) Gall induction takes place in the youngest leaves, most commonly in September and October. The leaf galls are light green with red spots, are glabrous and intralaminar, with a narrow projection through which the gall opens on the adaxial surface. The galls are all similar in shape and size, each with two chambers, an outer chamber which appears to be empty and an inner chamber in which the insect lives. There is just one insect in each gall. Small galls are also abundant on the twigs of M. guianensis during the dry season (winter) (June-August). These pit galls are about 2 mm across, each with a single first-instar nymph in the center and when very abundant, the galls tend to fuse. (Hodgson, et al., 2013)

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description, illustrations, and photographs of galls in Hodgson, et al., 2013.

STRUCTURE: Adult female approximately round in dorsal view but margin indented laterally near anterior spiracles and almost flat ventrally. Derm mainly membranous apart from large mediodorsal sclerotised plate, latter 200-350 µm long, 230-380 µm wide. Venter expanding greatly during maturity, probably forming most of derm in oldest specimens. Margin not demarcated and without marginal setae. Eyespots apparently absent. The uppermost surface of the dorsal plate appears to be fairly smooth and more or less round, with a flat surface, but with a narrow marginal indentation posteriorly, which is probably the anal cleft, and this extends ventrally to the anal ring which has setae but no pores. The anal ring, thus, appears to lie beneath the upper surface of the dorsal plate. The upper surface of the dorsal plate has two pairs of small setose setae towards the anterior margin and two lines of small pores along each posterolateral margin. The dorsal plate looks as though it has been formed by fusion of the dorsums and margins of all of the abdominal segments. However, lying "beneath" the upper surface of the dorsal plate is what appears to be another layer! This layer has a series of large, heavily sclerotised apodemes arising from it which also appear to be segmentally arranged (i.e. there are about seven pairs) and extend more or less laterally. In the mature adult female, these apodemes are very well developed and extend a long way out from beneath the margins of the dorsal plate.(Hodgson, et al., 2013) Second-instar female similar to adult female but smaller; body more or less round when young but becoming flask-shaped with a rounded "bottom" and a short "neck" when older. Body red in life. (Hodgson, et al., 2013) First-instar nymph body reddish about 0.25 mm long and oval. Wintering population inducing pit galls on twigs. (Hodgson, et al., 2013)

SYSTEMATICS: In having the dorsal surface of the abdomen heavily sclerotised, Bystracoccus shows some affinities with Aculeococcus Lepage, another eriococcid genus found in South America (and China) (Hodgson & Miller, 2010). However, on the latter, the sclerotisation also covers the dorsum of the thorax and most of the head as well. In addition the division into head, thorax and abdomen is reasonably clear on Aculeococcus whereas this is obscure on Bystracoccus. Other apparent similarities between adult females of these two genera are: (i) venter becoming much larger than dorsum on mature adults; (ii) legs complete but mainly malformed and obviously nonfunctional; (iii) metacoxae either becoming much enlarged or with a sclerotised area of venter associated with each metacoxa; (iv) absence of macrotubular ducts, and (v) mouthparts with a large pair of apodemes extending anteriorly from tentorial box. Bystracoccus differs from Aculeococcus, however, in the complete absence of multilocular disc-pores on the abdomen, whereas they form broad bands across several of the more posterior segments in the latter species. (Hodgson, et al., 2013) Other genera of South American Eriococcidae that have onion-dome-shaped setae in the firstinstar nymph are Aculeococcus Lepage and Tectococcus Hempel (Hodgson & Miller, 2010). The first instar nymph of B. mataybae differs from the latter in having two types of dorsal setae (only one type, in a submedial row, in T. ovatus) and from that of A. morrisoni Lepage in having only 3 pairs of onion-dome-shaped pores medially whereas A. morrisoni has six. The distribution of the non-onion-dome-shaped setae is also quite different, those on A. morrisoni being restricted to medially on abdominal segments III, V & VI. Of the known first-inst ar nymphs of South American eriococcids, that of B. mataybae appears to be most similar to that of A. morrisoni. (Hodgson, et al., 2013) The sclerotised dorsal plate of the adult female of this species bears a close resemblance to that of Danumococcus parashoreae, currently included in the Beesoniidae. Despite this great similarity in the adult females, Bystracoccus is considered to belong to the Eriococcidae because of the similarity of the first-instar nymphs to those of other eriococcids, and thus the similarity between the dorsal plates of Danumococcus and Bystracoccus appears to be a good example of convergent evolution. (Hodgson, et al., 2013)

CITATIONS: HodgsoIsOl2013 [behaviour, description, distribution, ecology, host, illustration, life history, structure, taxonomy: 317-330].



Callococcus Ferris

NOMENCLATURE:

Callococcus Ferris, 1918b: 328. Type species: Sphaerococcus pulchellus Maskell, by monotypy and original designation. Notes: Transferred to Eriococcus from Asterolecanidae by Miller, et al. (1998)

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by Ferris (1918b) and by Morrison & Morrison (1922).

SYSTEMATICS: Borchsenius (1960d) assigned this genus to tribe Polliniini subfamily Cerococcinae of the Asterolecaniidae. Subsequent analysis reported in Miller, et al. 1998 placed it in the Eriococcidae.

CITATIONS: Borchs1960d [taxonomy: 92,128]; Ferris1918b [description, taxonomy: 328-330]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy: 83]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy]; MillerGuWi1998 [taxonomy: 298]; MorrisMo1966 [catalogue, taxonomy: 27]; Russel1941 [taxonomy: 3].



Callococcus acaciae (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Sphaerococcus acaciae Maskell, 1893b: 237. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Queanbeyan, on Acacia sp.; collected A.S. Olliff. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK, Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA, and Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female.

Callococcus acaciae; Morrison & Morrison, 1927: 11. Illust. Change of combination.



HOST: Fabaceae: Acacia [Maskel1893b].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Maskel1893b, DeitzTo1980, MillerGuWi1998]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of nympah and adult female by Maskell (1893b).

STRUCTURE: Adult female covered with white cotton, which singly is globular, but may be aggregated in masses. Insect globular, dark-brown; diameter about 1/9 inch. Epidermis bearing numbers of minute tubular spinerets. Spiracles large. (Maskell, 1893b)

CITATIONS: DeitzTo1980 [taxonomy: 25]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 85]; Frogga1921b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 7]; GwiazdVaDe2006 [phylogenetics: 16]; HendriKo1999 [taxonomy: 165]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy: 83]; Maskel1893b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 237]; MillerGuWi1998 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 288].



Callococcus leptospermi (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Sphaerococcus leptospermi Maskell, 1894b: 92-94. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Sydney, on Leptospermum lavigatum sp., by Froggatt. Holotype female. Type depositories: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK, and Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female, male and first instar. Notes: While Maskell described the female, male and larvae of Sphaerococcus leptospermi in 1894b, he failed to note the type locatily until the following year, where he stated that specimens were sent to him by Froggatt and that they were from Leptospermum laevigatum from Sydney (p.68, in proceedings read in 1894). (Maskell, 1895a)

Callococcus leptospermi; Morrison, 1927: 13. Illust. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Myrtacae: Leptospermum laevigatum [Maskel1895a], Leptospermum sp. [ColesVeBr1988]

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Maskel1895a], South Australia [ColesVeBr1988], Victoria [ColesVeBr1988]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of nymphs, adult female and adult male by Maskell (1894b) and by Coles et al. (1988).

STRUCTURE: This species induces the formation of woody galls on stems of Leptospermum laevigatum in Australia (South Australia, New South Wales and Victoria). These galls vary in size, 8-25 mm long, 6-12 mm thick. In young specimens, the gall is usually closed and firm all r\around, but when old or parasitixed, there is a longitucinal slit on one side. (Maskell, 1894b; Coles et al. 1988). The adult female fills the gall, and is of a dark greenish-grey colour, which becomes dark-brown and almost black with age. The antennae are obsolete, but appear to be represented by very minute tubercles. The feet are entirely absent. (Maskell, 1984b) Larva are reddish-brown and elliptical. The adult male is deep-red in colour, then wings slightly iridescent. The abcomen is excessively elongated, the segments very long, narrow and tapering. (Maskell, 1894b)

CITATIONS: ColesVeBr1988 [description, distribution, host, illustration, life history, taxonomy: 15-25]; DeitzTo1980 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 25]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 86]; HendriKo1999 [taxonomy: 165]; HodgsoHa2013 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 797]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy: 83]; Maskel1894b [description, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 92-94]; Maskel1895a [distribution: 27,68]; MillerGuWi1998 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 293]; MorrisMo1927 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 13-14].



Callococcus newmanni (Froggatt)

NOMENCLATURE:

Sphaerococcus newmanni Froggatt, 1921b: 14. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Western Australia, Busseltown, on twigs of Melaleuca sp.; collected L.J. Syntypes, female and first instar. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia. Described: female and first instar. Illust.

Callococcus newmanni; Miller, Gullan & Williams, 1998: 296. Change of combination.



HOST: Myrtacae: Melaleuca [Frogga1921b].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Western Australia [Frogga1921b]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Froggatt (1921b).

STRUCTURE: Illustration of test of adult female by Froggatt (1921b). Female test formed of a thin skin of light biscuit to yellowish brown waxy secretion, which dissolves readily in potash. Length of puparium, one-eighth of an inch (Froggatt, 1921b).

CITATIONS: Frogga1921b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 14]; HendriKo1999 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 180-181]; MillerGuWi1998 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 296].



Callococcus pulchellus (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Sphaerococcus pulchellus Maskell, 1897: 324. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Western Aurtralia, Darling Ranges, on undetermined plant; collected by Lea. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Notes: Froggatt (1921b) indicated that this species infests Melaleuca sp.

Callococcus pulchellus; Ferris, 1918b: 329. Change of combination.



FOE: HYMENOPTERA Chalcidoidea: Cephaleta autraliensis [Maskel1897].

HOSTS: Myrtacae: Hypocalymma angustifolium [Fuller1899], Melaleuca [Frogga1921b].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Western Australia [Maskel1897, Frogga1921b]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Maskell (1897). Description and illustration of adult female and first-instar nymph by Morrison & Morrison (1922).

STRUCTURE: Adult females covered by a waxy test, which is of a very pale-yellow or buff or whitish color. It is very convex and is attached to a twig, either singly or in clusters, by an eliptical base from which the sides swell updards and outwars with broad and shallow corrugations like the two parts of a bivalve shell, leaving a longitudinal slit through wich may be seen an inner shall of the same material. (Maskell, 1897) Illustration of test cover of adult female by Froggatt (1921b).

CITATIONS: DeitzTo1980 [taxonomy: 25]; Fernal1903 [catalogue: 87]; Ferris1918b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 329-330]; Frogga1921b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 17]; Fuller1897b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 1346]; Fuller1897c [distribution, host, taxonomy: 8]; Fuller1899 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 448]; GwiazdVaDe2006 [phylogenetics: 16]; HendriKo1999 [taxonomy: 165]; Maskel1897 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 324-325]; MillerGuWi1998 [description, host, taxonomy: 298]; MorrisMo1922 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 32-35]; NanDeWu2013 [phylogenetics: 173].



Calycicoccus Brain

NOMENCLATURE:

Calycicoccus Brain, 1918: 111. Type species: Calycicoccus merwei Brain, by monotypy and original designation.

Calycococcus Lindinger, 1937: 181. Unjustified emendation; discovered by Hoy, 1963: 49.

STRUCTURE: Adult female inhabiting small conical or calyx like galls on leaves of host plant. Typical galls flat on upper surface and flatly conical on lower side. Body of female peg shaped, wine red in color (Brain, 1918).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with abdomen produced into a conspicuous cone; dorsum with many conical setae; legs and antennae present, but reduced (Brain, 1918).

CITATIONS: Beards1984 [distribution, taxonomy: 85]; Brain1918 [description, taxonomy: 111-112]; Ferris1957b [description, taxonomy: 64]; GullanMiCo2005 [ecology, host, taxonomy: 166]; Hoy1962 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 14, 194, 201, 203]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, taxonomy: 49-50]; Koteja1974 [taxonomy: 295, 301]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy: 78]; Kozar2009 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 111]; KozarKo2008a [taxonomy: 148]; Lepage1941 [taxonomy: 143]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 181]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, taxonomy: 73]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy: 27].



Calycicoccus merwei Brain

NOMENCLATURE:

Calycicoccus merwei Brain, 1918: 111-112. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Durban, on Apodytes dimidiata, 10/07/1916, by C.P.V.D. Merwe; also Illovo River, Natal, on stunted beach form of A. dimidiata, 05/08/1916, by C. Fuller. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: both sexes. Illust.



HOST: Icacinaceae: Apodytes dimidiata [Brain1918].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [Brain1918].

BIOLOGY: Two types of galls exist. The first is small, flat, and inconspicuous. The second is stout and blunt. The type of gall seems to depend on whether they were formed from upper or lower tissues of the leaf (Brain, 1918). Biological data are provided by Gullan, Gilliomee, Hodgson & Cook (2006).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Brain (1918). Additional description by Ferris (1957b). Gullan, Gilliomee, Hodgson & Cook (2006) redescribe the adult female and its gall, and provide the first descriptions of the adult male, the first-instar male and female, and the second-instar female.

STRUCTURE: Adult female enclosed in galls on leaves of the host plant. Adult female is peg-shaped and wine red in color. The posterior segments accumulate a white powdery secretion. Male puparia clustered on lower sides of leaves. Before forming puparia males are all yellow, but bright pink when older (Brain, 1918).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: numerous dorsal conical setae; legs and antennae present, but reduced, antennae 4-segmented; anal ring with 6 setae (Brain, 1918); quinquelocular pores near vulva (Ferris, 1957b).

CITATIONS: Beards1984 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 85, 95]; Brain1918 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 111-112]; CookGu2004 [taxonomy: 444]; Ferris1957b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 64]; Giliom1966 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 415]; GiliomBe2002 [taxonomy: 227]; GullanGiHo2006 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 13-33]; GullanMiCo2005 [host, ecology: 166]; GwiazdVaDe2006 [phylogenetics: 16]; Hodgso2005 [taxonomy: 26]; HodgsoHa2013 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 797]; HodgsoMiGu2011 [distribution, host, life history: 1]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 50]; Koteja1974 [taxonomy: 301]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy: 78]; Koteja1976 [taxonomy: 274]; KotejaLi1976 [taxonomy: 667]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 73-74]; MunroFo1936 [distribution, host: 76]; NanDeWu2013 [phylogenetics: 173]; RossHaOk2012 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 199]; Willia1969a [taxonomy: 321].



Capulinia Signoret

NOMENCLATURE:

Capulinia Signoret, 1875b: 27-28. Type species: Capulinia sallei Signoret, by monotypy.

Cupulinia; Signoret, 1875b: 40. Misspelling of genus name.

BIOLOGY: Adult females are found on leaves of the host, secreting an extraordinarily long ovisac. (Hodgson & Miller, 2010)

STRUCTURE: Slide-mounted adult female with: front 2 pairs of legs represented by small sclerotized areas or absent; hind legs placed further posteriorly than normal, forming elongate processes; anal ring reduced, without pores; with many small tubular ducts (Ferris, 1955a).

SYSTEMATICS: Capulinia differs from all other South American eriococcid genera in having the hind legs modified into membranous lobes that are located near the posterior apex of the abdomen. Opinthoscelis also has enlarged hind legs located near the posterior apex of the abdomen but these genera differ in that Capulinia has numerous microtubular ducts forming a circle around the anal opening (Opinthoscelis is without microtubular ducts), loculate pores restricted to spiracular area (Opinthoscelis has pores which are scattered arond the anal area), and hind legs smaller than length of labium (Opinthoscelis hind legs are much longer than labium). (Hodgson & Miller, 2010)

KEYS: Hodgson et al. 2011: 54-55 (female) [Key to the Eriococcidae of the Neotropical Region based on the morphology of adult females]; Hodgson et al. 2011: 71 (male) [Key to the Genera of the Eriococcidae of the Neotropical Region based the morphology of the adult males]; Hodgson & Miller 2010: 90-92 (female, male, first insta) [Key to the Genera of the Eriococcidae of South America]; Kozár & Konczné Benedicty 2008: 140-142 (female, adult) [Modified key to genera of the Eriococcidae of Neotropical Region]; Henderson 2007a: 3-4 (female, adult) [Key to genera of Eriococcidae in New Zealand (adult females) Modified from Henderson (2006)]; Hodgson et al. 2004: 52 (female) [Key to the genera of Eriococcidae].

CITATIONS: Balach1948b [taxonomy: 257]; Beards1984 [distribution, taxonomy: 85]; Brown1959SW [taxonomy: 293]; Cocker1893dd [taxonomy: 1049]; Cocker1894v [distribution, taxonomy: 1050]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 323]; Cocker1899 [taxonomy: 13]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 392]; Cocker1899m [taxonomy: 277]; Ferris1921b [taxonomy: 91]; Ferris1922b [taxonomy: 247]; Ferris1955a [description, taxonomy: 224]; Ferris1957b [taxonomy: 66, 67]; GullanMiCo2005 [ecology, host, taxonomy: 166]; Hempel1900a [taxonomy: 380]; HodgsoMaMi2011 [taxonomy: 54,71]; HodgsoMi2010 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 22-23]; Hoy1958 [distribution, taxonomy: 190]; Hoy1962 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 11-12, 14, 207]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, taxonomy: 50]; Koteja1974 [taxonomy: 295, 311]; KozarKo2008 [taxonomy: 141]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 181]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy: 210, 211]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, taxonomy: 74]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy: 29]; Signor1875b [description, taxonomy: 27-28]; TownseCo1898 [taxonomy: 174]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 96].



Capulinia crateraformis Hempel

NOMENCLATURE:

Capulinia crateraformis Hempel, 1900: 3-4. Type data: BRAZIL: Minas Geraes, Sao Joao d'El Rei, on Eugenia jaboticaba, by A.da Silveira. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: Berlin: Museum fur Naturkunde der Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin, Germany, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Notes: USNM has three boxes of dry material, two marked "type" and one marked "cotype."

Capulinia crateraformans; Hempel, 1900a: 397. Described: female. Misspelling of species name. Notes: No explanation was given for the different spelling of the species epithet.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Eugenia jaboticaba [Hempel1900].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Minas Gerais [Hempel1900], Sao Paulo [Hempel1900]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Hempel (1900) provides a good description.

STRUCTURE: Adult female makes small crater-shaped galls in the bark, limbs and twigs of its host. The gall cavity inhabited by the female is smooth and lined with white powder. Adult female is small, oval, pink and dusted with a white powdery secretion. The female turns colorless in KOH (Hempel900).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: antennae 5- or 6-segmented; without first 2 pair of legs; last legs not segmented and without a claw; last legs near posterior margin of body (Hempel, 1900)

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: This species can cause considerable damage to its host (Hempel, 1900).

CITATIONS: Beards1984 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 85, 95]; Bondar1913 [description, distribution: 37]; Bueno1908 [taxonomy: 721]; Cocker1902p [taxonomy: 251]; CostaL1928 [distribution, host: 106]; CostaL1936 [distribution, taxonomy: 177]; Fonsec1934 [biological control: 275]; GullanMiCo2005 [host, ecology: 166]; Hempel1900 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 3-4]; Hempel1900a [description, distribution, taxonomy: 397]; Hempel1920 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 111-112]; HodgsoMi2010 [host, taxonomy: 100]; Hoy1958 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 190]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host: 50]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 96]; Lepage1938 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 377]; LepageGi1943a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 169-170]; Lindin1910 [taxonomy: 325]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 366]; Lindin1958 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 366]; MacGil1921 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 211]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, economic importance, host, taxonomy: 74-75]; Monte1930 [distribution: 21]; Moreir1921 [distribution, host: 93]; Passon1908 [distribution: 464]; SilvadGoGa1968 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 134].



Capulinia jaboticabae Ihering

NOMENCLATURE:

Capulinia jaboticabae Ihering, 1898: 188. Type data: BRAZIL: on Eugenia jaboticaba. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA, and Berlin: Museum fur Naturkunde der Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin, Germany. Described: female. Notes: USNM has one box of dry material marked "cotype."



HOST: Myrtaceae: Eugenia jaboticaba [Hempel1900].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil [Hempel1898].

GENERAL REMARKS: Described and illustrated in detail by Hempel (1898).

STRUCTURE: Adult female is transparent when in KOH. Body is oval with distinct segments. Adult male is oval. Eggs are elliptical (Hempel, 1898).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: antennae 4- or 5-segmented; first 2 pairs of legs completely absent, without sclerotized areas; last pair of legs weakly segmented, without a claw; last pair of legs removed from body margin (Hempel, 1900).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Considered to be a pest of guava in Venezuela (Camacho Molina et al. 2002).

CITATIONS: Bondar1913 [description, distribution, illustration: 36]; Brown1967 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 130]; Bueno1908 [taxonomy: 721-723]; CamachGuQu2002 [economic importance: 140]; ChirinGeCh2000 [distribution, taxonomy: 1]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 392]; Cocker1902p [taxonomy: 251]; CostaL1928 [distribution, host: 107]; CostaL1936 [distribution, taxonomy: 177]; Fonsec1934 [biological control: 275]; Fonsec1936 [taxonomy: 45-46]; Fonsec1938 [description, taxonomy: 215]; Giraul1913 [biological control, distribution, host: 221]; Hempel1898 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 51-61]; Hempel1900 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 3-4]; Hempel1900a [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 394-395]; Hempel1902 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 249-250]; Hempel1920 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 112-114]; HodgsoMi2010 [host, taxonomy: 100]; Hoy1958 [host, taxonomy: 190]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 51]; Iherin1898 [taxonomy: 188]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 96]; Lepage1938 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 377]; LepageGi1943a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 169]; Lindin1910 [taxonomy: 325]; Lindin1958 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 366]; MacGil1921 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 211]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 75-76]; Monte1930 [distribution: 21]; Monte1943 [taxonomy: 133]; Moreir1921 [distribution, host: 93]; Passon1908 [distribution: 464]; SilvadGoGa1968 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 134]; TownseCo1898 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 174-175].



Capulinia orbiculata Hoy

NOMENCLATURE:

Capulinia orbiculata Hoy, 1958: 190-191. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: North Island, Pohangina Valley, on Metrosideros robusta, 07/07/1955. Holotype female. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Metrosideros robusta [Hoy1958], Metrosideros umbellata [Hoy1958].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (North Island [Hoy1958], South Island [Hoy1958]).

BIOLOGY: This species occurs in circular depressions in the bark and cambium of its host (Hoy, 1958).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Hoy (1958).

STRUCTURE: Adult female is circular in outline and has some powdery wax with it in its depression. There is no test. Insect is pale yellow to cream in color (Hoy, 1958).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: antennae 1-segmented; front 2 pairs of legs represented by small sclerotized areas; hind legs slightly segmented, but not at apex of abdomen, possibly with a claw; spiracles with quinquelocular pores; tubular ducts invaginated (Hoy, 1958). First instar with: antennae 6-segmented; with 2 pairs of longitudinal lines of apically blunt enlarged setae on each side of body; without other pores or ducts (Hoy, 1958).

CITATIONS: Brown1967 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 130]; Hoy1958 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 190-191]; Hoy1962 [taxonomy: 14]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 51]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 96]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 76-77]; Willia2007a [structure: 1357]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 96].



Capulinia sallei Signoret

NOMENCLATURE:

Capulinia sallei Signoret, 1875b: 28-29. Type data: MEXICO: on "Capulino". Syntypes, female. Type depository: Vienna: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria. Described: female. Notes: Matile-Ferrero & Danzig visited the Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna in June of 1997 and found dry type material as follows: two samples of stems, each with two labels: Mexico/sallei/ det. Signoret. Two vials containing dry material, each with two labels: Mexico/sallei/det. Signoret. Vial number one contains wax and vial number two contains five dried female specimens.



HOSTS: Elaeocarpaceae: Muntingia calabura [Hoy1963]. Myrtaceae: Eugenia axillaris [Hoy1963], Eugenia tuberculata [Ferris1955a].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Cuba [Ferris1955a, MestreHaEv2011]; Mexico (Tabasco [Ferris1955a]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Described and illustrated by Ferris (1955a). Adult male described and illustrated by Hodgson & Miller, 2010.

STRUCTURE: Adult female is almost spherical with posterior extremity slightly produced. This slight process bears the vulva, and its base bears a relatively broad band of tubular ducts (Ferris, 1955a). In the field the species occurs on the leaves of its host and forms an extraordinarily long ovisac which reaches 2 mm in length and has the appearance of a piece of white cotton (Ferris, 1955a).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: apex of body bearing vulva which is surrounded by a broad band of tubular ducts; anal ring with 1 pair of setae; body covered with tubular ducts; antennae 1-segmented; legs in form of sclerotized area, except hind pair forming long process that is slightly removed from apex of body; hind leg terminating in a claw (Ferris, 1955a & Hempel, 1900). Slide-mounted first instar with 2 longitudinal lines of enlarged setae on each side of body; antennae 6-segmented; without other pores or ducts (Ferris, 1955a).

CITATIONS: BrunerScOt1945 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 73]; Cocker1894d [taxonomy: 311]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 323]; Cocker1899n [distribution: 7]; Ferris1955a [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 225]; Ferris1955a [description, host, taxonomy]; Hempel1900 [taxonomy: 4]; Hempel1900a [description, distribution, taxonomy: 397]; HodgsoHa2013 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 797]; HodgsoMi2010 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 23-29, 100]; Houser1918 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 159]; Hoy1958 [host, taxonomy: 190]; Hoy1962 [taxonomy: 14]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 14]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy: 83]; Koteja1976 [taxonomy: 280]; KotejaLi1976 [taxonomy: 674, 676]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 96]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 181]; Lobdel1937 [taxonomy: 78]; MacGil1921 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 211]; MestreHaEv2011 [catalogue, distribution, host: 14]; Miller1996 [distribution: 79]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 77]; Signor1875b [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 28-29]; Stickn1934 [illustration, taxonomy: 148]; Townse1896 [distribution, host: 14]; TownseCo1898 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 173-174].

Capulinia sp. nr. jaboticabae

No valid record found for this speciesNOMENCLATURE:

Capulinia sp. nr. jaboticabae Geraud-Pouey & Chirinos, 1999: 23-29. Unavailable name.

COMMON NAMES: cottony scale [GeraudCh1999]; guava cottony scale [GeraudChRo2001]; mota blanca [GeraudCh1999].



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Psidium friedrichstalianum [GeraudCh1999], Psidium guajava [GeraudCh1999].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Venezuela [GeraudCh1999].

BIOLOGY: Prefers Psidium guajava over P. friedrichstalianum and P. guinense (Geraud-Pouey & Chirinos 1999). It seems to prefer trees with exfoliating bark (Geraud-Pouey et al. 2001).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Since its appearance in Venezuela in 1993, this eriococcid is the most serious pest of guava in the country (Geraud-Pouey et al. 2001). Insecticide tests have been run to try to control this pest in the state of Zulia (Chirinos-Torres et al. 2000).

CITATIONS: ChirinGeCh2000 [economic importance, biological control, life history: 1-16]; GeraudCh1999 [economic importance, economic importance: 23-29]; GeraudCh1999 [economic importance, economic importance: 23-29]; GeraudChRo2001 [economic importance, host, life history: 21-27].



Carpochloroides Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Carpochloroides Cockerell, 1899: 12-13. Type species: Carpochloroides viridis Cockerell, by monotypy.

Carpochlorides; Tang & Hao, 1995: 433. Misspelling of genus name.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description by Ferris (1955a).

STRUCTURE: Slide-mounted adult female with: antennae unsegmented tubercles; legs absent; anal ring absent or very reduced; with pores near spiracles; tubular ducts absent (Ferris, 1957b).

SYSTEMATICS: Carpochloroides is similar to some other genera of South American eriococcids such as capulinia and Apiococcus but differs in having 1) enlarged apodemes attached to the tentorial box; 2) a seticulate pattern on the derm, and 3) reduction of the entennae to either a indistinct tubercle or completely absent. No indication of gender was given by Cockerell originally and the genus name must be treated as masculine. (Williams, 2011)

KEYS: Hodgson et al. 2011: 54-55 (female) [Key to the Eriococcidae of the Neotropical Region based on the morphology of adult females]; Hodgson et al. 2011: 71 (male) [Key to the Genera of the Eriococcidae of the Neotropical Region based the morphology of the adult males]; Hodgson & Miller 2010: 90-92 (female, male, first insta) [Key to the Genera of the Eriococcidae of South America]; Kozár & Konczné Benedicty 2008: 140-142 (female, adult) [Modified key to genera of the Eriococcidae of Neotropical Region]; Hodgson et al. 2004: 52 (female) [Key to the genera of Eriococcidae].

CITATIONS: Beards1984 [distribution, taxonomy: 85, 103]; Cocker1899 [description, taxonomy: 12-13]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 392]; Cocker1899m [taxonomy: 277]; Ferris1957c [taxonomy: 84]; GullanMiCo2005 [ecology, host, taxonomy: 166]; Hempel1900a [taxonomy: 380]; HodgsoGoMi2004 [taxonomy: 52]; HodgsoMaMi2011 [taxonomy: 54, 71]; HodgsoMi2010 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 30]; Hoy1962 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 13, 201]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, taxonomy: 52]; KozarKo2008 [taxonomy: 140]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 181]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy: 210, 211]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, taxonomy: 78]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy: 29-30]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy: 433]; Willia2011 [taxonomy: 66].



Carpochloroides mexicanus Ferris

NOMENCLATURE:

Carpochloroides mexicanus Ferris, 1957c: 84. Type data: MEXICO: Oaxaca, Chivela, on Eugenia acapulcensis, 1926, by G.F. Ferris. Syntypes, female (examined). Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Carpochloroides oaxacensis; Ferris, 1957c: fig. 40. Described: female. Illust. Misspelling of species name. Notes: Ferris (1957c) apparently had a manuscript name of "oaxacensis" and gave the species the name "mexicanus", but left the illustration label with the manuscript name.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Eugenia acapulcensis [Ferris1957c].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico (Oaxaca [Ferris1957c]).

BIOLOGY: This species forms galls on the small twigs of its host. These galls involving the petioles of several leaves, almost globular (Ferris, 1957c).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Ferris (1957c).

STRUCTURE: Adult female is membranous and approximately circular when mounted (Ferris, 1957c).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: antennae reduced to unsegmented tubercles; legs absent; anal ring represented by minute area of sclerotization with 1 pair of small setae; with pores near spiracles; small setae; tubular ducts absent; minute circular pores scattered over body (Ferris, 1957b).

CITATIONS: Beards1984 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 85, 95]; Ferris1957c [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 84]; GullanMiCo2005 [host, ecology: 166]; HodgsoMi2010 [host, taxonomy: 100]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 52]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 96]; Miller1996 [distribution: 79]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 78]; Willia2011 [taxonomy: 66].



Carpochloroides viridis Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Carpochloroides viridis Cockerell, 1899: 12-13. Type data: BRAZIL: Sao Paulo, Campinas, on Eugenia sp., ?/09/1898, by F. Noack. Syntypes, female (examined). Type depositories: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA, London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK, and Sao Paulo: Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo, Brazil; type no. 84. Described: both sexes.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eugenia jaboticaba [Hoy1963], Eugenia tenella [Hoy1963].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil [Hoy1963] (Sao Paulo [Hoy1963]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description by Cockerell (1899); a description also is given by Ferris (1957b) under the "Notes" section of the genus. Detailed illustrations of Adult female, Adult male and first instar nymph in Hodgson & Miller, 2010.

STRUCTURE: Adult female becomes transparent, but still green after being boiled. First instar fusiform, not very elongate. Male sac is white, elongate, loosely woven. Adult male is brownish yellow, wings very large. Adult female is green and clear, resembles the fruit of Eugenia (Cockerell, 1899).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: antennae reduced to unsegmented tubercles; legs absent; anal ring absent; with pores near spiracles; small setae; tubular ducts absent (Ferris, 1957b). Slide-mounted first instar embryo with: antennae 6-segmented; body margin with longitudinal line of slender setae; anal ring with 6 setae (Ferris, 1957b). The adult male of C. viridis can be separated from the other known male eriococcids from the Neotropics in having 1) 10 segmented antennae, with fleshy setae clearly longer than width of antennal segments, 2) very short penial sheath, 3) hair-like and fleshy setae all long, rather similar and hard to separate; 4) tarsi all 1 segmented; and 5) dorsal abdominal setae more abundant than ventral abdominal setae. (Hodgson & Miller, 2010)

CITATIONS: Cocker1899 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 12-13]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 392]; Cocker1902p [taxonomy: 251]; CostaL1928 [distribution, host: 106]; CostaL1936 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 177]; Ferris1957c [taxonomy: 84]; Hempel1900a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 939-394]; HodgsoHa2013 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 797]; HodgsoMi2010 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 30-37, 100]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 52]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 96]; Lepage1938 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 84]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 181]; MacGil1921 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 211]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 78-79]; MillerWi1995aDR [taxonomy: 200]; Monte1930 [taxonomy: 22]; SilvadGoGa1968 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 158]; Willia1985a [distribution, host: 218].



Casuarinaloma Froggatt

NOMENCLATURE:

Casuarinaloma Froggatt, 1933: 368. Type species: Sphaerococcus leaii Fuller, by monotypy.

Casuarinoloma Lindinger, 1937: 181. Unjustified emendation; discovered by Hoy, 1963: 52.

CITATIONS: Beards1984 [distribution, taxonomy: 85, 93]; Borchs1949 [taxonomy: 44]; Frogga1933 [description, taxonomy: 368]; Gullan1984b [taxonomy: 381]; GullanMiCo2005 [ecology, host, taxonomy: 166]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 52]; Kozar2009 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 112]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 181]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, taxonomy: 79]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy: 30]; Willia1991DJ [taxonomy: 461].



Casuarinaloma leaii (Fuller)

NOMENCLATURE:

Sphaerococcus leaii Fuller, 1897a: 1346. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Western Australia, Perth, Swan River, on Casuarina sp. Syntypes, female (examined). Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Notes: There may be type specimens in Australia also.

Casuarinaloma leaii; Froggatt, 1933: 368-370. Described: female. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Casuarinaceae: Casuarina cambagei [Hoy1963], Casuarina luehmanni [Hoy1963], Casuarina sp. [Hoy1963]

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Hoy1963], Queensland [Hoy1963], Western Australia [Fuller1897a]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Froggatt (1933).

STRUCTURE: Galls of this species occur alone or in groups of 3-4. Galls are flattened on the summit with the sides deeply cleft into 10-12 segments forming a circular, solid, but thin walled gall. Male developed inside gall chamber. Mature galls may contain 3-4 white, silken, oval puparia open at the apex. Males are red, wings white. Adult female broadly rounded, convex, rounded on dorsal surface, red (Froggatt, 1933).

CITATIONS: Beards1984 [distribution, taxonomy: 85, 93]; Brown1967 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 130]; Frogga1921b [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 11]; Frogga1933 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 368-370]; Fuller1897a [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 1346]; Fuller1899 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 448]; GullanCo1986 [behavior, distribution, taxonomy: 632]; GullanMiCo2005 [host, ecology: 166]; HendriKo1999 [taxonomy: 165]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 52]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 96]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 79-80]; MillerGuWi1998 [taxonomy: 293].



Chazeauana Matile-Ferrero

NOMENCLATURE:

Chazeauana Matile-Ferrero, 1988a: 68. Type species: Chazeauana gahniae Matile-Ferrero, by monotypy and original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: this monotypic genus, apparently, is endemic to New Caledonia.

STRUCTURE: Anal lobes strongly developed and prominent. Marginal and dorsomedial enlarged setae present. Anal ring with cells and six to eight setae. Marginal enlarged setae each expanded at apex, abruptly pointed. Legs vestigial, minute. Antennae each with four segments.

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: reduced legs and antennae; large anal lobes; cruciform and multilocular pores; microtubular ducts; no macrotubular ducts; enlarged setae on abdomen (Matile-Ferrero, 1988a).

KEYS: Williams 2007a: 1351 (adult, female) [Key to genera of New Caledonian Eriococcidae].

CITATIONS: Matile1988a [description, distribution, taxonomy: 67-74]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, taxonomy: 80]; WilliaWa1990 [description, taxonomy: 49].



Chazeauana gahniae Matile-Ferrero

NOMENCLATURE:

Chazeauana gahniae Matile-Ferrero, 1988a: 70. Type data: NEW CALEDONIA: Yaté, on Gahnia novocaledonensis, 08/12/1983, by Matile-Ferrero. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Paratypes are in MNHN and ANIC.



HOST: Cyperaceae: Gahnia novocaledonensis [Matile1988a, WilliaWa1990].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Caledonia [WilliaWa1990, Matile1988a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Matile-Ferrero (1988a) of both sexes of first and second instars as well as adult female. Williams & Watson (1990) also provide a description and illustration.

STRUCTURE: Adult female elongate with almost parallel sides (Williams & Watson, 1990). Body is brown with visible segmentation. 5-6 individuals are usually found per leaf. (Matile-Ferrero, 1988a).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: antennae 4-segmented; legs reduced; conical setae along body margin with bulbous area near apex; macrotubular ducts absent; microtubular ducts abundant; quinquelocular and cruciform pores present (Matile-Ferrero, 1988a). Slide- mounted first instar with: anal lobes each with 3 enlarged setae; marginal line of quinquelocuar and septelocular pores; marginal line of microtubular ducts; cruciform pores present on venter (Matile-Ferrero, 1988a).

KEYS: Hodgson et al. 2014: 163 (adult, female) [Key to Eriococcidae from New Caledonia (modified after Williams, 2007)].

CITATIONS: HodgsoMiCa2014 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 152, 163]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 96]; Matile1988a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 70]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 80]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 434]; Willia2007a [description, distribution, host: 1351-1352]; WilliaWa1990 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 48, 49, 242].



Chilechiton Hodgson & Miller

NOMENCLATURE:

Chilechiton Hodgson & Miller, 2002: 195. Type species: Chilechiton lynnae Hodgson & Miller, by monotypy and original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration of adult female and first-instar nymphby Hodgson & Miller, 2002).

STRUCTURE: Adult female dorsum with body outline nearly round. Derm membranous, possibly becoming mildly sclerotized at maturity. Setae of enlarged type only; setose setae lacking. Microtubular ducts present; without other kinds of pores or ducts. With 2 lateral, heavily sclerotized, platelike anal lobes, when together, quadrate; each with poitned apices, withdrawn onto dorsal surface (Hodgson & Miller, 2002).

SYSTEMATICS: Chilechiton is closely related to the New Zealand genus Eriochiton (Hodgson & Miller, 2002). Adult females of Chilechiton are similar to those of Eriochiton and Neoeriochiton in having the vulva situated between segments VI and VII, macrotubular ducts absent, abdominal multilocular sessile pores arranged in mediolateral lines on abdomen, a distinct anal cleft, an invaginated anal ring, the labium appearing two-segmented but with a small additional basal third segment, four setae on each meso- and metatibia but with five setae on the protibia and five setae on each femur. The genera may be separated by Chilechiton having six-segmented antennae; no multilocular sessile pores between the anterior spiracle and the body margin, no setose dorsal setae, no cruciform pores, a pattern of C-shaped or irregular marks on the anal lobes, one claw digitule enlarged and the other not, posterior suranal setae enlarged, not spatulate, multilocular sessile pores spread over medial and mediolateral areas of abdominal venter, and no enlarged marginal setae on margins of anal cleft. Adult female Chilechiton are also similar to those of Icelococcus because both have the vulva situated between segments VI and VII, a medial plate located dorsad of the anal ring, a similar arrangement of dorsal and marginal enlarged setae and large indistinct translucent pores (Hodgson & Miller, 2002).

KEYS: Hodgson et al. 2011: 54-55 (female) [Key to the Eriococcidae of the Neotropical Region based on the morphology of adult females]; Hodgson & Miller 2010: 90-92 (female, first instar) [Key to the Genera of the Eriococcidae of South America]; González 2008: 12 (female) [Key to genera of the family Eriococcidae in Argentina]; Kozár & Konczné Benedicty 2008: 140-142 (female, adult) [Modified key to genera of the Eriococcidae of Neotropical Region]; Hodgson et al. 2004: 52 (female) [Key to the genera of Eriococcidae]; Hodgson & Miller 2002: 193 (female) [Key to adult females of genera and species of Eriococcidae known from Chile].

CITATIONS: Gonzal2008 [taxonomy: 12]; HardyGuHe2008 [taxonomy: 365]; HodgsoGoMi2004 [taxonomy: 52]; HodgsoMaMi2011 [taxonomy: 54-55]; HodgsoMi2002 [description, distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 195-198]; HodgsoMi2010 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 37-40]; KondoHaCo2006 [host, phylogeny: 19]; Kozar2009 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 111]; KozarKo2008 [taxonomy: 142].



Chilechiton lynnae Hodgson & Miller

NOMENCLATURE:

Chilechiton lynnae Hodgson & Miller, 2002: 198-199. Type data: CHILE: La Araucania, Malleco, Captren, n. Volcán, Lliama, 50 km E. Temuco, Parque Nacional Conguillio, on Nothofagus dombeyi, 01-13-1989, L.S. Kimsey. Holotype female (examined). Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Paratypes in BMNH, CIZC and USNM.



HOSTS: Fagaceae: Nothofagus antarctica [KondoHaCo2006], Nothofagus dombeyi [HodgsoMi2002].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Chile (La Araucania [HodgsoMi2002]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration of adult and second-instar females and first-instar embryo by Hodgson & Miller (2002).

STRUCTURE: Slide-mounted adult female with shallow anal cleft; dorsum with enlarged setae (excluding marginal setae) slightly curved, of one size, arranged in segmental rows over most of surface. Anal lobes platelike, each lobe with enlarged seta on each outer margin; each posterior suranal seta slightly enlarged, with 4 or 5 microtubular ducts on each lobe (Hodgson & Miller, 2002).

SYSTEMATICS: The first-instar nymphs of C. lynnae are very similar to those of Exallococcus laureliae in having conspicuous enlarged dorsal setae, anal lobe each with a longitudinal fold, multilocular sessile pores restricted to the mediolateral areas of the venter, posterior suranal setae unmodified and anterior suranal setae with basal dermal sclerotization (Hodgson & Miller, 2002).

KEYS: Kondo et al. 2006: 34-35 (adult, female) [Revised key to adult females of the Eriococcidae of Chile]; Hodgson & Miller 2002: 193 (female) [Key to adult females of genera and species of Eriococcidae known from Chile].

CITATIONS: HardyGuHe2008 [host,, phylogeny, structure: 366-373]; HodgsoMi2002 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 198-199, 203]; HodgsoMi2010 [host, taxonomy: 100]; KondoHaCo2006 [host, phylogeny: 23]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 96]; NanDeWu2013 [phylogenetics: 173-174].



Chilechiton sp. nr. browni

NOMENCLATURE:

Chilechiton sp. nr. browni Kondo et al., 2006.



HOST: Fagaceae: Nothofagus dumbeyi [KondoHaCo2006].

CITATIONS: KondoHaCo2006 [host, phylogeny: 23].



Chilecoccus Miller & González

NOMENCLATURE:

Chilecoccus Miller & González, 1975: 132. Type species: Chilecoccus browni Miller & González, by monotypy and original designation.

STRUCTURE: Adult females are characterized by 1) flattened form of anal lobes; 2) abundant small spinose setae on dorsum and submarginally on venter; 3) presence of macrotubular ducts on both dorsum and venter; 4) unusually large anal ring with 2 or 3 rowes of pores; and 5) 3 segmented labium.

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult females with: anal lobes plate-like; with dorsal and ventral enlarged setae in medial areas of abdomen; anal ring unusually large (Miller & González, 1957).

KEYS: Hodgson et al. 2011: 54-55 (female) [Key to the Eriococcidae of the Neotropical Region based on the morphology of adult females]; Hodgson & Miller 2010: 90-92 (female) [Key to the Genera of the Eriococcidae of South America]; González 2008: 12 (female) [Key to genera of the family Eriococcidae in Argentina]; Kozár & Konczné Benedicty 2008: 140-142 (female, adult) [Modified key to genera of the Eriococcidae of Neotropical Region]; Hodgson et al. 2004: 52 (female) [Key to the genera of Eriococcidae]; Hodgson & Miller 2002: 193 (female) [Key to adult females of genera and species of Eriococcidae known from Chile]; Miller & González 1975: 132 (adult female) [Chilecoccus species of Chile].

CITATIONS: Gonzal2008 [taxonomy: 12]; HardyGuHe2008 [taxonomy: 365]; HodgsoGoMi2004 [taxonomy: 52]; HodgsoMaMi2011 [taxonomy: 54-55]; HodgsoMi2002 [taxonomy: 192, 193]; HodgsoMi2010 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 40-42]; KondoHaCo2006 [host, phylogeny: 19]; Kozar2009 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 111]; KozarKo2008 [taxonomy: 142]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, taxonomy: 81]; MillerGo1975 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 132].



Chilecoccus browni Miller & González

NOMENCLATURE:

Chilecoccus browni Miller & González, 1975: 132-134. Type data: CHILE: Cautín, Camino a Villarrica, on Nothofagus dombeyi, 26/11/1968, by R. González. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Santiago: Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Paratypes deposited in BMNH, UCDC, USNM and ZMAS.

COMMON NAME: Brown's eriococcin [MillerGo1975].



HOST: Fagaceae: Nothofagus dombeyi [MillerGo1975, Gonzal2000].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina (Rio Negro [Gonzal2000]); Chile [MillerGo1975].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description, photographs and illustrations by Miller & González (1975).

STRUCTURE: Ovisac is pinkish white and is partially divided into sections reflecting the segmental areas on the abdomen. At the time of collection adult males were emerging from felted, white male sacs (Miller & González, 1975).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: no dorsal quinquelocular pores; ventral quinqueloculars restricted to pair of longitudinal lines in submedial areas of abdomen; and more than 65 translucent pores on hind coxa (Miller & González, 1975).

KEYS: Kondo et al. 2006: 34-35 (female, adult) [Revised key to adult females of the Eriococcidae of Chile]; Hodgson & Miller 2002: 193 (female) [Key to adult females of genera and species of Eriococcidae known from Chile]; Miller & González 1975: 132 (adult female) [Chilecoccus species of Chile].

CITATIONS: Gonzal2000 [distribution, host: 51]; HardyGuHe2008 [phylogeny, structure: 368-373]; HardyGuHe2008 [host, structure: 368]; HodgsoMi2002IM [host, taxonomy: 100]; KondoHaCo2006 [taxonomy: 34-35]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 96]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 81]; MillerGo1975 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 132-135].



Chilecoccus spinosus Miller & González

NOMENCLATURE:

Chilecoccus spinosus Miller & González, 1975: 134. Type data: CHILE: Ńuble, 5 miles west of Termas Chillán, on Nothofagus dombeyi, 23/11/1968, by R.H. González & S.W. Brown. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Santiago: Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Paratypes in BMNH, UCDC, USNM

COMMON NAME: spinose eriococcin [MillerGo1975].



HOSTS: Eucryphiaceae: Eucryphia cordifolia [MillerGo1975]. Fagaceae: Nothofagus dombeyi [MillerGo1975].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Chile (Los Lagos [MillerGo1975]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Miller & González (1975).

STRUCTURE: Adult female circular (Miller & González, 1975).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: dorsal quinquelocular pores; ventral quinqueloculars over lateral and submendial areas of surface; and less than 65 translucent pores on hind coxae (Miller & González, 1975).

KEYS: Kondo et al. 2006: 34-35 (female, adult) [Revised key to adult females of the Eriococcidae of Chile]; Hodgson & Miller 2002: 193 (female) [Key to adult females of genera and species of Eriococcidae known from Chile]; Miller & González 1975: 132 (adult female) [Chilecoccus species in Chile].

CITATIONS: HardyGuHe2008 [host: 366]; HodgsoMi2010 [host, taxonomy: 100]; KondoHaCo2006 [taxonomy: 34-35]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 96]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 81-82]; MillerGo1975 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 134-136]; NanDeWu2013 [phylogenetics: 173-174].



Choneochiton Hodgson in Hodgson et al.

NOMENCLATURE:

Choneochiton Hodgson in Hodgson et al., 2014: 153. Type species: Choneochiton casuarinae Hodgson, Mille and Cazčres.



Choneochiton casuarinae Hodgson et al.

NOMENCLATURE:

Choneochiton casuarinae Hodgson et al., 2014: 153-. Type data: NEW CALEDONIA: Pocquereux, on Casuarina collina, 8/18/2003, by C. Mille. Holotype female, male and first instar (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female, male and first instar. Illust.



HOST: Casuarinaceae: Casuarina collina [HodgsoMiCa2014].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Caledonia [HodgsoMiCa2014].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed descriptions and illustrations in Hodgson, et al., 2014.

STRUCTURE: Adult female body reddish. Total length 1.1–1.6 [2.5] mm, width 0.9–1.25 [2.0] mm, more or less oval. Derm mainly membranous but with small, slightly sclerotized, nodulations and heavily sclerotized anal plates. Dorsum wider than venter. [data in square brackets refer to exceptionally large female,] First instar nymph body reddish. Total length about 0.5–0.68 mm, width 0.35–0.50 mm, slightly more pointed posteriorly. Derm mainly membranous but with small, slightly sclerotized, nodulations and heavily sclerotized anal plates. Venter perhaps slightly wider than dorsum. Second instar female body reddish. Mounted material. Total length about 0.75–0.98 mm, width 0.65–0.72 mm, more or less oval. Derm mainly membranous but with heavily sclerotized anal plates. Venter slightly wider than dorsum. Second instar male body reddish. Total length about 0.8 mm, width 0.6 mm, more or less oval. Derm mainly membranous but with heavily sclerotized anal plates. Venter slightly wider than dorsum. The main differences between this instar and the second-instar female are (characters for this instar): (i) the fewer large macrotubular ducts on the dorsum; (ii) the presence of normal tubular ducts on the dorsum, and (iii) the more widespread distribution of the loculate pores on the venter. Adult male moderate sized, total body length about 1.25–1.38 mm; antennae quite long, about half body length, with moderately long fleshy setae (fs) and with capitate setae on several apical segments; body with few setae, mostly fs, each 25–35 ěm long, hair-like setae (hs) few, shorter and straighter, each 15–18 ěm long; all setae with blunt apices, often even appearing slightly capitate; with a large group of pores on head but other pores absent apart from in glandular pouches. Wings about 0.8 total body length and about 0.4 as wide as long.

SYSTEMATICS: The presence of the very large macrotubular ducts with a large funnel-shaped opening with dorsal setae associated with their outer rim and the presence of these ducts over much of the dorsum separates this species from all other known eriococcid adult females. A few other species are known to have setae associated with macrotubular pores (e.g. E. williamsi Danzig), but in this case, the setae are merely loosely grouped around the orifice, not actually associated with the rim. Setae are also known associated with the macrotubular pores in the E. eucalypti species-group from Australia. However, in all of these other species in which the crawlers have been examined, enlarged ducts are found only in the adult females (Cook & Gullan, 1999), whereas they are present on most other instars in Choneochiton, including the first-instar nymphs. (Hodgson, et al., 2014) The adult males of C. araucariae can be quickly distinguished from all other adult male "eriococcids" in having the following combination of characters: (i) a particularly large group of pores on the dorsal surface of head, laterad to the dorsal mid-cranial ridge; (ii) presence of an alar lobe but absence of hamulohalteres; and (iii) fleshy and hair-like setae rather similar, each frequently with a slightly capitate apex. (Hodgson, et al., 2014)

KEYS: Hodgson et al. 2014: 163 (adult, female) [Key to Eriococcidae from New Caledonia (modified after Williams, 2007)].

CITATIONS: HodgsoMiCa2014 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 152-164].



Cornoculus Ferris

NOMENCLATURE:

Cornoculus Ferris, 1955a: 81. Type species: Cornoculus cornutus Ferris, by monotypy.

STRUCTURE: The body is distinct, red and elongate (Miller & McKenzie, 1967).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: ventrolateral clusters of macrotubular ducts; robust setae on distal margins of tibiae; large and heavily sclerotized anal ring; and low dome-shaped enlarged setae (Miller & McKenzie, 1967).

KEYS: Gill 1993: 155 (female) [Key to the California Genera of Eriococcidae]; Miller and McKenzie 1967: 484 (adult female) [Both species of genus].

CITATIONS: Arnett1985 [distribution, taxonomy: 239]; Ferris1955a [description, distribution, taxonomy: 81]; Ferris1957c [taxonomy: 85]; Gill1993 [distribution, taxonomy: 169]; Hoy1962 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 13, 201]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 53]; KotejaZa1981 [taxonomy: 502]; Kozar2009 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 111]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, taxonomy: 82]; MillerMc1967 [description, taxonomy: 484]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy: 46]; PooleGe1997 [distribution: 354].



Cornoculus cornutus Ferris

NOMENCLATURE:

Cornoculus cornutus Ferris, 1955a: 81. Type data: UNITED STATES: Texas, Brewster County, Chisos Mountains, on undetermined grass, 1921, by G.F. Ferris. Lectotype female (examined), by subsequent designation Miller & McKenzie, 1967: 485-487. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

COMMON NAME: big-eyed ovaticoccin [MillerMc1967].



HOST: Poaceae [Ferris1955a].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Texas [Ferris1955a]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Described and illustrated by Miller & McKenzie (1967). Ferris, 1955a, also has a detailed description.

STRUCTURE: Ferris (1955a) reported: "Occurring beneath the enveloping leaf sheaths of its host, surrounded by a small amount of amorphous wax." Adult female body exceptionally elongate and red (Miller & McKenzie, 1967).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: eyes larger than first antennal segment, horn shaped; anal ring cellular; enlarged setae with apical projections (Miller & McKenzie, 1967).

KEYS: Miller & McKenzie 1967: 484 (adult female) [North American species of Cornoculus].

CITATIONS: Ferris1955a [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 81]; Ferris1957c [taxonomy: 85]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 53]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 96]; Miller2005 [distribution: 491]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 82]; MillerMc1967 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 485-487]; PooleGe1997 [distribution: 354].



Cornoculus densus Miller

NOMENCLATURE:

Cornoculus densus Miller, 1967: 487-489. Type data: UNITED STATES: California, San Bernardino County, 6.9 miles north Lucerne Valley, on Hilaria rigida, 19/10/1961, by T.C. Fuller. Holotype female (examined). Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

COMMON NAME: dense-character ovaticoccin [MillerMc1967].



HOST: Poaceae: Hilaria rigida [MillerMc1967].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (California [MillerMc1967]).

BIOLOGY: Adult found on the grass Hilaria rigida, probably in grass-blade sheaths (Miller & McKenzie, 1967).

GENERAL REMARKS: Illustrated and described by Miller & McKenzie (1967).

STRUCTURE: Body elongate and red (Miller & McKenzie, 1967).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: eyes smaller than first antennal segment, not horn-shaped; anal ring without pores; enlarged setae without apical projections (Miller & McKenzie, 1967).

KEYS: Miller & McKenzie 1967: 484 (adult female) [North American species of Cornoculus].

CITATIONS: Gill1993 [distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 169]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 96]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 83]; MillerMc1967 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 487-489]; PooleGe1997 [distribution: 354].



Coxicoccus Kozár & Konczné Benedicty

NOMENCLATURE:

Coxicoccus Kozár & Konczné Benedicty, 2008: 117-144. Type species: Criococcus foldi Kozár & Konczné Benedicty.

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Kozár & Konczné Benedicty (2008).

STRUCTURE: Antennae seven segmented; frontal lobe, or tubercle absent. Labium one segmented, basal segment of labium with one pair of setae. Venter with macrotubular ducts and five locular pores in small number scattered on all over the surface. Legs long, tibia shorter than tarsus. All coxae with spinulae, posterior coxae harbor numerous small pores. Microtubular ducts present. Cruciform pores absent. Part of ventral setae on last abdominal segments capitate, suranal setae longer than lobe, capitate, ventral surface of anal lobes with one short apical and a capitate subapical seta. Spine like setae present on whole body. Anal lobes well developed, dorsal surface with three strong curved spines. Anal ring, sclerotized, not well developed, with eight setae twice longer than diameter of ring, few anal ring pores present. Cauda absent. Macrotubular ducts narrow, long; the inner ductule ends with a flower like terminal gland. Microtubular ducts few, long, with bifurcate oriface, very often dorsal spines with the microtubular ducts at the base. (Kozár & Konczné Benedicty, 2008)

SYSTEMATICS: Coxicoccus genus similar to Eriococcus by one pair of labial setae on basal segment, by long, bicurcated microtubular ducts, by absence of cruciform pores. It is also similar to Acanthococcus genus, having enlarged spine-like setae on dorsum, by presence of micro- and macrotubular ducts. Coxicoccus differs from Eriococcus by absence of enlarged tubular ducts, by absence of frontal lobes, by presence of pores on the posterior coxae, femur and tibia. It differs from Acanthococcus by absence of cruciform pores, by absence of frontal lobes and cauda, by presence of one pair of setae on basal segment of labium. It differs from both genera by clavate ventral setae and longer than anal lobe clavate suranal setae.

KEYS: Hodgson et al. 2011: 54-55 (female) [Key to the Eriococcidae of the Neotropical Region based on the morphology of adult females]; Hodgson & Miller 2010: 90-92 (female) [Key to the Genera of the Eriococcidae of South America]; Kozár & Konczné Benedicty 2008: 140-142 (female, adult) [Modified key to genera of the Eriococcidae of Neotropical Region].

CITATIONS: HodgsoMaMi2011 [taxonomy: 54-55]; Kozar2009 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 111]; KozarKo2008 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 118-119, 142].



Coxicoccus foldi Kozár & Konczné Benedicty

NOMENCLATURE:

Coxicoccus foldi Kozár & Konczné Benedicty, 2008: 119-121. Type data: CHILE: in 1/1986 by J. Cox. Holotype female (examined), by monotypy and original designation. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK; type no. 7699. Described: female. Illust.

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Chile [KozarKo2008].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Kozár & Konczné Benedicty (2008).

STRUCTURE: Body elongate oval, 1.373 (1.166-1.394)mm long, and 0.932 (0.751-0.958) wide. Antenna 7 segmented. There is one sensory pore on the 2nd segment of the antenna. The 3rd segment is almost parallel sided. The segments of the antenna are covered with few hairlike setae. Frontal lobe or tubercle absent. Eye visible, situated on venter. Venter: Labium apparently one-segmented. On undeveloped basal segment one pair of setae present. Stylet loop long, reaches the third segment of abdomen. Legs long; tarsal digitules knobbed; claw digitules slightly knobbed. Coxae with spinulae, posterior coxae, vemur, and tibia with hight number of translucent pores. Trochanter with two pores on each side. Claw with denticle. Legs with few hairlike setae, and with one sensory pore on tarsus. Five locular pores distributed in rare bands on all segments of abdomen and thorax. Venter with a small number of scattered, hair-like setae. Microtubular duct present. Macrotubular ducts of two sizes in a small number on all segments. Dorsum: Dorsal setae spine-like, strong, short, 2-3 times longer than wide, of two sizes. On the margin 3-4 setae present. Macrotubular ducts present in small number on all segments. Microtubular ducts with bifurcated end, scattered among dorsal setae, and one usually situated at the base of spines. Disc pores absent. Anal lobes short, strong, twice longer than wide, with two spine-like setae along inner margin. Anal lobes heavily sclerotized. Suranal setae hair-like, blunted. Cauda absent.

SYSTEMATICS: There are some similarities with A. adenostonae (Ehrhorn, 1898), but the latter has much shorter tubular ducts, and there are no clavate hailike setae on venter.

CITATIONS: HodgsoMi2010 [taxonomy: 100]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 96]; KozarKo2008 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 119-121].



Cylindrococcus Maskell

NOMENCLATURE:

Cylindrococcus Maskell, 1892: 41. Type species: Cylindrococcus casuarinae Maskell. Subsequently designated by Fernald, 1903b: 84. Notes: MacGillivray (1921) considered the genus, along with several others, to be in a separate subfamily and Balachowsky (1942) elevated the group to family rank. This is not generally accepted. Hoy (1963) gave a catalogue of species. Morrison & Morrison (1966) discussed the status of the genus.

Crocidocysta Rübsaamen, 1894: 218. Type species: Crocidocysta froggatti Rübsaamen (= Cylindrococcus amplior Maskell), by monotypy. Synonymy by Lindinger, 1937: 182-183. Notes: Lindinger (1910: 156; 1931a: 114) alleged that Crocidocysta froggatti was a psyllid but amended his view (1937: 182) to indicate that Crocidocysta partim equaled Cylindrococcus (Morrison and Morrison, 1966).

BIOLOGY: Forms galls on Australian Casuarinaceae (Gullan, 1984a).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: antennae on anterior margin, conical, indistinctly segmented; front legs conical, weakly segmented; hind 2 pairs of legs reduced to small or large lobes; without tubular ducts; with multilocular pores; labium 1-segmented (Gullan, 1984a).

CITATIONS: Balach1948b [taxonomy: 257]; Beards1984 [distribution, taxonomy: 85]; Borchs1958b [taxonomy: 769]; BruesMeCa1954 [taxonomy: 167]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 329]; Cocker1899 [taxonomy : 13]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 392]; Cocker1899m [taxonomy: 277]; CookGu2004 [taxonomy: 442]; CoxWi1987 [chemistry: 15]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 84]; Ferris1921b [taxonomy: 91]; Ferris1957b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 62, 85]; Frogga1894b [taxonomy: 336]; Frogga1894c [taxonomy: 113]; Frogga1898a [taxonomy: 498]; Frogga1907 [host: 380]; Frogga1921b [host, taxonomy: 20]; Fuller1899 [description, taxonomy: 451]; Green1922 [taxonomy: 398]; Gullan1978 [distribution, structure, taxonomy: 59]; Gullan1984a [description, distribution, taxonomy: 677-690]; Gullan1984b [taxonomy: 381]; GullanMiCo2005 [host, ecology: 166]; Hoy1962 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 11, 13, 201, 206]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, taxonomy: 56]; Kozar2009 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 112]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 182, 183]; LinKoGu2013 [molecular data, phylogeny: 257]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy: 210, 211]; Maskel1892 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 41]; Maskel1896a [description, taxonomy: 226]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, taxonomy: 92]; MorrisMo1922 [description, taxonomy: 26]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy: 53]; Rubsaa1894 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 218]; Sulc1912 [taxonomy: 34]; Tepper1893 [taxonomy: 266]; Willia1991DJ [distribution, host, taxonomy: 461]; WoodwaEvEa1970 [distribution, host: 430].



Cylindrococcus casuarinae Maskell

NOMENCLATURE:

Cylindrococcus casuarinae Maskell, 1892: 43. Type data: AUSTRALIA: 1891, by W.M. Maskell. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Gullan, 1984a. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia. Described: female. Illust.

Cylindrococcus sp. Maskell, 1892: 44. Illust. Unavailable name; discovered by Maskell, 1893b: 240. Notes: A brief description of galls on Casuarina sp., taken at Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, which later proved to contain Cylindrococcus amplior (Froggatt, 1921b) (=C. casuarinae).

Cylindrococcus amplior Maskell, 1893b: 240. Type data: AUSTRALIA: 1892, by W.M. Maskell. Lectotype female (examined), by subsequent designation Gullan, 1984a. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia. Described: female. Synonymy by Gullan, 1984a: 680. Notes: A paralectotype is in the USNM

Crocidocysta froggatti Rübsaamen, 1894: 219-220. Unknown type status. Described: female. Synonymy by Cockerell, 1899a: 392. Notes: Types of Rübsaamen in the ZMHB apparently were destroyed during World War II (Gullan, 1984).



HOSTS: Casuarinaceae: Allocasuarina corniculata [Gullan1984a], Allocasuarina huegeliana [Gullan1984a], Allocasuarina luehmannii [Gullan1984a], Allocasuarina verticillata? [Hoy1963], Casuarina quadrivalvis? [Hoy1963], Casuarina sp. [Hoy1963], Casuarina torulosa? [Hoy1963].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Australian Capital Territory [Gullan1984a], New South Wales [Hoy1963, Gullan1984a], Queensland [Gullan1984a], South Australia [Hoy1963, Gullan1984a], Tasmania [Cook2000], Victoria [Hoy1963, Gullan1984a], Western Australia [Gullan1984a]).

BIOLOGY: Girault (1929) cites specimens of Systolomorpha thyridopterygis Ashmead from the galls of Cylindrococcus casuarinae.

GENERAL REMARKS: Comprehensive description of Cylindrococcus casuarinae by Gullan (1984a).

STRUCTURE: Adult female, in life, almost cylindrical; mid and hind legs represented by large membranous lobes. Mature gall of female composed of 4-6 thickened coalesced bracts tapering to point; imbricating whorls of leaf-like bracts surrounding base and, if present, stalk (Gullan, 1984a).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: hind 2 pairs of legs forming large lobes; without conical setae on dorsum; anal lobes absent (Gullan, 1984a).

CITATIONS: Beards1984 [description, host, illustration: 93, 94]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 329]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 392]; Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 256, 259, 261]; CookGu2004 [taxonomy: 444]; DeitzTo1980 [distribution, taxonomy: 45]; Docter1925 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 142]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 84]; Ferris1957b [taxonomy: 62]; Ferris1957c [taxonomy: 85]; Frogga1898a [host, taxonomy: 498]; Frogga1907 [taxonomy: 380]; Frogga1921b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 20-22]; Frogga1933 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 372-374]; Fuller1897b [taxonomy: 10]; Giraul1929 [biological control, distribution: 316]; Gullan1978 [taxonomy: 53]; Gullan1984a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 680]; GwiazdVaDe2006 [phylogenetics: 16]; Houard1922 [host: 70]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 56-57]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 97]; Lindin1910 [taxonomy: 156]; Lindin1931a [taxonomy: 114]; MacGil1921 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 211]; Maskel1892 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 41, 44]; Maskel1893b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 240]; Maskel1896a [taxonomy: 226]; Maskel1897 [taxonomy: 294]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 93-94]; MorrisMo1922 [description, taxonomy: 26-29]; NanDeWu2013 [phylogenetics: 173]; Rubsaa1894 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 219-220]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 6, 9].



Cylindrococcus spiniferus Maskell

NOMENCLATURE:

Cylindrococcus spiniferus Maskell, 1892: 43, 44. Type data: AUSTRALIA: on Casuarina quadrivalvis, C. French. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Gullan, 1984a: 688. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia. Illust. Notes: The label on the lectotype states "Cylindrococcus/spiniferus/abdominal/segments of/female/1891/W.M.M." Paralectotypes in NZAC and USNM.

Cylindrococcus gracilis Fuller, 1897b: 1346(10). Nomen nudum; discovered by Morrison, 1957: 57. Notes: This "description" states "87. C. gracilis n.sp. A species which may perhaps be regarded as a variety of C. spiniferus." This does not constitute a description of the species.

Cylindrococcus spiniferous; Froggatt, 1898a: 498. Described: female. Misspelling of species name.

Cylindrococcus gracilis Fuller, 1899: 451-452. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Western Australia, Swan River, on Casuarina humilis (?). Lectotype female (examined), by subsequent designation Gullan, 1984a: 689. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Gullan, 1984a: 684. Notes: The label on the lectotype is as follows: "Cylindrococcus gracilis Fuller, ms/Australia (Fuller)/TYPE Ckll. coll."

COMMON NAME: casuarina gall [Hockin1980].



HOSTS: Casuarinaceae: Allocasuarina littoralis [Gullan1984a], Allocasuarina monilifera [Gullan1984a], Allocasuarina muelleriana [Gullan1984a], Allocasuarina nana [Gullan1984a], Allocasuarina paludosa [Gullan1984a], Allocasuarina paradoxa [Gullan1984a], Allocasuarina verticillata [Gullan1984a].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia [Gullan1984a] (No specific locality was given for the type specimens) (New South Wales [Gullan1984a], Queensland [Gullan1984a], South Australia [Gullan1984a], Tasmania [Cook2000], Victoria [Gullan1984a], Western Australia [Gullan1984a]).

BIOLOGY: A generation is thought to take more than a single year. There is considerable variation in gall form and this could be caused by the differences in male and female plants of the Allocasuarina host (Gullan, 1984a).

GENERAL REMARKS: Treated in detail by Gullan (1984a) including descriptions of adult females and female galls.

STRUCTURE: Adult female gall composed of 3-6 imbricating whorls of leaf-like bracts, each whorl composed of 5-8 bracts; additional whorls of smaller bracts surrounding base and, if present, stalk of gall (Gullan, 1984a).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: hind 2 pairs of legs represented by area of sclerotization, not forming large lobes; with conical setae on posterior part of dorsum; anal lobes represented by sclerotized plates (Gullan, 1984a).

CITATIONS: Brown1967 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 130]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 329]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 392]; Cook2000 [distribution, physiology: 259, 261]; CookGu2004 [taxonomy: 444]; DeitzTo1980 [distribution, taxonomy: 48]; Docter1925 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 140-141, 143-144]; Ehrhor1912 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 179]; Ferris1957b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 63]; Frogga1898a [distribution, taxonomy: 498, 499]; Frogga1907 [description, distribution: 380]; Frogga1921b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 22]; Frogga1933 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 369, 374]; Fuller1897b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 1346]; Fuller1899 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 451-452]; Gullan1978 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 53-60]; Gullan1984a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 684, 689]; GwiazdVaDe2006 [phylogenetics: 16]; Hockin1980 [distribution, illustration: 98]; Houard1922 [host: 71, 72]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 57]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 97]; MacGil1921 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 211]; Maskel1892 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 43, 44]; McKeow1945 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 339-340]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, life history, taxonomy: 94-95]; MorrisMo1922 [taxonomy: 28-29]; NanDeWu2013 [phylogenetics: 173]; RossHaOk2012 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 199]; Tillya1926 [behavior, distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 174]; Willia1991DJ [illustration: 463]; WoodwaEvEa1970 [illustration: 429].



Cystococcus Fuller

NOMENCLATURE:

Cystococcus Fuller, 1897b: 1346. Type species: Cystococcus echiniformis Fuller, by monotypy. Notes: This genus was considered by Cockerell (1902g), Fernald (1903b) and Hoy (1963) to be a junior synonym of Ascelis, but the concept of Gullan & Cockburn (1986) is that they are distinct, but closely-related genera.

BIOLOGY: "Females of Cystococcus cause large woody subspherical galls to develop on the stems of their bloodwood eucalypt hosts. The male offspring complete their development within the maternal gall where they feed on a layer of white nutritive tissue lining the gall cavity. Male development within the maternal gall is not unusual among gall-forming eriococcids since at least three other taxa display similar habits....The coupling of sexual dichronism and development of male offspring within the maternal gall facilitates an extraordinary form of phoresy, in which the newly emerged female first instar nymphs are transported out of the maternal gall on the modified abdomens of their adult brothers. The males leave the gall through an orifice, 0.5-1.7mm in diameter, which is plugged by the sclerotized apex of the mother's abdomen until the completion of parturtition. The adult male lives less than 48 hours, as in other members of the Coccoidea (Gullan & Cockburn, 1986)."

STRUCTURE: Forming some of the largest and most conspicuous of all coccoid galls on Australian Eucalyptus and Melaleuca species by eriococcids (Beardsley, 1984).

KEYS: Hardy et al. 2011: 502-504 (female) [Key to the adult females of genera of felt scales on Eucalyptus and Corymbia].

CITATIONS: AustinYeCa2004 [ecology, host: 220]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 393]; Cocker1899m [taxonomy: 276]; Cocker1902g [taxonomy: 114]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, distribution: 48]; Frogga1921a [taxonomy: 114, 156]; Fuller1897b [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 1346]; Fuller1899 [taxonomy: 462]; GullanCo1986 [taxonomy: 632]; GullanKo1997 [behaviour: 37, 38, 40]; GullanMiCo2005 [host, ecology: 166]; HardyBeGu2011 [host, taxonomy: 498,502-503]; HardyGu2007 [host, illustration, taxonomy: 106-108]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, taxonomy: 46]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 183]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy: 204]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, taxonomy: 95-96]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy: 53]; Theron1968 [taxonomy: 96]; Willia1991DJ [behaviour: 457]; WoodwaEvEa1970 [distribution, host: 430].



Cystococcus echiniformis Fuller

NOMENCLATURE:

Cystococcus echiniformis Fuller, 1897b: 1346. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Western Australia, E. Kimberly, on Eucalyptus tesselaris. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Notes: Syntype series is from the Brain Collection no. 438.

Ascelis echiniformis; Cockerell, 1902g: 114. Change of combination.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus tesselaris [Fuller1897b].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Northern Territory [Fuller1899], Western Australia [Hoy1963]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed illustration and description by Fuller (1899). Hodgson (2002) used this species in a phylogenetic analysis of non-margarodid Coccoidea.

STRUCTURE: Adult female spherical, nearly fills gall. Gall is spherical, walls are thin and brittle, the gall is dirty white in color. Adult male has purple wings (Fuller, 1899).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: This species is edible and is considered to be a delicacy by the indigenous peoples (Fuller, 1899).

CITATIONS: Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 393]; Cocker1902g [distribution, taxonomy: 114]; CookGu2004 [taxonomy: 444]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 48]; Frogga1921a [distribution, taxonomy: 157]; Fuller1897b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 1346]; Fuller1899 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 462]; GullanCo1986 [biology, illustration, taxonomy: 632-333]; GwiazdVaDe2006 [phylogenetics: 16]; Hodgso2002 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 135]; Hodgso2005 [taxonomy: 26]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 47]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 97]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, economic importance, host, taxonomy: 96]; NanDeWu2013 [phylogenetics: 173]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 99]; RossHaOk2012 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 199]; Weidne1974 [taxonomy: 462].



Cystococcus pomiformis (Froggatt)

NOMENCLATURE:

Brachyscelis pomiformis Froggatt, 1893: 367. Type data: AUSTRALIA: North Western Australia, Barrier Range, King's Sound, on Eucalyptus sp., by W.W. Froggatt; also from Northern Queensland, Torrens' Creek, near Charters Tower, on Eucalyptus sp., by Chisholm. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Orange: Agricultural Scientific Collections Trust, New South Wales Agriculture, NSW, Australia. Described: female. Notes: Two syntypic galls in ASCT (Gullan, personal communication, June 10, 1996).

Apiomorpha pomiformis; Cockerell, 1896b: 328. Described: female. Illust. Change of combination.

Cystococcus pomiformis; Froggatt, 1921a: 156-157. Described: female. Illust. Change of combination.

Ascelis pomiformis; Lindinger, 1957: 545. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Corymbia dichromophloia [Hoy1963], Eucalyptus sp. [Hoy1963]

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Queensland [Frogga1893] (In north western Australia), South Australia [Hoy1963], Western Australia [Fuller1899]).

BIOLOGY: The gall inner wall and enclosed insect are edible (Froggatt, 1893).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Froggatt (1893). This species is distributed in the northern parts of the Western and Northern territories of the country (Froggatt, 1893).

STRUCTURE: Female gall is apple shaped, slightly depressed at the base where attached to the host, swelling out on the sides, greyish brown in color (Froggatt, 1893). Gall is often very large, sometimes up to 10cm in diameter (Gullan, personal communication, 1998).

CITATIONS: Beards1984 [behavior, taxonomy: 84]; ClelanJo1933 [host: 122]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 328]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, distribution: 48]; Frogga1893 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 367]; Frogga1894c [taxonomy: 111]; Frogga1898a [description, distribution, taxonomy: 492]; Frogga1907 [description, taxonomy: 382]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 156-157]; Fuller1897b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 1346]; Fuller1899 [taxonomy: 445, 463]; Grant1965 [description, host: 68]; GullanCo1986 [biology, illustration, taxonomy: 632-633]; Houard1923 [host: 609, 610]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 47]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 97]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 545]; Meyer1987 [physiology: 135]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 96-97]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 99]; Tepper1893 [distribution, host: 272]; Tillya1926 [biological control, distribution, host, taxonomy: 173]; Weidne1974 [taxonomy: 462].



Dromedaricoccus Hodgson & Miller in Hodgson, et al.

NOMENCLATURE:

Dromedaricoccus Hodgson & Miller in Hodgson, et al., 2011: 66. Type species: Dromedaricoccus hansoni Hodgson & Miller.

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustrations in Hodgson, et al., 2011.

STRUCTURE: Dromedariococcus induces spherical galls on young stems, petioles and particularly leaflets of host plant. Mounted material. Adult female with head and thorax round and swollen, narrowing abruptly to a long narrow abdomen, posterior segments of which concertina into more anterior segments. Derm mainly membranous but with a heavily sclerotised boss or hump mediodorsally approximately on metathorax. (Hodgson, et al., 2011)

SYSTEMATICS: The adult female of Dromedaricoccus Hodgson & Miller, also has a heavily sclerotised area on the dorsum as does Eriogallococcus, but can be immediately separated by its elongate shape and absence of dorsal loculate pores. (Hodgson, et al., 2011)

KEYS: Hodgson et al. 2011: 54-55 (female) [Key to the Eriococcidae of the Neotropical Region based on the morphology of adult females]; Hodgson et al. 2011: 71 (male) [Key to the Genera of the Eriococcidae of the Neotropical Region based the morphology of the adult males].

CITATIONS: HodgsoMaMi2011 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 54,66-71].



Dromedaricoccus hansoni Hodgson & Miller in Hodgson, et al.

NOMENCLATURE:

Dromedaricoccus hansoni Hodgson & Miller in Hodgson, et al., 2011: 66-71. Type data: COSTA RICA: Puntarenas, in galls on Ceibo pentandra 11/?/1999, by J Lobo & Paul Hanson. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: both sexes. Illust. Notes:



HOST: Anacardiaceae: Astronium graveolens [HodgsoMaMi2011].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Costa Rica [HodgsoMaMi2011].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustrations in Hodgson, et al., 2011.

STRUCTURE: Adult female head and thorax round and swollen. Derm mainly membranous but with a heavily sclerotised boss or hump mediodorsally approximately on metathorax, flattish on some (younger?) specimens and highly convex on others. Adult male antennae short, about 1/4th total body length; body setose, particularly on head and venter; fleshy setae often curved, not always easy to separate from fine hair-like setae. Loculate pores entirely absent. Wings without either alar setae or sensilla. Hamulohalteres absent. Tarsi 1 segmented; tarsal digitules setose. Glandular pouches and glandular pouch setae present.(Hodgson, et al., 2011)

SYSTEMATICS: Dromedaricoccus is a monotypic genus only known from Costa Rica. The adult female of D. hansoni can be immediately recognised by the general shape of the body and the circular, dome-shaped sclerotisation medially on the dorsum of the mesothorax. In addition, (i) the abdomen is drawn out into a narrow tube; (ii) the legs and antennae are much reduced; (iii) there are no anal lobes; (iv) the anal ring is a sclerotised area, perhaps with 2 small setae laterally; and (v) each spiracle has a C-shaped area of sclerotisation laterally around the spiracular opening. No other eriococcid genus has this combination of features in the adult female. The adult male of D. hansoni can be separated from the other known Neotropical eriococcid males in having the following combination of characters: (i) 6 segmented antennae, with fleshy setae much shorter than width of antennal segments; (ii) capitate setae on the antennae restricted to apical segment; (iii) antennal bristles apparently restricted to apical segment (or similar to fleshy setae on previous 2 segments); (iv) penial sheath short, only slightly longer than basal width; (v) fleshy setae not easily separable from hair-like setae; (v) legs relatively small; (vi) tarsal digitules unusually short; and (vii) head with many fleshy setae. (Hodgson, et al., 2011)

CITATIONS: HodgsoHa2013 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 797]; HodgsoMaMi2011 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 66-71].



Echinogalla Takagi

NOMENCLATURE:

Echinogalla Takagi, 2001: 67-68. Type species: Echinogalla pustulata Takagi, by monotypy and original designation.

SYSTEMATICS: Echinogalla is compared with Gallacoccus because there is no other genus adequate for making a comparison with it. In reality, Echinogalla differs greatly from Gallacoccus, especially in the 1st instar. It is possible that some features and characters of the 1st instar reflect peculiar behavioral traits (Takagi, 2001).

CITATIONS: Takagi2001 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 67-68].



Echinogalla pustulata Takagi

NOMENCLATURE:

Echinogalla pustulata Takagi, 2001: 68-70. Type data: MALAYSIA: Malaya, Kuantan Pahang, at Beserah Forest Reserve, on Shorea falcifera and S. glauca, 1990. Holotype female. Type depository: Kepong: Forest Research Institute of Malaysia, Selandgor, Malaysia. Described: female, male and first instar. Illust.



HOSTS: Dipterocarpaceae: Shorea falcifera [Takagi2001], Shorea glauca [Takagi2001].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Malaysia (Malaya [Takagi2001]).

BIOLOGY: Echinogalla pustulata causes galls in leaf axils which do not differ in external appearance between the plant species. They are globular and provided with many robust conical spines, which are recurvate and separated from each other except for their bases (Takagi, 2001).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Takagi (2001).

STRUCTURE: Adult female globular, much simplified in structure. Quinquelocular disc pores abundant, strewn broadly along body margin on both dorsal and ventral surfaces, not occurring anteriorly to anus. Small tubular ducts strewn among 5-locular disc pores on abdomen. Setae spinous, mostly occurring on dorsal surface within the band of 5-locular disc pores, especially numerous between anus and vulva. Adult male slender and gracile; head with genal area enlarged, occupying a greater part of head, about 0.6-0.7 times as broad as prothorax (Takagi, 2001).

SYSTEMATICS: The echinate gall induced by Echinogalla pustulata is very similar to that of Gallacoccus spinigalla, but these species are not particularly related to each other (Takagi, 2001).

CITATIONS: Takagi2001 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 68-70, 88, 98, 101, 105, 108, 112].



Eremococcus Ferris

NOMENCLATURE:

Eremococcus Ferris, 1919d: 252. Type species: Sphaerococcus pirogallis Markell. Subsequently designated by Ferris, 1919d: 252-253.

BIOLOGY: The galls induced by females of all species in this genus somewhat resemble the fruit or flower buds of their host plants. (GullanMiCo2005)

GENERAL REMARKS: Original description in Ferris (1919d)

STRUCTURE: Adult females have no legs and have no antennae or these are reduced to mere unsegmented vestiges; anal orifice simple, minute, borne on the dorsum; dorsum of adult flat, heavily chitinous, venter membranous; mouthparts with internal framework unusually large and heavily chitinized. First stage larva with anal ring small and simple as in adult.

CITATIONS: Ferris1919d [p. 252]; GullanMiCo2005 [behaviour, description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 197-199].



Eremococcus pirogallis (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Sphaerococcus pirogallis Maskell, 1894b: 95. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, several localities around Sydney, on Leptopermum flavescens, by W.W. Froggatt. Syntypes, female and first instar. Type depositories: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA; type no. 364.

Eremococcus pirogallis; Ferris, 1919d: 252-253. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Myrtacae: Agonis [GullanMiCo2005], Leptospermum flavescens [Maskel1894b].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia [GullanMiCo2005] (New South Wales [GullanMiCo2005], Western Australia [Maskel1894b]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description of both males and females in Maskell (1894b) and illustration in Ferris (1919d).

STRUCTURE: Enclosed within a small, pear shaped gall which has a minute opening at one side near the base. In the earliest stage the galls are bright green, turning completely red and then to a dark reddish-gray with age. The female of the early adult stage is entirely membranous but at maturity the dorsum becomes heavily chitinized. (Ferris, 1919d)

CITATIONS: DeitzTo1980 [catalogue, taxonomy: 20]; Ferris1919d [description, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 252-253]; Frogga1907 [description: 380]; Frogga1921a [distribution: 15]; GullanMiCo2005 [behaviour, description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 197-199]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 97]; Maskel1894b [behaviour, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 95-99]; MillerGuWi1998 [pp. 286-305]; MorrisMo1922 [description: 38].



Eremococcus rugosus elongatus (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Sphaerococcus rugosus elongatus Maskell, 1897: 323. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Western Australia, Geraldton, on undetermined tree with small leaves and clusters of small flowers, by A.M. Lea. Syntypes, female and first instar (examined). Type depositories: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA.

Eremococcus rugosus elongatus; Miller et al., 1998: 300. Change of combination.

CITATIONS: DeitzTo1980 [taxonomy: 20]; Frogga1921b [description, taxonomy: 17]; GullanMiCo2005 [behaviour, description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 197-199]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 97].



Eremococcus rugosus rugosus (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Sphaerococcus rugosus rugosus Maskell, 1897: 322. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Western Australia, Mount Baker, on Leptospermum sp., by M. Lea. Syntypes, female and first instar. Type depositories: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: unknown.

Eremococcus rugosus rugosus; Miller et al., 1998: 299. Change of combination.

STRUCTURE: posterior abdominal segments with curved, slightly enlarged marginal setae; dorsum with 1 or 2 pairs of large tubular ducts; dorsum with sclerotized segmental areas; antennae 3-segmented; labium 2-segmented; legs with distinctive wrinkled pattern on femur.

SYSTEMATICS: the 8-shaped pores are more tubular in nature than in E. pirogallis, but the setae, anal-ring area, and very large clypeolabral shield are very similar. Eremococcus rugosus does not have the distinctive antennae mentioned by Ferris (1919) and Morrison and Morrison (1922) and has only on pair of large tubular ducts on the dorsum of the crawler; E. pirogalllis has two pair (Morrison and Morrison, 1922).

CITATIONS: DeitzTo1980 [taxonomy: 20]; Frogga1921b [description: 17]; GullanMiCo2005 [behaviour, description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 197-199]; Hoy1959 [host: 11]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 97]; Maskel1897 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 322]; MillerGuWi1998 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 299]; MorrisMo1922 [taxonomy].



Eremococcus turbinatus (Froggatt)

NOMENCLATURE:

Sphaerococcus turbinata Froggatt, 1921b: 19. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Tazmania, Launceston, on Melaleuca sp., by A.M. Lea. Syntypes, female (examined). Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia. Notes: Gullen in Miller, et al., 2004, suggests that the type lost of this species may be incorrectly identified as Melaleuca and probably is a species of Leptospermum.

Eremococcus turbinata; Miller et al., 1998: 302. Change of combination.

Eremococcus turbinatus; Pellizzari & Williams, 2013: 410. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Melaleuca sp. [Frogga1921b]

SYSTEMATICS: The remains of the syntype female share the following features with Eremococcus pirogallis: central area of dorsum nodulose and more heavily sclerotized than rest of derm, anal ring small and simple, legs absent, clypeolabral shield large and sclerotized, and 8-shaped pores abundant marginally.

CITATIONS: Frogga1921b [description: 19]; GullanMiCo2005 [behaviour, description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 197-199]; GwiazdVaDe2006 [phylogenetics: 16]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 97].



Eriobalachowskya Kozár & Konczné Benedicty

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriobalachowskya Kozár & Konczné Benedicty, 2008. Type species: Eriococcus valenzuelae Balachowsky. Subsequently designated by Kozár & Konczné Benedicty, 2008: 121-123.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description of adult female in Kozár & Konczné Benedicty, 2008.

SYSTEMATICS: Eriobalachowskya differs from all other eriococcid genera in 1) having 8-segmented antennae; 2) microtubular ducts with a particularly large and unusually-shaped dermal orifice; 3) a median plate swollen basally and with a pointed apex. (Kozár & Konczné Benedicty, 2008)

KEYS: Hodgson et al. 2011: 54-55 (female) [Key to the Eriococcidae of the Neotropical Region based on the morphology of adult females]; Hodgson & Miller 2010: 90-92 (female) [Key to the Genera of the Eriococcidae of South America]; Kozár & Konczné Benedicty 2008: 140-142 (female, adult) [Modified key to genera of the Eriococcidae of Neotropical Region].

CITATIONS: HodgsoMaMi2011 [taxonomy: 54]; HodgsoMi2010 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 42-45]; Kozar2009 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 111]; KozarKo2008 [description, taxonomy: 142].



Eriobalachowskya valenzuelae (Balachowsky)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus valenzuelae Balachowsky, 1959a: 363-365. Type data: COLOMBIA: Caldas, Chinchina, on Inga edulis, 15/08/1957, by G.O. Valenzuela. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France; type no. 2649. Described: female. Illust. Notes: There are five slides containing eight syntype specimens in the MNHN (Matile-Ferrero, personal communication, November 20, 1996).

Acanthococcus valenzuelae; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 604. Change of combination.

Eriobalachowskya valenzuelae; Kozár & Konczné Benedicty, 2008: 121-123. Described: female. Illust. Change of combination.



HOST: Fabaceae: Inga edulis [Balach1959a].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Colombia [Balach1959a]; Ecuador [KozarKo2008].

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Balachowsky (1959a)

STRUCTURE: Adult female is oval and white (Balachowsky, 1959a). Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, sides concave, apices acute or slightly rounded, dorsal setae all approximately same size, forming 3 longitudinal lines on each side of abdomen, scattered over thorax and head; large clusters of smaller enlarged setae on venter; antennae 8-segmented; anal lobes heavily sclerotized, with small medial teeth; sclerotized plate on dorsum between anal lobes; macrotubular ducts absent; microtubular ducts elongate, with 2 sclerotized areas, orifice represented by large cylinder protruding above dermal surface (Balachowsky, 1959)

SYSTEMATICS: Eriobalachowskya differs from other genera of Eriococcidae by having eight regmented antennae. Otherwise it is similar to Acanthococcus, Eriococcus, and Gossyparia having enlarged spine=like setae on dorsum, but differs from them by the absence of macrotubular ducts, and by the presence of frontal tubercles. The structure of microtubular ducts and cauda also unique in Eriococcidae family. (Kozár & Konczné Benedicty, 2008)

CITATIONS: Balach1959a [description, distribution, host, illustration: 363-5]; HodgsoMi2010 [host, taxonomy: 99-100]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 123]; Kondo2001 [distribution, host: 40]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 97]; KozarKo2008 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 121-123]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 604]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 373]; OuvrarKo2009 [host, phylogeny, structure, taxonomy: 102-118]; Schmut1955 [host, taxonomy: 161].



Eriochiton Maskell

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriochiton Maskell, 1887: 46. Type species: Eriochiton hispidus Maskell. Subsequently designated by Fernald, 1903b: 127.

GENERAL REMARKS: This genus was originally described in the family Coccidae.

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: anal lobes modified into plates that surround anal ring; spinose setae around body margin; anal cleft; cruciform pores; quinquelocular pores; translucent pores on hind pair of legs; microtubular ducts; no macrotubular ducts (Hodgson & Henderson, 1996). Phylogeny by Hodgson & Henderson (1996).

KEYS: Henderson 2007a: 3-4 (female, adult) [Key to genera of Eriococcidae in New Zealand (adult females) Modified from Henderson (2006)]; Hodgson & Henderson 1996: 151 (adult female) [Adult females in the tribe Eriochitonini]; Hodgson & Henderson 1996: 152 (second instar) [Second-instar females of the Eriochitonini tribe]; Hodgson & Henderson 1996: 153 (second instar) [Second-instar males of the Eriochitonini tribe]; Hodgson & Henderson 1996: 154 (first instar) [Species of the Eriochitonini tribe]; Hodgson 1994: 176 (adult female) [Adult females of Eriochiton species]; Hodgson 1994: 177 (second instar) [Second-instar females of Eriochiton]; Hodgson 1994: 177 (second instar) [Second-instar males of Eriochiton]; Hodgson 1994: 177 (first instar) [Crawlers of Eriochiton].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993a [taxonomy: 110]; Borchs1957 [distribution, taxonomy: 48]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 329]; Cocker1899m [taxonomy: 330]; Cocker1900a [distribution, taxonomy: 368]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 127]; HenderHo1994 [distribution, taxonomy: 239]; HenderHo1995 [distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 75-83]; Hodgso1994 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 171-208]; HodgsoHe1996 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 143-154]; HodgsoMi2002 [distribution, taxonomy: 191, 192]; KondoHaCo2006 [phylogeny: 20]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 184]; MacGil1921 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 175]; Maskel1887 [description, taxonomy: 46]; Maskel1891a [description: 60-61]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, taxonomy: 97-98]; MillerHo1997 [taxonomy: 229, 230, 236]; MorrisMo1922 [description, taxonomy: 63]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy: 68]; Rao1939 [taxonomy: 60]; TaoWoCh1983 [distribution, taxonomy: 62, 89]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 104]; Yang1982 [distribution, taxonomy: 153].



Eriochiton armatus (Brittin)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium armatus Brittin, 1915: 152. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: South Island, Oamaru, on Muehlenbeckia sp., 08/07/1913, by G. Brittin. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Hodgson & Henderson, 1996: 155. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Notes: Paralectotypes in BMNH (Hodgson & Henderson, 1996).

Lecanium armatus; Brittin, 1916: 425. Incorrect synonymy. Notes: Brittin (1916) incorrectly synonymized Lecanium armatus with Eriochiton spinosus. Hodgson & Henderson (1996) discovered that E. armatus is a distinct species from E. spinosus.

Eriochiton armatus; Hodgson & Henderson, 1996: 155. Described: both sexes. Illust. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Polygonaceae: Muehlenbeckia complexa [HodgsoHe1996], Muehlenbeckia sp. [HodgsoHe1996]

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (North Island [HodgsoHe1996], South Island [HodgsoHe1996]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Hodgson & Henderson (1996) provide detailed description, illustration, phylogeny and key of adult male and female as well as second instar of both sexes, first instar nymph, pupa and prepupa. Hodgson (2002) used this species in a phylogenetic analysis of non-margarodid Coccoidea.

STRUCTURE: Adult female moderately convex, often lying laterally, curved around twigs and or nodes of host plants; dark brown, moderately shiny and generally accompanied by much sooty mold. Adult male winged, robust with well- developed legs and antennae and a stout penial sheath (Hodgson & Henderson, 1996).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: 6 setae in each outer row of small dorsal setae and only 4 in each inner row; quinquelocular pores rare or absent medially on thorax; large group of sessile pores medially between bases of antennae and mouthparts (Hodgson & Henderson, 1996).

KEYS: Hodgson & Henderson 1996: 151-154 (other) [Adult females, second instars and first instars of the Eriochitonini tribe].

CITATIONS: Britti1915 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 152]; Britti1916 [distribution, taxonomy: 425]; Hodgso1994 [taxonomy: 189-197]; Hodgso2002 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 135]; HodgsoHa2013 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 797]; HodgsoHe1996 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 155-163]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 97]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 98-99].



Eriochiton brittini Hodgson & Henderson

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriochiton brittini Hodgson & Henderson, 1996: 163. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: South Island, Bark Bay, Nelson, unknown host, 28/01/1924, by G. Brittin. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand; type no. 90-213. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Paratypes in USNM and BMNH (Hodgson & Henderson, 1996).



HOST: Undetermined [HodgsoHe1996].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (South Island [HodgsoHe1996]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Original description, phylogeny and illustration of adult female and first instar nymph by Hodgson & Henderson (1996).

STRUCTURE: Adult female roundly oval with a shallow oval anal cleft (Hodgson & Henderson, 1996).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: small dorsal setae absent, replaced by short spinose dorsal setae; sessile pores abundant in submarginal band, with 7-12 between antennae; 34-36 spinose marginal setae between eyespots; 2-3 pairs of spinose setae at anterior end of anal cleft (Hodgson & Henderson, 1996).

KEYS: Hodgson & Henderson 1996: 152 (adult female) [Adult females of the Eriochitonini tribe]; Hodgson & Henderson 1996: 154 (first instar) [First-instar nymphs of the Eriochitonini tribe].

CITATIONS: HodgsoHe1996 [description, distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 152, 154, 163-166]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 97]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 99].



Eriochiton deboerae Hodgson & Henderson

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriochiton deboerae Hodgson & Henderson, 1996: 166. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: mounted from Maskell's dry collection by J.A. de Boer on 08/10/1969. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Paratypes also in the USNM (Hodgson & Henderson, 1996).



HOSTS: Polygonaceae: Muehlenbeckia australis? [HodgsoHe1996], Muehlenbeckia sp. [HodgsoHe1996]

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (South Island [HodgsoHe1996]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Original description, phylogeny and illustration by Hodgson & Henderson (1996).

STRUCTURE: Adult female is almost round with a shallow anal cleft (Hodgson & Henderson, 1996).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: 2 small dorsal setae in outer row just anterior of anal plates; almost no spinose setae in mid-dorsal line anterior of anal plates; no sessile pores in area bounded by antennal bases and mouthparts; 18-25 marginal spinose setae between eyespots (Hodgson & Henderson, 1996).

KEYS: Hodgson & Henderson 1996: 152 (adult female) [Adult females of the Eriochitonini tribe]; Hodgson & Henderson 1996: 154 (first instar) [First instars of the Eriochitonini tribe].

CITATIONS: HodgsoHe1996 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 152, 166-168]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 97]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 99-100].



Eriochiton dracophylli Hodgson & Henderson

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriochiton dracophylli Hodgson & Henderson, 1996: 168-173. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: North Island, Tongariro National Park at 3900m, on Dracophyllum recurvum, 27/11/1973, by J.A. de Boer. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Epacridaceae: Dracophyllum filifolium [HodgsoHe1996], Dracophyllum recurvum [HodgsoHe1996], Dracophyllum sp. [HodgsoHe1996]

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (North Island [HodgsoHe1996]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Original description, phylogeny and illustration by Hodgson & Henderson (1996).

STRUCTURE: Adult female body is elongate oval with a shallow anal cleft (Hodgson & Henderson, 1996).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: 2 setae in each outer row of small dorsal setae; sessile pores scarce or absent medially between antennal bases and mouthparts; 25-28 spinose marginal setae between eyespots; 1-2 pairs of spinose setae at anterior end of anal cleft (Hodgson & Henderson, 1996). The name of the host genus was misspelled as Dracophylli causing the formation of the species epithet to be "dracophylli." The correct name of the host is Dracophyllum, but this does not effect the spelling of Eriochiton dracophylli.

KEYS: Hodgson & Henderson 1996: 152 (adult female) [Adult females of the tribe Eriochitonini]; Hodgson & Henderson 1996: 153 (second instar) [Second-instar females of the tribe Eriochitonini]; Hodgson & Henderson 1996: 154 (first instar) [First-instar nymphs of the tribe Eriochitonini].

CITATIONS: HodgsoHe1996 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 152, 153, 168-173]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 97]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 100].



Eriochiton dugdalei Hodgson & Henderson

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriochiton dugdalei Hodgson & Henderson, 1996: 173-175. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: Waenga Bush, Otanga, on Prumnopitys ferruginea, 15/03/1994, by R.C. Henderson. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand; type no. 94-039. Described: both sexes. Illust.



HOST: Podocarpaceae: Prumnopitys ferruginea [HodgsoHe1996].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (North Island [HodgsoHe1996], South Island [HodgsoHe1996]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Original description, phylogeny and illustration of adult female and male, first-instar nymph and pupae by Hodgson & Henderson (1996).

STRUCTURE: Young adult females only slightly convex, becoming moderately convex at maturity. Body has a blotchy pattern of pale and dark areas over dorsum, with sticky wax in lines over dorsal spinose setae and along margin (Hodgson & Henderson, 1996).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: 2 setae in each outer row of small dorsal setae; longest dorsal spinose setae about half length of typical marginal spinose seta; quinquelocular and sessile pores scarce or absent medially between antennal bases and mouthparts; 28-34 spinose marginal setae between eyespots (Hodgson & Henderson, 1996).

KEYS: Hodgson & Henderson 1996: 152 (adult female) [Adult female species of the tribe Eriochitonini].

CITATIONS: HodgsoHe1996 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 152, 173-175]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 97]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 100-101].



Eriochiton hispidus Maskell

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriochiton hispidus Maskell, 1887: 47. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: North Island, Wellington, Botanical Gardens, on Olearia sp., 1886. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Hodgson, 1994: 171-208. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: both sexes. Illust. Notes: Paralectotypes also in the USNM.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Olearia haastii [Hodgso1994], Olearia sp. [Hodgso1994]. Cunoniaceae: Weinmannia racemosa [Hodgso1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (North Island [Hodgso1994]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed descriptions and illustrations of adult females, both sexes of second instar and the first-instar crawler by Hodgson (1994).

STRUCTURE: Ovisac white, very thin, felted. Male test white, thick, felted, oval and convex. Adult female elliptical, convex, reddish-brown in color and hollow beneath. Adult male reddish-brown (Maskell, 1887).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: dorsal spinose setae abundant on dorsum, as abundant marginally as medially (Hodgson, 1994).

KEYS: Hodgson & Henderson 1996: 151-154 (other) [Adult female, second instars and first instar of Eriochiton]; Hodgson 1994: 176-177 (other) [Adult female, second instars and crawler of Eriochiton species].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993a [taxonomy: 110]; Britti1916 [taxonomy: 425]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 329]; DeitzTo1980 [distribution, taxonomy: 29]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 127]; HenderHo1995 [taxonomy: 75]; Hodgso1994 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 171-208]; HodgsoHe1996 [taxonomy: 143]; Hoy1958 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 197]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 184]; MacGil1921 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 175]; Maskel1887 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 47-49]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 101-102]; MorrisMo1922 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 63]; Myers1922 [distribution, taxonomy: 199]; Rao1939 [taxonomy: 60]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 104].



Eriochiton hoheriae Hodgson

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriochiton hoheriae Hodgson, 1994: 184-187. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: South Island, Nelson, Garden Valley, on Hoheria angustifolia, 08/08/1968, by J.A. de Boer. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Malvaceae: Hoheria angustifolia [Hodgso1994], Hoheria populnea [HodgsoHe1996].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (North Island [HodgsoHe1996], South Island [Hodgso1994]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Hodgson (1994). Hodgson & Henderson (1996) provide description of adult male, second-instar males and a pupa, as well as the phylogeny of the tribe Eriochitonini.

STRUCTURE: Adult male winged, robust, having well-developed legs and antennae and a stout penial sheath. Adult female is almost circular (Hodgson & Henderson, 1996).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: ventral microducts in broad band, extending medially at least half way to each coxa and nearly reaching base of antennae; small dorsal setae in 4 diverging lines anterior of anal plates; ventral microducts not extending medially between antennae (Hodgson & Henderson, 1996).

KEYS: Hodgson & Henderson 1996: 151 (adult female) [Adult females of the tribe Eriochitonini]; Hodgson & Henderson 1996: 152 (second instar) [Second-instar females of the tribe Eriochitonini]; Hodgson & Henderson 1996: 153 (second instar) [Second-instar males of the tribe Eriochitonini]; Hodgson 1994: 176-177 (female) [Adult females of Eriochiton species]; Hodgson 1994: 177 (second instar) [Second-instar females of Eriochiton].

CITATIONS: HenderHo1995 [behavior, illustration: 78]; Hodgso1994 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 184-187]; HodgsoHa2013 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 797]; HodgsoHe1996 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 143, 176]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 97]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 102]; NanDeWu2013 [phylogenetics: 173-174].



Eriochiton propespinosus Hodgson

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriochiton propespinosus Hodgson, 1994: 187-189. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: South Island, Reefton, Mawhera, on Lagarostrobus colensoi, 09/11/1972, by J.A. de Boer. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand; type no. 930. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Cassinia vauvillersii [Hodgso1994]. Podocarpaceae: Lagarostrobus colensoi [Hodgso1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (North Island [HodgsoHe1996], South Island [Hodgso1994]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description, phylogeny and illustration by Hodgson (1994).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: ventral microtubular ducts in marginal band 1-3 ducts wide; quinquelocular pores scarce medially between antennal bases and mouthparts and usually absent from mesad to each pro- and mesothoracic coxa; submargin with broad band of quinquelocular pores (Hodgson & Henderson, 1996).

KEYS: Hodgson & Henderson 1996: 152 (adult female) [Adult females of the Eriochitonini tribe]; Hodgson & Henderson 1996: 153 (second instar) [Second-instar males of the Eriochitonini tribe]; Hodgson 1994: 176-177 (other) [Adult female and second-instar male of Eriochiton].

CITATIONS: Hodgso1994 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 187-189]; HodgsoHe1996 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 143, 152, 153, 176]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 97]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 102-103].



Eriochiton pseudohispidus Hodgson & Henderson

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriochiton pseudohispidus Hodgson & Henderson, 1996: 176. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: Hauhungaroa Ra., on Neomyrtus pedunculata, 07/11/1984, by C.F. Butcher. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: both sexes. Illust.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Neomyrtus pedunculata [HodgsoHe1996].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (North Island [HodgsoHe1996], South Island [HodgsoHe1996]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Original description and illustration of adult male and female as well as subadults and pupae, as well as phylogeny by Hodgson & Henderson (1996).

STRUCTURE: Adult female is almost round with a shallow anal cleft. Prepupa seems to be similar to that of E. armatus but larger, total length of 865 µm. Adult male winged, robust, with well-developed legs and antennae and a stout penial sheath (Hodgson & Henderson, 1996).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: ventral microtubular ducts in broad marginal band extending medially between antennae; few dorsal spinose setae; group of spinose setae on venter anteriorly; long suranal setae (Hodgson & Henderson, 1996).

KEYS: Hodgson & Henderson 1996: 151 (adult female) [Adult females of the tribe Eriochitonini]; Hodgson & Henderson 1996: 152 (second instar) [Second-instar females of the tribe Eriochitonini]; Hodgson & Henderson 1996: 153 (second instar) [Second-instar males of the tribe Eriochitonini].

CITATIONS: HodgsoHe1996 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 151, 153, 176-182]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 97]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 103].



Eriochiton spinosus (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Ctenochiton spinosus Maskell, 1879: 212. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: on Atherosperma novae-zealandiae(=Laurelia novae-zealandiae). Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Hodgson & Henderson, 1996: 183. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand.

Eriochiton spinosus; Maskell, 1887: 47. Change of combination.

Eriochiton armatus; Brittin, 1916: 152. Incorrect synonymy.



HOSTS: Elaeocarpaceae: Aristotelia fruticosa [Hodgso1994]. Epacridaceae: Dracophyllum filifolium [Hodgso1994], Dracophyllum recurvum [Hodgso1994], Dracophyllum sp. [Hodgso1994], Leucopogon fasiculatus [Hodgso1994]. Griseliniaceae: Griselinia littoralis [Hodgso1994], Griselinia lucida [HodgsoHe1996], Griselinia sp. [Hodgso1994]. Lauraceae: Beilschmiedia tausa [Hodgso1994], Beilschmiedia tawaroa [HodgsoHe1996]. Monimiaceae: Hedycarya arborea [HodgsoHe1996], Laurelia novae-zealandiae [HodgsoHe1996], Laurelia sp. [Hodgso1994]. Myrsinaceae: Myrsine australis [HodgsoHe1996], Myrsine salicina [HodgsoHe1996]. Piperaceae: Macropiper excelsum [HodgsoHe1996]. Podocarpaceae: Prumnopitys ferrugineus [Hodgso1994]. Polygonaceae: Muehlenbeckia australis [Hodgso1994], Muehlenbeckia complexa [Hodgso1994], Muehlenbeckia sp. [Hodgso1994]. Rutaceae: Melicope sp. [Hodgso1994], Melicope ternata [Hodgso1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (North Island [Hodgso1994], South Island [Hodgso1994]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Hodgson (1994) and by Hodgson & Henderson (1996).

STRUCTURE: Adult female ovate, dark red, convex (Brittin, 1915). Generally brown, but color varies according to host plant (Hodgson & Henderson, 1996).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: 2 setae in each outer row of small dorsal setae on abdomen; sessile pores scarce or absent medially between antennal bases and mouthparts; 30-40 spinose marginal setae between eyespots; 3-4 pairs of spinose setae at anterior end of anal cleft (Hodgson & Henderson, 1996).

KEYS: Hodgson & Henderson 1996: 152 (adult female) [Adult female in the tribe Eriochitonini]; Hodgson & Henderson 1996: 153 (second instar) [Second-instar females of the tribe Eriochitonini]; Hodgson & Henderson 1996: 153 (second instar) [Second-instar males of the tribe Eriochitonini]; Hodgson & Henderson 1996: 154 (first instar) [First-instar nymphs of the tribe Eriochitonini]; Hodgson 1994: 176-177 (other) [Adult female, second instars and crawlers of Eriochiton species].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 103]; BenDovHoMi1997 [taxonomy: 203]; Britti1915 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 152]; Britti1916 [taxonomy: 425]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 329]; DeitzTo1980 [distribution, taxonomy: 32]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 127]; GwiazdVaDe2006 [phylogenetics: 16]; HenderHo1995 [illustration, taxonomy: 75, 83]; Hodgso1994 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 189-197]; HodgsoHe1996 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 143, 155-163]; KondoHaCo2006 [host, phylogeny: 23]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 97]; MacGil1921 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 175]; Maskel1879 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 212]; Maskel1880 [taxonomy: 292]; Maskel1882 [description, taxonomy: 218]; Maskel1885a [host: 25]; Maskel1887 [description, taxonomy: 47]; Maskel1887a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 86]; Miller1925 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 64]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 103-104]; MorrisMo1922 [taxonomy: 65]; Myers1922 [distribution, taxonomy: 199]; NanDeWu2013 [phylogenetics: 173-174]; Rao1939 [taxonomy: 60]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 105].



Eriococcus Targioni Tozzetti

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus Targioni Tozzetti, 1868: 726. Type species: Coccus buxi Boyer de Fonscolombe. Subsequently designated by Opinion, 1203, 1982: 95. Notes: The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature ruled that the type species of Eriococcus be C. buxi in Opinion 1203. A detailed history of the genus and its various possible type species was presented by Miller & Williams (1976).

Gossyparia; Signoret, 1875b: 20. Incorrect synonymy; discovered by Ferris, 1955a: 94. Notes: The unique distribution of the dorsal macrotubular ducts is not considered sufficient to treat Gossyparia as distinct from Eriococcus. This agrees with the concept of Ferris (1955a) and Williams (1985h).

Rhizococcus Signoret, 1875b: 16, 36. Type species: Rhizococcus gnidii Signoret, by monotypy. Synonymy by Ferris, 1955a: 94. Notes: Synonymy of this genus was a subjective decision. Some have treated it as valid (Borchsenius 1948) while others have treated it as a junior synonym (Hoy 1963).

Thekes Maskell, 1892: 28. Type species: Acanthococcus multispinus Maskell, by original designation. Synonymy by Ferris, 1955a: 94. Notes: Thekes was a manuscript name of Crawford's, used in print by Maskell in 1892. Cockerell (1897p) placed it as a subgeneric name in Eriococcus, but Morrison & Morrison (1922) doubted this placement. Thekes was placed definitely as a synonym of Eriococcus by Ferris (1955a and 1957c).

Gossyperia; Kuwana, 1907. Misspelling of genus name.

Criococcus; Rutherford, 1915: 110. Misspelling of genus name.

Gassyparia; Balachowsky, 1927: 189. Misspelling of genus name. Notes: This is a misspelling of Gossyparia.

Gossiparia; Chorbadzhiev, 1939. Misspelling of genus name.

Priococcus; Fulmek, 1943: 32, 60. Misspelling of genus name.

Anophococcus Balachowsky, 1954a: 61. Type species: Eriococcus inermis Green, by original designation. Synonymy by Hoy, 1963: 132. Notes: Synonymy of this genus was a subjective decision. Some have treated it as valid (Kosztarab & Kozár, 1988) while others have treated it as a junior subjective synonym of Eriococcus (Williams, 1985h).

Anothococcus; Ferris, 1955a: 94, 148. Misspelling of genus name. Notes: This is a misspelling of Anophococcus.

Acantococcus; Mitiaev, 1958: 79, 94. Misspelling of genus name. Notes: This is a misspelling of Acanthococcus

Eirococcus; Danzig, 1975a: 42. Misspelling of genus name.

Gocssyparia; Tang in Tang & Li, 1988: 211. Misspelling of genus name.

Gossyparisa; Tang in Tang & Li, 1988: 72, 74, 75. Misspelling of genus name.

Neokaweckia Tang & Hao, 1995: 596. Type species: Greenisca rubra Matesova, by monotypy and original designation. Synonymy by Miller & Gimpel, 1998. Notes: This genus is characterized as having dorsal cruciform pores, truncate body setae that occur on the last few abdominal segments, and a small anal ring. These characters are within the range of expected variation in the genus Eriococcus.

STRUCTURE: Important characters of this genus are: legs present, well developed; anal lobes well developed, protruding; antennae normally with six segments; macrotubular ducts present. (Williams, 2007a) on dorsum; enlarged setae often present on dorsal margin and in dorsomedial area.

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: well-developed legs and antennae; protruding anal lobes, usually with 3 or 4 enlarged setae; microtubular ducts; macrotubular ducts on dorsum and venter; enlarged setae at least on part of body margin, often covering dorsum and lateral areas of venter (Ferris, 1955a); cruciform pores (Miller & McKenzie, 1967). The status of various generic synonyms of Eriococcus is highly controversial and is treated differently by most coccidologists. We have taken the conservative view of treating most of these genera as synonyms of Eriococcus. A detailed phylogentic analysis needs to be undertaken to resolve this problem. Lindinger (1933a) erroneously considered Nidularia to be the senior synonym of Eriococcus. For discussion of this issue see the notes of Nidularia.In Kozár, et al., 2013, Anophococcus, Gossyparia, Gregoporia, Kaweckia, Keokaweckia, Rhizococcus and Uhleria were placed in the family, Acanthococcidae Signoret, 1875 and Eriococcus was placed in the family Eriococcidae, Singoret, 1875, but are here kept in Eriococcidae because placement of species.outside of the palaearctic are unclear.

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 617 (female) [Key to general of Eriococcidae]; Hardy et al. 2011: 502-504 (female) [Key to the adult females of genera of felt scales on Eucalyptus and Corymbia]; González 2008: 12 (female) [Key to genera of the family Eriococcidae in Argentina]; Kaydan & Kozár 2008: 6 (female) [Eriococcidae genera of the Western Palaearctic Region]; Kozár & Konczné Benedicty 2008: 140-142 (female, adult) [Modified key to genera of the Eriococcidae of Neotropical Region]; Kozár & Konczné Benedicty 2008a: 256 (female) [Key to Genera of Eriococcidae in Western Palaearctic Region]; Hardy & Gullan 2007: 108 (female, adult) [Key to the adult females of genera of felt scales on Eucalyptus and Corymbia]; Henderson 2007a: 3-4 (female, adult) [Key to genera of Eriococcidae in New Zealand (adult females) Modified from Henderson (2006)]; Williams 2007a: 1351 (female, adult) [Key to genera of New Caledonian Eriococcidae]; Miller 2005: 491 (female) [Genera of Eriococcidae of the Eastern U.S.]; Hodgson et al. 2004: 52 (female) [Key to the genera of Eriococcidae]; Hodgson & Miller 2002: 193 (female) [Key to adult females of genera and species of Eriococcidae known from Chile]; Tang & Hao 1995: 642 (female) [Key to genera of Eriococcina]; Miller, Liu & Howell 1992: 514 (adult female) [Instars of Acanthococcus and most Eriococcidae]; Gullan & Vranjic 1991: 26 (female) [Key to adult females of gum-tree eriococcids]; Kosztarab & Kozár 1988: 275, 287 (adult female) [Key to genera of Eriococcidae]; Williams 1985h: 352 (adult female) [Key to genera of British Eriococcidae]; Tereznikova 1982: 35 (adult female) [Key to genera of the Ukraine]; Wang 1982: 41 (adult female) [Key to Chinese species]; Wang 1982ZQ: 41 (adult female) [Eriococcus species of China]; Tereznikova 1981: 14, 52 (adult female) [Key to species of the Ukraine]; Danzig 1980b: 205 (adult female) [Species and subspecies of the far eastern USSR]; Wang 1980: 115 (adult female) [Eriococcus species]; Paik 1978: 164-165 (female) [Eriococcus species in Korea]; Miller & González 1975: 138 (adult female) [Key to the Chilean genera of the Eriococcidae]; Danzig 1971d: 820 (female) [Key to genera of Eriococcidae]; Danzig 1964: 632 (female) [Key to the Genera of Eriococcidae]; McDaniel 1964: 102 (adult female) [Eriococcus species of Texas]; Ferris, G.F. 1955a: 95 (adult female) [North American species of Eriococcus]; Borchsenius 1949: 321-322 (female) [Key to Eriococcinae genera of the USSR].

CITATIONS: Afifi1968 [taxonomy: 8]; AhmadGh1972 [distribution: 64]; Ali1970a [taxonomy: 75-76]; AlimdzBr1956 [distribution, host: 149]; AndersWuGr2010 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 996]; Archan1937 [distribution, taxonomy: 26-27, 128]; Arnett1985 [distribution, taxonomy: 239]; Bajoi1983 [distribution, host: 9]; Balach1942 [taxonomy: 42]; Balach1948b [taxonomy: 254]; Ballou1926 [distribution, host: 45]; Bartle1978b [biological control: 129-131]; Bazaro1962 [distribution, host: 53]; Beards1984 [taxonomy: 84, 85]; Berry1995 [biological control, distribution, host: 9]; Betrem1937 [distribution, taxonomy: 20, 25, 100]; Blanch1883 [taxonomy: 281-282]; Blanch1940 [biological control: 110, 118]; Bodenh1924 [taxonomy: 19]; Bodenh1944b [taxonomy: 93]; Bodenh1953a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 117]; Boraty1958 [taxonomy: 175]; BoratyWi1964 [taxonomy: 91]; Borchs1937 [distribution, taxonomy: 40, 59]; Borchs1937a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 19, 154]; Borchs1948 [taxonomy: 502]; Borchs1949 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 22-26,32-44,321-327]; Borchs1957 [taxonomy: 311]; Borchs1958b [taxonomy: 766, 773]; Borchs1960e [taxonomy: 920]; Brain1915 [description, taxonomy: 79, 85, 146]; Britti1938 [taxonomy: 330, 340]; Britto1920 [distribution: 63]; Brown1967 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 126-150]; Brown1975 [chemistry: 273]; BruesMeCa1954 [taxonomy: 167]; BrunerScOt1945 [taxonomy: 147]; BytinsSt1967 [distribution, host: 126]; Charli1972 [distribution, host: 216]; Cocker1894v [distribution, taxonomy: 1052]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 323, 324]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 391]; Cocker1899m [taxonomy: 276-277]; Cocker1905b [taxonomy: 192]; Comper1936 [taxonomy: 285]; Comsto1881a [description, taxonomy: 337-338]; CookGu2001 [description, taxonomy: 59-66]; CookGu2004 [taxonomy: 441]; CoxWi1987 [chemistry: 14]; Craw1896 [distribution, host: 40, 45]; Danzig1962a [description, taxonomy: 939-860]; Danzig1964 [distribution, taxonomy: 632]; Danzig1971d [taxonomy: 820]; Danzig1975a [taxonomy: 42]; Danzig1980b [description, taxonomy: 205]; Dethie1980 [distribution, host: 986, 987]; DietzMo1916a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 222-223]; Duelli1978 [illustration, structure: 417-427]; Efimof1937 [taxonomy: 13, 99]; Ehrhor1916 [taxonomy: 235]; Essig1931 [distribution, host: 294]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 70]; Ferris1919a [taxonomy: 17]; Ferris1920a [taxonomy: 61]; Ferris1920b [taxonomy: 14, 18, 22, 23]; Ferris1921b [taxonomy: 60, 91]; Ferris1922b [taxonomy: 246]; Ferris1937 [taxonomy: 5]; Ferris1941 [taxonomy: 6]; Ferris1955a [taxonomy: 94-94, 148]; Ferris1957b [taxonomy: 66]; Ferris1957c [distribution, taxonomy: 85]; Fleury1935a [taxonomy: 8]; FoldiKo2007 [taxonomy: 2]; Frogga1900 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 99-100]; Frogga1916 [taxonomy: 425]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, taxonomy: 71]; Frogga1921a [taxonomy: 46, 69]; Fullaw1923 [taxonomy: 305]; Fulmek1943 [biological control, distribution: 33]; Gerson1980 [illustration: 83, 85]; GhaniMu1974 [biological control, distribution, host: 10]; Gill1982a [distribution, host: 6]; Giraul1939 [biological control, distribution, host: 18]; GomezM1937 [description, taxonomy: 322, 345]; GomezM1948 [taxonomy: 97]; Gonzal2008 [taxonomy: 12]; Goux1944 [physiology: 135-152]; Goux1946b [taxonomy: 98-101]; Goux1948a [taxonomy: 67]; Goux1989a [taxonomy: 19-20]; Goux1990 [structure: 154, 156, 157, 158]; Green1904 [taxonomy: 69]; Green1917a [distribution, host: 261]; Green1922 [taxonomy: 345-347, 364]; Green1922b [description, taxonomy: 20]; Green1923b [description, distribution, taxonomy: 20]; Green1928 [description, taxonomy: 8-9]; GullanCo2001 [taxonomy: 92, 93, 95, 96]; GullanMiCo2005 [host, ecology: 166]; HardyBeGu2011 [host, taxonomy: 498,502-503]; HardyGu2007 [host, illustration, taxonomy: 106-108]; HardyGuHe2008 [taxonomy: 365]; Haywar1941 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 80-81]; Hempel1900a [taxonomy: 379]; Hempel1920 [taxonomy: 115]; HertinSi1972 [distribution, host: 132]; HodgsoGoMi2004 [taxonomy: 52]; HodgsoMi2002 [taxonomy: 193]; HodgsoMi2010 [taxonomy: 45]; Hollin1923 [distribution, taxonomy: 38, 65]; Hoy1949 [distribution, host: 321-322]; Hoy1953 [distribution, host: 1]; Hoy1954 [distribution, taxonomy: 465, 472]; Hoy1959 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 2]; Hoy1962 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 11-13,22-23,28-29,20]; Hoy1962a [distribution, host: 510, 512]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 62-66, 127]; Huber1986 [p. 222]; ICZN1982 [taxonomy: 95-98]; JohansBr1955 [distribution, host: 12]; Kamijo1983 [biological control: 578, 581]; Kaweck1957 [taxonomy: 198]; Kaweck1985 [taxonomy: 27]; KaydanKo2008 [taxonomy: 6]; KazimiGh1964 [distribution, host: 34]; King1902f [taxonomy: 286]; Kiritc1940 [description, taxonomy: 125-126]; Kirk1905 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 1-8]; Kirk1908 [description, distribution: 118]; Kirkal1902 [taxonomy: 102]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, taxonomy: 386-387]; Koszta1996 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 8,9,15-17,19,23,25,28.29,111.225-226,267]; KosztaKo1978 [description, taxonomy: 76]; KosztaKo1988F [description, distribution, taxonomy: 274,276-277,287,289,291,298]; Koteja1974 [taxonomy: 275, 295, 296, 297]; Koteja1974a [taxonomy: 248]; Koteja1980b [taxonomy: 589]; Koteja1986c [taxonomy: 27, 28]; KotejaZa1979 [distribution: 674]; Kozar2009 [distribution, host: 111,113,114]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 9,180,261,295,310,351,390,579,629]; KozarKo2008 [taxonomy: 142]; KozarKo2008a [taxonomy: 247-248, 256]; KozarWa1985 [taxonomy: 73]; KozarWiKo2009 [taxonomy: 1-2]; KozarWiKo2009 [phylogeny: 5]; Krauss1966 [distribution: 227]; KwonHa2003a [pp. 151-157]; Lawson1917 [description, taxonomy: 172]; Leonar1901a [taxonomy: 410, 416]; Leonar1911 [taxonomy: 248]; Leonar1920 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 426-442]; Lindin1911 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 358]; Lindin1923 [taxonomy: 140, 142, 146]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 78, 107-108]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 184]; Lindin1943a [taxonomy: 147]; Lindin1943b [taxonomy: 206, 219]; Lobdel1929 [taxonomy: 762]; MacGil1921 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 131, 145]; Mamet1942b [taxonomy: 152]; Mamet1951 [distribution, host: 214, 220]; Mamet1953 [taxonomy: 250]; Mamet1954 [taxonomy: 3, 8]; Maskel1879 [description, taxonomy: 218]; Maskel1880 [taxonomy: 298]; Maskel1884 [taxonomy: 134]; Maskel1887a [description: 92]; Maskel1889 [description: 104]; Maskel1890 [description, taxonomy: 145-146]; Maskel1893b [description, taxonomy: 45, 228]; Maskel1895a [distribution: 21-23]; Maskel1897 [taxonomy: 317-318]; McDani1964 [distribution, taxonomy: 101-104]; McKeow1945 [distribution: 338]; Miller1991 [taxonomy: 334]; Miller2005 [distribution, taxonomy: 491]; MillerGi1999 [taxonomy: 215]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, taxonomy: 105-110]; MillerGo1975 [description, taxonomy: 131]; MillerHo1997 [taxonomy: 239]; MillerLiHo1992 [taxonomy: 512-523]; MillerMi1992 [description, taxonomy: 2]; MillerMi1993 [description, taxonomy: 6-7, 72]; MillerWi1976 [taxonomy: 118-123]; MohammMoMo1997 [taxonomy: 203]; Morris1919 [description, taxonomy: 68]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy: 69]; Newste1903 [description, taxonomy: 195-198]; Nikols1934 [biological control, host: 134]; Nonell1935 [distribution, host: 283]; Nur1967a [pp. 159-163]; Otero1935 [taxonomy: 24]; OuvrarKo2009 [host, phylogeny, taxonomy: 101-118]; Parrot1900 [host, taxonomy: 135]; PooleGe1997 [distribution: 355]; PopenoPa1900 [taxonomy: 135]; Ramakr1930 [distribution: 55]; RauppDe1979 [distribution, host: 413-414]; Reyne1961 [taxonomy: 127]; Reyne1964 [taxonomy: 101]; RileyHo1889 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 345]; RusselSt1991 [biological control, illustration, host: 482]; Sander1904a [distribution, taxonomy: 30]; Schmut1952 [taxonomy: 405-406, 413, 555]; Sharip1979 [biological control, distribution: 389, 391]; Sharip1979a [biological control, distribution: 135]; Signor1870a [taxonomy: 283]; Signor1872 [taxonomy: 429]; SilvadGoGa1968 [distribution, host: 159]; Silves1939 [host, taxonomy: 683, 684]; Steinw1929 [taxonomy: 198-199, 214, 219]; Tachik1956 [distribution: 38]; Takaha1957 [distribution, host: 7]; Tang1977 [taxonomy: 40, 41]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 448, 596, 644]; Tao1978 [distribution, host: 108]; Targio1868 [description: 726]; Terezn1981 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 13, 48]; Terezn1982 [description, taxonomy: 34, 36]; Tranfa1981 [distribution, host: 18, 19]; TranfaEs1985 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 113]; TranfaMa1988 [taxonomy: 610]; TranfaPeMa1985 [taxonomy: 123]; Vayssi1927a [distribution, host: 4]; WakuFo1984 [taxonomy: 315, 318]; WakuMa1981 [taxonomy: 101]; Wang1974 [taxonomy: 329]; Wang1980 [description, taxonomy: 114-115]; Wang1982c [taxonomy: 118, 141, 142]; Wang1982ZQ [description, distribution, taxonomy: 20, 40-41]; Wang2001 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 207-209, 224-225]; Willia1969a [taxonomy: 325]; Willia1973 [taxonomy: 81]; Willia1985h [description, taxonomy: 347-393]; Willia1991DJ [taxonomy: 461]; Willia2007a [description: 1351]; WilliaBe2007a [description, distribution, host: 1351,]; WilliaWa1990 [description, taxonomy: 3, 5, 14, 45, 47-51]; Wise1977 [distribution, taxonomy: 96]; WoodwaEvEa1970 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 430]; Wray1967 [distribution, host: 157]; Xie1998 [taxonomy: 93]; Yang1982 [taxonomy: 100]; Zahrad1959a [taxonomy: 539, 540]; Zahrad1972 [distribution, taxonomy: 401]; Zimmer1948 [distribution, taxonomy: 282].



Eriococcus aconeae Henderson

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus aconeae Henderson, 2006: 39-40. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: Christchurch, Riccarton Bush on Pittosporum eugenioides, 9/26/1997 by R.C. Henderson. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Pittosporaceae: Pittosporum eugenioides Cunn [Hender2006].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand [new].

BIOLOGY: In pit with <10 eggs, 1-3 females in associated group of pit galls, gall opening on underside of leaves and covered with a small tent of brownish, felted covering. (Henderson, 2006)

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Henderson (2006).

STRUCTURE: Female pink. Diagnostic features are the very small size, the very small dorsal and marginal setae, the small almost membranous anal lobes and the 3rd antennal segment not longer than any other segment. (Henderson, 2006)

SYSTEMATICS: It is morphologically closest to Eriococcus parvulus Hoy but differs in the shape of the anal lobes (short, broadly based with truncate apex in E. parvulus), absence of dorsal macroducts on ventral margins, and presence of a denticle on the claw. (Henderson, 2006)

KEYS: Henderson 2006: 38-39 (female) [Revised key to genera of Eriococcidae in New Zealand (adult females) Modified from Hoy (1962)].

CITATIONS: Hender2006 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 39-40]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 97].



Eriococcus actius (Miller & Miller)

NOMENCLATURE:

Acanthococcus actius Miller & Miller, 1993: 9. Type data: UNITED STATES: Georgia, Camden Co., Cumberland, on unknown Gramineae, 06/06/1972, by R. Beshear. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Eriococcus actius; Miller & Gimpel, 1999: 213. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: seashore eriococcin [MillerMi1993].



HOSTS: Poaceae: Ammophila sp. [MillerMi1993], Andropogon sp. [MillerMi1993], Aristida gyrans, Aristida purpurascene [MillerMi1993].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Florida [MillerMi1993, Miller2005], Georgia [MillerMi1993, Miller2005]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Miller & Miller (1993).

STRUCTURE: No information available.

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae restricted to body margin; 3 or 4 setae on margin of each abdominal segment; 4 setae on hind tibia, 5 setae on front tibia; predominantly quinquelocular pores near vulva (Miller & Miller, 1993).

KEYS: Miller & Miller 1993: 9 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus; Acanthococcus species of the eastern United States].

CITATIONS: Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 97]; Miller2005 [distribution: 491]; MillerGi1999 [taxonomy: 213]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 116]; MillerMi1993 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 9-11]; PooleGe1997 [distribution: 354].



Eriococcus adenostomae Ehrhorn

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus adenostomae Ehrhorn, 1898: 244. Type data: UNITED STATES: California, Santa Clara Co., near Mountain View, on Adenostoma fasciculatum, date unknown, by E.M. Ehrhorn. Lectotype female (examined), by subsequent designation Miller & Miller, 1992: 7-9. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Nidularia adenostomatos; Lindinger, 1933a: 108. Described: female. Change of combination. Notes: This name is an unwarranted emendation.

Acanthococcus adenostomae; Miller & Miller, 1992: 7-9. Described: female. Illust. Change of combination.

COMMON NAMES: chamise eriococcin [Gill1993]; cottony greasewood scale [Essig1931]; greasewood eriococcus [CSCSH1914].



FOE: HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Aphycus clauseni [Peck1963].

HOSTS: Rosaceae: Adenostoma fasciculatum [MillerMi1992], Adenostoma sp. [MillerMi1992]

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (California [MillerMi1992]).

BIOLOGY: Occurs only on Adenstoma sp. in the chaparral areas of California (Miller & Miller, 1992).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Miller & Miller (1992). Gill (1993) also provides description, illustration and a color photograph.

STRUCTURE: Adult female oval. Newly formed females dark gray, fully gravid females deep red to purple. Crushed body contents purple. Ovisac is thick, white or yellowish-white (Miller & Miller, 1992).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae slightly curved, with blunt apices; large translucent pores on hind coxae; no cruciform pores (Miller & Miller, 1992).

KEYS: Gill 1993: 158-9 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus; Acanthococcus species of California]; Miller & Miller 1992: 4 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus; Adult females of Acanthococcus in the western United States]; Ferris 1955a: 95-97 (adult female) [North American species of Eriococcus].

CITATIONS: Balach1959a [structure: 365]; Carnes1907 [distribution: 172-173]; Cocker1898o [taxonomy: 246]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 391]; Cocker1900i [taxonomy: 595]; Ehrhor1898 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 244-246]; Essig1926 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 274]; Essig1931 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 614]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 70]; Ferris1918d [illustration, taxonomy: 23]; Ferris1920b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 7, 15]; Ferris1955a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 98]; Gill1993 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 157, 158-159, 176]; Hartma1916 [distribution, host: 94]; HertinSi1972 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 131]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 68]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 97]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 108]; MacGil1921 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 145]; MillerGi2000 [biological control, catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 117-118]; MillerMi1992 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 4, 7-9]; Peck1963 [biological control: 934]; PooleGe1997 [distribution: 354]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 5].



Eriococcus arctostaphyli Ferris

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus arctostaphyli Ferris, 1955a: 102. Type data: UNITED STATES: California, San Bernardino Co., Cajon, on Arctostaphylos sp., 29/08/1946, by P. DeBach. Lectotype female (examined), by subsequent designation Miller & Miller, 1992: 12. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus arctostaphyli; Miller & Miller, 1992: 12-14. Described: female. Illust. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: manzanita eriococcin [Gill1993, MillerMi1992].



HOSTS: Ericaceae: Arctostaphylos patula [Ferris1955a], Arctostaphylos sp. [MillerMi1992]

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (California [MillerMi1992], Oregon? [MillerMi1992], Washington? [MillerMi1992]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed descriptions and illustrations are presented by Ferris (1955a) and Miller & Miller (1992). Gill (1993) also provides an illustration and description.

STRUCTURE: No field features are available.

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae arranged in 3 longitudinal lines on each side of body, with each line formed by 1 enlarged seta on each abdominal segment that is conspicuously larger than other setae in area; enlarged setae with rounded or blunt apices; very similar to Eriococcus dubius (Miller & Miller, 1992).

KEYS: Gill 1993: 158 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus arctostaphyli; Acanthococcus species of California]; Miller & Miller 1992: 6 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus arctostaphyli; North American species of Acanthococcus in the western United States]; Ferris 1955a: 95-97 (adult female) [North American species of Eriococcus].

CITATIONS: Ferris1955a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 102]; Gill1993 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 158, 159-160]; Hoy1963 [catalog, distribution, host, taxonomy: 72]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 97]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 132]; MillerMi1992 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 6, 12-14]; PooleGe1997 [taxonomy: 354]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 6].



Eriococcus arenariae (Miller & Miller)

NOMENCLATURE:

Acanthococcus arenariae Miller & Miller, 1993: 13-15. Type data: UNITED STATES: South Carolina, Bamberg Co., between Bamberg and Aiken on Highway 78, on Arenaria caroliniana, 20/10/1977, by R.J. Beshear. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Eriococcus arenariae; Miller & Gimpel, 1999: 213. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: arenariae eriococcin [MillerMi1993].



HOST: Caryophyllaceae: Arenaria caroliniana [MillerMi1993].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (South Carolina [MillerMi1993, Miller2005]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Miller & Miller (1993).

STRUCTURE: No information available.

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae scattered over dorsum, all of approximately same size; enlarged setae cylindrical, with truncate or rounded apices; 2 or 3 setae on lateral margin of each abdominal segment; tibiae with 4 setae; anteromedial enlarged seta on anal lobe less than half as long as other anal-lobe setae (Miller & Miller, 1993).

KEYS: Miller & Miller 1993: 8 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus arenariae; Acanthococcus species in the eastern United States].

CITATIONS: Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 97]; Miller2005 [distribution: 491]; MillerGi1999 [taxonomy: 213]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 132-133]; MillerMi1993 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 8, 13-15]; PooleGe1997 [taxonomy: 354].



Eriococcus arenosus Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus arenosus Cockerell, 1897w: 514. Type data: UNITED STATES: New Mexico, 16/04/1897, by Cockerell. Lectotype female (examined), by subsequent designation Miller, 1991: 334-337. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Acanthococcus arenosus; Miller, 1991: 334-337. Described: female. Illust. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: sand eriococcin [MillerMi1992].



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Gutierrezia sp. [Miller1991]. Chenopodiaceae: Atriplex canescens [Miller1991], Atriplex sp. [Miller1991], Bassia hyssopifolia [Miller1991], Sarcobatus vermiculatus [Miller1991]. Fabaceae: Psoralea micrantha [Miller1991].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Arizona [Miller1991], Nevada [Miller1991], New Mexico [Miller1991], Oregon [Miller1991], Texas [Miller1991], Utah [Miller1991]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Descriptions and illustrations given by Miller (1991) and Ferris (1955a).

STRUCTURE: Adult female elongate to oval. Body varies from gray to light purple. Smooth, heavy, white ovisac may be intermixed with grains of sand (Miller, 1991).

KEYS: Miller & Miller 1992: 6 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus arenosus; Acanthococcus species of the western United States]; Miller 1991: 334 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus arenosus; Acanthococcus species that infest Atriplex]; Ferris 1955a: 95-97 (adult female) [North American species of Eriococcus].

CITATIONS: Cocker1897w [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 514]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 391]; Cocker1900i [taxonomy: 594-595]; Cocker1905b [taxonomy: 192]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 71]; Ferris1955a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 97, 104]; Gill1993 [distribution: 155]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 72]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 97]; MacGil1921 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 145]; McDani1959 [taxonomy: 137]; Miller1991 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 334-337]; Miller2005 [distribution: 491]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 133-134]; MillerMi1992 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 6, 14]; PooleGe1997 [distribution: 354]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 6]; Willia1985a [distribution, host: 217].



Eriococcus asteri Hua nomen nudum

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus asteri Hua, 2000: 137. Nomen nudum; discovered by Miller & Gimpel, 2002. Notes: Hua (2000) cites this species as Eriococcus asteri Signoret 1875 from Inner Mongolia. We have been unable to find any Signoret reference to this name.

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China (Nei Monggol (=Inner Mongolia) [Hua2000]).

CITATIONS: Hua2000 [distribution: 137].



Eriococcus aurescens Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus aurescens Cockerell, 1902t: 469. Type data: MEXICO: Jalisco, Platanas, on "Guasima", 04/08/?. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Acanthococcus aurescens; Miller, 1996: 79. Change of combination.



HOST: Ulmaceae: Celtis iguanea? [Ferris1955a].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico [Miller1996] (Jalisco [Cocker1902t]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Brief description by Cockerell (1902t). Subsequent and more detailed description with illustration by Ferris (1955a). The original host of this species was listed as "Guasima." Ferris (1955a) states that this common name most likely refers to Celtis iguanea.

STRUCTURE: No information available.

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, with acute apices, abundant over surface, all approximately same size (Ferris, 1955a).

KEYS: Ferris 1955a: 97 (adult female) [Eriococcus species of North America].

CITATIONS: Cocker1902t [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 469]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 72]; Ferris1955a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 97, 106]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 72]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 97]; MacGil1921 [distribution, host: 145]; Miller1996 [distribution: 79]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 136-137]; Willia1985a [distribution, host: 217].



Eriococcus barri (Miller)

NOMENCLATURE:

Acanthococcus barri Miller, 1991: 337-340. Type data: UNITED STATES: Nevada, Nye Co., 2 miles east of Tonopah, on Atriplex canenscens, 07/07/1968, by D.R. Miller & R.F. Denno. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Eriococcus barri; Miller & Gimpel, 1999: 213. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: Barr eriococcin [Gill1993].



HOSTS: Chenopodiaceae: Atriplex canenscens [Miller1991], Atriplex confertifolia [Miller1991], Atriplex sp. [Miller1991]

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (California [Gill1993], Idaho [Miller1991], Nevada [Miller1991], Utah? [Gill1993]).

BIOLOGY: This species is found only on Atriplex sp. and probably occurs through much of the Great Basin (Miller, 1991).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration given by Miller (1991).

STRUCTURE: Adult female body white or light yellow. Body is heavily coated with many short rods which give the white appearance. Ovisac is white and strongly woven (Gill, 1993).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae very abundant on dorsum, broad, with truncate or rounded apices; microtubular ducts with 1 sclerotization (Miller, 1991).

KEYS: Gill 1993: 158 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus barri; Acanthococcus species of California]; Miller 1991: 334 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus barri; Acanthococcus species that infest Atriplex].

CITATIONS: Gill1993 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 159, 161]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 97]; Miller1991 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 337-340]; MillerGi1999 [taxonomy: 213]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 142-143]; MillerMi1992 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 6, 19]; PooleGe1997 [distribution: 354].



Eriococcus beshearae (Miller & Miller)

NOMENCLATURE:

Acanthococcus beshearae Miller & Miller, 1993: 15-19. Type data: UNITED STATES: Florida, Archer, on Aristida sp., 29/05/1975, by R.J. Beshear. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Eriococcus beshearae; Miller & Gimpel, 1999: 213. Change of combination.



HOST: Poaceae: Aristida sp. [MillerMi1993]

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Florida [MillerMi1993], Georgia [MillerMi1993], South Carolina [MillerMi1993]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Miller & Miller (1993).

STRUCTURE: No information available.

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae curved and slender, apices slightly rounded; large-sized enlarged seta present around entire body margin, usually with 2 such setae on margin of each abdominal segment; other dorsal enlarged setae of same shape but smaller; hind tibia with 4 setae, front tibia with 5 (Miller & Miller, 1993).

KEYS: Miller & Miller 1993: 15-19 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus beshearae; Acanthococcus species in the eastern United States].

CITATIONS: Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 98]; Miller2005 [distribution: 491]; MillerGi1999 [taxonomy: 213]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 143-144]; MillerMi1993 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 8, 15-19]; PooleGe1997 [distribution: 354].



Eriococcus busariae Froggatt

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus busariae Froggatt, 1916: 427-428. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, "Nimitybelle" (Nimitybelle), on Bursaria spinosa. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Orange: Agricultural Scientific Collections Trust, New South Wales Agriculture, NSW, Australia. Described: female. Notes: Type depository information provided by Gullan (personal communication, June 10, 1996). Froggatt (1916) consistently misspelled the host Bursaria as Busaria in the original publication. According to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, if a name is consistently spelled incorrectly in the original publication, it must remain as originally spelled. Therefore, the correct spelling of the species epithet is busariae even though Hoy (1963) corrected it to bursariae.

Eriococcus bursariae; Hoy, 1963: 76. Misspelling of species name. Notes: The correct spelling of the host genus is Bursaria, but Froggatt misspelled it as Busaria and formed the species epithet to coincide. Hoy did not catch this error and misspelled Froggatt's form of the name. The correct spelling of the species epithet is busariae even though it is incorrectly formed.



HOST: Pittosporaceae: Bursaria spinosa [Frogga1916].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Frogga1916]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Brief description by Froggatt (1916).

STRUCTURE: Adult female is ochreous yellow and broadly oval (Froggatt, 1916).

SYSTEMATICS: According to Gullan (personal communication, 1996) this species has large-sized ducts typical of Eriococcus buxi.

CITATIONS: Frogga1916 [taxonomy: 427-428]; Frogga1921a [taxonomy: 74, 81]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 76]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 98]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 150].



Eriococcus buxi (Boyer de Fonscolombe)

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus buxi Boyer de Fonscolombe, 1834: 218. Type data: FRANCE: Aix-en-Provence, on Buxus sempervirens, ?/05/1834. Syntypes, female. Illust. Notes: Williams (1985h) notes that the type material has probably been lost (see remarks). Matile-Ferrero & Danzig visited the Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna in June of 1997 and were unable to locate any type material of this species.

Eriococcus buxi; Targioni Tozzetti, 1869: 726. Change of combination.

Nidularia buxi; Lindinger, 1935: 135. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: box scale [Kohler1998].



FOE: HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Metaphycus brachypterus [KosztaKo1988F].

HOST: Buxaceae: Buxus sempervirens [Boyerd1834].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Bulgaria [KosztaKo1988F]; Czechoslovakia [KosztaKo1988F]; France [Boyerd1834, Foldi2001]; Germany [Hoy1963]; Greece [KozarPaPa1991]; Italy [TranfaEs1985]; Romania [FetykoKoDa2010]; Russia [Hoy1963]; Spain [Hoy1963]; Switzerland [Hoy1963]; Turkey [KaydanUlEr2007]; Ukraine (Krym (=Crimea) Oblast [KosztaKo1988F]); Uzbekistan [KosztaKo1988F]; Yugoslavia [KosztaKo1988F].

BIOLOGY: This species is monophagus, it can often become a pest and has 2 generations per year in Crimea, overwinters as second instar. First generation females lay eggs in the first part of June, and second generation females lay in mid-August. Reproduction biparental (Kosztarab & Kozár, 1988).

GENERAL REMARKS: Original description by Boyer de Fonscolombe (1834) is in French. Detailed description and illustration by Kosztarab & Kozár (1988) and also by Tranfaglia & Esposito (1985). Hodgson (2002) used this species in a phylogenetic analysis of non-margarodid Coccoidea.

STRUCTURE: Ovisac grayish. Adult female ovoid, dark red (Kosztarab & Kozár, 1988). First instar nymph, Body oval. Antennae 6 segmented, segments with a few hair-like setae; apical segment also with 3 sensory falcate setae, two preapical segments also with 1 sensory falcate seta. Frontal lobe absent, frontal tubercle present. Eyes situated on venter near margin. Second instar female nymph body oval. Antennae 6 segmented, segments with a few hair-like setae; apical segment also with 3 sensory falcate setae, two preapical segments also with 1 sensory falcate seta. Frontal lobe and frontal tubercle present. Eyes situated on venter near margin.Second instar male nymph body oval. Antennae 6 segmented, segments with a few hair-like setae; apical segment also with 3 sensory falcate setae, two preapical segments also with 1 sensory falcate seta. Frontal lobe and frontal tubercle present. Eyes situated on venter near margin.(Kozár, et al., 2013)

SYSTEMATICS: The author of this species was incorrectly cited, in most pre-2000 publications, as "Fonscolombe". The correct name is "Boyer de Fonscolombe. "Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical with acute apices covering surface of dorsum, all approximately same size; microtubular ducts slender, single sclerotized area, orifice bifid; large tubular ducts on head only, smaller macrotubular ducts scattered over dorsum and lateral areas of venter (Williams, 1985h). "There seems to be no doubt about the identity of this species, even though the original material cannot be traced. The species was described from Aix-en-Provence and the specimens at hand collected in Orange, and from Lyons, not far from the type-locality, are considered by French workers to be this species. A further specimen is available from material collected in the south of France and this was identified by V. Signoret as E. buxi (Williams, 1958h)." Marginal setae of E. buxi are triangular and have enlarged tubular ducts, differing from all ofhter Eriococcidae genera and species known in the Palearctic Region, with longer narrow, spine=like dorsal setar. They are somewhat similar to spines of Eriococcus eucalypti Maskell 1892. (Ouvrard & Kozar, 2009)

KEYS: Kozár et al. 2013: 630 (female) [Key to species of Eriococcus]; Tranfaglia & Esposito 1985: 115 (adult female) [Eriococcus species of Italy]; Danzig 1971d: 821 (female) [Key to species of family Eriococcidae]; Afifi 1968: 202 (adult female) [as Eriococcus buxi]; Danzig 1964: 632 (adult female) [Eriococcus species of USSR].

CITATIONS: Afifi1968 [description, illustration: 175-178]; Archan1937 [taxonomy: 27, 140]; Atanas1959 [distribution, host: 427]; Balach1937 [distribution, taxonomy: 340]; BarbagBiBo1995 [distribution: 43]; BenDov1977b [taxonomy: 8]; BielenWe1990 [taxonomy: 377]; Borchs1934 [distribution, host: 13]; Borchs1936 [distribution, host: 111]; Borchs1937 [distribution, illustration: 60]; Borchs1937a [distribution, host: 11, 173, 175, 182]; Borchs1939a [taxonomy: 43]; Borchs1948 [taxonomy: 501]; Borchs1949 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 18, 33, 324-325]; Borchs1950b [distribution, host: 115]; Borchs1963a [distribution, host: 22, 158, 159]; Borchs1973 [distribution, host: 159]; Boyerd1834 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 218]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 323]; CookGu2001 [taxonomy: 60, 61, 63, 64]; CookGu2001 [phylogeny, structure: 61, 64]; CookGu2004 [taxonomy: 444]; Danzig1964 [taxonomy: 632]; Danzig1971d [taxonomy: 821]; Danzig1975a [taxonomy: 42]; Dziedz1977 [taxonomy: 5]; Eblako1938 [taxonomy: 75]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 72]; FetykoKoDa2010 [distribution: 296]; Foldi2001 [distribution, economic importance: 305, 307]; FoldiCa1985 [structure: 33-50]; Frogga1916 [taxonomy: 429]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host: 75]; Fulmek1943 [biological control, distribution: 32, 56]; Gaprin1950 [taxonomy: 250]; Gaprin1956 [taxonomy: 123, 135]; Gavalo1929 [distribution, host: 167]; Gavalo1932 [host, taxonomy: 134]; Gill1993 [taxonomy: 155]; GomezM1937 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 346-347]; GomezM1946 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 103]; GomezM1958a [distribution, host: 8]; GomezM1968 [distribution, host: 552]; Goux1931 [distribution, host: 331]; Goux1931a [distribution, host, life history: 72]; Goux1943b [distribution, life history: 128]; Goux1944 [host, taxonomy: 137]; Goux1990 [structure: 156]; GwiazdVaDe2006 [phylogenetics: 16]; Hadzib1941 [distribution, host: 183]; Hadzib1983 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 269]; HertinSi1972 [biological control, distribution, host: 131]; Hodgso2002 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 135]; HodgsoHa2013 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 797]; HodgsoHe1996 [taxonomy: 192]; Hoy1962 [taxonomy: 28, 29, 30]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 76-77]; ICZN1982 [taxonomy: 95-98]; KaydanUlEr2007 [distribution, host: 90-106]; Kiritc1928 [distribution, host: 112]; Kiritc1935 [distribution, host: 1]; Kohl1936 [taxonomy: 13]; Kohler1998 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 387]; KondoHaCo2006 [host, phylogeny: 23]; Korobi1967 [distribution, host, life history: 195]; KosztaKo1988F [biological control, description, distribution, host, illustration, life history, taxonomy: 287-289]; Koteja1974a [taxonomy: 248]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy: 77]; Koteja1986c [taxonomy: 27]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 97]; KozarGuBa1994 [distribution, host: 154]; KozarKaKo2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 630-635]; KozarPaPa1991 [distribution, host: 64]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 74]; KozarWiKo2009 [taxonomy: 1]; KreiteAuGe2006 [distribution, economic importance, host: 143]; Lindin1910 [taxonomy: 192]; Lindin1912b [host, taxonomy: 88]; Lindin1921 [distribution, host: 433]; Lindin1932 [taxonomy: 27]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 78]; Lindin1935 [taxonomy: 135]; Lindin1958 [taxonomy: 368]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 121]; LongoMaPe1999a [distribution: 145]; Marcha1908 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 253-255]; MarottTr1990 [distribution, host: 109-110]; Martin1985 [distribution, host: 91, 92]; Maskel1895a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 21]; Miller1991 [taxonomy: 333]; MillerGi2000 [biological control, catalogue, description, distribution, host, life history, taxonomy: 150-152]; MilonaKoKo2008a [distribution: 143-147]; NanDeWu2013 [phylogenetics, taxonomy: 171, 173]; Nikols1936 [taxonomy: 155]; NikolsYa1966 [biological control, distribution: 221]; OuvrarKo2009 [behaviour, distribution, host, phylogeny, taxonomy: 101-118]; OuvrarKo2009 [host, phylogeny, structure, taxonomy: 102-118]; PellizKo2011 [distribution: 66]; Pierce1917 [distribution, economic importance, host: 48]; Signor1869 [catalog: 845]; Signor1872 [taxonomy: 429]; Signor1875b [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 30]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 9]; Szklar1998 [host, physiology: 168, 171]; TangHa1995 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 417, 419, 461]; Targio1868 [taxonomy: 727]; Terezn1967a [distribution: 476]; Terezn1967b [behaviour, ecology, life history: 561]; Terezn1968b [distribution: 49]; Terezn1968c [distribution, host: 45]; Terezn1970 [distribution, host: 44]; Terezn1981 [taxonomy: 48]; Terezn1982 [distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 36]; TerGri1962 [distribution, host: 130, 157]; TerGri1966a [distribution, host: 372]; TerGri1969a [distribution, host: 6, 78, 79]; TerGri1983 [distribution, host: 877]; TranfaEs1985 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 121-123]; Tsalev1968 [taxonomy: 207]; Tudor1982 [biological control, host: 89]; Vayssi1927a [host: 5]; Willia1969 [taxonomy: 93]; Willia1985h [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 358, 361]; WilliaBe2009 [catalogue: 12]; Wouter1990 [chemistry: 69]; Yanin1975 [taxonomy: 45]; Zahrad1959a [taxonomy: 540]; Zahrad1977 [taxonomy: 121].



Eriococcus carolinae Williams

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus carolinae Williams, 1969: 90. Type data: UNITED STATES: North Carolina, Manteo, on Ammophila breviligulata, 17/08/1972, by D.A. Mount. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depositories: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA, and London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus carolinae; Miller & Miller, 1993: 19-21. Described: female. Illust. Change of combination.



HOST: Poaceae: Ammophila breviligulata [Fuzy1969].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Delaware [MillerMi1993], Maryland [MillerMi1993], New Jersey [MillerMi1993], North Carolina [MillerMi1993], Virginia [MillerMi1993]).

BIOLOGY: This species has two generations per year with eggs in the ovisac serving as the overwintering stage. First generation crawlers appear in April and second generation crawlers appear in late June or July. Adult females of the second generation complete egg laying in late September or early October. Males are common (Fuzy, 1969)(Miller & Miller, 1993).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Williams (1969) and by Miller & Miller (1993).

STRUCTURE: Adult female yellow; turning white prior to ovisac formation. Body lined with long crystalline rods. Ovisac is elongate, white and may contain 21-124 yellow eggs (Fuzy, 1969).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae nearly straight-sided, apices blunt or rounded, marginal setae conspicuously longer than other setae on abdomen; multilocular pores surrounding vulva predominantly with 7 or more loculi; largest dorsal sublateral or medial enlarged setae on posterior 3 abdominal segments more than 2.5 times longer than dorsal lateral enlarged setae (Miller & Miller, 1993).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: This species can be very destructive to the host if left unchecked for several years (Miller & Miller, 1993).

KEYS: Kosztarab 1996: 227 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus carolinae; Acanthococcus species of Northeastern North America]; Miller & Miller 1993: 7 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus carolinae; Acanthococcus species of the eastern United States].

CITATIONS: Cambel1971 [distribution, host, life history, taxonomy: 160]; CCNI1989 [taxonomy: 158]; Fuzy1969 [biological control, economic importance, description, distribution, host, illustration, life history, taxonomy: 1-109]; Koszta1996 [description, distribution, economic importance, host, illustration, life history, taxonomy: 227, 232-234]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 98]; Miller2005 [distribution: 491]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, economic importance, host, life history, taxonomy: 155-156]; MillerMi1993 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 7, 19-21]; PooleGe1997 [distribution: 354]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 9]; Willia1969 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 90-93].



Eriococcus casuarinae (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Gossyparia casuarinae Maskell, 1893b: 227. Type data: AUSTRALIA: on Casuarina sp., 1892, by A. Koebele. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Eriococcus casuarinae (originally described in Gossyparia) is the senior homonym of Rhizococcus casuarinae=Eriococcus chalazgamarum.

Nidularia casuarinae; Lindinger, 1933a: 108. Change of combination.

Eriococcus casuarinae; Miller & Gimpel, 2000: 156. Change of combination.



FOES: COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Chilocorus sp. [GordonHi1990], Rhyzobius forestieri [Richar1981].

HOST: Casuarinaceae: Casuarina sp. [Maskel1893b]

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia [Maskel1893b] (New South Wales [Frogga1915, DeitzTo1980]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration by Maskell (1893b). Type information by Deitz & Tocker (1980).

STRUCTURE: Adult females brown, varying from light to dark, elongate, convex, elliptical and resting on a cushion of grey cotton which leaves the insect almost entirely exposed. First-instar nymphs brown, flattish, elliptical (Maskell, 1893b).

SYSTEMATICS: Lindinger (1933a) realized when he synonymized the genera Rhizococcus, Eriococcus and Gossyparia with Nidularia that the species Gossyparia casuarinae Maskell (1893b) and Rhizococcus casuarinae Maskell (1893b) would be homonyms. As the first reviser, he apparently proposed the replacement name Nidularia chalazgamarum for Rhizococcus casuarinae and maintained Nidularia casuarinae for what Maskell considered to be Gossyparia. This action is fairly obscure in the Lindinger (1933a) publication and Hoy (1963) incorrectly interpreted it as an invalid replacement name.

CITATIONS: Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 324]; CookGu2004 [taxonomy: 444]; DeitzTo1980 [distribution, taxonomy: 45]; Frogga1915 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 1063]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 69]; Frogga1933 [distribution, host: 365]; GordonHi1990 [biological control: 287]; GwiazdNo2008 [phylogenetics: 16]; Hoy1962 [taxonomy: 22]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 128]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 98]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 108]; Maskel1893b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 227]; Maskel1895a [distribution, host: 21]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 156-157]; NanDeWu2013 [phylogenetics: 173]; Richar1981 [biological control, distribution: 35, 40]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 9].



Eriococcus chalazogamarum (Lindinger)

NOMENCLATURE:

Rhizococcus casuarinae Maskell, 1893b: 230. Type data: AUSTRALIA: on Casuarina suberosa. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Nidularia chalazogamarum; Lindinger, 1933a: 108. Change of combination and replacement name for Rhizococcus casuarinae Maskell 1893b.

Nidularia chalazgamarum; Hoy, 1963: 101. Misspelling of species name.

Eriococcus casuarinae; Hoy, 1963: 78. Change of combination.

Acanthococcus casuarinae; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 599. Change of combination.

Eriococcus chalazgamarum; Miller & Gimpel, 2000: 160. Change of combination and misspelling of species epithet.



FOES: COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Chilocorus sp. [GordonHi1990], Rhyzobius forestieri [Richar1981].

HOSTS: Casuarinaceae: Casuarina distyla [Frogga1915], Casuarina suberosa [Maskel1893b].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Richar1981], Victoria [Frogga1915]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description by Maskell (1892). Type information by Deitz & Tocker (1980).

STRUCTURE: Adult female varies in color from yellow to dark red. First instar nymphs are red and flattish, elliptical. Male unknown (Maskell, 1892).

SYSTEMATICS: Lindinger (1933a) realized when he synonymized the genera Rhizococcus, Eriococcus and Gossyparia with Nidularia that the species Gossyparia casuarinae Maskell (1893b) and Rhizococcus casuarinae Maskell (1893b) would be homonyms. As the first reviser, he apparently proposed the replacement name Nidularia chalazogamarum for Rhizococcus casuarinae and maintained Nidularia casuarinae for what Maskell considered to be Gossyparia. This action is fairly obscure in the Lindinger (1933a) publication and Hoy (1963) incorrectly interpreted it as an invalid replacement name.

CITATIONS: Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 324]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 391]; DeitzTo1980 [distribution, taxonomy: 45]; Frogga1915 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 1059]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 63-64, 67]; Frogga1933 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 365]; Fuller1897b [taxonomy: 1345]; GordonHi1990 [biological control: 287]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 78]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 98]; Maskel1893b [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 230-231]; Maskel1894 [taxonomy: 46]; Maskel1895a [distribution, host, taxonomy: 20]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 599]; MillerGi2000 [biological control, catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 160-161]; Richar1981 [biological control, distribution, host: 35, 40].



Eriococcus chilos (Miller & Miller)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus diaboli; Ferris, 1955a: 122-123. Described: female. Illust. Misidentification; discovered by Miller & Miller, 1993: 21-23. Notes: The New York specimens Ferris (1955a) collected were misidentified as Eriococcus diaboli.

Acanthococcus chilos Miller & Miller, 1993: 21-23. Type data: UNITED STATES: New York, Saratoga Springs, on unknown Gramineae, ?/08/1938, by G. Rau. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

COMMON NAME: grass eriococcin [MillerMi1993].



HOST: Poaceae [MillerMi1993].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (New York [MillerMi1993], Virginia [MillerMi1993]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Miller & Miller (1993). Ferris (1955a) had specimens which he identified as Acanthococcus diaboli, but Miller & Miller (1993) later identified these specimens as A. chilos.

STRUCTURE: Adult female elongate oval (Kosztarab, 1996).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, apices acute, dorsal setae all of 1 size, abundant over dorsal surface; with 20 or more cruciform pores between antennae and clypeolabral shield (Miller & Miller, 1993).

KEYS: Kosztarab 1996: 227 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus chilos; Acanthococcus species from Northeastern North America]; Miller & Miller 1993: 21-23 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus chilos; Acanthococcus species in the eastern United States].

CITATIONS: Ferris1955a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 122-123]; Koszta1996 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 227, 234-235]; KosztaRh1999 [distribution, host: 123]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 98]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 98]; Miller2005 [distribution: 491]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 162-163]; MillerMi1993 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 7, 21-23]; PooleGe1997 [distribution: 354].



Eriococcus cryptus Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus tinsleyi cryptus Cockerell, 1901h: 210. Type data: UNITED STATES: New Mexico, Las Vegas, 19/04/1901, by W.P. Cockerell. Unknown type status female, type designation unknown. Described: female. Notes: According to Miller & Miller (1992), they were unable to locate authentic type material of this species, but saw topotypic specimens.

Eriococcus cryptus; Cockerell, 1902t: 469. Change of status.

Nidularia crypta; Lindinger, 1933a: 108. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.

Acanthococcus cryptus; Miller & Miller, 1992: 23-26. Described: female. Illust. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: cryptic eriococcin [MillerMi1992].



ASSOCIATE: HYMENOPTERA Formicidae: Crematogaster sp. [MillerMi1992].

HOSTS: Asteraceae: Grindelia sp. [MillerMi1992], Gutierrezia dracuncubides [MillerMi1992], Gutierrezia microcephala [MillerMi1992], Gutierrezia sarothrae [MillerMi1992], Gutierrezia sp. [MillerMi1992], Gutierrezia texana [McDani1964], Machaeranthera sp. [MillerMi1992], Viguiera stenoloba [MillerMi1992]. Chenopodiaceae: Atriplex sp.? [MillerMi1992]. Zygophyllaceae: Larrea glutinosa [McDani1964].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico (Baja California Norte [Hoy1963], Baja California Sur [Ferris1955a]); United States of America (Arizona [MillerMi1992], California [MillerMi1992], Kansas [MillerMi1992], New Mexico [MillerMi1992], Texas [MillerMi1992]).

BIOLOGY: Crematogaster ants are frequently associated with this species (Miller & Miller, 1992).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed illustration and description given in Miller & Miller (1992). Two slides labeled "Eriococcus cryptus/ Las Vegas N.M. Jan. 1902, W.P. Cockerell (on roots of Gutierrezia sp.)" were examined. These specimens agree with the current concepts of the species and are as authentic as any material available (Miller & Miller, 1992).

STRUCTURE: Adult female oval. Newly formed adults dark gray; fully gravid females deep red. Ovisac white with eggs pink to red. Crystalline rods produced along lateral margin; these rods moderate in length and curved posteriorly (Miller & Miller, 1992).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae curved, conical, broad apices, larger setae in marginal areas, with 1 seta on lateral margin of each abdominal segment; microtubular ducts with 2 sclerotized areas (Miller & Miller, 1992).

KEYS: Gill 1993: 157 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus cryptus; Acanthococcus species of California]; Miller & Miller 1992: 5 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus cryptus; Acanthococcus species of the western United States]; McDaniel 1964: 103 (adult female) [as Eriococcus cryptus; Eriococcus species of Texas]; Ferris 1955a: 96 (adult female) [as Eriococcus cryptus; North American species of Eriococcus].

CITATIONS: Cocker1901h [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 210]; Cocker1902t [taxonomy: 469]; Cocker1905b [host, taxonomy: 192]; Ferris1921 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 66, 75]; Ferris1955a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 120-121]; FosterUeDe1981 [distribution, host: 451]; Gill1993 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 157, 162-163]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 83-84]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 98]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 108]; McDani1964 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 103]; Miller2005 [distribution: 491]; MillerGi2000 [biological control, catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 180-181]; MillerMi1992 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 5, 23-26]; Moreir1929a [taxonomy: 140]; PooleGe1997 [distribution: 354]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 12]; Wangbe1982 [biological control, distribution, host: 236]; Willia1985a [distribution, host: 218].



Eriococcus cultellus Hoy

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus cultellus Hoy, 1959: 14, 23. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, St. Ives, on Leptospermum squarrosum, 05/07/1956, by J.M. Hoy. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia. Described: female. Illust. Notes: There is also a paratype in the ANIC (Gullan, personal communication, October 27, 1998).

Acanthococcus cultellus; Miller & Gimpel, 1996: 600. Change of combination.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Leptospermum squarrosum [Hoy1959].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Hoy1959], Victoria [Hoy1959]).

BIOLOGY: Female ovisac occurring on the stem of host plant especially in crevices of the bark. Accompanied by copious growth of sooty mold fungi (Hoy, 1959).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Hoy (1959).

STRUCTURE: Female ovisac white and felted (Hoy, 1959).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae elongate, apices acute, marginal setae conspicuously longer than other dorsal setae, 2 setae on lateral margin of each abdominal segment; posterior abdominal segments nodulose dorsally (Hoy, 1959).

KEYS: Pellizzari & Germain 2010: 52 (female) [Key to the 7 eriococcid species known to occur on Leptospermum spp.]; Hoy 1959: 23 (adult female) [Eriococcus species known to occur on Leptospermum spp. in Australia].

CITATIONS: Hoy1959 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 14, 23]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 84]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 98]; MillerGi1996 [taxonomy: 600]; MillerGi2000 [biological control, catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 181-182]; PellizGe2010 [host, taxonomy: 51,52].



Eriococcus cypraeaeformis Fuller

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus cypraeaeformis Fuller, 1897b: 1345. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Western Australia, Swan River, on Casuarina, by C. Fuller sp. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Notes: 1 specimen from Cockerell collection in USNM. There is one slide containing three adult females in BMNH.

Nidularia cypraeiformis; Lindinger, 1933a: 108. Change of combination. Notes: This is also a misspelling of the species epithet.



HOST: Casuarinaceae: Casuarina sp. [Fuller1897b]

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Western Australia [Fuller1899]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Original description in Fuller (1897b) but a more detailed description with illustration is in his 1899 publication.

STRUCTURE: Female sac is oval, very convex, smooth and shiny. Second stage female is naked and green (Fuller, 1899).

CITATIONS: Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 391]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 73]; Frogga1921a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 78]; Frogga1933 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 367]; Fuller1897b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 1345]; Fuller1899 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 440]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 84]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 98]; Lindin1933a [taxonomy: 108]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 184]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 12].



Eriococcus davidsoni (Miller & Miller)

NOMENCLATURE:

Acanthococcus davidsoni Miller & Miller, 1993: 25-27. Type data: UNITED STATES: Florida, Highlands, Archbold Research Station, on Panicum sp., 28/4/1975, by R.F. Denno & J.A. Davidson. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Eriococcus davidsoni; Miller & Gimpel, 1999: 213. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: Davidson eriococcin [MillerMi1993].



HOST: Poaceae: Panicum sp. [MillerMi1993]

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Florida [MillerMi1993]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration by Miller & Miller (1993).

STRUCTURE: No information available.

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae nearly cylindrical, elongate, apices truncate or rounded; largest dorsal enlarged setae in longitudinal line in submarginal area with 3 or 4 large setae on each abdominal segment; dorsal multilocular pores (Miller & Miller, 1993).

KEYS: Miller & Miller 1993: 8 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus davidsoni; Acanthococcus species of the eastern United States].

CITATIONS: Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 98]; Miller2005 [distribution: 491]; MillerGi1999 [taxonomy: 213]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 186-187]; MillerMi1993 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 8, 25-27]; PooleGe1997 [distribution: 354].



Eriococcus dennoi (Miller & Miller)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus n. sp. Denno, 1977: 362. Unavailable name.

Acanthococcus dennoi Miller & Miller, 1993: 27-31. Type data: UNITED STATES: New Jersey, Ocean Co., two miles E. of Manahawkin off Stafford Ave., on Spartina patens, 17/07/1974, by R.F. Denno. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Eriococcus dennoi; Miller & Gimpel, 1999: 213. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: Denno eriococcin [MillerMi1993].



HOSTS: Poaceae: Distichlis spicata [MillerMi1993], Spartina alterniflora [MillerMi1993], Spartina patens [MillerMi1993], Spartina sp. [MillerMi1993]

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Alabama [MillerMi1993], Florida [MillerMi1993], Georgia [MillerMi1993], New Jersey [MillerMi1993], South Carolina [MillerMi1993], Virginia [MillerMi1993]).

BIOLOGY: Ovisacs produced on Spartina leaf blades. This species appears to have a single generation each year (Miller & Miller, 1993). Denno (1977) cites "small numbers of both adult males and females appeared during May, followed in early June by a large flux or crawlers that developed into 2nd instars by July. After July, the population of nymphs in samples decreased rapidly, due probably to a combination of dispersal, mortality and settling deep into the grass where they overwintered. Apparently, larger nymphs become active again in April when they move to the new grass shoots to complete development. At this time they are again retrieved in samples as evidenced by a spring peak of nymphs prior to the appearance of adults."

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Miller & Miller (1993).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae on posterior abdominal segments with blunt or rounded apices, setae on anterior thorax with acute apices, 2 setae on margin of each abdominal segment; medial enlarged setae on anal lobes cylindrical, of different shape than outer anal lobe setae; 4 setae on each tibia (Miller & Miller, 1993).

KEYS: Kosztarab 1996: 228 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus dennoi; Acanthococcus species of Northeastern North America]; Miller & Miller 1993: 8 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus dennoi; Acanthococcus species of the eastern United States].

CITATIONS: Denno1977 [distribution, host: 362, 365]; Koszta1996 [description, distribution, host, illustration, life history, taxonomy: 228, 236, 237]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 98]; Miller2005 [distribution: 491]; MillerGi1999 [taxonomy: 213]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, life history, taxonomy: 188]; MillerMi1993 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 8, 27-31]; PooleGe1997 [distribution: 354]; RauppDe1979 [biology, distribution: 413, 414].



Eriococcus diaboli Ferris

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus diaboli Ferris, 1955a: 122-123. Type data: UNITED STATES: California, Rock City Camp, Mt. Diablo, in a Pogonomyrex sp. ant nest, 23/04/1939, by P. Ting. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus diaboli; Miller & Miller, 1992: 26-29. Described: female. Illust. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: Mount Diablo eriococcin [MillerMi1992, Gill1993].



ASSOCIATE: HYMENOPTERA Formicidae: Pogonomymex sp. [Ferris1955a].

HOSTS: Poaceae: Hordeum leporinum [MillerMi1992], Oryzopsis hymenoides [MillerMi1992], Sitanion sp. [MillerMi1992], Stipa sp. [MillerMi1992], Triticum aestivum [MillerMi1992].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (California [MillerMi1992], Oregon [MillerMi1992]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Early description and illustration provided by Ferris (1955a). Later description and illustration in Miller & Miller (1992).

STRUCTURE: Body is light gray; ovisac tough, felted, encloses female and orange eggs (Miller & Miller, 1992).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae of 2 distinct sizes, large size conical and with acute apices, smaller size conical and with rounded apices, both sizes scattered over surface; with few cruciform pores in area between antennal bases and clypeolabral shield; microtubular ducts short, with 2 sclerotized areas(Miller & Miller, 1992). Ferris (1955a) named this species "diaboli" after Mt. Diablo, but misspelled the species epithet. Specimens of E. chilos from New York were misidentified by Ferris (1955a) as Eriococcus diaboli.

KEYS: Gill 1993: 158 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus diaboli; Acanthococcus species of California]; Miller & Miller 1992: 6 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus diaboli; Acanthococcus species in the western United States]; Ferris 1955a: 95 (adult female) [North American species of Eriococcus].

CITATIONS: Ferris1955a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 122-123]; Gill1993 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 158, 163]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 86]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 192-193]; MillerMi1992 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 6, 26-29]; PooleGe1997 [distribution: 354]; Takaha1957 [taxonomy: 7]; Willia1969 [taxonomy: 91].



Eriococcus dombeyae González

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus dombeyae González, 2008a: 50-56. Type data: ARGENTINA: Rio Negro, Ventisquero Negro, Cerro Tronador, on Nothofagus dombeyi, 1/1/1999, by Willink. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Tucuman: Fundacion e Instituto Miguel Lillo, Universidade Nactional de Tucuman, Argentina. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Fagaceae: Nothofagus dombeyi [Gonzal2008a].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina (Chubut [Gonzal2008a], Neuquen [Gonzal2008a], Rio Negro [Gonzal2008a]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in González, 2008a.

STRUCTURE: Adult female dorsum with maily large blunt, spinose setae, but very small dorsal setae also present on posterior abdominal segments. Microtubular ducts scarse on both dorsum and venter; macrotubular ducts rather variable in shape and size; cruciform pores absent; loculate pores restricted to medial area on abdomen and near each spiracle. Anal lobes sclerotised and distinct, each with one spinose ventral seta. Suranal setae spinose. Hind coxae, femora and tibia with translucent pores; claw without denticle; claw digitules dissimilar.

SYSTEMATICS: Adult females are similar to those of Madarococcus chilensis, Eriococcus navarinoensis and E. rhadinothrix. Hoever, E. dombeyae differes from M. Chilensis in having 1) numverous dorsal setae, 2) each of abdominal segments V-VII with three marginal setae, 3) dorsal posterior segments of abdomen with pairs of minute setae, and 4) small pores present on tibia. E. dombeyae differs from E. navarinoensis in having 1) dorsal setae on thorax and cephalic regions similar to those on abdominal margin and 2) quinquelocular pores restricted to medially on abdomen and near each spiracle. E. dombeyae differs from E. rhadinotrhix in having 1) quinquelocular pores more or less restricted to medial area on abdomen and near each spiracle; 2) posterior three abdominal segments with three marginal setae, and 3) small pores present on each hind tibia.

KEYS: González 2008a: 51 (female) [Key to species of Eriococcus from the Patagonian Andean forests in Argentina].

CITATIONS: Gonzal2008a [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure: 51-53]; HodgsoMi2010 [taxonomy: 99]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 98].



Eriococcus droserae (Miller, Liu & Howell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Acanthococcus droserae Miller, Liu & Howell, 1992: 512-523. Type data: UNITED STATES: Georgia, Ware Co., On Drosera sp., 16/08/1972, by R. Beshear. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: both sexes. Illust.

Eriococcus droserae; Miller & Gimpel, 1999: 213. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: sundew eriococcin [MillerLiHo1992].



HOSTS: Droseraceae: Drosera sp. [MillerLiHo1992]. Liliaceae: Aletris farinosa [MillerLiHo1992], Aletris lutea? [MillerLiHo1992].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Florida [MillerLiHo1992], Georgia [MillerLiHo1992]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustrations including first instar, both sexes of second instar and both sexes of adults by Miller, Liu & Howell (1992). Miller & Miller (1993a) include this species in a phylogenetic analysis of eriococcids, kermesids and other families of scale insects.

STRUCTURE: Adult body is pink, adult females form white ovisacs (Miller et al., 1992).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae short, broadly conical, with rounded apices, present around body margin and in medial longitudinal line, with 2 setae on lateral margin of each abdominal segment; microtubular ducts short, with 2 sclerotized areas (Miller et al., 1992).

CITATIONS: Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 98]; KozarMi2001 [taxonomy: 244]; Miller2005 [distribution: 491]; MillerGi1999 [taxonomy: 213]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 194]; MillerLiHo1992 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 512-523]; MillerMi1993 [illustration, taxonomy: 8, 31]; MillerMi1993a [taxonomy: 247, 249]; MillerWi1995aDR [taxonomy: 200, 242]; PooleGe1997 [distribution: 354].



Eriococcus epacrotrichus (Miller & Miller)

NOMENCLATURE:

Acanthococcus epacrotrichus Miller & Miller, 1992: 33-36. Type data: UNITED STATES: Oregon, Klamath Co., 12 miles NE of Olene, on Artemisia sp., 02/08/1968, by D.R. Miller & R.F. Denno. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Eriococcus epacrotrichus; Miller & Gimpel, 1999: 213. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: pointed hair eriococcin [MillerMi1992, Gill1993].



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Artemisia arbuscula [MillerMi1992], Artemisia californica [MillerMi1992], Artemisia sp. [MillerMi1992], Artemisia tridentata [MillerMi1992].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico (Baja California Norte [MillerMi1992]); United States of America (California [MillerMi1992], Idaho [MillerMi1992], Nevada [MillerMi1992], Oregon [MillerMi1992], Washington [MillerMi1992]).

BIOLOGY: This species occurs on the foliage and bark of its host and lays from 90-157 orange yellow eggs (Miller & Miller, 1992).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Miller & Miller (1992).

STRUCTURE: Adult female is covered with many short cyrstalline rods of approximately the same size. Body is dark purple with dark yellow legs. Ovisac noticeably tough and frequently produced under the bark of host (Miller & Miller, 1992).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, apices acute, setae unusually abundant, of 2 sizes scattered over dorsal surface; microtubular ducts short, with 2 sclerotized areas (Miller & Miller, 1992).

KEYS: Gill 1993: 158 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus epacrotrichus; Acanthococcus species of California]; Miller & Miller 1992: 5 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus epacrotrichus; Acanthococcus species in the western United States].

CITATIONS: Gill1993 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 158, 164]; MillerGi1999 [taxonomy: 213]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 198-199]; MillerMi1992 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 5, 33-36]; PooleGe1997 [distribution: 354].



Eriococcus eriogoni Ehrhorn

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus eriogoni Ehrhorn, 1911: 276. Type data: UNITED STATES: Arizona, Flagstaff, on Eriogonum sp. Lectotype female (examined), by subsequent designation Miller, 1991: 340. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Eriococcus sidae Ferris, 1955a: 160. Type data: UNITED STATES: Texas, El Paso, on Sida hederacea, by G.F. Ferris. Syntypes, female (examined). Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Miller, 1991: 340.

Acanthococcus eriogoni; Miller, 1991: 340. Described: female. Illust. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: eriogonum eriococcin [Miller1991].



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Gutierrezia sp. [Miller1991], Haplopappus acradenius [Miller1991], Palafoxia linearis [Miller1991]. Cactaceae: Echinopsis sp. [Miller1991]. Caryophyllaceae: Paronychia jamesii [Miller1991]. Chenopodiaceae: Atriplex sp. [Miller1991], Ceratoides lanata [Miller1991]. Ephedraceae: Ephedra californica [Miller1991]. Euphorbiaceae: Croton sp. [Miller1991]. Malvaceae: Sida hederae [Miller1991]. Onagraceae: Meriolix serrulata [Miller1991]. Polygonaceae: Eriogonum deflexum [Miller1991], Eriogonum inflatum [Miller1991], Eriogonum sp. [Miller1991], Eriogonum stellatum [Hoy1963], Eriogonum wrightii [Miller1991].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Arizona [Miller1991], California [Miller1991], Florida [Miller1991], Nevada [Miller1991], Texas [Miller1991]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration given by Miller (1991). Additional descriptions given by Ferris (1955a) under the names Eriococcus sidae and Eriococcus eriogoni

STRUCTURE: Adult female is oval. Newly formed adults vary from gray to green, becoming red with age (Miller, 1991).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae curved, conical, with rounded apices, setae all of approximately same size, abundant over dorsal surface; microtubular ducts medium in length, with 2 sclerotized areas (Miller, 1991).

KEYS: Gill 1993: 158 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus eriogoni; Acanthococcus species of California]; Miller & Miller 1993: 7 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus eriogoni; Acanthococcus species of the eastern United States]; Miller & Miller 1992: 6 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus eriogoni; Acanthococcus species of the eastern United States]; Miller 1991: 334 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus eriogoni; Acanthococcus species that infest Atriplex]; McDaniel 1964: 103 (adult female) [as Eriococcus sidae; Eriococcus species of Texas]; Ferris 1955a: 96 (adult female) [as Eriococcus sidae; North American species of Eriococcus].

CITATIONS: Ehrhor1911 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 276]; Ferris1955a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 96, 126, 160]; Gill1993 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 159, 164]; Gonzal2009 [taxonomy: 134]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 88, 116]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy: 77]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 99]; MacGil1921 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 140, 145]; McDani1964 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 105]; Miller1991 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 340-343]; Miller2005 [distribution: 491]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 201-202]; MillerLiHo1992 [illustration: 512]; MillerMc1967 [distribution, host: 491]; MillerMi1992 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 6, 36]; MillerMi1993 [distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 7, 31]; PooleGe1997 [distribution: 354]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 14].



Eriococcus euphorbiae Ferris

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus euphorbiae Ferris, 1955a: 128. Type data: UNITED STATES: California, Riverside Co., 13 miles NW of Indio, on Euphorbia polycarpa, by P.H. Timberlake. Lectotype female (examined), by subsequent designation Miller & Miller, 1992: 36-40. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Eriococcus plucheae Ferris, 1955a: 154. Type data: UNITED STATES: Texas, between Fabens and El Paso, on Pluchea sp. Syntypes, female (examined). Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Miller & Miller, 1992: 36-40.

Acanthococcus euphorbiae; Miller & Miller, 1992: 36-40. Described: female. Illust. Change of combination.

Eriococcus euphoriae; Miller, 2005: 491. Misspelling of species name.

COMMON NAME: euphorbia eriococcin [MillerMi1992].



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Artemisia sp. [MillerMi1992], Chrysothamnus sp. [MillerMi1992], Gutierrezia sp. [MillerMi1992], Pluchea sp. [Hoy1963]. Euphorbiaceae: Euphorbia polycarpa [Hoy1963], Euphorbia sp. [MillerMi1992]. Malvaceae: Gossypium sp. [MillerMi1992]. Polygonaceae: Eriogonum sp. [MillerMi1992]. Portulacaceae: Talinum sp. [MillerMi1992]

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Arizona [MillerMi1992], California [MillerMi1992], Idaho [MillerMi1992], Nevada [MillerMi1992], Texas [MillerMi1992]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most comprehensive descriptions and illustrations by Ferris (1955a) and Miller & Miller (1992).

STRUCTURE: Body is oval. Newly formed adult female is grayish-purple to green; gravid and overwintering females are deep red. Ovisac is white, felted (Miller & Miller, 1992).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, with rounded apices, marginal setae noticeably larger than other setae on dorsum; microtubular ducts short, with 2 sclerotized areas (Miller & Miller, 1992).

KEYS: Gill 1993: 157 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus euphorbiae; Acanthococcus species of California]; Miller & Miller 1993: 8 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus euphorbiae; Acanthococcus species of the eastern United States]; Miller & Miller 1992: 6 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus euphorbiae; Acanthococcus species in the western United States]; McDaniel 1964: 104 (adult female) [as Eriococcus plucheae; Eriococcus species of Texas]; Ferris 1955a: 97 (adult female) [as Eriococcus plucheae; North American species of Eriococcus].

CITATIONS: Ferris1955a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 128, 154]; Gill1993 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 157, 164]; Gonzal2009 [taxonomy: 134]; Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 89, 109]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 99]; McDani1964 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 104]; Miller2005 [distribution: 491]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 204-205]; MillerMi1992 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 5, 6, 36-40]; MillerMi1993 [distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 7, 8, 31]; MillerMiSc1973 [taxonomy: 7]; PooleGe1997 [distribution: 354]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 14]; Willia1969 [taxonomy: 91].



Eriococcus froebeae (Miller)

NOMENCLATURE:

Acanthococcus froebeae Miller, 1991: 343-345. Type data: UNITED STATES: California, San Bernardino Co., 5 miles N of Baker, on Franseria sp., 13/04/1963, by D.R. Miller. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Eriococcus froebeae; Miller & Gimpel, 1999: 213. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: Froebe eriococcin [Miller1991].



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Franseria sp. [Miller1991]. Chenopodiaceae: Atriplex sp. [Miller1991]

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (California [Miller1991]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Most detailed description and illustration in Miller (1991).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, apices rounded, of 2 sizes, scattered over dorsum, 4 setae on each anal lobe; microtubular ducts small, with 2 sclerotized areas (Miller & Miller, 1992).

KEYS: Gill 1993: 156 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus froebeae; Acanthococcus species of California]; Miller & Miller 1992: 3 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus froebeae; Acanthococcus sp. in the western United States]; Miller 1991: 334 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus froebeae; Acanthococcus sp. that infest Atriplex].

CITATIONS: Gill1993 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 156, 165]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 99]; Miller1991 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 343-345]; MillerGi1999 [taxonomy: 213]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 211]; MillerMi1992 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 3, 43]; PooleGe1997 [distribution: 354].



Eriococcus gerbergi McDaniel

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus gerbergi McDaniel, 1959: 137-138. Type data: MEXICO: Distrito Federal, Londres, on Fraxinus sp., by T. Macias. Lectotype female (examined), by subsequent designation Miller & Miller, 1992: 42-44. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Acanthococcus gerbergi; Miller & Miller, 1992: 42-44. Described: female. Illust. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: Gerberg eriococcin [MillerMi1992].



HOSTS: Chenopodiaceae: Eurotia lanata [MillerMi1992]. Oleaceae: Fraxinus pennsylvanica subintegerrima [McDani1964], Fraxinus sp. [MillerMi1992]

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico (Distrito Federal [MillerMi1992]); United States of America (Arizona [MillerMi1992], Idaho [MillerMi1992], Nevada [MillerMi1992], Texas [McDani1964], Utah [MillerMi1992]).

BIOLOGY: Anal excretion is clear and often utilized by ants (Miller & Miller, 1992).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration provided in McDaniel (1959). Miller & Miller (1992) give a detailed illustration and description.

STRUCTURE: Adult female is rotund. Fully gravid females are dark purple with body contents bright red (Miller & Miller, 1992).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae nearly cylindrical, apices truncate, of 1 general size, scattered over entire dorsum; microtubular ducts distinctive, with apical sclerotized area with 2 "humps" (Miller & Miller, 1992).

KEYS: Miller & Miller 1992: 4 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus gerbergi; Acanthococcus species in the western United States]; McDaniel 1964: 103 (adult female) [Eriococcus species of Texas].

CITATIONS: Hoy1963 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 91]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 99]; McDani1959 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 137-138]; McDani1963 [taxonomy: 112]; Miller1996 [distribution: 79]; Miller2005 [distribution: 491]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 213]; MillerMi1992 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 4, 42-44]; PooleGe1997 [distribution: 354]; StoetzMi1979 [taxonomy: 16].



Eriococcus howelli (Miller & Miller)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus kemptoni; Trimble, 1928: 43. Misidentification; discovered by Miller & Miller, 1993: 36-39.

Acanthococcus howelli Miller & Miller, 1993: 36-39. Type data: UNITED STATES: Connecticut, Woodmont, on Andropogon virginicus, 20/09/1944, by G. Rau. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.

COMMON NAME: Howell eriococcin [MillerMi1993].



HOSTS: Fagaceae: Quercus stellata [MillerMi1993]. Pinaceae: Pinus elliottii [MillerMi1993]. Poaceae: Ammophila breviligulata [MillerMi1993], Andropogon sp. [MillerMi1993], Andropogon virginicus [MillerMi1993], Aristida sp. [MillerMi1993], Panicum sp. [MillerMi1993]

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Connecticut [MillerMi1993], Florida [MillerMi1993], Georgia [MillerMi1993], Pennsylvania [MillerMi1993], South Carolina [MillerMi1993], Virginia [MillerMi1993]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration by Miller & Miller (1993).

STRUCTURE: Field features unknown (Miller & Miller, 1993).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae conical, apices acute, setae of 1 variable size; anal lobes each with 4 conical setae; microtubular ducts short with 2 sclerotized areas (Miller & Miller , 1993).

KEYS: Kosztarab 1996: 227 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus howelli; Acanthococcus species of Northeastern North America]; Miller & Miller 1993: 36-39 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus howelli; Acanthococcus species of the eastern United States].

CITATIONS: Koszta1996 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 227, 238-241]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 99]; Miller2005 [distribution: 491]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 232]; MillerMi1993 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 7, 36]; PooleGe1997 [distribution: 354]; Trimbl1928 [distribution, host: 43].



Eriococcus hoyi (Miller & Miller)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriococcus kemptoni; Ferris, 1955a: 134-135. Described: female. Illust. Misidentification; discovered by Miller & Miller, 1992: 47. Notes: Incorrectly described by Ferris (1955a) as Eriococcus kemptoni.

Acanthococcus hoyi Miller & Miller, 1992: 44-48. Type data: UNITED STATES: Texas, Fort Davis, on Bouteloua sp., by Ferris, 1921. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Eriococcus hoyi; Miller & Gimpel, 1999: 214. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: Hoy eriococcin [MillerMi1992].



HOST: Poaceae: Bouteloua sp. [MillerMi1992]

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Arizona [MillerMi1992], California [MillerMi1992], Colorado [MillerMi1992], New Mexico [MillerMi1992], Texas [MillerMi1992]).

BIOLOGY: Assumed to infest grass blades and sheaths as an immature and to produce an ovisac on leaf blades as an adult (Miller & Miller, 1992).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration given in Miller & Miller (1992). Incorrectly described and illustrated as Eriococcus kemptoni by Ferris (1955a).

SYSTEMATICS: Slide-mounted adult female with: enlarged setae cylindrical, apices truncate, marginal setae conspicuously larger than other setae on dorsum or with large setae along margin and in medial area, with 2 rarely 3 lateral setae on margin of each abdominal segment; microtubular ducts short, with 2 sclerotized areas (Miller & Miller, 1992).

KEYS: Gill 1993: 157 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus hoyi; Acanthococcus species of California]; Miller & Miller 1992: 5 (adult female) [as Acanthococcus hoyi; Acanthococcus species in the western United States]; Ferris 1955a: 95 (adult female) [as Eriococcus kemptoni; North American species of Eriococcus].

CITATIONS: Ferris1955a [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 134-135]; Gill1993 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 157, 165]; Kozar2009 [distribution, taxonomy: 99]; Miller2005 [distribution: 491]; MillerGi1999 [taxonomy: 214]; MillerGi2000 [catalogue, description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 232-233]; MillerMi1992 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 5, 6, 44-48]; MillerMi1993 [distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 39]; PooleGe1997 [distribution: 354].



Eriococcus isodoni (Nan & Wu)

NOMENCLATURE:

Rhizococcus isodoni Nan & Wu, 2013: 93-96. Type data: CHINA: Shanxi Province, Qinshui County, Mt. Li, Fuyuhe (35.43° N, 112.01° E), on root of Isodon glaucocalyx, 7/26/2012, by N. Nan. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Beijing: Forestry University, Beijing, China. Described: female. Illust. Notes: alt. 1,523 meters



HOST: Lamiaceae: Isodon glaucocalyx [NanWu2013].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China (Shanxi (=Shansi) [NanWu2013]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description, illustration and photographs in Nan & Wu, 2013.

STRUCTURE: Body of adult female yellow-brown in color in life, covered by white ovisac with smooth surface. (Nan & Wu, 2013)

SYSTEMATICS: This species can be distinguished from others of the genus by: 1 ) a large number of translucent pores on hind coxa; 2) the anal ring with 10 setae; 3) the long and slim outer margin enlarged setae on dorsum of anal lobes. (Nan & Wu, 2013)

CITATIONS: NanWu2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration, physio