Family Diaspididae


Capricornaspis Balachowsky

NOMENCLATURE:

Capricornaspis Balachowsky, 1971: 102, 104. Type species: Capricornaspis armineae.

CITATIONS: Balach1971 [structure, taxonomy: 104].



Capricornaspis armineae Balachowsky

NOMENCLATURE:

Capricornaspis arminineae Balachowsky, 1971: 104. Type data: MADAGASCAR:. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Madagascar [Balach1971].



Comstockaspis MacGillivray

NOMENCLATURE:

Comstockaspis MacGillivray, 1921: 391. Type species: Quadraspidiotus perniciosus Comstock.

Comstockiaspis; Chou, 1985: 310. Misspelling of genus name.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and characters in MacGillvray (1921).

SYSTEMATICS: Ferris (1937a) synonomized Comstockaspis with Diaspidiotus. Takagi (1974) revived Comstockaspis He regarded Abgrallaspis, Quadraspidiotus, and Diaspidiotus as synonyms of Hemiberlesia, but he regarded Comstockaspis as a separate genus. Takagi's opinion has received detailed support from molecular phylogenetic studies, showing that, C. perniciosa, the type species of Comstockaspis, is indeed only distantly related to the clade that includes the species of Diaspidiotus and Hemiberlesia (Andersen et al. 2010) 2010). Comstockaspis is distinguishable by the presence of a paraphysis-like sclerotization at the base of the medial margin of L1, and by the robust medial paraphysis in the second space (laterad of L2).

CITATIONS: Ferris1937a [taxonomy: 50-54, 66]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 182]; MacGil1921 [distribution, taxonomy: 391]; NormarMoKr2014 [structure, taxonomy: 45]; Takagi1974 [structure, taxonomy: 10-13].



Comstockaspis macroporana (Takagi)

NOMENCLATURE:

Quadraspidiotus macroporanus Takagi, 1956b: 86. Type data: JAPAN: Sapporo, Hokkaido, on Cercidiphyllum japonicum. Holotype female. Type depository: Sapporo: Entomological Institute, Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Japan. Described: female. Illust.

Comstockaspis macroporana; Takagi, 1974: 12-15. Change of combination.

Comstockaspis macroporana; Hirayama & Nogami, 1975: 2. Revived combination.

Diaspidiotus macroporanus; Danzig & Pellizzari, 1998: 325. Change of combination.

Comstockaspis macroporana; Normark et al., 2014: 45. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Cercidiphyllaceae: Cercidiphyllum japonicum [Takagi1956b]. Tiliaceae: Tilia japonica [Takagi1956b].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Japan [Kawai1980] (Hokkaido [Takagi1956b]).

BIOLOGY: The types were collected on branches of the host plant (Takagi, 1956b).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Takagi (1956b).

STRUCTURE: The scale of the female is flat or slightly convex, and dull brown; that of the male is not identified (Takagi, 1956b).

KEYS: Kawai 1980: 215 (female) [Japan].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 388]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 333]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 235]; HirayaNo1975 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 2-6]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 215]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 551]; Muraka1970 [host, distribution: 77]; Takagi1956b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 86-88]; Takagi1961 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 42]; Takagi1974 [structure, taxonomy: 13-14].



Comstockaspis perniciosa (Comstock)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus perniciosus Comstock, 1881a: 304. Type data: U.S.A.: California, Santa Clara County, on apple, pear, plum, and other trees. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Aonidia fusca Maskell, 1895b: 43. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Bulga, on peach, Persica vulgaris, sent by Mr. French. Syntypes, female and first instar. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Maskell, 1896: 14. Notes:

Aspidiotus albopunctatus Cockerell, 1896h: 20. Type data: JAPAN: on twigs of orange seedlings; collected Craw. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Danzig, 1993: 191.

Aonidiella fusca; Leonardi, 1897: 286. Change of combination.

Aonidiella perniciosa; Leonardi, 1897: 286. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.

Aspidiotus (Diaspidiotus) andromelas Cockerell, 1897i: 20. Type data: JAPAN: on "Phaetenia glauca". Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Danzig, 1993: 191.

Aspidiotus (Diaspidiotus) perniciosus albopunctatus; Cockerell, 1897i: 20. Change of combination and rank.

Aspidiotus (Diaspidiotus) perniciosus; Cockerell, 1897i: 30. Change of combination.

Aonidiella perniciosa; Berlese & Leonardi, 1899: 255. Change of combination.

Diaspidiotus perniciosus andromelas; Cockerell, 1899a: 376. Change of combination and rank.

Diaspidiotus perniciosus; Cockerell, 1899a: 396. Change of combination.

Aonidiella andromelas; Leonardi, 1900: 341. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus perniciosus albopunctatus; Fernald, 1903b: 275. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus perniciosus andromelas; Fernald, 1903b: 276. Change of combination and rank.

Aspidiotus (Diaspidiotus) perniciosus; Brain, 1918: 125. Change of combination.

Comstockaspis perniciosa; MacGillivray, 1921: 438. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Hemiberlesiana) perniciosus; Thiem & Gerneck, 1934a: 132. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Comstockaspis) perniciosus; Borchsenius, 1935a: 33. Change of combination.

Quadraspidiotus perniciosus; Ferris, 1938a: 337. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus fuscus; Ferris, 1941e: 43. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.

Aspidiotus (Quadraspidiotus) perniciosus; Merrill, 1953: 25. Change of combination.

Hemiberlesiana perniciosa; Lindinger, 1957: 549. Change of combination.

Quadraspidiotus perniciosus; Borchsenius, 1966: 337. Revived combination.

Aspidiotus albopunctatus; Borchsenius, 1966: 368. Revived combination.

Aspidiotus andromelas; Borchsenius, 1966: 368. Revived combination.

Comstockaspis perniciosa; Takagi, 1974: 12-15. Revived combination.

Aspidiotus perniciasus; Chou, 1985: 310. Misspelling of species name.

Diaspidiotus perniciosus; Danzig, 1993: 191-193. Revived combination.

Comstockaspis perniciosa; Normark et al., 2014: 45. Revived combination.

COMMON NAMES: California scale; Chinese scale [Xie1998]; cocciniglia San Iose [Pegazz1948]; escama de San Jose [Gonzal1989]; kaliforniiskaya ili vrednaya shitovka [Borchs1936]; pernicious scale [Comsto1881a]; Pou de St-Jose [Balach1926]; round pear scale [Xie1998]; San Jose scale [McKenz1956, Dekle1965c, Borchs1966, RosenDe1978]; san jose scale [McKenz1956, Borchs1966, RosenDe1978].



FOES: ACARI Hemisarcoptidae: Hemisarcoptes malus (Shimer) [Andre1942, Zahrad1972, GersonOcHo1990, Koszta1996]. COLEOPTERA Alleculidae: Omophlus proteus Kirsch [Drea1990]. Cantharidae: Cantharis rustica Fallen [Drea1990]. Coccinellidae: Chilocorus bijugus Mulsant [RawatThPa1988, RawatSaPa1992], Chilocorus bipustulatus L. [Balach1950b, Zahrad1972, Koszta1996, ErlerTu2001], Chilocorus bivulnerus [Marlat1902a], Chilocorus circumdata Schon. [RosenDe1978], Chilocorus kuwanae Silvestri [RosenDe1978], Chilocorus quadripustulatus L. [Zahrad1972], Chilocorus renipustulatus Scriba [Balach1950b, Zahrad1972], Chilocorus renipustulatus inornatus Weise [RosenDe1978], Chilocorus similis (Rossi) [Nakaya1912, RosenDe1978], Chilocorus stigma Say [RosenDe1978], Coccinella bipunctata L. [Zahrad1972], Exochomus quadrimaculatus L. [Zahrad1972, ErlerTu2001], Lindorus lophanthae (Blaisdell) [Smirno1950a, RosenDe1978], Pharoscymnus flexibilis Mulsant [RawatThPa1988], Rhyzobius lindi Blackburn [RosenDe1978], Rhyzobius ventralis [Pope1981], Scymnus marginicollis Mann. [RosenDe1978]. Nitidulidae: Cybocephalus [RosenDe1978], Cybocephalus fodori [Koszta1996], Cybocephalus fodori-minor Endrody-Younga [ErlerTu2001], Cybocephalus politus Germ. [Balach1950b, Zahrad1972]. Tenebrionidae: Epitragus similis Steinheil [Drea1990]. FUNGI Ascomycotina: Myriangium duriaei [EvansPr1990], Nectria aurantiicola [EvansPr1990], Nectria coccophila [Muraka1970], Nectria diploa [EvansPr1990], Nectria flammea [EvansPr1990], Podonectria coccicola [EvansPr1990]. Deuteromycotina: Fusarium [EvansPr1990], Fusarium aspidioti [Muraka1970], Fusarium larvarum [HornokKo1984], Peziotrichum saccardinum [EvansPr1990]. HETEROPTERA Anthocoridae: Temnostethus dacicus Puton [ErlerTu2001], Temnostethus longirostis (Horvath) [ErlerTu2001]. Miridae: Deraeocoris ruber L. [Zahrad1972]. HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Ablerus clisiocampae (Ashmead) [Balach1950b, Gordh1979], Anaphes gracilis Howard [Balach1950b], Aphytis [RosenDe1978], Aphytis aonidiae (Mercet) [GomezM1946, GulmahDe1978a, RosenDe1979], Aphytis diaspidis (Howard) [Flande1960, RosenDe1978, RosenDe1979], Aphytis fuscipennis Howard [Balach1950b], Aphytis hispanicus (Mercet) [SengonUyKa1998, MyartsRu2000], Aphytis melinus DeBach [RosenDe1979], Aphytis mytilaspidis (Le Baron) [Balach1950b, Flande1960, Zahrad1972, RosenDe1979], Aphytis paramaculicornis DeBach & Rosen [RosenDe1979], Aphytis proclia Walker [Balach1950b, Zahrad1972, RosenDe1978], Aphytis vandenboschi DeBach & Rosen [RosenDe1979], Archenomus bicolor Howard [Zahrad1972], Aspidiotiphagus citrinus Howard [Balach1950b, Zahrad1972], Azotus americanus Dozier [Gordh1979], Azotus elegantulus Silvestri [AnneckIn1970], Azotus marchali Howard [Balach1950b, Zahrad1972], Azotus separaspidis Annecke & Insley [AnneckIn1970], Coccophagoides kuwanae (Silvestri) [Flande1960, Gordh1979], Coccophagoides similis (Masi) [Gordh1979], Coccophagus immaculatus Howard [Gordh1979], Encarsia aurantii (Howard) [PolaszAbHu1999], Encarsia perniciosi (Tower) [Rosen1987, StouthLu1991, PaloukNa1995, Koszta1996, MyartsRu2000], Hispaniella lauri Mercet [Zahrad1972], Marietta carnesi (Howard) [Gordh1979], Marietta mexicana (Howard) [MyartsRu2000], Marietta pulchella (Howard) [Gordh1979], Physcus varicornis (Howard) [Gordh1979], Prospaltella aurantii (Howard) [Balach1950b, Gordh1979], Prospaltella berlesei (Howard) [Benass1954], Prospaltella diaspidicola Silvestri [Gordh1979], Prospaltella fasciaventris Girault [Gordh1979], Prospaltella perniciosi Tower [Tower1913, Flande1960, BenassBi1960, Zahrad1972, RosenDe1978], Pteroptrix chinensis [RehmatAnKh2011], Pteroptrix dimidiatus Westwood [Balach1950b, Novits1961, Zahrad1972]. Encyrtidae: Acerophagus citrinus (Howard) [Gordh1979], Adelencyrtus inglisiae Compere & Annecke [AnneckIn1971], Anabrolepis zetterstedtii (Westwood) [Gordh1979], Apterencyrtus microphagus (Mayr) [Gordh1979], Arrhenophagus chionaspidis Aurivillius [Gordh1979], Coccidencyrtus ensifer (Howard) [Gordh1979], Coccidencyrtus steinbergi Tshumakova & Trjapitzin [Trjapi1989], Epitetracnemus zetterstedtii (Westwood) [Trjapi1989], Euussuria shutovae Trjapitzin [RosenDe1978], Habrolepis aspidioti Compere & Annecke [RosenDe1978], Habrolepis obscura Compere & Annecke [AnneckIn1971], Metaphycus nadius (Walker) [GuerriNo2000], Thomsonisca pallipes (Tshumakova) [Trjapi1989], Trichomastus quadraspidiotus Dang & Wang [DangWa2002], Zaomma lambinus (Walker) [Trjapi1989]. Mymaridae: Polynema fulmeki Soyka [Zahrad1972]. Signiphoridae: Chartocerus pulcher (Girault) [Gordh1979], Signiphora flavella [Woolle1990], Signiphora pulchra Girault [Woolle1990], Signiphora townsendi Ashmead [Gordh1979], Thysanus ater Haliday [Zahrad1972, Woolle1990]. NEUROPTERA Chrysopidae: Chrysopa [Drea1990]. THYSANOPTERA Phlaeothripidae: Leptothrips mali Fitch [PalmerMo1990].

HOSTS: Aceraceae: Acer [MerrilCh1923], Acer campestre [Zahrad1972], Acer japonica [Zahrad1972], Acer platonoides [Zahrad1972], Acer saccharinum [Zahrad1972]. Actinidiaceae: Actinidia chinensis [Gonzal1986, Gonzal1989a], Actinidia deliciosa [Hender2011]. Apocynaceae: Nerium [McKenz1956]. Araliaceae: Hedera [McKenz1956]. Betulaceae: Alnus [Zahrad1972], Alnus nepalennis [RahmanAn1941], Alnus nitida [RahmanAn1941], Betula alba [Balach1950b], Betula pendula [Zahrad1972], Betula pubescens [Zahrad1972]. Bignoniaceae: Catalpa bignoniodes [Zahrad1972]. Buxaceae: Buxus [McKenz1956]. Cannabidaceae: Cannabis sativa [RahmanAn1941]. Cannaceae: Canna indica [RahmanAn1941]. Caprifoliaceae: Sambucus [Balach1950b], Symphoricarpos [Merril1953], Symphoricarpos racemosus [Balach1950b], Viburnum lantana [Balach1950b]. Carpinaceae: Carpinus betulus [Zahrad1972]. Cercidiphyllaceae: Cercidiphyllum japonicum [MerrilCh1923]. Cornaceae: Cornus alba sibirica [Balach1950b], Cornus baileyi [Balach1950b], Cornus sanguinea [Balach1950b]. Corylaceae: Corylus avenallana [GomezM1946, Balach1950b, Zahrad1972], Corylus tubulosa [Zahrad1972]. Cucurbitaceae: Citrullus vulgaris [Moghad2013a]. Ebenaceae: Diospyros kaki [GomezM1946, Balach1950b]. Elaeagnaceae: Elaeagnus [MerrilCh1923]. Ericaceae: Azalea [McKenz1956]. Euphorbiaceae: Aleurites fordii [Balach1950b]. Fabaceae: Acacia [MerrilCh1923, McKenz1956], Gleditsia triacanthos [Muntin1971], Robinia pseudacacia [Zahrad1972]. Fagaceae: Castanea americana [Zahrad1972], Castanea sativa [RahmanAn1941, Balach1950b, Zahrad1972], Fagus sylvatica purpurea [Balach1950b], Fagus sylvatica [Zahrad1972], Quercus [Muntin1971], Quercus dilatata [RahmanAn1941]. Grossulariaceae: Ribes [Muntin1971], Ribes aureum [Balach1950b], Ribes nigrum [Balach1950b], Ribes oxycantha [Balach1950b], Ribes rubrum [Balach1950b]. Guttiferae: Hypericum [MerrilCh1923, Merril1953]. Hippocastanaceae: Aesculus hippocastanum [Zahrad1972]. Juglandaceae: Juglans [McKenz1956], Juglans regia [RahmanAn1941, Balach1950b, Zahrad1972], Juglans sieboldiana [Balach1950b, Zahrad1972]. Lardizabalaceae: Akebia [Balach1950b], Akebia quinata [MerrilCh1923, Merril1953]. Lauraceae: Persea [McKenz1956]. Liliaceae: Aloe [McKenz1956]. Malvaceae: Hibiscus [MerrilCh1923]. Moraceae: Maclura aurantiaca [Balach1950b], Toxylon pomiferum [Balach1950b]. Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus [Zahrad1972]. Nyssaceae: Nyssa [MerrilCh1923]. Oleaceae: Fraxinus [Muntin1971], Fraxinus excelsior [Balach1950b, Zahrad1972], Ligustrum vulgare [Balach1950b], Olea [McKenz1956], Olea europaea [TippinBe1970, BesheaTiHo1973], Syringa amurensis [Borchs1938], Syringa persica [Balach1950b], Syringa vulgaris [Balach1950b]. Pinaceae: Pinus [McKenz1956]. Platanaceae: Platanus [Zahrad1972]. Ranunculaceae: Sieboldia [MerrilCh1923]. Rhamnaceae: Ceanothus [MerrilCh1923]. Rosaceae: Amelanchier canadensis [Balach1950b], Cerasus vulgaris [RahmanAn1941], Chaenomeles speciosa [Hender2011], Chaenomelis [BesheaTiHo1973], Chaenomelis japonica [Muntin1971], Chaenomelis lagenaria moorloosei [Muntin1971], Cotoneaster [Balach1950b, McKenz1956], Cotoneaster microphyla [Muntin1971], Cotoneaster vulgaris [Balach1950b], Crataegus [MerrilCh1923, RahmanAn1941, McKenz1956], Crataegus coccinea [Balach1950b], Crataegus cordata [Balach1950b], Crataegus crus-galli [Balach1950b], Crataegus monogyna [Kozar1999a], Crataegus oxyacantha [Balach1950b], Cydonia japonica [Balach1950b, McDani1970], Cydonia oblonga [Muntin1971], Cydonia vulgaris [RahmanAn1941, GomezM1946, Balach1950b], Eriobotrya japonica [UygunSeEr1998], Malus communis [GomezM1946, Martin1983, BlayGo1993, SengonUyKa1998, UygunSeEr1998], Malus domestica [Hender2011], Mespilus germanica [Moghad2004], Persica vulgaris [Maskel1895b], Photinia [Merril1953, McDani1970], Photinia glauca [Cocker1897i, Leonar1900], Prunus [Cocker1897i, Lepage1938, RahmanAn1941, Dekle1965c, BesheaTiHo1973], Prunus amygdalus [RahmanAn1941, GomezM1946, Balach1950b], Prunus armeniaca [RahmanAn1941, GomezM1946, Balach1950b], Prunus avium [Balach1950b], Prunus carolina [Wilson1917], Prunus cerasifera astropurpurea [Balach1950b], Prunus cerasus [Muntin1971], Prunus divaricata [RahmanAn1941], Prunus domesticus [Lepage1938, GomezM1946, Balach1950b, Muntin1971, BlayGo1993], Prunus germanica [Lepage1938], Prunus hortulana [Balach1950b], Prunus japonica [Balach1950b], Prunus laurocerasus [Balach1950b], Prunus mahaleb [Kozar1999a], Prunus maritima [Balach1950b], Prunus persica [RahmanAn1941, GomezM1946, Balach1950b, Muntin1971, ErlerTu2001], Prunus pumila [Balach1950b], Prunus serotina [Balach1950b, BesheaTiHo1973], Prunus serrulata [Hender2011], Prunus spinosa [Kozar1999a], Prunus triflora [Balach1950b], Prunus virginiana [Balach1950b], Pyracantha [McKenz1956, Dekle1965c], Pyracantha rogersii [Muntin1971], Pyrus [RahmanAn1941, Dekle1965c], Pyrus baccata [Balach1950b], Pyrus communis [Lepage1938, Iren1970, Muntin1971, Almeid1973b, ErlerTu2001], Pyrus malus [Lepage1938, RahmanAn1941, Iren1970, Muntin1971, Almeid1973b], Pyrus simonii [TakahaTa1956], Rosa [Borchs1936, RahmanAn1941, GomezM1946, Dekle1965c, Muntin1971], Rosa carolina [Balach1950b], Rosa lucida [Balach1950b], Rosa rugosa [Balach1950b], Rosa viriginiana [Balach1950b], Sorbus [Balach1950b], Sorbus americana [Balach1950b, Zahrad1972], Sorbus aria [Zahrad1972], Sorbus aucuparia [Balach1950b, Zahrad1972], Sorbus domestica [Zahrad1972], Sorbus melanocarpa [Balach1950b, Zahrad1972]. Rutaceae: Citrus [Cocker1896h, Cocker1897i, McKenz1956, YasnosTaCh2005], Citrus trifoliata [Wilson1917, MerrilCh1923, Balach1950b], Citrus unshiu [TakahaTa1956], Poncirus trifoliata [Borchs1936, GomezM1946, Merril1953], Ptelea triflora [Balach1950b], Pyrus sinensis [Balach1950b]. Salicaceae: Populus [Muntin1971], Populus deltoides [Balach1950b, Zahrad1972], Populus euramericanus [Moghad2004], Populus italica [Balach1950b], Populus nigra [Balach1950b, Zahrad1972], Populus nigra italica [Zahrad1972, Moghad2004], Populus sp. [Hender2011], Populus trimula [Zahrad1972], Salix [Borchs1936, RahmanAn1941, Balach1950b, BesheaTiHo1973], Salix acutifolia [Zahrad1972], Salix alba [Zahrad1972], Salix babylonica [Balach1950b, Zahrad1972], Salix bumilis [Zahrad1972], Salix caprea [Zahrad1972], Salix discolor [BesheaTiHo1973], Salix elaeagnus [Zahrad1972], Salix humilis [Balach1950b], Salix incana [Balach1950b], Salix lucida [Balach1950b, Zahrad1972], Salix pentendra [Balach1950b, Zahrad1972], Salix repens [Zahrad1972], Salix sp. [Hender2011], Salix vitellina [Balach1950b]. Tamaricaceae: Tamarix [McKenz1956]. Theaceae: Camellia [Muntin1971]. Tiliaceae: Tilia [Balach1950b], Tilia americana [Zahrad1972], Tilia platyphyllos [Zahrad1972]. Ulmaceae: Ulmus [RahmanAn1941, McKenz1956], Ulmus americana [Balach1950b, Zahrad1972], Ulmus campestris [Balach1950b, Zahrad1972], Ulmus procera [Zahrad1972]. Vitaceae: Vitis [McKenz1956], Vitis vinifera [Balach1950b].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Angola [Almeid1973b]; South Africa [BrainKe1917, Brain1918, Muntin1971, CABI1986]; Zaire [Ghesqu1932, CABI1986]; Zimbabwe [Muntin1971, CABI1986]. Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [CABI1986], Queensland [Brimbl1962a, CABI1986], South Australia [CABI1986], Tasmania [Borchs1966, BrookeHu1968, CABI1986], Victoria [CABI1986], Western Australia [CABI1986]); Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii [Borchs1966]); New Zealand [Borchs1966, EmmsMc1984]. Nearctic: Canada [Borchs1966] (British Columbia [CABI1986], Nova Scotia [CABI1986], Ontario [CABI1986], Quebec [CABI1986]); Mexico [Borchs1966] (Distrito Federal [CABI1986]); United States of America (Alabama [CABI1986], Alaska [CABI1986], Aleutian Islands [CABI1986], Arizona [CABI1986], Arkansas [CABI1986], California [CABI1986], Colorado [CABI1986], Connecticut [CABI1986], Delaware [CABI1986], District of Columbia [CABI1986], Florida [Wilson1917, MerrilCh1923, Merril1953, Dekle1965c, CABI1986], Georgia [TippinBe1970, BesheaTiHo1973, CABI1986], Idaho [CABI1986], Illinois [CABI1986], Indiana [CABI1986], Iowa [CABI1986], Kansas [Hunter1899, CABI1986], Kentucky [CABI1986], Louisiana [CABI1986], Maryland [CABI1986], Massachusetts [CABI1986], Michigan [CABI1986], Minnesota [CABI1986], Mississippi [Herric1911, CABI1986], Missouri [Hollin1923, CABI1986], Montana [CABI1986], Nebraska [CABI1986], Nevada [CABI1986], New Hampshire [CABI1986], New Jersey [CABI1986], New Mexico [CABI1986], New York [CABI1986], North Carolina [CABI1986], Ohio [CABI1986], Oklahoma [CABI1986], Oregon [CABI1986], Pennsylvania [CABI1986], Rhode Island [CABI1986], South Carolina [CABI1986], Tennessee [CABI1986], Texas [Herric1911, McDani1970, CABI1986], Utah [CABI1986], Vermont [CABI1986], Virginia [CABI1986], Washington [CABI1986], West Virginia [CABI1986], Wisconsin [CABI1986]). Neotropical: Argentina [Borchs1966, CABI1986] (Buenos Aires [CABI1986], La Pampa [GranarCl2003], Mendoza [GranarCl2003], Santa Fe [GranarCl2003], Tucuman [GranarCl2003]); Bolivia [CABI1986]; Brazil [Borchs1966] (Minas Gerais [Lepage1938, CABI1986], Parana [Lepage1938, CABI1986], Rio Grande do Sul [Lepage1938, BertelBa1966, CABI1986], Rio de Janeiro [CABI1986], Santa Catarina [Lepage1938, CABI1986], Sao Paulo [Lepage1938, CABI1986]); Chile [Borchs1966, GonzalCh1968, Gonzal1981, Gonzal1989, Gonzal1989a]; Cuba [CABI1986]; Peru [CABI1986]; Uruguay [CABI1986]; Venezuela [CABI1986]. Oriental: China (Guangdong (=Kwangtung) [CABI1986], Hubei (=Hupei) [CABI1986], Jiangsu (=Kiangsu) [CABI1986], Jiangxi (=Kiangsi) [CABI1986], Sichuan (=Szechwan) [CABI1986], Zhejiang (=Chekiang) [CABI1986]); India [Borchs1966] (Andhra Pradesh [CABI1986], Assam [CABI1986], Delhi [CABI1986], Himachal Pradesh [CABI1986, Varshn2002], Jammu & Kashmir [CABI1986], Karnataka [UsmanPu1955, CABI1986], Maharashtra [CABI1986], Odisha [CABI1986], Punjab [RahmanAn1941, CABI1986], Sikkim [Varshn2002], Tamil Nadu [CABI1986], Uttar Pradesh [CABI1986], West Bengal [CABI1986]); Nepal [CABI1986]; Pakistan [RosenDe1978, RosenDe1979, CABI1986]; Taiwan [WongChCh1999]; Vietnam [DanzigKo1990]. Palaearctic: Afghanistan [Siddiq1966, CABI1986]; Algeria [Borchs1966, CABI1986, SaighiDoBi2005]; Armenia [Babaia1987]; Austria [Borchs1966]; Azerbaijan (Azerbaijan [Borchs1966]); Azores [FrancoRuMa2011]; Bulgaria [Borchs1966, AndreeKu2004, TrenchTrTo2010]; Canary Islands [GomezM1967O, CABI1986, PerezGCa1987, MatileOr2001]; China [Borchs1966] (Anhui (=Anhwei) [CABI1986], Hebei (=Hopei) [CABI1986], Heilongjiang (=HeilungKiang) [CABI1986], Henan (=Honan) [CABI1986], Henan (=Honan) [Shen1993], Jilin (=Kirin) [CABI1986], Liaoning [CABI1986], Nei Monggol (=Inner Mongolia) [CABI1986], Shaanxi (=Shensi) [CABI1986], Shandong (=Shantung) [CABI1986], Xingiang Uygur (=Sinkiang) [CABI1986]); Croatia [Borchs1966] [Masten2007, MastenSi2009]; Czech Republic [Zahrad1952, Borchs1966, Zahrad1977]; France [Borchs1966, Germai2011]; Georgia (Abkhaz ASSR [Borchs1936], Adzhar ASSR [Borchs1936], Georgia [Borchs1936, Borchs1966, YasnosTaCh2005]); Germany [Borchs1966]; Greece [CABI1986, PaloukNa1995]; Hungary [Borchs1966, Kozar1999a, KozarKo2002b]; Iran [CABI1986, Moghad2004]; Iraq [Borchs1966, CABI1986]; Italy [Borchs1966, LongoMaPe1995]; Japan [Cocker1896h, Cocker1897i, Sasaki1901, Kuwana1902, Kuwana1917a, Kuwana1933, Borchs1966, Kawai1980] (Hokkaido [TakahaTa1956], Honshu [TakahaTa1956, CABI1986], Kyushu [TakahaTa1956, CABI1986], Shikoku [TakahaTa1956, CABI1986]); Kazakhstan [CABI1986]; Lebanon [AbdulNMo2006]; Madeira Islands [CABI1986]; Moldova [Borchs1966]. Palaearctic: Mongolia [DanzigKo1990]. Palaearctic: North Korea [Borchs1966]; Poland [Borchs1966]; Portugal [Seabra1941, Borchs1966]; Romania [Borchs1966, Savesc1982, FetykoKoDa2010]; Russia (Amur Oblast [CABI1986], Dagestan AR [Borchs1966], Kabardino-Balkarian AR [CABI1986], Khabarovsk Kray [Borchs1966, CABI1986], Krasnodar Kray [CABI1986], Kuril Islands [CABI1986], North Ossetia AR [CABI1986], Primor'ye Kray [Borchs1966, CABI1986], Sakhalin Oblast [Borchs1966], Stavrapol Oblast [CABI1986], Volgograd Oblast [Gavril2004]); Sardinia [Pelliz2011]; Slovenia [Janezi1954, Seljak2010]; South Korea [Borchs1966, CABI1986]; Spain [Balach1935b, GomezM1937, Borchs1966, Martin1983, BlayGo1993]; Sweden [Gertss2001]; Switzerland [Borchs1966]; Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Borchs1966, BazaroSh1971]; Turkey [Iren1970, CABI1986, UygunSeEr1998, ErlerTu2001, KaydanUlEr2007]; Turkmenistan [Borchs1966]; Ukraine [Borchs1966] (Krym (=Crimea) Oblast [Borchs1966]); United Kingdom (England [Borchs1966]); Uzbekistan (Fergana Oblast [CABI1986]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring ordinarily on the bark, although it may occur on the fruit of apples (Ferris, 1938a). Iren (1970) studied the symbiosis of this species with the fungi Septobasidium burtii and S. mariani on apple and pear trees in Turkey. Female sex pheromone has been identified (Gieselmann et al., 1979). This species has three to three and a half generations per year (Wearing 1989) and the females have high reproductive capacity, each able to produce up to 400 crawlers that disperse and settle on the bark, leaves and fruit of the trees. Magsig-Castillo et al. (2010) have demonstrated the occurrence of phoretic dispersal of crawlers of Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock). The crawlers use the tarsal and claw digitules of each leg to attach themselves to three different insect species Musca domestica L., Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant and Linepithema humile (Mayr) and can effectively be moved phoretically by these insects.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Brain (1918), Ferris (1938a), Zahradník (1952), Balachowsky (1950b, 1958b), McKenzie (1956), Brookes & Hudson (1968), Bazarov & Shmelev (1971), Chou (1985, 1986), Tereznikova (1986), Danzig (1993), Kosztarab (1996), Gill (1997) and by Zamudio & Claps (2005). Description and illustration of second instar by Brookes & Hudson (1968).

STRUCTURE: Scale of the female gray, circular, but slightly convex, exuviae subcentral; scale of the male gray, slightly elongate, exuvia toward one end (Ferris, 1938a). Colour photograph given by Gonzalez (1986, 1989). Colour photograph by Gill (1997) and by Wong et al. (1999).

SYSTEMATICS: Danzig (1993: 191) synonymised Aspidiotus albopunctatus Cockerell and Aspidiotus andromelas Cockerell with Q. perniciosus while Borchsenius (1966:368) regarded these as species incertae sedis. Cockerell (1897i) noted the great similarity of A. andromelas to Quadraspidiotus perniciosus.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: The San Jose scale is a major pest of deciduous fruit trees in many regions of the world. Its origin is believed to be in the north of the Oriental region, north China, Far East Russia. It was first recorded in USA, California about 1870, from where it was originally described in 1881. It spread rapidly throughout the main fruit-growing regions of the United States, from west to east. It has since spread to Canada, Central and South America, Europe (from Spain to Caucasus), Japan, India, South Africa and Australia (Ebeling, 1959; Rosen & DeBach, 1978; Kozar, 1990). A pest of kiwifruit in Chile (Gonzalez, 1989a). The plant growth regulator heteroauxin was most effective in controlling Quadraspidiotus perniciosus, (Ivanova & Pavlyuchuk, 1988).

KEYS: Henderson 2011: 87 (female) [Key to Diaspidiotus adult females in New Zealand]; Evans, Watson & Miller 2009: 63-67 (female) [Diaspididae species found on avocado]; Gill 1997: 243 (female) [Species of California]; Kosztarab 1996: 575 (female) [Northeastern North America]; Blay Goicoechea 1993: 528-529 (female) [Spain]; Danzig 1993: 179-182 (female) [Europe]; Tereznikova 1986: 97-98 (female) [Ukraine]; Chou 1985: 311 (female) [Species of China]; Danzig 1980b: 340 (female) [Far East of USSR]; Kawai 1980: 215 (female) [Japan]; Kosztarab & Kozar 1978: 167-169 (female) [Hungary]; Bazarov & Shmelev 1971: 211 (female) [Central Asia]; McDaniel 1970: 429 (female) [U.S.A.: Texas]; Brookes & Hudson 1968: 91 (larva) [Australia]; Brookes & Hudson 1968: 91 (female) [Australia]; McKenzie 1956: 26 (female) [U.S.A.: California]; Zahradnik 1952: 114-115 (female) [Czech Republic]; Balachowsky 1950b: 401 (female) [Mediterranean]; Ferris 1942: 40 (female) [North America]; Borchsenius 1938: 143 (female) [Far East of USSR]; Borchsenius 1935: 128 (female) [Former USSR]; Kuwana 1933: 3 (female) [Japan]; Kuwana 1933b: 49 (female) [Japan]; Britton 1923: 371 (female) [U.S.A.: Connecticut]; Hollinger 1923: 7-8 (female) [U.S.A.: Missouri]; Brain 1918: 124 (female) [South Africa]; Lawson 1917: 217 (female) [U.S.A.: Kansas]; Dietz & Morrison 1916a: 289-290 (female) [U.S.A.: Indiana]; Cockerell 1905b: 202 (female) [U.S.A.: Colorado]; Newell 1899: 4-5 (female) [North America]; Comstock 1883: 55-57 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: Abbott1926 [chemical control: 858-860]; AbbottCuMo1926 [chemical control: 1-26]; AbdElKDaKo1988 [chemical control, biological control]; AbdulNMo2006 [host, distribution: 517-520]; AblesRi1981 [biological control, economic importance: 273]; Ackerm1923 [economic importance, host, distribution, chemical control: 1-18]; AhmadGh1966 [life history, biological control: 101-106]; AhmadShKh2004 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 135-142]; Alden1925 [chemical control: 253-257]; AlderdSpWe1984 [chemistry, chemical ecology: 1643-1646]; Aldric1899 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 4]; Aldric1996 [life history, physiology, chemistry, chemical ecology: 201-204]; Aleksi1995 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 187-190]; Almeid1973b [host, distribution: 11]; AltierNi1999 [biological control: 975-991]; AlvareVa1998 [biological control: 130-136]; Alwood1896 [host, distribution, economic importance: 33-44]; AndersChGi1979 [chemistry, life history: 919-927]; AndersGiCh1981 [chemistry, chemical ecology: 695-706]; AndersWuGr2010 [molecular data: 992-1003]; Andre1942 [biological control: 173-180]; AndreeKu2004 [host, distribution, chemical control: 577-579]; AndreeKu2004 [host, distribution]; AndreeKu2004a [biological control, life history: 215-221]; Angeri1990 [life history, chemical control: 409-411]; AngeriGaLo1986 [host, distribution, economic importance: 493-497]; AngeriLo1985 [host, distribution, chemical control: 31-35]; AngeriLo1986 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 767-774]; AnneckIn1970 [host, distribution, biological control: 241-242,246]; AnneckIn1971 [host, distribution, biological control: 2,13,14]; Anthon1960 [host, distribution, economic importance, chemical control: 1085-1087]; Antong1954 [chemical control: 1-23]; AntropFaPa1990 [host, distribution, chemical control: 65-67]; Apstei1915 [taxonomy: 119]; Archan1937 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 99,107-108]; Argyri1981 [host, distribution, biological control: 125-129]; ArmourScan1991 [host, distribution, economic importance: 31-33]; AsquitCrHo1980 [control, ecology, economic importance: 249-317]; Babaia1987 [host, distribution, economic importance: 136]; Bachma1974 [economic importance, chemical control: 755-760]; BadeneZaBe2002 [chemistry, ecology, life history, chemical ecology: 545-549]; BadeneZaBe2002a [host, distribution, chemical control, chemical ecology: 291-296]; Baerg1921 [chemical control: 177]; BaggioGeMa1951 [host, distribution, economic importance: 931-937]; Baicu1982 [chemical control: 1]; BaioccGa1991 [economic importance, biological control, chemical control: 104-106]; Balach1926 [taxonomy, economic importance: 5-6]; Balach1932j [economic importance: 171-176]; Balach1935b [host, distribution, economic importance: 258]; Balach1950b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, biological control, economic importance: 424-433]; Balach1958b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 214-216]; BalykiYaDu2003 [host, distribution: 31-32]; Banks1990 [physiology, chemistry: 267-274]; Bardia1967 [host, taxonomy, life history, control: 3-23]; Baroff1993 [life history, biological control: 371-378]; Baroff1997 [life history, biological control: 323-333]; BassinPeTi1975 [biological control, host, distribution: 21-23,26-42]; BazaroSh1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 220-223]; BeardsDaHo1976 [economic importance: 106]; BeardsGo1975 [economic importance: 49]; Beauch1964 [host, distribution, chemical control: 45-49]; BeglyaSm1977 [host, distribution, biological control: 283-328]; Belyav1938 [chemical control: 202-221]; Benass1954 [biological control: 528-530]; Benass1957 [biological control, chemical control: 867-872]; Benass1958b [life history, ecology, biological control: 93-108]; Benass1958d [biological control: 179-181]; Benass1959b [host, distribution, biological control, chemical control: 867-872]; Benass1961a [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 1-165]; Benass1961b [host, distribution, ecology: 1-157]; Benass1969 [biological control: 33-39]; Benass1969a [biological control: 33-39]; Benass1970 [biological control: 45-50]; Benass1971 [biological control, economic importance: 9-23]; BenassBi1960 [biological control, economic importance: 165-191]; BenassBiMi1960a [host, distribution, biological control: 29-36]; BenassBiMi1962 [biological control: 59-68]; BenassBiMi1964 [host, distribution, biological control : 271-280]; BenassBiMi1964a [host, distribution, biological control: 457-472]; BenassBiMi1964b [host, distribution, chemical control, biological control: 27-37]; BenassBiMi1967 [biological control: 1-5]; BenassBiMi1967a [biological control: 241-255]; BenassBiMi1971 [host, distribution, biological control: 411-420]; BenassMaNe1968 [biological control, host, distribution: 1-28]; BenassMi1958 [host, distribution, biological control: 7-11]; BenDov1990a [taxonomy: 85]; BenDov1990e [host, distribution: 656]; BenDov2001 [distribution, economic importance: 141-142]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 407-428]; Bentle1913 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance, control: 1-25]; BentleCoHa2000 [host, distribution, control]; BentleHeDu2001 [host, distribution, control: 12-19]; BentleRiBr2000 [host, biological control, chemical control]; BentleRiDa2000 [host, distribution, control]; Beran1939 [chemical control: 25-29]; Beran1940 [chemical control: 77-79]; Beran1940a [chemical control: 33-35]; Beran1942 [chemical control: 289-316]; Beran1943 [chemical control: 1-31]; Beran1949 [chemical control: 161-176]; Beran1962 [chemical control: 135-136]; Beran1963 [host, distribution, chemical control, biological control: 95-96]; Berger1921 [host, distribution, biological control: 141-154]; Berger1921a [host, distribution, biological control: 333-334]; Berger1942a [host, distribution, biological control: 26-29]; BerlesLe1899 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, economic importance: 250,253,255-260]; Bertel1956 [host, distribution, description, life history, biological control]; BertelBa1966 [host, distribution: 17-46]; BesheaTiHo1973 [host, distribution: 8]; BichinYa1985 [taxonomy, life history, host, distribution, economic importance, control: 1-96]; BichnaVa1985 [host, distribution, chemical control, chemistry: 31]; BiezanFr1939 [host, distribution: 1-18]; BiezanSe1940 [host, distribution: 67-68]; Biliot1977 [host, distribution, biological control: 341-347]; BiliotBeBi1960 [host, distribution, biological control: 707-711]; Blahut1990 [biological control: 1-98]; BloescSt1992 [host, distribution, life history, chemical ecology: 305-310]; Bohm1951 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 66-76]; Bohm1955 [host, distribution, economic importance, chemical control, biological control: 245-267]; Bohm1963 [host, distribution, biological control: 95]; Bohm1964 [host, distribution, biological control: 147-148]; Bohm1965 [distribution, biological control : 104]; Bohm1976 [host, distribution: 41-42]; Bonfan1999 [host, distribution, economic importance, control: 24-26]; Bonnem1936 [taxonomy, description: 230-243]; Borchs1935 [taxonomy, description, illustration: 127-128]; Borchs1935a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 5,9,33]; Borchs1936 [host, distribution: 132]; Borchs1937 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 134]; Borchs1937a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 55-56]; Borchs1938 [host, distribution: 143]; Borchs1939 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 9,27]; Borchs1949d [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 249]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 227,229,231]; Borchs1960b [taxonomy, host, distribution: 217,218]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 336-339,368]; BorgesViSa1986 [distribution]; BorianNi1995 [chemical control: 43]; BoveyGe1946 [host, distribution, control: 201-211]; Bower1987 [host, distribution, economic importance, chemical control: 55-58]; Bower1989 [host, distribution, life history: 239-245]; BowerPeDo1993 [chemical control: 57-62]; BoyceKaPe1939 [chemical control: 432-450]; Boynto1901 [taxonomy: 347,349]; Brain1918 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 124-126]; BrainKe1917 [distribution: 183]; BrandtBo1948 [taxonomy: 14-18]; Bray1974 [host, distribution, life history, description: 1-33]; Brick1912 [host, distribution: 1-22]; Brimbl1961 [host, distribution: 1-2]; Brimbl1962 [host, distribution, economic importance: 222-223]; Brimbl1962a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 418-422]; Britto1901 [host, distribution, taxonomy, control: 3-14]; Britto1901a [host, distribution, chemical control: 1-12]; Britto1909 [host, distribution, economic importance, chemical control: 1-4]; Britto1919 [host, distribution: 255-261]; Britto1920a [host, distribution: 119-125]; Britto1920b [host, distribution: 140-143]; Britto1923 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 371,375]; Britto1923a [chemical control: 329-331]; Britto1924 [host, distribution: 387-404]; Britto1924a [host, distribution]; Britto1924b [host, distribution: 156-170]; Britto1926 [host, distribution: 156]; Britto1928 [host, distribution: 198]; Britto1929 [host, distribution: 669]; Britto1930 [host, distribution: 490]; Britto1931 [host, distribution: 461]; Britto1932 [host, distribution: 499]; Britto1937 [host, distribution: 293]; Britto1938 [host, distribution: 137]; BrittoWa1903 [host, distribution, chemical control: 1-26]; BrittoWa1904 [host, distribution, chemical control: 1-32]; BrittoZa1927a [host, distribution: 1]; BrittoZa1929a [host, distribution: 689]; BrittoZa1930 [host, distribution: 502]; BrockFl1919 [chemical control: 1-4]; BrookeHu1968 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 97-99]; BrookeHu1969 [host, distribution: 228-233]; BrownPo1990 [biological control: 527-533]; Brunet1943 [chemical control: 221-233]; Buckle1987 [life history, ecology: 53-85]; BuhrooChMa2000 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 117-123]; BurgerUl1990 [economic importance: 313-327]; Burke1930 [host, distribution, biological control: 783-785]; Bustsh1958 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 220,250]; Busvin1954 [physiology, chemistry: 60-65]; CABI1986 [host, distribution: 1-3]; Caesar1914 [host, distribution, taxonomy: 1-30]; CaprilVaPi2000 [host, distribution, control]; CaprilVaPi2002 [control]; CarbonBr1975 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history: 1-11]; Carl1996 [biological control, chemical ecology: 67-74]; Carnes1907 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 209]; Castel1951a [biological control: 95-98]; CevikOkSo1996 [chemical control: 28-29,61-62]; Chambe1926 [host, distribution: 55]; ChandeKa1994 [chemical control: 222-223]; ChangDaYu1989 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 29-30]; Chapma1967 [chemical control: 67]; ChapmaAvPe1944 [chemical control: 305-307]; Charle1998 [distribution, economic importance, biological control: 51N]; CharleAlWe1998 [host, distribution, biological control: 93-98]; CharleHe2002 [host, distribution, economic importance: 587-615]; CharleHiAl1995 [host, distribution, biological control: 319-324]; CharleWa1981 [chemical control, host, distribution: 252-253]; CheahIr1997 [host, distribution]; CherkaDu2000 [chemical control: 26]; ChiappNe2004 [structure, physiology, chemical ecology: 597-605]; Chiesa1939 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, control: 27-44]; Chiesa1948 [host, distribution, economic importance]; Chou1985 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 310,316-318]; Chou1986 [taxonomy, illustration: 690]; Chu1992 [host, life history, control: 361-369]; ChuaWo1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 550,551]; Chumak1957 [host, distribution, biological control: 533-547]; Chumak1961 [host, distribution, biological control: 313-338]; Chumak1964 [host, distribution, biological control: 535-552]; Chumak1969 [life history, ecology, biological control: 247-254]; ChumakGo1963 [biological control: 178-181]; ChumakMu1975 [biological control: 174-184]; ClapsDo2003 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 29-30]; ClapsWoGo2001a [taxonomy: 26]; Clarke1906 [host, distribution, economic importance, control: 1-8]; Clause1956 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control]; Cocker1895b [taxonomy: 16]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 333-334]; Cocker1896h [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 20-21]; Cocker1897i [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 3-17,20,30]; Cocker1898bb [host, distribution: 95]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 396]; Cocker1905b [taxonomy: 202]; Collin1950 [host, distribution, economic importance: 158-160]; CollyeVa1975 [host, distribution, chemical control, biological control: 101-134]; Comper1961a [biological control: 17-71]; Comsto1881a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 304-305]; Comsto1883 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 56,65]; Conway1951 [host, distribution: 159-164]; Cooley1898b [host, distribution: 61-63]; CoronaRuMo1997 [host, distribution: 38-41]; CostaCBoMo1989 [chemical control: 209-214]; CostaL1922a [host, distribution: 37-45]; CostaL1942 [taxonomy: 279]; CostaL1949 [host, distribution, biological control: 65-87]; Cottie1956 [host, distribution, economic importance, chemical control, biological control: 209-215]; Cox1942 [chemical control, biological control: 698-701]; Craved2000 [host, distribution, control: 177-197]; CravedMo1993 [control, chemical ecology: 170-173]; CravedMo1995 [control, chemical ecology: 115-121]; CravedMo2002 [control: 39-43]; Craw1896 [taxonomy: 33]; Creigh1942 [host, distribution, control: 219-233]; Cressm1943 [chemical control: 17-26]; CressmDa1936 [chemical control: 865-878]; Croft1982 [host, distribution, economic importance, chemical control, biological control: 465-498]; CroftBo1983 [chemical control: 219-270]; CroftHu1983 [host, distribution, economic importance: 19-42]; DahlstHa1999 [economic importance: 919-933]; DahmsSm1994 [host, distribution, biological control: 245-255]; DangWa2002 [host, distribution, biological control: 289-300]; Danzig1964 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 653]; Danzig1972 [taxonomy, host, distribution, economic importance: 210-212]; Danzig1977b [taxonomy: 57]; Danzig1978 [host, distribution: 20]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 342-343]; Danzig1988 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 725]; Danzig1993 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 191-193]; DanzigKo1990 [host, distribution: 47]; DanzigKo1991 [distribution: 1-15]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 238-239]; DarvasFaKo1985 [chemical control: 347-350]; DarvasSz1987 [host, distribution, chemical control: 343-351]; DarvasVa1990 [chemical control: 393-408]; DavidsDiFl1991 [chemical control: 1-47]; DavidsMi1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 603-632]; DavidsRa1999 [economic importance, control: 1]; Davis1924 [economic importance, life history, ecology: 192-195]; Davis1924a [chemical control: 285-289]; Davis1929 [host, distribution: 2299]; Davis1935 [host, distribution: 198]; Davis1936 [host, distribution: 257]; Davis1937 [host, distribution: 230]; DeBach1960 [life history, biological control: 4-58]; DeBach1964 [biological control]; DeBach1964b [biological control: 673-713]; DeBach1971 [biological control: 302]; DeBach1974 [biological control]; DeBachRo1976a [host, distribution, biological control: 541-545]; DeBachRo1991 [biological control]; Decaux1899 [host, distribution, chemical control, biological control: 158-184]; DeitzTo1980 [taxonomy: 37]; Dekle1965c [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 126]; Dekle1976 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, economic importance: 145]; Delins1989 [life history, ecology: 102-105]; DeluccRoSc1976 [taxonomy, biological control: 81-91]; DengNa2001 [host, distribution, economic importance: 37-40]; Dent1991 [host, distribution, economic importance]; DeSant1940 [biological control: 29-44]; DeSant1941a [host, distribution, biological control: 21-24]; DeSant1979 [biological control]; DietzMo1916a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 290-291]; DinabaBh1981 [host, distribution, life history: 63-67]; Dissel1954 [life history, structure: 109-155]; Doane1931 [host, distribution, control]; DowninLo1977 [life history, chemical control: 1249-1252]; Dozier1933 [host, distribution, biological control: 85-100]; Drake1935 [host, distribution, control: 83-91]; Drea1990 [biological control: 41-49]; DreistClFl1994 [taxonomy, life history, economic importance, control]; DrgonHuBe1962 [chemical control: 221-243]; DumasVa1950 [chemical control: 235-245]; Dunkel1999 [chemistry, life history, chemical ecology: 251-276]; Durr1951 [chemical control: 200-201]; Duskov1953a [host, distribution, taxonomy, life history: 229-250]; Duzgun1969 [host, distribution, economic importance]; DzhuviKu2003 [host, distribution, biological control: 55-61]; Early1984 [host, distribution, biological control: 271-308]; Edland1990 [economic importance: 19-22]; Edmund1918 [chemical control: 1-16]; Ehrhor1913 [host, distribution: 101]; Ehrhor1925 [host, distribution: 18-20]; ElkinsVaVa2000 [host, distribution, control]; ElkinsVaVa2002 [control: 3455]; Emblet1902 [biological control: 219-229]; EmmsMc1984 [host, distribution: 81-82]; EMPPO1955 [economic importance: 1-19]; EMPPO1962 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 7-27]; EMPPO1965 [economic importance: 1-8]; ErlerTu2001 [host, distribution, biological control: 299-305]; EtzelLe1999 [biological control: 125-197]; Evans1942 [host, distribution, taxonomy, chemical control: 156-159]; Evans1943 [host, distribution, taxonomy, chemical control]; Evans1975 [taxonomy: xxvii]; EvansPr1990 [biological control: 3-17]; EvansWaMi2009 [taxonomy: 63-67]; FariFa1935 [chemical control: 339]; FaurotMi1965 [chemistry: 93-97]; Fawcet1948 [biological control: 627-664]; FDACSB1988 [host, distribution: 5-6]; Felt1901 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history, biological control, chemical control: 304-316]; Felt1924 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history, control]; Felt1929 [biological control: 43-48]; Fenton1939 [host, distribution: 71-78]; FergusFl1991 [host, distribution, biological control: 260-261]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 271-276]; Ferrar1976 [host, life history, control, ecology: 391-400]; Ferrie1927 [biological control: 55-67]; Ferris1920b [taxonomy: 52]; Ferris1937c [taxonomy, illustration: 51,66]; Ferris1938a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 259]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 40,43,46]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy: 446:40]; FetykoKoDa2010 [host, distribution: 299]; FinneyFi1964 [biological control: 328-355]; Fisher1950 [biological control: 305-309]; Flande1944b [economic importance, biological control: 105]; Flande1945c [biological control: 168-169]; Flande1947 [host, biological control: 746-747]; Flande1950a [biological control: 719-720]; Flande1960 [economic importance, distribution, biological control: 757-758]; Flande1971 [biological control, life history: 857-872]; Flesch1960 [biological control: 183-208]; Flint1920 [chemical control: 339-343]; Flint1923 [chemical control: 209-215]; FlintVa1981 [biological control: 1]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; FoldiDe1998 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 202]; Folkin1978 [biological control: 301]; Folkin1980 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance, control: 24-31]; Forbes1898 [host, distribution, taxonomy, life history: 1-25]; Forbes1906 [chemical control: 1-3]; Forbes1915 [host, distribution, chemical control: 545-561]; Forbes1915a [host, distribution, life history, economic importance, chemical control: 63-79]; FotidaRa1936 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 692-693]; FrancoRuMa2011 [distribution: 10-11,23]; FrankKr1898 [taxonomy: 393]; FrankKr1900 [taxonomy: 58]; FrantiJi2005 [chemical ecology, chemical ecology: 183-187]; Franz1958 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 461-465]; Freita1962 [host, distribution: 21-32]; Freita1966 [life history, host, distribution: 289-235]; Freita1975 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 235-285]; FreyFr1995 [taxonomy, chemistry, host, distribution: 777-780]; FreyFr1995a [structure, chemistry: 100]; Frogga1914 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 316-317]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 20-21]; Fuller1897c [host, distribution: 4]; Fulmek1938 [host, distribution, economic importance: 249-250]; Fulmek1940 [host, distribution: 177-182]; Fulmek1941 [economic importance: 462-465]; FurnisCa1977 [host, distribution: 111]; Gahan1925 [host, distribution, biological control: 1-23]; Gambar1947 [host, distribution, life history: 45-58]; Gambar1955 [host, distribution, life history: 255-272]; Gambar1963a [host, distribution, biological control: 403-406]; Gambar1965 [host, distribution, biological control: 373-376]; Gamzae2002 [biological control: 27-28]; Garcia1930 [host, distribution, biological control]; Garcia1931a [host, distribution, biological control: 659-666]; Gatina1973 [host, distribution, economic importance, control: 121-192]; Gavalo1936 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 76-78]; Gavril2004 [host, distribution: 528]; Geier1950 [life history, distribution: 329-336]; Gendri1999 [biological control: 1-6]; GentilSu1958 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 269-285]; GentneNo1933 [host, distribution, chemical control: 7-55]; GeorghTa1976 [chemical control: 759]; Gerasi1938 [host, distribution, life history: 47-65]; Germai2011 [distribution, economic importance: 31-34]; Germai2011a [distribution, economic importance: 8]; GersonOcHo1990 [biological control: 77-97]; Gertss2001 [distribution: 123-130]; Ghesqu1932 [host, distribution: 58]; Giesel1990 [life history, chemistry: 221-224]; Giesel1990a [chemistry: 225-232]; GieselRi1990 [life history, ecology, chemistry: 349-352]; GieselRiJo1979 [life history, chemistry, chemical ecology: 891-900]; Gill1990 [economic importance, control: 331]; Gill1997 [host, distribution, taxonomy, description, illustration, economic importance: 245-246,249]; GilletLi1918 [host, distribution: 3-52]; GilletLi1923 [host, distribution: 12-18]; Giraul1911a [host, distribution, biological control: 175-189]; Glenn1915 [host, distribution, life history, control: 87-106]; Glenn1931 [life history, ecology: 167-180]; Glick1922 [host, distribution, economic importance: 55-77]; Goidan1945 [host, distribution, biological control: 20-24]; GomesCRe1947 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 229]; GomezM1937 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 64-67]; GomezM1946 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 66-73]; GomezM1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, biological control: 21,24-31]; GomezM1960O [host, distribution: 162]; GomezM1967O [host, distribution: 131]; Gonzal1956a [chemical control: 9-13]; Gonzal1973 [host, distribution, chemical control, biological control: 56-63]; Gonzal1975 [host, distribution, chemical control, biological control: 135-145]; Gonzal1980 [host, distribution, economic importance: 11-20]; Gonzal1981 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history, economic importance, biological control, chemical control: 1-64]; Gonzal1984 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 3-9]; Gonzal1986 [host, distribution, economic importance: 18,23]; Gonzal1989 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 100-106]; Gonzal1989a [life history, economic importance, chemical control, host, distribution: 35-43]; GonzalCh1968 [distribution: 110]; GonzalCu1994 [host, distribution, economic importance: 9]; GonzalRo1967 [biological control, distribution: 138]; GonzalVo2004 [host, distribution, economic importance: 41-62]; Gordh1977 [host, distribution, biological control: 125-148]; Gordh1979 [biological control: 894-895,897,899-901,]; Goryun1964 [biological control: 40-55]; Gould1901 [chemical control: 153-166]; GranarCl2003 [host, distribution: 625-637]; Greath1971 [host, distribution, biological control ]; Greath1976 [biological control, economic importance]; Greath1989 [biological control: 28-37]; Green1896a [taxonomy: 84]; Griffi1919 [chemical control: 14-18]; Gruys1979 [host, distribution, biological control, chemical control : 107-112]; GuerriNo2000 [host, distribution, biological control: 157-159]; GulmahDe1978 [host, distribution, life history, ecology, biological control: 205-238]; GulmahDe1978a [host, distribution, life history, ecology, biological control: 239-256]; Gupta2005 [biological control: 427-432]; GuptaSi2002 [host, distribution, ecology, biological control: 187-192]; Gurney1915 [host, distribution, economic importance: 303-312]; Habibi1980 [host, distribution, chemical control: 127-134]; Hadzib1957a [distribution: 102]; HakkonPi1984 [biological control: 1109-1121]; Halber2000 [host, distribution: 3-4]; Hamilt1936 [host, distribution: 150-160]; HanksDe1998 [life history, ecology: 239-262]; Hansen2001 [control: 186-188]; HardieMi1999 [chemistry]; HartzePa1933 [chemical control: 474-480]; HasemaSu1923 [chemical control: 1-4]; Hayat1989 [host, distribution, biological control: 1-3]; Haywar1939 [host, distribution, control: 1]; Haywar1944 [host, distribution: 1-32]; Headle1927 [host, distribution: 112-113]; HeimpeRo1998 [biological control: 160-168]; HeimpeRoMa1996 [life history, biological control: 2410-2420]; Hempel1922 [host, distribution: 133-144]; Hender2011 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 8,11,24,30,86-87,89]; HendriBe2002 [chemical control: 565-568]; HenrikCaAn1982 [chemistry, chemical ecology: 27-60]; Herber1919a [host, distribution: 333-337]; Heriot1944 [host, distribution, economic importance: 13-15]; Herric1911 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 10,20-21,54]; Herric1920 [host, distribution, economic importance]; Herric1925 [host, distribution, description, life history]; Hill1975 [host, distribution, economic importance, control]; Hill1989a [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 177-182]; Hillma1895 [host, distribution, life history, control: 1-9]; HippeMa1995 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 184]; HixPlDe1999 [chemical control: 106-108]; HodgkiPa1914 [biological control: 227-228]; HohnHoGr2003 [host, ecology: 6-10]; Hollin1923 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 14]; Holman2002 [biological control: 41-54]; HornokKo1984 [biological control, host, distribution: 9-11]; Houck1999 [life history, biological control: 97-118]; Hough1932 [chemical control: 613-617]; Hough1933 [chemical control: 470-473]; Houser1908 [host, distribution: 173-181]; Houser1920 [chemical control: 49-51]; Houser1926 [chemical control: 94-95]; Houska1926 [chemical control: 94-95]; Howard1895e [biological control: 1-44]; Howard1897b [host, distribution: 81-82]; Howard1898a [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-31]; HowardMa1899 [host, distribution: 36-39]; HowellGe1984 [host, distribution, chemical control: 534-536]; HoytCa1971 [economic importance, biological control, host, distribution: 395-421]; HoytLeBr1983 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history, control: 93-151]; HoytWeRi1983 [host, distribution, life history, control: 371-375]; Hsu1935 [host, distribution: 578-590]; Huba1957 [host, distribution, biological control: 306-353]; Huba1958 [biological control: 395-403]; Huba1960 [taxonomy: 39-50]; Huba1962 [host, distribution, economic importance: 415-422]; Huba1965 [host, distribution, economic importance: 572-573]; Huffak1990 [biological control: 205-220]; HuffakDo1965 [biological control: 61-63]; HuffakGu1990a [biological control, economic importance: 473-492]; HuffakMeDe1971 [biological control: 16-67]; HuffakSt1971 [biological control: 333-350]; Hunger1944 [host, distribution, economic importance: 52-55]; Hunter1899 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 10-11]; Hurt1933 [chemical control: 1-16]; Ilina1938 [life history: 133-146]; IngramNi1991 [host, distribution, chemical control: 53-58]; InnerhReWe1985 [economic importance, chemical control: 261-268]; Iperti1961 [economic importance: 14-30]; IpertiBr1969 [host, biological control: 149-157]; IPMW1987 [economic importance, biological control: 1-96]; Iren1970 [life history, ecology, host, distribution: 1-21]; IrenOk1972a [host, distribution, economic importance: 30-31]; Isayev1975 [economic importance: 181-187]; Isely1924 [chemical control: 1-4]; IshcheBiKo1988 [chemistry, chemical ecology: 99-101]; IvanovPa1988 [biological control, chemical control: 28-29]; JahnPo1999 [biological control, life history, ecology, host, distribution: 201-202]; JalaliSi1995 [chemical control, biological control: 617-620]; Jancke1955 [taxonomy: 307]; Janece1941 [host, distribution, economic importance: 145-163]; Janezi1954 [host, distribution: 124]; Janjua1959 [distribution: 231-264]; Jansen2001 [host, distribution: 197-206]; Jarvis1907 [chemical control: 5-12]; Jarvis1908CD [chemical control: 169-197]; Jarvis1908TD [taxonomy: 52]; Jarvis1927 [economic importance, life history, host, distribution, chemical control, biological control: 513-517]; JenserSh1972 [life history, control, ecology: 119-124]; JerminBr1994 [chemical control: 5-6,115-119]; JiYa1990 [biological control: 134-136]; Johnso1898 [description, life history: 82-83]; Johnso1899 [chemistry, life history: 87-88]; Johnso1900 [biological control: 73-75]; Jorgen1934 [taxonomy: 279]; JorgenRiHo1981 [host, distribution, life history, control: 149-159]; Joseph1984 [economic importance: 1-32]; Kagy1936 [chemical control: 393]; Kapur1956 [biological control: 257-274]; Katsoy1984 [host, distribution, life history: 35-40]; KatsoyAr1985 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 3-11]; KattarHeOd1999 [biological control: 640-644]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 216]; Kaweck1950 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-54]; KaydanKoAt2009 [host, distribution: 46]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 95]; KazandTzSt1995 [life history: 247-252]; KhajurSh1997 [host, distribution, chemical control: 488-489]; Kim1983 [economic importance: 261-319]; Kirich1938b [economic importance, chemical control: 222-257]; Kiritc1932a [taxonomy: 246-247]; Kiritc1938a [host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 1-272]; KlechkLe2003 [distribution, chemical ecology: 31-33]; KleinK1977 [host, distribution, biological control: 121-132]; KleinMa1972 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 29-33]; Klett1953 [host, distribution, life history: 152-154]; Klett1963 [life history, economic importance, biological control: 86-91]; KnightAl1974 [life history, physiology: 73-86]; KnightChUn2001 [ecology, life history, economic importance: 413-428]; Knowlt1932 [host, distribution, economic importance: 79-83]; KnowltSm1936 [host, distribution, economic importance: 263-267]; Kobakh1965 [biological control: 323-330]; KocourBeSt1999 [host, distribution, life history, chemistry, control, chemical ecology: 407-412]; KocourBeSt2000 [chemical ecology: 407-409]; Koehle1964 [host, distribution, control]; Kohler2009a [host, distribution: 27]; KohlerEi2006 [host, distribution: 16]; KohlerNu2009 [host, distribution, taxonomy: 113-124]; Konsta1976 [host, distribution, economic importance: 49-50]; Konsta1988 [distribution, life history, economic importance, control: 50-51]; KonstaGu1987 [host, distribution: 162]; KonstaKuDe1985 [chemical control, physiology, chemistry: 29-30]; KonstaMaKo1982 [host, distribution, economic importance, chemical control, biological control: 24-25]; KonstaMo1982 [economic importance, chemical control: 63]; Korcha1937 [life history, ecology: 148]; Korcha1987 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history: 58-59]; Koszta1987 [economic importance: 219-220]; Koszta1990 [economic importance: 307-311]; Koszta1996 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history, biological control, economic importance: 583-584]; KosztaKo1978 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 167-169]; Kotins1909 [host, distribution: 97]; Kozar1990 [life history, economic importance: 335-340]; Kozar1990a [life history, economic importance: 341-347]; Kozar1990c [life history, economic importance, host, distribution: 593-602]; Kozar1995b [taxonomy: 51]; Kozar1999 [life history, chemistry, control: 125]; Kozar1999a [host, distribution: 141]; KozarHiMa1996 [taxonomy, description: 433-437]; KozarHiMa1997 [taxonomy: 321-327]; KozarJaKo1982 [distribution, host: 333-338]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 61]; KozarKo1981a [host, distribution: 1981a]; KozarKo1996 [life history, biological control, ecology: 499-506]; KozarKo2002b [host, distribution: 377]; KozarKoFe2013 [distribution, taxonomy: 54]; KozarzKo1972 [host, distribution: 42-46]; Krause1950 [host, distribution, taxonomy, economic importance: 1-36]; Krause1951 [life history, ecology, host, distribution: 271-283]; KrnjajInPe1993 [life history, chemistry: 63-71]; Kruger1899 [host, distribution, economic importance: 3]; Krzysz1957 [taxonomy: 223]; Kuhmin1970 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance, biological control: 45-96]; Kuwana1901a [taxonomy: 13]; Kuwana1902 [host, distribution: 67-68]; Kuwana1904 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 1-33]; Kuwana1907 [host, distribution: 195]; Kuwana1917a [taxonomy, distribution: 175]; Kuwana1927 [host, distribution: 72]; Kuwana1933 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 15-16]; KwonHa2003 [host, distribution: 279-288]; Kypari1987 [biological control, chemistry: 7-12]; Kypari1987a [life history, ecology, chemistry: 75-80]; Kypari1990 [chemical control, life history, chemistry: 5-9]; Lagows1995a [host, distribution, economic importance: 2,8]; LagowsGo1998 [host, distribution, economic importance: 21-23]; LancheDe1957 [host, distribution, chemical control: 14-15]; LangfoCo1939 [host, distribution: 3]; Laport1947 [host, distribution, biological control: 209-212]; Lawson1917 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 229-230]; Leonar1897 [taxonomy: 286]; Leonar1899 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 175-176,189]; Leonar1900 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 341]; Lepage1938 [catalogue: 396]; LetourAl1999 [biological control: 319-354]; LiangAiZh1997 [host, distribution, life history, control: 152-153]; LiangAiZh1999 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 29-30]; LiLoCa1997 [host, distribution, biological control: 225-226]; Lindin1909e [taxonomy: 44]; Lindin1913a [host, distribution: 347]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 546,549]; Lindne1954 [taxonomy, structure: 456-458]; Lintne1895 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 263-305]; Lintne1896 [host, distribution: 54-61]; Lobdel1937 [taxonomy: 78]; Lochhe1900 [host, distribution, taxonomy, control: 1-48]; LombarWe1986 [chemistry, chemical ecology: 5555-5558]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 128]; LongoRuSi1989 [host, distribution, life history, ecology, biological control: 3-11]; Lord1922 [host, distribution: 1]; LoucifBo1977 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 253-261]; Lounsb1914 [host, distribution: 1]; Lounsb1916 [host, distribution: 83-103]; Lounsb1921 [host, distribution: 35-38]; Lourei1992 [host, distribution, economic importance, control: 5-24]; LowePa1901 [host, distribution, economic importance, chemical control: 171-188]; LuckVaGa1977 [economic importance, chemical control, host, distribution: 606-611]; Ludick1950 [host, distribution, chemical control: 17-32]; Lugger1900 [host, distribution: 208-245]; Lupo1954a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 56-63]; LurieFaKl1998 [life history, control: 110-114]; Lyne1921 [distribution: 146-148]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 438]; Mackie1933 [host, distribution: 457]; MadsenMo1970 [host, distribution, economic importance: 295]; MaeyerPeWi2002 [chemical control: 65-72]; MagsigMoWa2010 [life history, physiology, dispersal: 1172-1179]; Mague1982 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 975]; MagueRe1983 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 692-696]; MagueRe1983a [host, distribution, life history: 717-722]; Maksim1973 [taxonomy, structure, life history: 81-84]; Maksim1973a [life history, ecology: 78-80]; Maksim1974 [life history, ecology: 81-82]; Maksim1976 [life history: 76-78]; Maksim1976a [host, distribution, life history: 54-57]; Maksim1978 [life history, physiology: 58-61]; Maksim1991 [life history, ecology, chemistry, control: 42]; Maksim1991a [life history, ecology, chemistry, control: 24]; Maleno1946 [life history, economic importance: 3-8]; Malump2011a [distribution, economic importance, host, illustration: 48-49,54,56-57]; MalumpKa2011a [distribution, host, illustration: 49, 54]; ManiBa1997 [biological control, chemical ecology: 392-394]; ManiHiSc1993 [life history, economic importance, host, distribution: 299-302]; ManiScBa1995 [host, distribution, life history, chemical control, biological control: 264-267]; Maranh1946 [taxonomy: 164-179]; Marco1959 [host, distribution, biological control: 25-30]; Marlat1897 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control, chemical control: 217-236]; Marlat1902 [taxonomy, biological control, economic importance: 65-78]; Marlat1902a [host, distribution, biological control, economic importance: 155-174]; Marlat1906 [taxonomy, description, life history, economic importance, biological control, chemical control: 1-89]; Marr1949 [chemical control: 18-25]; Marsha1952 [host, distribution, economic importance: 25-31]; Marsha1953 [host, distribution, economic importance: 7-11]; Marsha1958 [host, distribution, economic importance, chemical control: 249-254]; Martin1983 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 67]; MaShWa1985 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history, ecology, chemical control, biological control: 9-10]; Maskel1895b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 43-44]; Maskel1896 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 14-16]; Maskel1896b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 386]; Maskew1914 [host, distribution: 193-194]; MasoodBhKo1989 [chemical control, biological control: 50-52]; MasoodBhSo1995 [chemical control, biological control: 154-156]; MasoodBhSo1996 [host, distribution, biological control: 77-78]; MasoodSoBh1996 [host, biological control: 119-121]; MasoodTrBh1989 [host, distribution, biological control: 39-43]; MasoodTrBh1989a [host, distribution, biological control: 71-73]; Masten2007 [host, distribution, taxonomy: 1-242]; MastenSi2009 [host, distribution, economic importance: 238-247]; Mathys1953 [life history, ecology, economic importance: 981-984]; Mathys1959 [host, distribution, chemical control, biological control: 53-56]; Mathys1966 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 53-64]; MathysGu1961 [biological control, economic importance: 53-56]; MathysGu1962 [host, distribution, biological control: 59-61]; MathysGu1963 [biological control: 96-101]; MathysGu1965 [biological control, host, distribution: 193-220]; MathysGu1967 [biological control, distribution: 223-224]; MathysGu1967a [biological control, host, distribution: 212-222]; MathysGuSt1965 [taxonomy: 65-67]; MatileOr2001 [host, distribution: 190]; MatilePe2002 [host, distribution: 358]; Matis2004 [chemical control: 177]; Matvie1983 [chemical control, host, distribution: 25]; May1899a [taxonomy, illustration: 152]; Mazzon2001 [host, distribution, life history: 201-206]; MazzonCr2002 [host, distribution, taxonomy, life history, ecology: 201-205,373-383]; McClaiRoSt1990 [host, distribution, ecology: 916-925]; McClaiRoSt1990a [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 1396-1402]; McClaiRoWo1990 [host, distribution, life history, ecology, biological control: 926-931]; McClur1990c [ecology, host,: 289-291]; McClur1990d [host: 301-303]; McClur1990e [life history, ecology: 309-314]; McClur1990f [life history: 315-318]; McClur1990h [life history, ecology: 331-337]; McDani1970 [taxonomy, illustration, host, distribution: 433-435]; McKenz1938 [taxonomy: 4]; McKenz1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 26,81-83]; Meerwa1900 [taxonomy, description: 1-15]; Meland1914 [chemical control, physiology: 167-173]; Meland1915 [chemical control: 475-481]; Meland1915a [host, distribution, life history, control: 1-7]; Meland1922 [chemical control: 21-22]; Meland1922a [chemical control: 24-26]; Meland1923 [chemical control, physiology: 1-52]; Meland1926 [chemical control, physiology: 7,40]; Melis1943 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history, biological control, chemical control: 1-170]; Melis1949 [host, distribution: 17-25]; Melis1951 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 1-91]; Merkel1938 [host, distribution: 88-99]; Merril1953 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 25-27]; MerrilCh1923 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, economic importance: 206-207]; MessenBiVa1976 [biological control: 543-565]; MessenWiWh1976 [biological control: 209]; Metcal1982 [chemical control: 217-277]; MetcalMe1993 [economic importance, host, distribution, control]; MeyerRa1973 [chemical control: 1354]; Mikhal2004 [distribution: 12-15]; Milair1958 [host, distribution: 15-18]; Milair1969 [host, distribution, biological control: 77-85]; MilairAu1979 [host, distribution, biological control: 321-355]; Miller1999 [chemical control: 14]; MillerDa1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 305]; MillerDa2005 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, economic importance: 171-175]; Miyosh1926 [host, distribution: 303-326]; Moghad2004 [host, distribution: 17]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 26]; Moglan2004 [host, distribution, biological control: 111-115]; MohammGh2008 [distribution: 150]; MoiseeIsVe1989 [chemistry, chemical ecology: 366-368]; Monte1930 [host, distribution: 3-36]; MordkoCh1993 [chemical control: 30]; Moreir1899 [host, distribution, control: 89-90]; Moreir1929 [economic importance: 85-89]; Morgan1967 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 650-659]; MorganAn1968 [host, distribution, economic importance: 499-503]; MorganAn1969 [host, distribution, life history, ecology, economic importance: 983-989]; MorganAr1971 [host, distribution, life history, ecology, economic importance: 1-12]; Moritz1903 [host, distribution, economic importance: 138-147]; MuelleEi1954 [taxonomy, description: 151-153]; Muntin1971 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 141-142]; Muraka1970 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 77-78]; MyartsRu2000 [distribution, biological control: 7-33]; NAC2000 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control, chemical control: 1-31]; NagaraHu1967 [biological control: 249-256]; Nakaha1982 [host, distribution: 78-79]; Nakaya1912 [host, distribution, biological control: 932-936]; NavrozZaPa1999 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history, biological control: 695-698]; Neiswa1966 [host, distribution, taxonomy, economic importance: 1-54]; Nekras1938 [chemical control: 481]; Nepveu1943 [life history, economic importance: 461-462]; NepveuVa1946 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 415-418]; NepveuVa1948 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-41]; Neuffe1962 [biological control, host, distribution: 97-101]; Neuffe1964 [biological control: 1-11]; Neuffe1964a [host, distribution, biological control: 131-136]; Neuffe1966 [biological control: 383-393]; Neuffe1967 [biological control: 235-239]; Neuffe1968 [host, distribution, biological control: 97-101]; Neuffe1969 [biological control: 49-55]; Neuffe1969a [life history, ecology: 63-68]; Neuffe1975 [host, distribution, economic importance: 503-514]; Neuffe1987 [host, distribution, economic importance, control: 100-108]; Neuffe1990 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 89-96]; NewcomYo1929 [chemical control, host, distribution, life history: 821-822]; NewcomYo1931 [chemical control, host, distribution : 1-12]; Newell1899 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 16-17]; NewellRo1908 [host, distribution: 150-155]; Nicola1979 [host, distribution, life history, chemical control: 143-148]; Nikite2004 [economic importance: 12]; NormanAl1982 [chemistry: 33-40]; Novits1961 [biological control: 193-194]; NRC1969 [taxonomy, economic importance, ecology, biological control, chemical control]; NSWDAE1963 [host, distribution, taxonomy, economic importance]; Nur1990a [taxonomy, structure, chromosomes: 182,183]; ObreteSt1992 [chemical control: 118-123]; OdinokKuZa1989 [chemistry, chemical ecology: 364-366]; OdyMaHu1969 [structure: 38-45]; OEMPP1968 [host, distribution: 1]; OKaneCo1930 [chemical control: 1-15]; OlkowsOlKa1978 [biological control: 311-347]; ONeillHa1952 [host, distribution, control: 170]; Orlins1989a [biological control: 54]; Outin1950 [host, distribution: 10-16]; OuvrarKoGu2013 [economic importance, illustration: 3]; Paik1958 [host, distribution, economic importance: 31]; Painte1951 [economic importance, control]; PalmerMo1990 [biological control: 67-76]; Palouk1987 [chemical control: 179-183]; PaloukNa1995 [chemical control, economic importance, host, distribution, biological control: 285-286]; ParrotHoSi1906 [chemical control: 261-270]; PasquaBo2005 [host, distribution, e4conomic importance: 9-15]; PasquaCi2000 [chemical control: 93-95]; PasquaCi2002 [chemical control: 97-106]; Pedigo1999 [life history, structure]; Pegazz1948 [life history, host, distribution: 177-188]; Pelliz2011 [distribution: 312]; Penman1984 [host, distribution, biological control: 33-50]; PerezGCa1987 [host, distribution: 129]; PernicSaJo1971 [host, distribution, economic importance: 27]; Petch1921a [biological control: 89-167]; Pfeiff1985 [host, distribution, life history, chemical control: 351-353,1421-1424]; Philip1965 [host, distribution, economic importance: 218-219]; PickelBeHa2002 [control: 3454]; PickelBeRi2000 [host, distribution, control]; PickelOlZa2000 [host, distribution, control]; PickelOlZa2005 [control: 3389]; PlessDeSa1995 [host, distribution, chemical control: 94-97]; PokrovUnDe1960 [chemical control: 27]; PolaszAbHu1999 [host, distribution, biological control: 131-163]; Polesn1996 [host, distribution. economic importance: 377-379]; PollinBa1998 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history, chemical control, biological control: 79-80]; Pope1981 [biological control: 19-31]; Popova1962 [host, distribution, biological control: 147-175]; Popova1964 [biological control: 61-64]; Popova1971 [biological control: 42-43]; Popova1979 [biological control: 538-547]; Poutie1948 [host, distribution, economic importance, control: 23-26]; Powell1986 [biological control, host, distribution: 319-340]; PrakhSt2003 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 1-41]; PreeMeMa1985 [host, distribution, chemical control: 19-23]; Prinsl1983 [distribution, biological control: 27]; Prints1965 [host, control: 49-52]; Prints1973 [economic importance: 110-115]; Priore1964 [host, distribution: 131-178]; Priore1964a [host, distribution, chemical control: 179-204]; Priore1965 [host, distribution: 101-145]; PruthiBa1960 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-113]; PruthiMa1945 [host, distribution, life history, control: 1-42]; PruthiRa1951 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance, chemical control, biological control : 1-48]; Pulsel1927 [biological control: 300-327]; Quaint1909 [chemical control: 1-33]; QuaintSc1912 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-48]; Quayle1911e [biological control: 510-515]; Quayle1938 [chemical control, physiology: 183-210]; Quedna1964b [biological control: 86-116]; RabbDeKe1984 [ecology, chemical control: 697]; RafalsNi1988 [host, distribution, chemical control: 40-42]; RahmanAn1941 [host, distribution, host, distribution: 816,822-823]; RahmanKa1940 [life history: 272]; Rao1943VPa [host, distribution, economic importance: 245-246]; RaoCh1950 [taxonomy: 8,27]; RaoGhSa1971 [host, distribution, biological control]; RawatPa1992 [host, distribution, biological control: 7-10]; RawatSa1993 [biological control: 109-110]; RawatSaPa1992 [life history, biological control: 97-100]; RawatThPa1988 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 1250-1251]; RawatThPa1988a [biological control: 182-187]; Reh1900 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 237-257]; Reh1900a [host, distribution, taxonomy: 259-271]; Reh1900c [taxonomy, structure: 502-504]; Reh1926 [host, distribution: 308-328]; RehmanGhKa1961 [biological control: 165-177]; RehmatAnKh2011 [biological control, distribution: 274]; ReissiWeOn1985 [host, distribution, chemical control: 238-248]; Rekk1938 [economic importance: 66-93]; Ribaga1902 [distribution, biological control: 299]; Rice1974 [life history, chemistry, chemical ecology: 561-562]; RiceAtDe1997 [life history, chemistry, chemical ecology, control: 151-161]; RiceDiJo1974 [host, distribution, chemical control: 3]; RiceFlJo1982 [life history, ecology: 13-14]; RiceHo1980 [life history, chemistry, chemical ecology: 190-194]; RiceJo1977 [host, distribution, life history: 1403-1404]; RiceJo1982 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 876-880]; Richar1960AM [host, distribution: 693-698]; RLER1935 [host, distribution: 60-62]; RobbCoBe2001 [host, distribution, taxonomy, control]; RobbCoBe2004 [contrl: 3392]; RockMc1990 [host, distribution, life history: 615-621]; RodrigToPo2001 [host, distribution, life history: 195-199]; Rolfs1897 [host, distribution, biological control: 519-536]; Ronna1928 [host, distribution: 1]; Rose1990a [biological control, host: 263-287]; Rose1990b [biological control: 438]; Rose1990d [host, biological control, economic importance: 357-365]; Rosen1986 [taxonomy, biological control: 121-129]; Rosen1987 [taxonomy, biological control: 191]; Rosen1990 [biological control: 413-415]; Rosen1990a [biological control: 502-503]; RosenDe1973 [biological control, taxonomy: 215-222]; RosenDe1978 [economic importance, biological control, life history, host, distribution: 123-128]; RosenDe1979 [host, distribution, biological control: 387-390,400-402,]; RosenhHe1994 [life history, biological control: 41-78]; Ross1925 [host, distribution, life history, taxonomy]; RossHaOk2012 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 199]; Rota1953 [host, distribution, taxonomy: 77-84]; Rota1955 [structure, taxonomy: 231-252]; Rubtso1947a [distribution, biological control: 61-83]; Rubtso1952a [biological control: 96-106]; RugmanAnMo2010 [taxonomy, phylogenetics, molecular data: 30-38]; Russo1951 [distribution, biological control: 86-97]; Russo1958 [distribution, biological control: 141-147]; Russo1987 [host, distribution, life history: 203-208]; RzaevaYa1985 [biological control: 55-58]; SahaiJo1965 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history, biological control, ecology: 37-43]; SaighiDoBi2005 [host, distribution: 429-433]; Sailer1983 [distribution, economic importance: 15-38]; Salaza1989 [host, distribution]; SalazaSo1990 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 135-137]; Sampai1898 [host, distribution: 73-80]; Sander1904a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 57,65]; Sander1908 [economic importance, chemical control: 1-12]; Sankar1988 [biological control: 151-158]; Sasaki1901 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 165-172]; Savesc1953 [host, distribution, taxonomy, description, economic importance, control: 3-46]; Savesc1982 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history, economic importance, biological control: 308-321]; SchaubBlHi1999 [host, distribution, life history: 253-257]; SchaubMaBl1995 [host, distribution, chemical ecology: 631-636]; Schaus1998 [biological control, life history: 53-56]; Schett1960 [structure, life history, economic importance: 277-322]; SchildSc1928 [biological control]; Schlab1955a [biological control: 53-55]; Schmut1957b [taxonomy: 148]; Schmut1959 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 77,80]; SchmutKlLu1957 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history, biological control, chemical control: 485-490]; Schuhm1954 [host, distribution, chemical control: 284-303]; SchuhMo1948 [host, distribution, control]; Schves1953 [host, distribution, biological control: 7-8]; Seabra1941 [distribution: 8]; Seghat1980 [host, distribution, life history: 149-154]; Seljak2010 [host, distribution: 108]; SengonUyKa1998 [host, distribution, biological control: 128-131]; SharmaRaPa1990 [biological control: 11-14]; ShawBrWa2000 [host, distribution, chemical control: 13-17]; Shen1993 [host, distribution: 60]; ShenefBe1955 [host, distribution]; Sherma1915 [chemical control: 5-26]; ShetaJe1970 [life history, control: 76-81]; Shidra1990 [economic importance, chemical control: 403-408]; ShiLi1991 [host, distribution: 166]; ShiLiLi1997 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 161-167]; Siddiq1966 [host, distribution, economic importance: 4-5]; Siddiq1981 [economic importance, host, distribution: 172-180]; SiegleBa1924 [biological control, distribution: 497-499]; SimmonFrSi1976 [biological control: 17]; Singh1963 [taxonomy, description, economic importance, host, distribution, chemical control, biological control: 6-8]; Singh1964 [host, distribution, economic importance: 213]; Sirrin1901 [chemical control: 345-372]; Skaife1979 [host, distribution]; SkaifeLeBa1981 [taxonomy, distribution: 1-5]; SkibaPa1989 [economic importance, control: 48-51]; Skorki1938 [economic importance: 147-186]; Smetni1991 [chemistry: 92-129]; SmetniKo1983 [chemistry, biological control: 882]; SmetniKoKo1982 [chemistry, life history, chemical ecology: 39]; SmetniKoMa1987 [chemistry, life history, chemical control, chemical ecology: 209-212]; SmetniMaKo1983 [chemistry, physiology, life history, chemical ecology: 38]; Smirno1938 [economic importance: 187-201]; Smirno1950a [biological control: 190-194]; Smit1964 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control, chemical control]; Smith1898 [host, distribution: 32-39]; SmithEsFa1933 [economic importance: 1]; SnappAl1923 [host, distribution, life history: 393-394]; Snitko1938 [life history, economic importance: 94-131]; Staffo1915 [taxonomy, structure: 72]; Stanev1963 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control, chemical control: 5-27]; StanevDe1989 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 85-91]; Starne1897 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 7]; StoetzDa1974 [taxonomy, life history: 138-140]; StoliaOkCh1977 [biological control: 54-55]; StorchPrBo2004 [host, distribution, ecology, economic importance: 19-20]; StouthLu1991 [biological control: 150-157]; StreibFrKa1994 [chemical control: 23-30]; SudhaRRa1960 [biological control: 120-123]; Sulliv1930 [host, distribution: 51-59]; Swider1980 [structure, anatomy: 331-339]; SwinglSn1931 [chemical control, host, distribution, economic importance: 1-48]; SymonsCoBa1911 [chemical control: 221-234]; SymonsWe1907 [chemical control: 139-152]; Tadic1960 [distribution, biological control: 43-44]; Tadic1961 [host, distribution, biological control: 130-132]; Tadic1965 [biological control: 376-377]; Tadic1967 [host, distribution, biological control: 147-154]; Takagi1956b [taxonomy: 87]; TakagiRo1981 [host, distribution, biological control: 314-321]; Takaha1953a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 10-13]; TakahaTa1956 [host, distribution: 15]; TanquaHa1920 [chemical control: 3-7]; TanyurYa2006 [host, distribution: 57-61]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 115]; Terezn1986 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 104-109]; Thakur1999 [host, distribution: 866-872]; ThakurPaRa1993 [biological control: 99-101]; ThakurRaPa1988 [chemical control, biological control: 72-73]; ThakurRaPa1989 [host, distribution, biological control: 143-146]; Thiem1947a [economic importance, biological control: 1-4]; Thiem1948 [host, distribution, economic importance: 17-27]; Thiem1951 [economic importance, life history: 88]; Thiem1953 [host, distribution: 91-122]; ThiemGe1934 [taxonomy: 541]; ThiemGe1934a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 130-158,208-238]; Thorpe1930WH [taxonomy: 177]; Timber1924 [host, distribution, biological control]; Timlin1964a [host, distribution: 531-535]; Timofe1938 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 5-46]; TippinBe1970 [host, distribution: 11]; TorabiVaHo2010 [host, distribution: 153-162]; Torres1922 [host, distribution: 72]; Toumey1895 [host, distribution, economic importance, taxonomy, description, life history, chemical control: 32-47]; Tower1913 [biological control: 125-126]; Tower1914 [life history, biological control: 422-432]; TrandaTrGa2004 [biological control: 253-261]; TranfaVi1987a [economic importance: 215-221]; Treher1914 [host, distribution: 67-71]; Treher1916a [host, distribution, economic importance: 66]; TrenchTrTo2010 [host, distribution: 114-123]; Trimbl1929 [host, distribution, economic importance, description, control: 1-21]; Trjapi1989 [biological control: 290-297,312]; TrouveVe1942 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-12]; Trujil1942 [host, distribution, economic importance]; Tubeuf1898 [host, distribution: 36-38]; Tuncyu1970 [host, distribution, biological control: 30-52]; Tuncyu1976 [host, distribution, biological control: 32-45]; Ugolin1979 [host, distribution, biological control: 597-605]; UlgentCa2004 [host, distribution: 79-84]; Unterb1964 [chemical control: 26-27]; Unterb1964a [chemical control: 34-41]; UsmanPu1955 [host, distribution: 48]; UygunSeEr1998 [host, distribution: 183-191]; Vacant1985 [host, distribution, biological control: 741-747]; Vacant1985a [host, distribution, biological control: 749-758]; Vacant1985a [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 749-758]; Valent1963 [biological control: 6-13]; Valent1967 [biological control: 1100]; VanDer1962 [host, distribution: 328-331]; vanEmd1990 [biological control: 63-80]; Vargas1987 [host, distribution, biological control, economic importance, taxonomy, description: 44-48]; Varshn2002 [host, distribution: 38]; Varshn2005 [taxonomy, illustration, host, distribution: 161-162]; Vasseu1949 [host, distribution, economic importance, chemical control: 47-51]; VasseuBe1953 [distribution, biological control: 283-290]; VasseuBi1949 [chemical control: 280-282]; VasseuBi1953 [host, distribution, chemical control: 76-83]; VasseuBi1953a [economic importance, chemical control: 45-58]; VasseuSc1957 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 5-66]; VasseuScBi1952 [biological control, chemical control, host, distribution: 339-350]; VasseuScBi1957 [host, distribution, chemical control: 101-110]; Vayssi1932a [economic importance, biological control: 629-648]; VermaDi2005 [host, distribution: 423-426]; VernalSiGa1985 [host, distribution, economic importance: 193-206]; Viel1946 [chemical control: 401-413]; Viggia1984 [biological control: 257-276]; Viggia1987 [host, distribution, biological control: 121-123]; Viggia1990a [biological control: 127-128]; Vogel1960 [taxonomy: 265-267]; Vysoko2004 [host, distribution: 12-14]; Wahl1932 [distribution, economic importance: 171-172]; Wahl1933 [host, distribution, economic importance: 693-698]; Waldne1988 [chemical control: 186-188]; WaltonKrSa2009 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-6]; Waterw1981 [host, distribution, biological control, economic importance: 269-296]; Watson1918 [host, distribution]; Watson1926 [host, distribution]; WatsonBe1937 [host, distribution, control]; Watzl1934 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 64-66]; Watzl1938 [host, distribution, control, economic importance: 92-100]; Wearin1976 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 1-2]; WearinCh1978 [chemical control: 229-235]; WearinDe2014 [ecology, economic importance, life history: 45-60]; WearinDe2014a [chemical control, ecology, host, life history: 61-74]; WearinTh1978 [chemical control: 221-228]; Webste1899 [life history, chemistry: 4]; Webste1900 [host, distribution: 55-60]; Wilson1917 [host, distribution: 57]; Wilson1921 [host, distribution: 20-34]; WongChCh1999 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 35,79]; WoodwaEvEa1970 [distribution]; Woolle1990 [biological control: 167-176]; Worthl1932 [chemical control: 22-26]; Xie1998 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 107-111]; XuLi2005 [biological control: 96-99]; YamamoOg1989 [chemistry: 123-148]; Yanovs2001 [host, distribution, life history, behaviour, biological control: 13-14]; YanovsLa2000 [chemical control: 25]; Yarysh2002 [economic importance, chemical ecology: 24-27]; Yasar1995a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 119-121]; YasarAyDe2003 [host, distribution: 3-12]; Yasnos1994 [host, distribution, biological control: 317-333]; YasnosTaCh2005 [host, distribution, biological control: 295-302]; Yother1940 [chemical control, physiology: 890-892]; Zahrad1952 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 114,128-133]; Zahrad1959b [host, distribution: 60]; Zahrad1972 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, biological control: 436-438]; Zahrad1977 [taxonomy, distribution: 121]; Zahrad1990 [host, distribution, description: 643]; Zahrad1990a [host, distribution, description: 652]; ZalomVaBe2001 [host, distribution, control]; ZalomWeOl2004 [chemical control: 299-305]; ZamudiCl2005 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 269-270]; Zhang1983 [life history, distribution, biological control: 86-88]; Zweige1951 [host, distribution, economic importance: 137-141].



Davidsonaspis Normark in Normark et al.

NOMENCLATURE:

Davidsonaspis Normark in Normark et al., 2014: 45. Type species: Abgrallaspis aguacatae Evans, Watson & Miller. Subsequently designated by Normark, 2014: 45.

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed discussion and description in Normark, et al., 2014.

STRUCTURE: Davidsonaspis has long, straight, well-marked, paraphysis-like sclerotized pore furrow margins in the Þrst and second spaces. (Normark, et al., 2014)

SYSTEMATICS: A user of Ferris"s (1942) key to the North American genera might key out a specimen of Davidsonaspis to Chrysomphalus if the pore furrow margins of the second space are mistaken for true paraphyses, or nearest to Palinaspis if the pore furrow margins of the first space are seen as Þnger-like and not apically knobbed, or nearest to Clavaspis if the pore furrow margin of the Þrst space is seen as terminating in a heavily sclerotized knob. In Miller and Davidson's (2005) key to U.S. pest species, a specimen of Davidsonaspis keys out as C. perniciosa. (Normark, et al., 2014).

KEYS: Normark et al. 2014: 45 [modifications to Ferris's 1942 key to the genera of North American Diaspdidae.].

CITATIONS: NormarMoKr2014 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 45-46].



Davidsonaspis aguacatae (Evans, Watson & Miller)

NOMENCLATURE:

Abgrallaspis aguacatae Evans, Watson & Miller, 2009: 58. Type data: MEXICO: , Michoacán, Nuevo Parangaricutiro, Huerto (=Orchard) Mesa de Gallegos, on fruit of Persea americana var. Hass; collected 31 March 2007. Holotype female; type no. MNCM. Described: female. Illust.

Davidsonaspis aguacatae; Normark et al., 2014: 44. Change of combination.



FOES: COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Chilocorus cacti [LazaroGoLo2012]. HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Aphytis spp [LazaroGoLo2012], Encarsia citrina [LazaroGoLo2012], Encarsia juanae [LazaroGoLo2012]. Signiphoridae: Signiphora nr. boriquensis [LazaroGoLo2012].

HOST: Lauraceae: Persea americana Haas [EvansWaMi2009].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico (Michoacan [EvansWaMi2009]).

BIOLOGY: Magsig-Castillo et al. (2010) have demonstrated the occurrence of phoretic dispersal of crawlers of Abgrallaspis aguacatae Evans, Watson & Miller. The crawlers use the tarsal and claw digitules of each leg to attach themselves to three different insect species Musca domestica L., Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant and Linepithema humile (Mayr) and can effectively be moved phoretically by these insects.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Evans, Watson & Miller (2009).

SYSTEMATICS: Rugman-Jones et al. (2010) used two different nuclear gene regions (28S and Elongation Factor 1-alpha) and three different analysis methods (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analyses) to infer phylogeny from DNA sequence data for 35 aspidiotine species, including Abgrallaspi aguacatae. These analyses suggest that the latter species is misplaced in the genus Abgrallaspis Balachowsky and that this genus and several closely allied genera are paraphyletic or polyphyletic. The findings of their analyses are discussed specifically in relation to the current placement of A. aguacatae and more broadly in relation to the long-recognized problem of defining generic boundaries between Abgrallaspis, Diaspidiotus Berlese, and Hemiberlesia Cockerell.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Abgrallaspi aguacatae Evans, Watson & Miller (2009) was described from 'Hass' avocado, Persea Americana Miller, fruit being imported into California from Mexico.

KEYS: Evans, Watson & Miller 2009: 63-67 (female) [as Abgrallaspis aguacate; Diaspididae species found on avocado].

CITATIONS: EvansWaMi2009 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 57-68]; LazaroGoLo2012 [biological control, distribution: 8,11-12]; MagsigMoWa2010 [life history, physiology, dispersal: 1172-1179]; MillarChMc2012 [host: 497]; RossHaOk2012 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 199]; RugmanAnMo2010 [taxonomy, phylogenetics, molecular data: 30-38]; RugmanMoSt2009 [economic importance, taxonomy, molecular data ,: 1948-1953]; WeiFe2012a [description, distribution, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 9-17].



Mahafalyaspis Balachowsky

NOMENCLATURE:

Mahafalyaspis Balachowsky, 1971: 221-226. Type species: Mahafalyaspis teteforti Balachowsky.

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description in French and illustration in Balachowsky, 1971

SYSTEMATICS: The author placed this genus in the Diaspidini-Rugaspidiotina, near Discodiaspis Koroneos.

CITATIONS: Balach1971 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 221-226].



Mahafalyaspis teleforti Balachowsky

NOMENCLATURE:

Mahafalyaspis teleforti Balachowsky, 1971: 223-226. Type data: MADAGASCAR: Mahafaly, on Adansonia fony, 11/5/70, by M.J.Tétefort. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France; type no. 4266. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Malvaceae: Adansonia fony [Balach1971].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Madagascar [Balach1971].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description in French and illustration in Balachowsky, 1971.

CITATIONS: Balach1971 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 223-226].



Paracupidaspis Howell & Tippins

NOMENCLATURE:

Paracupidaspis Howell & Tippins, 1981: 419. Type species: Paracupidiaspis wilkeyi Howell & Tippens.

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Howell & Tippins, 1981.

STRUCTURE: Adult female with two pairs of pygidial lobes. Space between median lobes is less than the width of one lobe; median lobs reduced, much smaller than second lobes, second lobes bilobed. Antenna with 2 invaginated setae.

SYSTEMATICS: Paracupidaspis is similar to Cupidaspis, however, Paracupidaspis has few dorsal macroducts, not in definite rows and the second lobe is bilobed. (Cupidaspis has macroducts present in definite rows on at least one prepygidial segment and the second lobe is not bilobed.

CITATIONS: HowellTi1981 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 419-421]; HowellTi1982 [structure, taxonomy: 441].



Paracupidaspis wilkeyi Howell & Tippins

NOMENCLATURE:

Paracupidaspis wilkeyi Howell & Tippins, 1981: 439-421. Type data: USA: California, Placerville, on Calocedrus decurrens (=Libocedrus decurrens), 8/9/1960, by C.B. Eaton. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female, male and first instar. Illust.

COMMON NAME: milky conifer scale [Gill1997].



HOSTS: Cupressaceae: Calocedrus decurrens [HowellTi1981], Juniperus sp. [Gill1997]

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Arizona [HowellTi1981], California [HowellTi1981], Kansas [HowellTi1981], New Mexico [HowellTi1981], Oregon [Gill1997]).

BIOLOGY: Adult females usually found along seams in leaves or partially hidden under appressed needles. Males usually seen more often hthan females, found in groups on all leaf surfaces. (Gill, 1997)

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration of the adult female, and descriptions of the first instar and second instar male in Howell & Tippins, 1981.

STRUCTURE: Scale covering elongate, white, with exuviae terminal. That of male similar but much smaller, fully exposed on needles of host.

SYSTEMATICS: P. wilkeyi can be separated from its apparent nearest relatives in Cupidaspis by the lack of well-defined rows of dorsal macroducts on prepygidial abdominal segments, by the possession of bilobular second lobes, and well-developed gland spins on pygidial margin.

KEYS: Howell & Tippins 1981: 419 (female) [Modified key to the Dianspidini].

CITATIONS: Gill1997 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 108,213,214]; HowellTi1981 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 419-421]; HowellTi1982 [structure: 441].



Pentalaminaspis Smith-Pardo et al.

NOMENCLATURE:

Pentalaminaspis Smith-Pardo et al., 2012: 20-22. Type species: Pentalaminaspis minuta Kortinsky.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustrations in Smith-Pardo, et al., 2012.

STRUCTURE: Aspidiotine, adult female broadly oval, nearly round with head and thorax membranous; pygidium with 3 pairs of well-developed lobes, L1 about as long as wide, L2 and L3 broadly spatulate with numerous (about 10) small teeth along apex of each lobe; L2 larger than L1 and located closer to L3 than to L1; 1 pair of plates present between L1; each side of pygidium with 5 bifurcate plates between L1 and L2, 3 bifurcate plates between L2 and L3, and 3 elongate, bifurcate plates anterior to L3; paraphysis arising from base of each side of L1, L2 and L3 slender, elongate, sinuous; 2 rod-shaped paraphyses present between L1 and L2; anus relatively small and oval, located medially about half way between vulva and posterior apex of abdomen; perivulvar pores absent in type species. (Smith-Pardo, et al., 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: Pentalaminaspis appears to be most similar to Chrysomphalus but can be distinguished easily by: presence of the 5 bifurcate plates between L1 and L2, the very large size of the L2 and L3 lobes, each with numerous apical teeth, and the number, arrangement and relative size of the paraphyses. (Smith-Pardo, et al., 2012)

KEYS: Smith-Pardo et al. 2012: 3+4 (female) [Key to the Aspidiotinae (Diaspididae) genera similar to the genus Chrysomphalus].

CITATIONS: SmithPEvDo2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, phylogeny: 3-4,20-22].



Pentalaminaspis minuta (Kotinsky)

NOMENCLATURE:

Chrysomphalus minutus Kotinsky, 1908: 170. Type data: SINGAPORE: on undetermined plant. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA; type no. 853. Described: female. Illust.

Aonidiella minuta; MacGillivray, 1921: 444. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.

Aspidiotus pigmaeus Lindinger, 1937: 180. Unjustified replacement name for Chrysomphalus minutus Kotinsky; discovered by Borchsenius, 1966: 371.

Aspidiotus pygmaeus Lindinger, 1937: 180. Unjustified replacement name; discovered by.

Pentalaminaspis minuta; Smith-Pardo et al., 2012: 21-22. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.



HOSTS: Loranthaceae: Dendrophthoe pentandra [SmithPEvDo2012], Elytranthe bibracteolata acuminatissima [SmithPEvDo2012], Elytranthe cochinchinensis [SmithPEvDo2012], Elytranthe sp. [SmithPEvDo2012], Loranthus forbesii [SmithPEvDo2012], Macrosolen cochinchinensis [SmithPEvDo2012].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Singapore [Kotins1908].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Kotinsky (1908). Detailed description and illustrations in Smith-Pardo, et al., 2012.

STRUCTURE: Scale of the adult female greenish yellow, subcircular, convex, diameter 0.65 mm; exuviae sub-central, 1st orange, 2nd dark brown within white circle; ventral scale complete except central opening, tough (Kotinsky, 1908). Aspidiotine, adult female broadly oval, nearly round with head and thorax membranous. Pygidium sclerotized,

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 295]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 371-372]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 45]; Kotins1908 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 170-171]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 180]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 444]; McKenz1938 [taxonomy: 4]; McKenz1939 [taxonomy: 54]; Sander1909a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 55]; SmithPEvDo2012 [description, distribution, host, structure, taxonomy: 21-22].



Phaulaspis Neave

NOMENCLATURE:

Cryptaonidia Neave, 1939: 884.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by MacGillivray (1921) and by Morrison & Morrison (1922).

SYSTEMATICS: The type species of Phaulaspis is a pupillarial species. Morrison & Morrison (1922), Ferris (1937c) and Lindinger (1937) accepted the genus as valid. The pygidial margin of the adult female of the type species has no lobes and plates, while the pygidium of the second instar has lobes.

CITATIONS: Balach1948b [taxonomy: 269]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 703]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 366]; Cocker1897i [taxonomy: 31]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 395]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 251]; Ferris1937c [taxonomy: 55,69]; Ferris1938b [taxonomy: 75]; HowellTi1990 [taxonomy: 57]; Leonar1897 [taxonomy, description: 284-286]; Lindin1932f [taxonomy: 189]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 192]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description: 395,465]; MorrisMo1922 [taxonomy, description: 89-93]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 152].



Phaulaspis hakeae (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus hakeae Maskell, 1896b: 383. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Sydney, on Hakea sp.; sent by Mr. Olliff. Syntypes, female and first instar. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.

Aspidiotus (Phaulaspis) hakeae; Cockerell, 1897i: 27. Change of combination.

Aonidia hacheae; Leonardi, 1899: 205. Change of combination.

Aonidia hacheae; Leonardi, 1899: 205. Misspelling of species name.

Aonidia (Cryptoaonidia) hackeae; Leonardi, 1900: 323. Change of combination.

Aonidia (Cryptoaonidia) hackeae; Leonardi, 1900: 323. Misspelling of species name.

Phaulaspis hakeae; MacGillivray, 1921: 465. Change of combination.



HOST: Proteaceae: Hakea [Maskel1896b, Leonar1900, Frogga1914].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia [Leonar1900] (New South Wales [Maskel1896b, Frogga1914]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Maskell (1896b), Leonardi (1900) and by Ferris (1937c).

STRUCTURE: Scale of female circular, diameter about 1/45 inch; slightly convex; greyish-white; exuviae dark-orange, central; median portion is frequently rubbed off, leaving the pellicles exposed, with a ring of secretion. Male scale circular, smaller and whiter than that of the female; diameter about 1/65 inch (Maskell, 1896b).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 703-704]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 366-367]; Cocker1897i [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 27]; DeitzTo1980 [taxonomy: 38]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 260]; Ferris1937c [taxonomy, illustration: 51,52,89]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 44]; Frogga1914 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 314]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 17]; Leonar1897 [taxonomy: 286]; Leonar1900 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 323-326]; Maskel1896b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 383-384].



Protomorgania Dooley & Evans

NOMENCLATURE:

Protomorgania Dooley & Evans, 2012: 1-14. Type species: Protomorgania koebelei Dooley & Evans.

BIOLOGY: Individuals abundant, found on bark and somewhat cryptic in appearance being similar to the color and texture of the bark.(Dooley & Evans, 20012)

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description, photographs and illustrations in Dooley & Evans, 2012.

STRUCTURE: Exuviae brown, oval and subcentral. Slide mounted adult female. Specimens with a deep prothoracic-mesothoracic constriction with the anterior margin uniformly dome-shaped. Abdomen broadly rounded with the pygidium slightly more sclerotized and cuticle stippled. Clusters of disc pores associated with the anterior and posterior spiracles. Pygidium with only median lobes that are broad, short and appressed; L2 and L3 absent. 1-barred dorsal macroducts present. Perivulvar pores absent with the pygidium marked by dorsal sclerotized arch anterior to the vulva extending laterally on each side of and beyond the vulva. (Dooley & Evans, 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: Protomorgania Dooley and Evans is a monotypic genus that belongs to the subfamily Aspidiotinae based on presence of macroducts of the 1-barred type. Unlike many of the aspidiotine genera, it has perispiracular pores associated with the spiracles. It is similar to several of the Australian genera in that they have a relatively broad body with a constriction or incision between the prothorax and mesothorax with most of the species in this group lack perivulvar pores. It can be distinguished from these genera by the following combination of characters: anterior and posterior spiracles with associated perispiracular pores; dorsum of the pygidium not reticulated; L1 lobes fused ventrally, appressed dorsally. It is most similar to Neomorgania (MacGillvray, 1921) but can be distinguished from that genus by having: the anterior and posterior spiracles with associated pores; L1 lobes fused ventrally, appressed dorsally; and a tubercle present on lateral margin of the cephalon; in Neomorgonia, only the anterior spiracles have associated pores; the L1 lobes are appressed ventrally and dorsally; and it lacks the tubercle on lateral margin of the cephalon.(Dooley & Evans, 20012)

KEYS: Dooley & Evans 2012: 2-3 (female) [Key to the genera of armored scales in Australia similar to Protomorgania].

CITATIONS: DooleyEv2012 [description, distribution, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 1-14].



Protomorgania koebelei Dooley & Evans

NOMENCLATURE:

Protomorgania koebelei Dooley & Evans, 2012: 6-7. Type data: AUSTRALIA:Victoria, Melbourne, on Pittosporum sp., 7/18/1890, by A. Koebele. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: San Francisco: California Academy of Sciences, Department of Entomology, California, USA; type no. F1972. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Pittosporaceae: Pittosporum sp. [DooleyEv2012]

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Victoria [DooleyEv2012]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description, photographs and illustration in Dooley & Evans, 2012

STRUCTURE: Protomorgania koebelei appears to have several taxonomic traits, such as the constricted thorax, that are common to other endemic Australian genera. (Dooley & Evans, 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: This species is described with the following combination of morphological characters: perispiracular pore clusters associated with both the anterior and posterior pair of spiracles; dorsum of pygidium finely stippled,not reticulate; only one pair of pygidial lobes (L1) present, which are appressed, contiguous and joined basally; a single simple plate present on pygidium between L1 and the position of the L2 seta. (Dooley & Evans, 2012)

CITATIONS: DooleyEv2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 65-66].



Sphaeroceraspis Balachowsky & Ferrero

NOMENCLATURE:

Sphaeroceraspis Balachowsky & Ferrero, 1965a: 996-999. Type species: Sphaeroceraspis saccasi Balachowsky & Ferrero.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description in French and illustration in Balachowsky & Ferrero, 1965.

SYSTEMATICS: The authors assigned this genus to the Diaspidini, with certain affinities to "Protodiaspis Ferris," an error for Protodiaspis Cockerell.

CITATIONS: BalachFe1965a [description, distribution, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 995-999].



Sphaeroceraspis joannae Balachowsky & Ferrero

NOMENCLATURE:

Sphaeroceraspis joannae Balachowsky & Ferrero, 1966a: 344-348. Type data: CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC: La Maboké, on Entandrophragma cylindrica, 2/26/1964, by R. Pujol. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France; type no. 2927. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Meliaceae: Entandrophragma cylindrica [BalachFe1966a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Central African Republic [BalachFe1966a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description in French and illustration in Balachowsky & Ferrero, 1966a.

SYSTEMATICS: Spaeroceraspis joannae is similar to but differs from Sphaeroceraspis saccasi on several important characters.

CITATIONS: BalachFe1966a [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 343-348].



Sphaeroceraspis saccasi Balachowsky & Ferrero

NOMENCLATURE:

Sphaeroceraspis saccasi Balachowsky & Ferrero, 1965a: 995-999. Type data: CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC: La Maboké, 3/2/1964, by Balachowsky & Ferrero. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France; type no. 2932. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Ebenaceae: Diospyros sp. [BalachFe1965a]. Flacourtiaceae: Dasylepsis sereti [BalachFe1965a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Central African Republic [BalachFe1965a].

BIOLOGY: This species was found on the small branches of various native trees on the rain forest.

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description in French and illustration in Balachowsky & Ferrero, 1965a.

STRUCTURE: The main characters are the spehical shape of the hind part of the body, the horn-like branched antennae, the narrow cdphalic area, the very short gland spins on the pygidium, and the presence of 7 groups of perivulvar pores.

CITATIONS: BalachFe1965a [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 995-999].



Subfamily Aspidiotinae


Acanthaspidiotus Borchsenius & Williams

NOMENCLATURE:

Acanthaspidiotus Borchsenius & Williams, 1963: 381. Type species: Aspidiotus (Evaspidiotus) pustulans Green, by monotypy and original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by Borchsenius & Williams (1963) and by Takagi (2007).

SYSTEMATICS: This genus is close to the genera Aspidiotus Bouche and Metaspidiotus Takagi (1957) but differs from both in possessing slender ducts, large spine-like marginal setae and poorly developed second and third lobes (Borchsenius & Williams, 1963). In possessing a small anal opening situated towards the apex of the pygidium the genus Acanthaspidiotus resembles Monaonidiella MacGillivray ((Borchsenius & Williams, 1963).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 35]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 276]; BorchsWi1963 [taxonomy, description: 381]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy: 229]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 1]; Takagi2003 [taxonomy: 99]; Takagi2007 [taxonomy, description: 55-56].



Acanthaspidiotus hibisci Takagi

NOMENCLATURE:

Acanthaspidiotus hibisci Takagi, 2007: 56. Type data: PHILIPPINES: Luzon Island, Morong, Bataan Peninsula, on Hibiscus tiliaceus; collected 21.viii.1994. Holotype female. Type depository: Los Banos: Entomological Museum, Museum of Natural History, University of the Philippines at Los Banos, College, Laguna, Luzon, Philippines; type no. 94PL-88. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Malvaceae: Hibiscus tiliaceus [Takagi2007].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Takagi (2007).

CITATIONS: Takagi2007 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 56-57,65].



Acanthaspidiotus pustulans (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus (Evaspidiotus) pustulans Green, 1905: 31. Type data: INDONESIA: Java, on Erythrina lithosperma. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Aspidiotus pustulans; MacGillivray, 1921: 398. Change of combination.

Acanthaspidiotus pustulans; Borchsenius & Williams, 1963: 381. Change of combination.



HOST: Fabaceae: Erythrina lithosperma [Green1905, Sander1906].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Indonesia (Java [Green1905, Sander1906]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Borchsenius & Williams (1963).

STRUCTURE: Female scale irregularly circular, moderately convex, brownish-fulvous. Pellicles concolorous, inconspicuous. Surface dull and roughened. Diameter, 1 to 1.50 mm. Male scale not observed (Green, 1905).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 36]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 276]; BorchsWi1963 [taxonomy, description, illustration: 380-381]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 47]; Green1905 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 31]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 398]; Sander1906 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 14].



Achorophora Brimblecombe

NOMENCLATURE:

Achorophora Brimblecombe, 1957: 273. Type species: Achorophora obliqua Brimblecombe, by original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by Brimblecombe (1957).

SYSTEMATICS: Brimblecombe (1957) stated that Achorophora resembles several genera such as Pseudaonidia in that the female has a constricted thorax, a chitinized body, and perispiracular pores near the anterior spiracles, but differs from all other genera in the Pseudaonidia group in the oblique duct orifices.

KEYS: Dooley & Evans 2012: 2-3 (female) [Key to the genera of armored scales in Australia similar to Protomorgania].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 36]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 240]; Brimbl1957 [taxonomy, description: 273-275]; DooleyEv2012 [taxonomy: 3]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 2].



Achorophora divergens Brimblecombe

NOMENCLATURE:

Achorophora divergens Brimblecombe, 1957: 275. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Queensland, Marmor, on Casuarina glauca; collected October 1955. Holotype female. Type depository: Brisbane: Queensland Museum, Queensland, Australia; type no. T5634. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Casuarinaceae: Casuarina glauca [Brimbl1957].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Queensland [Brimbl1957]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Brimblecombe (1957).

STRUCTURE: Female scale oval, length 1.8 mm, width 1.3 mm; sometimes partly curved around the branchlet; dark reddish brown or brownish black; exuviae dark orange, placed near the anterior end of scale (Brimblecombe, 1957).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 36]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 240]; Brimbl1957 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 275-277].



Achorophora obliqua Brimblecombe

NOMENCLATURE:

Achorophora obliqua Brimblecombe, 1957: 274. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Queensland, Drillham, on Casuarina luehmannii; collected by J. Mann, April 1953. Holotype female. Type depository: Brisbane: Queensland Museum, Queensland, Australia; type no. T5630. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Casuarinaceae: Casuarina luehmannii [Brimbl1957].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Queensland [Brimbl1957]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Brimblecombe (1957).

STRUCTURE: Insects on branches, single or several adjacent to each other, with the anterior end close to or partly under the whorl of leaflets; scale oval with exuviae dark orange (Brimblecombe, 1957).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 37]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 240]; Brimbl1957 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 274-275]; DooleyEv2012 [illustration: 9].



Acontonidia Brimblecombe

NOMENCLATURE:

Acontonidia Brimblecombe, 1957: 285. Type species: Acontonidia triangularis Brimblecombe, by monotypy and original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by Brimblecombe (1957).

SYSTEMATICS: The genus Acontonidia Brimblecombe (1957) has some resemblance to Aspidonymus Brimblecombe (1957), differing in the shape of the lobes, plates, paraphyses and of the abdominal margin (Brimblecombe, 1957).

KEYS: Dooley & Evans 2012: 2-3 (female) [Key to the genera of armored scales in Australia similar to Protomorgania].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 37]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 240]; Brimbl1957 [taxonomy, description: 285-287]; DooleyEv2012 [taxonomy: 3]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 2].



Acontonidia triangularis Brimblecombe

NOMENCLATURE:

Acontonidia triangularis Brimblecombe, 1957: 286. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Queensland, Beenleigh, on Dissilaria baloghioides; collected May 1956. Holotype female. Type depository: Brisbane: Queensland Museum, Queensland, Australia; type no. T5654. Described: female. Illust.

Acontonidia triangulari; Dooley & Evans, 2012: 9. Misspelling of species name.



HOST: Euphorbiaceae: Dissilaria baloghioides [Brimbl1957].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Queensland [Brimbl1957]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female by Brimblecombe (1957).

STRUCTURE: Insects single and sparse, embedded under cork tissue on twigs (Brimblecombe, 1957).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 37]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 240]; Brimbl1957 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 286-287].



Acutaspis Ferris

NOMENCLATURE:

Insaspidiotus Barreda, 1901: 229. Unavailable name. Notes: Berreda (1901) developed a system of formula names involving adding a prefix to each generic name to indicate the group to which it belongs. These formula names have been ruled invalid by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature in opinion 72. . Ferris, 1938a, and Morrison & Morrison, 1966, consider this name to be without status.

Acutaspis Ferris, 1941d: 328. Type species: Aspidiotus perseae Comstock, by original designation.

Acutaspi; Balachowsky, 1959: 356. Misspelling of genus name.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by Ferris (1941d), McKenzie (1947) and by Balachowsky (1951).

SYSTEMATICS: This genus is closely related to Melanaspis Cockerell, from which it differs in the narrow pygidium, and in the large anal opening, being twice or more the length of the median lobes (Ferris, 1941d; McKenzie, 1937).

KEYS: Smith-Pardo et al. 2012: 3-4 (female) [Key to the Aspidiotinae (Diaspididae) genera similar to the genus Chrysomphalus]; Claps & Wolff 2003: 14 (female) [Genera of South America]; Colon-Ferrer & Medina-Gaud 1998: 28-32 (female) [Genera of Puerto Rico]; Gill 1997: 24-26 (female) [Genera of California]; Wolff & Corseuil 1993: 29 (female) [Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul]; Tereznikova 1986: 83 (female) [Ukraine]; McDaniel 1968: 202 (female) [species U.S.A.: Texas]; Danzig 1964: 646 (female) [Europe]; McKenzie 1956: 22 (female) [U.S.A.: California]; Borchsenius 1950b: 167 (female) [USSR]; Ferris 1942: 446:27 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1942: 446:28 (female) [species North America].

CITATIONS: Balach1951 [taxonomy, description: 593-594]; Balach1958b [taxonomy: 164]; Balach1959 [taxonomy: 356,360]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 37-38]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description: 167,221-222]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 354]; ClapsDo2003 [taxonomy: 14]; ColonFMe1998 [taxonomy, description: 34]; Danzig1964 [taxonomy: 651]; Danzig1993 [taxonomy, description: 240]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 174]; Ferris1941d [taxonomy, description: 328]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy: 446:27]; Koszta1996 [taxonomy, description: 419]; Kozar1990f [distribution: 143]; McKenz1947 [taxonomy, description: 32-33]; McKenz1950 [taxonomy: 99]; McKenz1956 [taxonomy: 22]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 3]; Schmut1959 [taxonomy, description: 354]; SmithPEvDo2012 [taxonomy: 3-4]; WolffCo1993 [taxonomy: 29].



Acutaspis acuta (Mamet)

NOMENCLATURE:

Melanaspis acuta Mamet, 1951: 248. Type data: MADAGASCAR: Foulpointe, on upper surface of leaves of Anacardium occidentale. Holotype. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Illust.

Acutaspis acuta; Borchsenius, 1966: 354. Change of combination.



HOST: Anacardiaceae: Anacardium occidentale [Mamet1951].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Madagascar [Mamet1951, Borchs1966].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Mamet (1951).

STRUCTURE: Female scale very dark brown, almost black; surface roughened by concentric laminations, obscured by brownish to greyish, thick and shiny secretion; brittle, subcircular and produced to one side, flat; exuviae jet black, to one side, sometimes with a white to reddish-brown secretion obscuring them; ventral scale brown to dark-brown, fairly thick, remaining attached to host plant. Male scale not observed (Mamet, 1951).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 38]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 354]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 550]; Mamet1951 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 229,248].



Acutaspis agavis (Townsend & Cockerell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus agavis Townsend & Cockerell, 1898: 178. Type data: MEXICO: Toluca, on leaves of Agave sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Chrysomphalus agavis; Cockerell, 1899a: 396. Change of combination.

Acutaspis agavis; Ferris, 1941d: 329. Change of combination.

Melanaspis agaves Lindinger, 1943a: 147. Unjustified emendation.

Melanaspis agaves; Lindinger, 1943a: 147. Change of combination.

Melanaspis agaves Lindinger, 1943a: 147. Unjustified emendation; discovered by Borchsenius, 1966: 354.

Acutaspis agavis; Borchsenius, 1966: 354. Revived combination.



FOES: HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Aphytis diaspidis (Howard) [RosenDe1979], Aphytis mytilaspidis (Le Baron) [MyartsRu2000].

HOSTS: Agavaceae: Agave [Ferris1941d], Agave lecheguilla [Ferris1941d, McDani1968].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico [Cocker1899n, MyartsRu2000] (Colima [Ferris1941d], Guanajuato [SalasAJoMo2008], Mexico State [Ferris1941d], Puebla [Ferris1941d]); United States of America (Arizona [Nakaha1982], Florida [Wilson1917], Texas [Ferris1941d, McDani1968]). Neotropical: Costa Rica [Nakaha1982]; Trinidad and Tobago (Trinidad [Nakaha1982]); Venezuela [Nakaha1982].

BIOLOGY: Occurring exposed upon the leaves (Ferris, 1941d).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ferris (1941d).

STRUCTURE: Scale of the female quite convex, circular with one side somewhat produced; exuviae black beneath a film of wax and surrounded by a band that is yellowish brown, the margins of the scale whitish. Scale of the male oval, yellowish brown (Ferris, 1941d).

KEYS: McDaniel 1968: 202 (female) [U.S.A.: Texas]; Ferris 1942: 29 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 38-39]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 354]; Castel1951a [biological control: 95-98]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 396]; Cocker1899n [host, distribution: 26]; Cocker1905 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 46]; DeSant1979 [biological control]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 285]; Ferris1937c [taxonomy, illustration: 51,79]; Ferris1941d [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 329]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 40]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy: 29]; Gordh1979 [biological control: 894]; Leonar1900 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 342]; Lindin1943a [taxonomy: 147]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 544]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 421]; McDani1968 [taxonomy, illustration, host, distribution: 202-204]; McKenz1939 [taxonomy: 53]; McKenz1947 [taxonomy: 34]; MyartsRu2000 [distribution, biological control: 7-33]; Nakaha1982 [host, distribution: 3]; RosenDe1979 [host, distribution, biological control: 405-409]; SalasAJoMo2008 [host, distribution, life history, ecology, biological control: 289-298]; TownseCo1898 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 178-179]; Willia1985a [taxonomy: 231]; Wilson1917 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 15].



Acutaspis albopicta (Cockerell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus albopictus leonis Townsend & Cockerell, 1898: 179. Type data: MEXICO: Nuevo Leon, Linares, on leaves of orange. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Ferris, 1941e: 45.

Aspidiotus koebelei Townsend & Cockerell, 1898: 179. Type data: MEXICO: Oaxaca State, Oaxaca, on leaves of orange. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Ferris, 1941e: 44.

Aspidiotus (Chrysomphalus) albopictus Cockerell, 1898j: 433. Type data: MEXICO: Cuernavaca, on leaves of orange; collected December 8, 1897. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Chrysomphalus albopictus; Cockerell, 1899a: 396. Change of combination.

Chrysomphalus albopictus leonis; Cockerell, 1899a: 396. Change of combination.

Chrysomphalus koebelei; Cockerell, 1899a: 396. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus albopictus; Cockerell, 1905: 46. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus leonis; McKenzie, 1939: 53. Change of combination and rank.

Acutaspis albopicta; Ferris, 1941d: 329. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.

COMMON NAME: albopicta scale [McKenz1956].



FOE: HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Aphytis acutaspidis Rosen & DeBach [RosenDe1979].

HOSTS: Apocynaceae: Tabernaemontana [McKenz1956]. Araceae: Aglaonema [Gill1997], Philodendron [McKenz1956, Gill1997]. Arecaceae: Cocos nucifera [Ferris1941d, McKenz1956]. Bromeliaceae: Tillandsia [Gill1997]. Ebenaceae: Brayodendron texanum [McDani1968]. Fabaceae: Inga [Ferris1941d, McKenz1956]. Lauraceae: Persea americana [McKenz1956]. Menispermaceae: Hyperbaena denticulata [Ferris1941d, McKenz1956]. Musaceae: Musa paradisiaca sapientum [McKenz1956]. Oleaceae: Ligustrum vulgare [McDani1968]. Rubiaceae: Gardenia jasminoides [McKenz1956]. Rutaceae: Citrus [Ferris1941d, McKenz1956]. Tiliaceae: Jacquinia [Ferris1941d, McKenz1956].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico [Cocker1899n] (Colima [Ferris1941d], Guerrero [Ferris1941d], Morelos [Ferris1941d], Nuevo Leon [TownseCo1898, Ferris1941d], Oaxaca [TownseCo1898, Ferris1941d], Sinola [Ferris1941d]); United States of America (California [McKenz1956], Texas [McDani1968]). Neotropical: Brazil (Rio de Janeiro [RosenDe1979]); Costa Rica [Nakaha1982]; Ecuador [YustCe1956]; Guatemala [Nakaha1982]; Honduras [Nakaha1982]; Panama [Ferris1941d]; Peru [VasqueDeCo2002].

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the leaves of the host (Ferris, 1941d).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ferris (1941d), McKenzie (1956) and by Gill (1997).

STRUCTURE: Scale of the female of the type common to the genus, circular or slightly oval, dark brown; that of the male similar (Ferris, 1941d).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: McKenzie (1956: 37) recorded this species from some Californian nurseries, and assumed that it has been established in California. However, Gill (1997: 40) and Gillian Watson (2007, in personal communication to Yair Ben-Dov) informed that this species has never been found in California since 1960, and has never become established in this State. Subsequent to a review conducted by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 2007, which concluded that these armored scale insects posed a low risk of establishment, the California Department of Food and Agriculture was forced to issue a Pest Exclusion Advisory notifying inspectors at border stations that they could no longer reject commercial shipments of avocados because of the presence of armored scale (Morse et al. 2009). Since that time, Mexican Hass avocados infested with exotic scales have been allowed free access into California, with no requirements for disinfestation treatments.Morse et al (2009) presented abundant evidence that shipments of Mexican Hass avocados were infested with a number of armored scale species, including Acustaspis albopicta (Cockerell).Pheromone-baited traps can now be used for monitoring for the establishment of this scale in California and for monitoring its spread, phenology, and population densities should it become established. (Milar, et al., 2012)

KEYS: Evans, Watson & Miller 2009: 63-67 (female) [Diaspididae species found on avocado]; McKenzie 1956: 23 (female) [U.S.A.: California]; Ferris 1942: 29 (female) [North America]; Cockerell 1905: 45-46 (female) [Mexico].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 39-41]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 354]; Cocker1898j [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 433-434]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 396]; Cocker1899d [host, distribution: 170]; Cocker1899n [host, distribution: 26]; Cocker1905 [taxonomy: 46]; CoronaRuMo1997 [host, distribution: 38-41]; DicksoFl1955 [host, distribution: 614-615]; EvansWaMi2009 [taxonomy: 63-67]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 285-286,291]; Ferris1941d [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 330]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 40,44,45]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy: 29]; Gill1997 [host, distribution, taxonomy, illustration: 40,41]; Leonar1900 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 342]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 544]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 545]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 415,418]; McDani1968 [taxonomy, illustration, host, distribution: 204-205]; McKenz1939 [taxonomy: 53-54]; McKenz1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 36-37]; MillarChMc2012 [biological control, chemistry, distribution, economic importance: 497-504]; Nakaha1982 [host, distribution: 3]; RosenDe1979 [host, distribution, biological control: 248-249]; RugmanMoSt2009 [economic importance, taxonomy, molecular data ,: 1948-1953]; TownseCo1898 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 179]; VasqueDeCo2002 [host, distribution: 331]; Willia1985a [taxonomy: 232,235]; YustCe1956 [host, distribution: 425-442]; ZouChMi2013 [biological control, chemistry, economic importance: 134-136].



Acutaspis aliena (Newstead)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus alienus Newstead, 1901a: 81. Type data: UNITED KINGDOM: England, London, on Cattleya skinneri. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Chrysomphalus alienus; Fernald, 1903b: 286. Change of combination.

Pseudischnaspis alienus; Houser, 1918: 169. Change of combination.

Insaspidiotus alienus; McKenzie, 1939: 53. Change of combination.

Melanaspis aliena; Ferris, 1941d: 348. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.

Acutaspis aliena; Deitz & Davidson, 1986: 11. Change of combination.

Acutaspis alienae; Granara de Willink & Claps, 2003: 628. Misspelling of species name.

COMMON NAME: Alien Scale [MerrilCh1923].



HOSTS: Agavaceae: Yucca gloriosa [Houser1918, MerrilCh1923]. Araliaceae: Hedera helix [GranarCl2003]. Burseraceae: Bursera [Ferris1941d]. Fabaceae: Cassia obtusifolia [Houser1918, MerrilCh1923]. Guttiferae: Mammea [MerrilCh1923]. Orchidaceae [Ferris1941d], Cattleya skinneri [Newste1901a, MerrilCh1923, Ferris1941d]. Polygonaceae: Muehlenbeckia platyclada [Houser1918, MerrilCh1923]. Proteaceae: Grevillea robusta [Houser1918]. Rosaceae: Rosa [Houser1918]. Salicaceae: Salix babylonica [Houser1918, MerrilCh1923]. Solanaceae: Brunfelsia australis [GranarCl2003], Datura arborea [MerrilCh1923]. Verbenaceae: Clerodendron [Houser1918, MerrilCh1923].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii [Nakaha1982]). Nearctic: Mexico (Oaxaca [Ferris1941d], Veracruz [Ferris1941d]); United States of America (Florida [MerrilCh1923, Ferris1941d, Dekle1965c]). Neotropical: Argentina (Tucuman [GranarCl2003]); Brazil [Nakaha1982]; Cuba [Ferris1941d]; Ecuador [Nakaha1982]; Guatemala [Ferris1941d]; Jamaica [Nakaha1982]; Puerto Rico & Vieques Island [Nakaha1982]. Palaearctic: United Kingdom (England [Newste1901a, Ferris1941d]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the female by Newstead (1901a), Ferris (1941d) and by Balachowsky (1951).

STRUCTURE: Scale of the female circular, rather flat, brown, exuviae central, with a quite distinct, black ventral scale. Scale of the male somewhat elongate, brown (Ferris, 1941d).

KEYS: Danzig 1993: 238 (female) [world]; Balachowsky 1951: 579 (female) [Mediterranean]; Ferris 1943: 64 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1942: 36 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: Balach1951 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 586-589]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 41-42]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 346]; ClapsWoGo2001a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 10]; Danzig1993 [taxonomy: 238]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 174-175]; DeitzDa1986 [taxonomy: 11,76]; Dekle1965c [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 86]; Dekle1976 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, economic importance: 107]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 286]; Ferris1941d [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 348]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 40]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy: 446:36]; Ferris1943 [taxonomy: 64]; GranarCl2003 [host, distribution: 625-637]; GranarCl2003 [host, distribution: 625-637]; Houser1918 [host, distribution: 169]; Lindin1935 [taxonomy: 149]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 550]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 418]; McKenz1939 [taxonomy: 53]; McKenz1947 [taxonomy: 33]; MerrilCh1923 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, economic importance: 250-251]; MillerDaSt1984 [taxonomy: 95]; Nakaha1982 [host, distribution: 53]; Newste1901a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 81].



Acutaspis arbelaezi Balachowsky

NOMENCLATURE:

Acutaspis arbelaezi Balachowsky, 1959: 358. Type data: COLOMBIA: Valle, Cauca Valley, 15 km north east of Cali, on Pithecellobium dulce. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Fabaceae: Pithecellobium dulce [Balach1959].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Colombia [Balach1959].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Balachowsky (1959).

STRUCTURE: Female scale subcircular, very flat, brown-black in colour; larval exuviae subcentral, black; diameter 2-2.2 mm. Male scale unknown (Balachowsky, 1959).

CITATIONS: Balach1959 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 358-359]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 42]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 354].



Acutaspis decorosa Ferris

NOMENCLATURE:

Acutaspis decorosa Ferris, 1941d: 331. Type data: MEXICO: off the west coast of Mexico, Maria Madre Island, on Tillandsia fasciculata. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Bromeliaceae: Tillandsia fasciculata [Ferris1941d].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico [Ferris1941d] (Colima [Ferris1941d]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the leaves (Ferris, 1941d).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the female by Ferris (1941d).

STRUCTURE: The scale of the female more or less buried under the epidermis of the leaf, of a pale brown color. Scale of the male not recognized (Ferris, 1941d).

KEYS: Ferris 1942: 28 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 42]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 354]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy: 28].



Acutaspis erythraspidis (Newstead)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus (Chrysomphalus) erythraspidis Newstead, 1917: 372. Type data: GUYANA: Turkeyn, on Erythraspis [=Erythrina] glauca. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Chrysomphalus erythraspidis; MacGillivray, 1921: 420. Change of combination.

Pseudischnaspis erythraspidis; Lindinger, 1937: 194. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus erythraspidis; McKenzie, 1939: 54. Change of combination.

Acutaspis erythraspidis; Borchsenius, 1966: 354. Change of combination.



HOST: Fabaceae: Erythrina glauca [Newste1917].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Guyana [Newste1917].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the female by Newstead (1917). This species was described from material off Erythraspis glauca. There is no such plant genus Erythraspis and Newstead must have mistaken the plant for Erythrina glauca (Leguminosae), often used as a shade tree in cacao plantations.

STRUCTURE: Female scale more or less circular or irregularly ovate, moderately convex, surface more or less roughened by the fibers of the plant upon which it was fixed; pale brownish buff or greyish buff, sometimes with slightly darker lines of growth; underside blackish, margin similar in colour to the exterior; exuviae central, subcentral or submarginal, black; the secretionary covering greyish, but usually absent from the larval exuviae; maximum diameter 1.7-2.1 mm. Male scale dark brown or brownish black, margin paler; larval exuviae black, with a narrow, but sharply defined, concentric ring of white secretion (Newstead, 1917).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 42-43]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 354]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 43]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 194]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 354]; McKenz1939 [taxonomy: 54]; Newste1917 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 372-373].



Acutaspis litorana Lepage

NOMENCLATURE:

Acutaspis litorana Lepage, 1942: 180. Type data: BRAZIL: Sao Paolo State, Alcatrazes Island, on undetermined plant. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Curitiba: Departamento de Zoologia, Setor de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Parana, Brazil. Described: female. Illust.

Pseudischnaspis litorana; Lindinger, 1957: 544. Change of combination.

Acutaspis litorana; Borchsenius, 1966: 355. Revived combination.



HOST: Araceae: Anthurium andreanum [ImmeneWoBe2002].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Sao Paulo [Lepage1942, ClapsWoGo2001, ImmeneWoBe2002]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Lepage (1942).

STRUCTURE: Female scale irregularly circular, about 2 mm in diameter, colour "marron escura; exuviae subcentral. Male scale short, elongate, exuviae terminal (Lepage, 1942).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 43]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 355]; Claps1993 [taxonomy: 9]; ClapsWoGo2001 [host, distribution: 240]; ImmeneWoBe2002 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 85-89]; Lepage1942 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 179-181]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 544].



Acutaspis morrisonorum Kosztarab

NOMENCLATURE:

Acutaspis morrisonorum Kosztarab, 1963: 18. Type data: U.S.A.: Ohio, Wooster, Secrest Arboretum, on Tsuga caroliniana. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.

COMMON NAME: round conifer scale [Dekle1965c, Koszta1996].



HOSTS: Cupressaceae: Chamaecuparis thyoides [Dekle1965c], Cupressus doclouxiana [Koszta1963], Juniperus [Koszta1963, Dekle1965c], Juniperus bermudiana [Koszta1963], Juniperus virginiana [Koszta1963, TippinBe1970, BesheaTiHo1973], Juniperus virginiana glauca [Koszta1963], Thuja [Dekle1965c]. Pinaceae: Abies concolor [Koszta1963], Picea pungens moerheim [Koszta1963], Pinus [Koszta1963], Pinus elliottii [Dekle1965c], Pinus taeda [Koszta1963], Tsuga [Koszta1963], Tsuga canadensis [Koszta1963, BesheaTiHo1973], Tsuga caroliniana [Koszta1963]. Taxaceae: Torreya taxifolia [Koszta1963, Dekle1965c].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Canada (Quebec [Koszta1963, Koszta1996]); United States of America (Alabama [Koszta1963, USDAAP1978], Arkansas [Koszta1963], Florida [Koszta1963, Dekle1965c], Georgia [TippinBe1970, BesheaTiHo1973], Louisiana [Koszta1963, Koszta1996], Massachusetts [Koszta1963, Koszta1996], Michigan [Koszta1996], North Carolina [Nakaha1982], Ohio [Koszta1996], Pennsylvania [Koszta1963, Koszta1996], Tennessee [Nakaha1982], Virginia [Koszta1963, Koszta1996]). Neotropical: Bermuda [Koszta1996]; Puerto Rico & Vieques Island (Puerto Rico [ColonFMe1998]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Kosztarab (1963, 1993, 1996) and by Colon-Ferrer & Medina-Gaud (1998).

STRUCTURE: Scale of the adult female slightly oval, flat, yellowish-brown, lighter on the margin, with the exuviae central. First nymphal exuviae with white margin. Length 1.5 mm, width 1.125 mm (Kosztarab, 1963).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 43-44]; BesheaTiHo1973 [host, distribution: 4]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 355]; ColonFMe1998 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 3]; ColonFMe1998 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 34]; Dekle1965c [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 15]; Dekle1976 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, economic importance: 25]; FDACSB1987 [host, distribution: 4-7]; Koszta1963 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 18-20]; Koszta1996 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 420-421]; Nakaha1982 [host, distribution: 4]; TippinBe1970 [host, distribution: 7]; USDAAP1978 [host, distribution: 1-4,6].



Acutaspis oliveirai (Lepage & Giannotti)

NOMENCLATURE:

Melanaspis oliveirae Lepage & Giannotti, 1942: 446. Type data: BRAZIL: Joaquim Tavora, on Licania rigida. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: Sao Paulo: Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo, Brazil, and Curitiba: Departamento de Zoologia, Setor de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Parana, Brazil. Described: female. Illust.

Acutaspis oliveirae; Borchsenius, 1966: 355. Change of combination.

Acutaspis oliveirae; Borchsenius, 1966: 355. Misspelling of species name.

Acutaspis oliveirai; Claps, 1993: 6. Notes: Revival of correct spelling of species epithet.

Acutaspis oliveirae; Ben-Dov & German, 2003: 44. Misspelling of species name.



HOSTS: Chrysobalanaceae: Licania rigida [LepageGi1942, ClapsWoGo2001]. Oleaceae: Olea [ClapsWoGo2001].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil [LepageGi1942] (Ceara [ClapsWoGo2001], Sao Paulo [ClapsWoGo2001]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Lepage & Giannotti (1942).

STRUCTURE: Female scale grey, circular, exuviae black placed centrally. Male scale not observed (Lepage & Giannotti, 1942).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 44]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 355]; Claps1993 [taxonomy: 6,9]; ClapsWoGo2001 [host, distribution: 240]; LepageGi1942 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 3-4]; McKenz1947 [taxonomy: 32-33].



Acutaspis paulista (Hempel)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus (Chrysomphalus) paulistus Hempel, 1900a: 504. Type data: BRAZIL: Sao Paulo, Ypiranga, on leaves of Laurus sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil; type no. 203. Described: female. Illust.

Chrysomphalus paulistus; Fernald, 1903b: 292. Change of combination.

Pseudischnaspis paulista; Lindinger, 1937: 194. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.

Melanaspis paulistus; McKenzie, 1939: 54. Change of combination.

Melanaspis palustris; Trjapitzin, 1989: 312. Misspelling of species name.

Acutaspis paulista; Claps, 2000: 91. Change of combination.



FOES: HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Aphytis costalimai [Fidalg1983], Prospaltella ectophaga [Fidalg1983]. Encyrtidae: Zaomma lambinus (Walker) [Trjapi1989]. Signiphoridae: Signiphora fax Girault [Woolle1990].

HOSTS: Anacardiaceae: Mangifera [ClapsWoGo2001], Mangifera indica [Lepage1938, WolffCo1993a], Spondias [ClapsWoGo2001]. Annonaceae: Annona [ClapsWoGo2001], Annona muricata [ClapsWoGo2001]. Apocynaceae: Aspidosperma quebracho [Claps2000], Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco [ClapsWoGo2001], Nerium [ClapsWoGo2001]. Aquifoliaceae: Ilex [ClapsWoGo2001]. Araliaceae: Hedera [Claps2000, ClapsWoGo2001]. Begoniaceae: Begonia [ClapsWoGo2001]. Buxaceae: Buxus sempervirens [Claps2000]. Celastraceae: Euonymus [Claps2000], Maytenus [Claps2000], Maytenus chilensis [Claps2000], Maytenus viscifolia [Claps2000, ClapsWoGo2001]. Chrysobalanaceae: Moquilea [ClapsWoGo2001], Moquilea tomentosa [Lepage1938]. Lauraceae: Laurus [Hempel1900a, Lepage1938, Claps2000, ClapsWoGo2001], Laurus nobilis [Lizery1916c, Claps2000]. Loranthaceae: Phoradendron [ClapsWoGo2001]. Moraceae: Ficus [Lepage1938, ClapsWoGo2001]. Musaceae: Musa [ClapsWoGo2001]. Myrsinaceae: Myrsine [ClapsWoGo2001]. Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus microrys [Claps2000], Psidium [Lepage1938, ClapsWoGo2001]. Oleaceae: Ligustrum [Claps2000, ClapsWoGo2001], Olea [ClapsWoGo2001], Olea europaea [Lizery1916c, Claps2000]. Pittosporaceae: Pittosporum [Claps2000]. Rosaceae: Rosa [ClapsWoGo2001]. Rutaceae: Citrus [Claps2000, ClapsWoGo2001]. Salicaceae: Populus [Claps2000]. Simaroubaceae: Castela [Claps2000]. Solanaceae: Brunfelsia australis [Claps2000, ClapsWoGo2001]. Theaceae: Camellia [ClapsWoGo2001], Camellia japonica [Lepage1938].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina (Buenos Aires [ClapsWoGo2001], Catamarca [ClapsWoGo2001], Chaco [Lizery1916c, GranarCl2003], Cordoba [GranarCl2003], Entre Rios [GranarCl2003], La Rioja [ClapsWoGo2001], Mendoza [GranarCl2003], Misiones [GranarCl2003], Tucuman [ClapsWoGo2001]); Brazil [WolffCo1993a] (Distrito Federal (=Brasilia) [Lepage1938, ClapsWoGo2001], Minas Gerais [Lepage1938, ClapsWoGo2001], Rio Grande do Sul [Lepage1938, BertelBa1966, ClapsWoGo2001], Rio de Janeiro [Lepage1938, ClapsWoGo2001], Sao Paulo [Hempel1900a, Lepage1938, ClapsWoGo2001]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Green (1930b), Claps (2000) and by Zamudio & Claps (2005).

STRUCTURE: Scale of female subcircular, flattish, opaque, dull brown, above blackish beneath; the blackish exuviae usually disposed eccentrically; diameter 2 to 2.5 mm. (Green, 1930b). Colour photograph by Claps & Wolff (2003).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: This polyphagous species (see Host Plant), is considered a pest of olive in South America (Chiesa Molinari, 1948; Schmutterer et al., 1957).

CITATIONS: Argyri1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 579-583]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 44-46]; Bertel1956 [host, distribution, description, life history, biological control]; BertelBa1966 [host, distribution: 17-46]; BiezanFr1939 [host, distribution: 1-18]; BiezanSe1940 [host, distribution: 67-68]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 351]; Bustsh1958 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 219,234]; Chiesa1938a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 1-21]; Chiesa1948 [host, distribution, economic importance]; Chiesa1948a [host, distribution, economic importance]; Claps1993 [taxonomy: 5]; Claps2000 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 91-92,94]; ClapsDo2003 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 16]; ClapsWoGo2001 [host, distribution: 247]; CostaL1949 [host, distribution, biological control: 65-87]; DeSant1941a [host, distribution, biological control: 21-24]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 292]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 46]; Fidalg1983 [host, distribution, biological control: 119-125]; Fonsec1963 [host, distribution: 32-35]; Fonsec1964 [host, distribution: 515]; GranarCl2003 [host, distribution: 625-637]; Green1930b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 217-219]; Haywar1939 [host, distribution, control: 1]; Haywar1944 [host, distribution: 1-32]; Hempel1900a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 504-505]; Hempel1901a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 107]; Lepage1938 [catalogue: 399-400]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 194]; Lizery1916c [host, distribution: 432-433]; Lizery1942 [host, distribution: 80]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 416,420]; McKenz1939 [taxonomy: 54]; MillerDa1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 303]; Monte1943 [host, distribution: 134]; Newste1920 [taxonomy: 197]; SchmutKlLu1957 [host, distribution, economic importance: 492]; Trjapi1989 [biological control: 312]; Vernal1957 [taxonomy: 20]; WolffCo1993a [host, distribution: 153]; Woolle1990 [biological control: 167-176]; ZamudiCl2005 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 258-259].



Acutaspis perseae (Comstock)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus perseae Comstock, 1881a: 305. Type data: USA: Florida, Cedar Keys, on leaves of red bay, Persea carolinensis. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Chrysomphalus perseae; Leonardi, 1897: 286. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Chrysomphalus) perseae; Cockerell, 1897i: 22. Change of combination.

Pseudischnaspis perseae; Lindinger, 1911: 355. Change of combination.

Acutaspis perseae; Ferris, 1941d: 332. Change of combination.

Chrysomphalus (Acutaspis) perseae; Merrill, 1953: 38. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: red bay scale [Comsto1881a, MerrilCh1923, Merril1953].



HOSTS: Aquifoliaceae: Ilex [MerrilCh1923]. Araceae: Anthurium [MerrilCh1923, Ferris1941d], Anthurium harrisii [Morgan1889a]. Arecaceae: Cocos nucifera [Ferris1941d], Sabal [Ferris1941d], Serenoa repens [BesheaTiHo1973]. Cactaceae: Harrisia [MerrilCh1923]. Caprifoliaceae: Viburnum [MerrilCh1923, Ferris1941d]. Celastraceae: Euonymus [Lepage1938, Ferris1941d]. Ericaceae: Ampelothamnus phillyreifolius [Merril1953], Lyonia ferruginea [Merril1953], Lyonia lucida [TippinBe1970], Xolisma [Ferris1941d], Xolisma fruticosa [MerrilCh1923]. Lauraceae: Persea [Ferris1941d], Persea borbonia [BesheaTiHo1973], Persea carolinensis [Comsto1881a, Wilson1917, McDani1968], Persea gratissima [Lepage1938, Ferris1941d]. Magnoliaceae: Magnolia [Lepage1938, Ferris1941d, McDani1968], Magnolia grandiflora [Wilson1917, Dekle1965c]. Oleaceae: Olea [Ferris1941d], Osmanthus [Merril1953]. Orchidaceae: Bletia [Ferris1941d], Laelia [Ferris1941d]. Pinaceae: Pinus [Ferris1941d, Balach1951]. Theaceae: Gordonia [MerrilCh1923]. Viscaceae: Phoradendron flavescens [Ferris1941d]. Zamiaceae: Zamia [Ferris1941d], Zamia floridana [Dekle1965c], Zamia pumila [MerrilCh1923].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico [Cocker1899n] (Oaxaca [Ferris1941d], Sinola [Ferris1941d], Veracruz [Ferris1941d]); United States of America (Alabama [Nakaha1982], Florida [Wilson1917, MerrilCh1923, Dekle1965c, Ferris1941d, Merril1953], Georgia [TippinBe1970, BesheaTiHo1973], Louisiana [Nakaha1982], Mississippi [Herric1911, Ferris1941d], Missouri [Hollin1923], Oklahoma [Nakaha1982], South Carolina [Nakaha1982], Tennessee [Nakaha1982], Texas [McDani1968]). Neotropical: Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul [Lepage1938, Ferris1941d], Rio de Janeiro [Lepage1938, Ferris1941d]); Cuba [Nakaha1982]; Trinidad and Tobago (Trinidad [Nakaha1982]); Venezuela [Ferris1941d] [Nakaha1982]. Palaearctic: Ukraine (Kiev Oblast [Danzig1993]); United Kingdom (England [Morgan1889a]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring characteristically on the leaves (Ferris, 1941d).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ferris (1941d) and by Tereznikova (1986).

STRUCTURE: Scale of the female flat, rather thin, circular, with the exuviae central, color dark reddish brown; that of the male not recognized (Ferris, 1941d).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Considered a pest of red bay, Persea barbonia (Miller & Davidson, 1990), and in Bermuda of Juniperus bermudiana (Schmutterer et al., 1957). Of no economic importance in Florida (Dekle, 1976).

KEYS: Evans, Watson & Miller 2009: 63-67 (female) [Diaspididae species found on avocado]; McDaniel 1968: 202 (female) [U.S.A.: Texas]; Ferris 1942: 28 (female) [North America]; Hollinger 1923: 29 (female) [U.S.A.: Missouri]; Cockerell 1905: 45-46 (female) [Mexico]; Newstead 1901b: 82 (female) [England]; Comstock 1883: 55-57 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: Balach1951 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 594-597]; BeardsDaHo1976 [economic importance: 106]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 46-48]; BesheaTiHo1973 [host, distribution: 4]; Borchs1937 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 120]; Borchs1939 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 11,44]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 222]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 355]; ClapsWoGo2001a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 10]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 334]; Cocker1896f [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 33-34]; Cocker1897i [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 22]; Cocker1897k [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 90]; Cocker1899n [host, distribution: 25]; Cocker1905 [taxonomy: 46]; Comsto1881a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 305-306]; Comsto1883 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 65]; Danzig1964 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 651-652]; Danzig1993 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 239-240]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 175]; Dekle1965c [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 16]; Dekle1976 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, economic importance: 26]; EvansWaMi2009 [taxonomy: 63-67]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 292]; Ferris1941d [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 332]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 47]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy: 446:28]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Green1930b [taxonomy: 219]; Herric1911 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 11,33-34,68]; Hollin1923 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 31]; Leonar1897 [taxonomy: 286]; Leonar1899 [taxonomy: 199,200,223]; Lepage1938 [catalogue: 400]; Lindin1909c [taxonomy, host, distribution: 449]; Lindin1911 [taxonomy: 355]; Lindin1921 [host, distribution: 428]; Lindin1935 [taxonomy: 149]; Lindin1936c [host, distribution: 155]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 544]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 125]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 420]; Maranh1946 [taxonomy: 164-179]; McDani1968 [taxonomy, illustration, host, distribution: 204]; McKenz1939 [taxonomy: 54]; Merril1953 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 38-40]; MerrilCh1923 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, economic importance: 225-226]; MillerDa1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 300]; Morgan1889a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 350]; Nakaha1982 [host, distribution: 4]; Newste1901b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 82,112-114]; Newste1920 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 197]; Schmut1959 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 45]; SchmutKlLu1957 [host, distribution, economic importance: 492]; Terezn1986 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 83-84]; TippinBe1970 [host, distribution: 8]; VitoriZaMa2013 [description, distribution, host: 176-179]; Wilson1917 [host, distribution: 54-55]; WolffPuSi2004 [biological control, host, distribution: 355-361].



Acutaspis ramirezi Balachowsky

NOMENCLATURE:

Acutaspis ramirezi Balachowsky, 1959: 356. Type data: COLOMBIA: Sabana de Bogota, near Zipaquira, 2600 m altitude, on Acacia melanoxylon. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Fabaceae: Acacia melanoxylon [Balach1959].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Colombia [Balach1959, Kondo2001].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Balachowsky (1959).

STRUCTURE: Female scale subcircular, flat, larval exuviae central, colour brown black; secretion of adult brown; diameter 2.2 mm. Male scale unknown (Balachowsky, 1959).

CITATIONS: Balach1959 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 356-357]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 48]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 355]; Kondo2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 43]; PorcelPeMa2012 [structure: 320].



Acutaspis reniformis (Cockerell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus (Chrysomphalus) reniformis; Cockerell, 1897i: 24. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus reniformis Cockerell, 1897u: 265. Type data: MEXICO: Michoacan, Tehuantepec City, on under sides of entire, lanceolate leaves (about 60 mm long); collected by Townsend. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA; type no. 7196. Described: female.

Chrysomphalus reniformis; Cockerell, 1899a: 396. Change of combination.

Acutaspis reniformis; Ferris, 1941d: 333. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Anacardiaceae: Tapirira guianensis [NormarMoKr2014]. Bignoniaceae: Jacaranda copaia [NormarMoKr2014].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico [Cocker1899n] (Michoacan [Cocker1897u]). Neotropical: Argentina (Buenos Aires [GranarCl2003]); Panama [NormarMoKr2014].

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the leaves (Ferris, 1941d).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ferris (1941d).

STRUCTURE: Female scale circular, diameter 2 mm, flat, pale reddish-brown; exuviae concolorous or slightly darker, covered, but both skins very distinctly visible, large, laterad of the middle. First skin when rubbed shining coppery (Cockerell, 1897u). Scale of the female circular, flat, pale reddish brown or straw color; that of the male slightly elongate, similar in color to that of the female (Ferris, 1941d).

KEYS: Ferris 1942: 29 (female) [North America]; Cockerell 1905: 45-46 (female) [Mexico].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 48-49]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 355]; ClapsWoGo2001a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 10-11]; Cocker1897i [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 24-25]; Cocker1897u [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 265-266]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 396]; Cocker1899n [host, distribution: 25]; Cocker1905 [taxonomy: 46]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 293]; Ferris1941d [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 333]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 47]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy: 29]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy: 29]; GranarCl2003 [host, distribution: 625-637]; Leonar1900 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 343]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 544]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 417]; McKenz1939 [taxonomy: 54]; NormarMoKr2014 [distribution, host: 39].



Acutaspis scutiformis (Cockerell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus scutiformis Cockerell, 1893o: 48. Type data: MEXICO: on Persea americana. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Aspidiotus (Chrysomphalus) scutiformis; Cockerell, 1897i: 25. Change of combination.

Chrysomphalus scutiformis; Berlese & Leonardi, 1898a: 116. Change of combination.

Acutaspis scutiformis; Ferris, 1941d: 207. Change of combination.

Insaspidiotus scutiformis; Costa Lima, 1942: 289. Change of combination.

Acutaspis scutiformis; Borchsenius, 1966: 355. Revived combination.



FOES: HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Aphytis hispanicus (Mercet) [RosenDe1979]. Signiphoridae: Signiphora prepauca Girault [Woolle1990].

HOSTS: Chrysobalanaceae: Moquilea tomentosa [Lepage1938]. Fabaceae: Pithecellobium flexicaule [McDani1968]. Lauraceae: Laurus [Lepage1938, Ferris1941d], Persea [Ferris1941d], Persea americana [Cocker1893o], Persea gratissima [Lepage1938]. Moraceae: Artocarpus integrifolia [Lepage1938], Ficus [Lepage1938], Ficus benjamina [WolffCo1993]. Oleaceae: Ligustrum [GranarCl2003]. Rutaceae: Citrus [Lizery1936, Lepage1938], Citrus limon [WolffCo1993]. Zygophyllaceae: Porlieria angustifolia [McDani1968].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico [Cocker1893o] (Guerrero [Ferris1941d], Nuevo Leon [Ferris1941d], Tamaulipas [Ferris1941d], Veracruz [Ferris1941d]); United States of America (Texas [McDani1968]). Neotropical: Argentina (Corrientes [Lizery1936], Entre Rios [Lizery1936], Santiago del Estero [GranarCl2003]); Brazil [RosenDe1979] (Minas Gerais [Hempel1900a, Lepage1938], Parana [Lepage1938], Rio Grande do Sul [WolffCo1993], Rio de Janeiro [Lepage1938], Sao Paulo [Lepage1938]); Colombia [Figuer1946, Nakaha1982]; Guatemala [Nakaha1982].

BIOLOGY: Occurring on leaves (Ferris, 1941d).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Cockerell (1893o) and by Ferris (1941d).

STRUCTURE: Scale of the female very large, reaching a diameter of nearly 3 mm., circular, flat, thick, dark brown, with the exuviae yellowish. Scale of the male not recognized (Ferris, 1941d).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: This species has been reported as citrus pest in South America (Bondar, 1914; Chiesa Molinari, 1948, 1948a; Ebeling, 1959) and of banana in Central America (Chua & Wood, 1990).

KEYS: Evans, Watson & Miller 2009: 63-67 (female) [Diaspididae species found on avocado]; McDaniel 1968: 202 (female) [U.S.A.: Texas]; Ferris 1942: 29 (female) [North America]; Cockerell 1905: 45-46 (female) [Mexico].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 49-50]; BerlesLe1898a [taxonomy: 116]; BiezanFr1939 [host, distribution: 1-18]; Bondar1914 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1064-1106]; Bondar1915 [host, distribution, economic importance: 44-47]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 355-356]; Chiesa1938a [host, distribution: 1-21]; Chiesa1948 [host, distribution, economic importance]; Chiesa1948a [host, distribution, economic importance]; ChuaWo1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 543-552]; ClapsWoGo2001a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 11]; Cocker1893o [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 48-49]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 334]; Cocker1897i [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 25]; Cocker1899n [host, distribution: 26]; Cocker1900k [taxonomy: 350]; Cocker1905 [taxonomy: 46]; CoronaRuMo1997 [host, distribution: 38-41]; CostaL1942 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 289]; Ebelin1949 [host, distribution, life history, control: 268,279]; EvansWaMi2009 [taxonomy: 63-67]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 293]; Ferris1941d [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 334]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 48]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy: 446:29]; Figuer1946 [host, distribution: 211]; Figuer1952 [host, distribution: 208]; FonsecAu1932a [host, distribution: 202-214]; GranarCl2003 [host, distribution: 625-637]; Haywar1939 [host, distribution, control: 1]; Hempel1900a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 503-504]; Kondo2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 43]; Leonar1899 [taxonomy: 199-200,222]; Lepage1938 [catalogue: 401]; Lindin1910c [taxonomy: 440]; Lindin1935 [taxonomy: 149]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 544]; Lizery1936 [host, distribution: 113]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 418]; McDani1968 [taxonomy, illustration, host, distribution: 207-208]; McKenz1939 [taxonomy: 54]; MillerDa1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 300]; Nakaha1982 [host, distribution: 4]; Pace1939 [host, distribution: 664-665]; RosenDe1979 [host, distribution, biological control: 390-394]; Sassce1918 [host, distribution: 125-129]; Sassce1923 [host, distribution: 152-158]; SchmutKlLu1957 [host, distribution, economic importance: 493]; Sefer1961 [host, distribution: 23]; Strong1922 [host, distribution: 775-780]; Vernal1957 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 28-30]; WolffCo1993 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 29-31]; Woolle1990 [biological control: 167-176].



Acutaspis sp.

NOMENCLATURE:

Acutaspis sp. Mestre Novoa et al., 2011: 11. Notes: Mestre collected this species on a native Orchid, Bulbophyllum pachyrrhachis in the Orquideario de Soroa.



HOST: Orchidaceae: Bulhophyllum pachyrrhachis [MestreHaEv2011].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Cuba [MestreHaEv2011].

CITATIONS: MestreHaEv2011 [catalogue, distribution, host: 10].



Acutaspis subnigra McKenzie

NOMENCLATURE:

Acutaspis subnigra McKenzie, 1947: 33. Type data: PERU: Tulumayo-Tingo Maria, at the Delicias Plantacion, on Persea americana. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Pseudischnaspis subnigra; Lindinger, 1957: 544. Change of combination.

Acutaspis subnigra; Borchsenius, 1966: 356. Revived combination.



HOST: Lauraceae: Persea americana [McKenz1947].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Peru [McKenz1947].

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the leaves of avocado (McKenzie, 1947).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by McKenzie (1947).

STRUCTURE: Scale of the female practically circular, averaging 2mm. in diameter, chocolate brown (from whence the name was derived) with exuvium subcentral; scale of the male unknown (McKenzie, 1947).

KEYS: Evans, Watson & Miller 2009: 63-67 (female) [Diaspididae species found on avocado].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 51]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 356]; EvansWaMi2009 [taxonomy: 63-67]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 544]; McKenz1947 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 33-35].



Acutaspis tingi McKenzie

NOMENCLATURE:

Acutaspis tingi McKenzie, 1947: 34. Type data: MEXICO: on Cocos nucifera. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Pseudischnaspis tingi; Lindinger, 1957: 544. Change of combination.

Acutaspis tingi; Borchsenius, 1966: 356. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Arecaceae: Cocos nucifera [McKenz1947]. Moraceae: Ficus reclinata [Balach1959].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico [McKenz1947].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by McKenzie (1947).

STRUCTURE: Only slide-mounted specimens were available for the description (McKenzie, 1947).

CITATIONS: Balach1959 [host, distribution: 360]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 51]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 356]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 544]; McKenz1947 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 34-36].



Acutaspis umbonifera (Newstead)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus (Chrysomphalus) umboniferus Newstead, 1920: 196. Type data: GUYANA: Ayaria Creek, Fssequibo, on Lecythis sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Chrysomphalus umboniferus; MacGillivray, 1921: 417. Change of combination.

Acutaspis umbonifera; Ferris, 1941d: 335. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.

Pseudischnaspis umbonifera; Lindinger, 1957: 544. Change of combination.

Acutaspis umbonifera; Borchsenius, 1966: 356. Revived combination.



FOE: HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Aphytis chrysomphali (Mercet) [Gordh1979].

HOSTS: Araceae: Anthurium [Ferris1941d], Anthurium andreanum [ImmeneWoBe2002]. Arecaceae: Attalea [Ferris1941d]. Cactaceae: Pereskia [Ferris1941d]. Heliconiaceae: Heliconia [Ferris1941d]. Lecythidaceae: Lecythis [Newste1920, Ferris1941d].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (New York [Ferris1941d]). Neotropical: Brazil (Sao Paulo [ImmeneWoBe2002]); Colombia [Figuer1946, Balach1959, Kondo2001]; Guyana [Newste1920, Ferris1941d]; Panama [Ferris1941d]; Paraguay [Ferris1941d].

BIOLOGY: Occurring exposed upon the leaves of the host (Ferris, 1941d).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Newstead (1920) and by Ferris (1941d).

STRUCTURE: Scale of the female flat, circular, quite thin, of a reddish brown color; that of the male similar in color and texture, but slightly elongate (Ferris, 1941d).

KEYS: Ferris 1942: 28 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: Balach1959 [host, distribution: 360]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 51-52]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 356]; ClapsWoGo2001a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 11]; Ferris1941d [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 335]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 49]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy: 446:28]; Figuer1946 [host, distribution: 211-212]; Figuer1952 [host, distribution: 209]; Gordh1979 [biological control: 893]; ImmeneWoBe2002 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 85-89]; Kondo2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 43]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 194]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 544]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 417]; McKenz1939 [taxonomy: 55]; Newste1920 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 196-197]; PonsonCo2007 [biological control, life history: 629-640]; Swezey1945 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 388].



Affirmaspis MacGillvray

NOMENCLATURE:

Affirmaspis MacGillvray, 1921: 393. Type species: Aspidiotus socotranus Lindinger.

Diclavaspis Balachowsky, 1956: 100. Type species: Aspidiotus ehretiae Brain, by original designation. Synonymy by Balachowsky, 1956: 100.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by Balachowsky (1956).

SYSTEMATICS: Balachowsky (1956) separated this genus from Clavaspis as it possess 2 or 3 pygidial lobes, whereas the species of Clavaspis have only one pair of lobes. In addition it differs from Diaspidiotus, Abgrallaspis and Aspidaspis in the presence of clavate paraphyses on segment VIII.

KEYS: Balachowsky 1958b: 230 (female) [Aspidiotina of Africa].

CITATIONS: Balach1956 [taxonomy, description: 100]; Balach1958b [taxonomy: 230]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 454-456]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 273]; MacGil1921 [description, taxonomy: 393]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 61]; Muntin1969 [taxonomy: 125].



Affirmaspis cederbergensis Schneider in Schneider et al.

NOMENCLATURE:

Affirmaspis cederbergensis Schneider in Schneider et al., 2013: 809. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Western Cape, Cederberg Mts, 8 km NE Clanwilliam, 32.759.8794S, 18.580.1194E, in nest galleries of M. emeryi from a branch of Maytenus oleoides, 5/19/2002, by D.O. Burge. Holotype female (examined). Type depository: San Francisco: California Academy of Sciences, Department of Entomology, California, USA; type no. D1876D. Described: female. Illust.



ASSOCIATE: HYMENOPTERA Formicidae: Melissotarsus emeryi [SchneiGiDo2013].

HOST: Celastraceae: Maytenus oleoides Loes [SchneiGiDo2013].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [SchneiGiDo2013].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Schneider, et al., 2013.

STRUCTURE: Features of scale covering unknown, all specimens of type series scale-less. Mounted on a microscope slide, body turbinate, 0.62-0.71mm long, widest at metathorax, 0.5-0.54mm wide. Pygidium with pair of well developed median lobes; second and third lobes represented by membranous points; third lobes sometimes absent. (Schneider, et al., 2013)

SYSTEMATICS: http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:785258 DB-7A20-445B-8 F12-5B17B63741E3 Adult females of A. cederbergensisare are most similar to Affirmaspis ehretiae but may be distinguished by the following suite of characteristics. The second lobes are triangular and are not notched as in A. ehretiae. There are no plates anterior to the third lobes. Pairs of cicatrices are present on the dorsal submargins of the prothorax and abdominal segment I. The dorsal pygidial macroducts have wider openings and the ducts are not as long and thin as those in A. ehretiae. The dorsal macroducts are also more numerous on the pygidium and have a distinctive patterning, with clusters of four to five on the dorsal submargin of abdominal segment IV and three to four on the submargin of III. (Schneider, et al., 2013)

KEYS: Schneider et al. 2013: 816-817 (female) [Key to the species of ant-associated armoured scale insects (adapted from Ben-Dov, 2010)].

CITATIONS: SchneiGiDo2013 [description, distribution, ecology, host, structure, taxonomy: 809-811,816-817].



Affirmaspis ehretiae (Brain)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus (Diaspidiotus) ehretiae Brain, 1918: 127. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Cape Province, Cookhouse, on Ehretia hottentotica; collected by A. Kelly, 13.iii.1915. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Munting, 1970a: 37. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa; type no. 189/1. Described: female. Illust.

Affirmaspis ehretiae; MacGillivray, 1921: 449. Change of combination.

Diclavaspis ehretiae; Balachowsky, 1956: 100. Change of combination.

Affirmaspis ehretiae; Schneider et al., 2013: 809. Revived combination.



FOES: HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Archenomus aethiopicus Annecke [Anneck1963], Azotus capensis Howard [AnneckIn1970]. Encyrtidae: Habrolepis [Prinsl1983].

HOSTS: Boraginaceae: Ehretia hottentottica [Brain1918, Balach1956]. Sapindaceae: Allophylus natalensis [Almeid1971]. Solanaceae: Solanum campylacanthum [Balach1956].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Kenya [Balach1956]; Mozambique [Almeid1971]; South Africa [Brain1918, Balach1956, Muntin1970a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Brain (1918) and by Balachowsky (1956).

STRUCTURE: Female scale about 2 mm. in diameter, almost circular; greyish buff to brownish grey in colour, but often obscured by fragments of bark from the host plant; the margins are depressed and the central portion raised, almost conical, with the highest portion occupied by the covered exuviae; the portion of the scale covering the second exuviae is smoother than the remainder of the secreted scale and the pale brown exuviae are slightly visible; in the centre is a small greyish or slate-coloured area, with a central white dot surrounded by a distinct shining ring of opaque white; this ring is particularly prominent in the young and male scales; ventral scale white, extremely delicate, remaining attached to the host plant. Male scale about 1 mm. long, and 0.6 mm. broad, of similar colour to that of the female scale (Brain, 1918).

KEYS: Balachowsky 1956: 100 (female) [Africa]; Brain 1918: 124 (female) [South Africa].

CITATIONS: Almeid1971 [host, distribution: 10]; Anneck1963 [host, distribution, biological control: 346-348]; AnneckIn1970 [host, distribution, biological control: 240]; Balach1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 100-102]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 456]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 273]; Brain1918 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 127-128]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 43]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 449]; Mamet1959a [host, distribution: 387]; Muntin1970a [taxonomy: 37]; Prinsl1983 [distribution, biological control: 26].



Affirmaspis flavida (De Lotto)

NOMENCLATURE:

Abgrallaspis flavida De Lotto, 1957: 225. Type data: KENYA: Nairobi, on small branches and leaves of Elaeodendron stuhlmanni. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Affirmaspis flavida; Normark et al., 2014: 44. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Celastraceae: Elaeodendron [DeLott1957], Elaeodendron stuhlmanni [DeLott1957]. Flacourtiaceae: Aberia caffra [DeLott1957].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Kenya [DeLott1957].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female by De Lotto (1957) and by Komosinska (1969).

STRUCTURE: Scale of female circular, slightly convex; exuviae central; colour evenly yellow; diameter up to 1.4 mm. Scale of male larger, elongate, with exuvia subcentral; length up to 1.7 mm (De Lotto, 1957).

KEYS: Komosinska 1969: 76-78 (female) [as Abgrallaspis flavida; World].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 27]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 315]; DeLott1957 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 225-226]; Komosi1969 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 63-64].



Affirmaspis socotrana (Lindinger)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus socotranus Lindinger, 1913b: 96. Type data: YEMEN: Sokotra Island, taken from herbarium specimens of Dracaena cinnabari; collected 1880. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Hamburg: Zoologisches Institut und Zoologisches Museum, Universitat von Hamburg, Germany. Described: female. Illust.

Affirmaspis socotrana; MacGillivray, 1921: 449. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.

Targionia soccotrana; Lindinger, 1937: 197. Change of combination.

Targionia soccotrana; Lindinger, 1937: 197. Misspelling of species name.

Diclavaspis socotranus; Balachowsky, 1956: 100. Change of combination.

Affirmaspis socotrana; Schneider et al., 2013: 809. Revived combination.



HOST: Liliaceae: Dracaena cinnabari [Lindin1913b].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Socotra Island [Lindin1913b].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Lindinger (1913b).

STRUCTURE: Female scale more or less circular; thin; exuviae red-yellow, central (Lindinger, 1913b).

CITATIONS: Balach1956 [taxonomy: 100]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 456]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 273]; Ferris1937c [taxonomy: 50]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 48]; Ferris1943a [taxonomy: 86]; Lindin1913b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 96-97]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 197]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 449]; WeidneWa1968 [taxonomy: 173].



Affirmaspis xerophila (Munting)

NOMENCLATURE:

Diclavaspis xerophila Munting, 1969: 124. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Kalahari Gemsbok National Park, Gemsbokplein, on Rhigozum trichotomum; collected 21.viii.1967. Holotype female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa; type no. 3173/6. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Bignoniaceae: Rhigozum trichotomum [Muntin1969].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [Muntin1969].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Munting (1969).

STRUCTURE: Scales of males and females hidden under bark of host plant and not discernible, except as small bumps on bark (Munting, 1969).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 456]; BenDovGi2014 [catalogue: 231]; Muntin1969 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 124-125,150].



Africonidia McKenzie

NOMENCLATURE:

Africonidia McKenzie, 1947b: 110. Type species: Africonidia halli McKenzie (= Gymnaspis africana Newstead), by monotypy and original designation.

Hallaspidiotus Mamet, 1951: 217. Type species: Gymnaspis africana Newstead. Synonymy by Balachowsky, 1954c: 77.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by McKenzie (1947), Mamet (1951) (as Hallaspidiotus) and by Balachowsky (1954c; 1958b).

SYSTEMATICS: Africonidia was established by McKenzie (1947b) for the species Africonidia halli. However, Balachowsky (1954c; 1958b) has shown that A. halli was a junior synonym of Gymnaspis africana Newstead, 1913, and transferred the latter to Africonidia. Consequently, the genus Hallaspidiotus Mamet, 1951 (type-species: Gymnaspis africana Newstead, became a junior objective synonym of Africonidia. Borchsenius (1966) did not accept the validity of Africonidia and resurrected the genus Varicaspis MacGillivray, 1921 (type-species: Aspidiotus fiorineides Newstead, 1920). Borchsenius' interpretation will doubtlessly be acceptable as soon as it can be shown that A. fiorineides - which at present is known only from inadequate type material (Balachowsky, 1958b) and a poor description - is in fact congeneric with Africonidia africana. Until these two genera have been revised, Varicaspis is restricted to its type species, while five species are placed in Africonidia, namely africana, carreti, macdanieli, mkuzensis, subsimplex.

KEYS: Ben-Dov 1974c: 22 (female) [World]; Beardsley 1966: 502-504 (female) [Federated States of Micronesia]; Balachowsky 1958b: 150, 228 (female) [Aspidiotina of Africa].

CITATIONS: Balach1954c [taxonomy, description: 77-80]; Balach1956 [taxonomy: 24]; Balach1958b [taxonomy, description: 149-150]; Beards1966 [taxonomy: 505]; BenDov1974c [taxonomy: 19,22]; BenDovGe2003 [taxonomy, catalogue: 52-53]; Borchs1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 316]; Mamet1951 [taxonomy, description: 217-218]; Mamet1959a [taxonomy: 386]; McKenz1947b [taxonomy, description: 110-111]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 4].



Africonidia africana (Newstead)

NOMENCLATURE:

Cryptaspidiotus africanus; Lindinger, 1913: 73. Illust. Change of combination.

Gymnaspis africana Newstead, 1913: 78. Type data: UGANDA: Tero Forest, on undetermined plant. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Neosignoretia africana; MacGillivray, 1921: 425. Change of combination.

Africonidia halli McKenzie, 1947b: 111. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Durban, on Trichilia sp. Holotype. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Borchsenius, 1966: 316.

Hallaspidiotus africana; Mamet, 1951: 218. Change of combination.

Africonidia africana; Balachowsky, 1954c: 78. Illust. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Annonaceae: Annona muricata [Almeid1973b]. Euphorbiaceae: Aleurites moluccana [DeLott1967a], Manihot [Lindin1913, Borchs1966]. Fabaceae: Inga [MatileNo1984]. Meliaceae: Trichilia [Lindin1913, McKenz1947b, Borchs1966]. Monimiaceae: Tambourissa [Matile1978].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Angola [Almeid1973b]; Cameroon [MatileNo1984]; Comoros [Matile1978]; Kenya [DeLott1967a]; Madagascar [Mamet1950, Mamet1951, Mamet1959a, Borchs1966]; South Africa [McKenz1947b, Borchs1966]; Tanzania [Balach1958b]; Uganda [Newste1913].

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the leaves (McKenzie, 1947b).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Newstead (1913), McKenzie (1947b) (as A. halli), Mamet (1951) and by Balachowsky (1958b).

STRUCTURE: Female scale nude, with the exception of a small central area which is covered with the larval exuviae; ventral vellum very thin, circular in outline, about one-fourth the diameter of the scale and occupying a central position; in form it is highly convex and attenuated posteriorly; length 0.9-1 mm (Newstead, 1913). Scale covering of the female, oval, measuring approximately 1.1 mm. long, 0.8 mm. wide, deep red with blackish exuvium subcentral (McKenzie, 1947b).

KEYS: Ben-Dov 1974c: 22 (female) [World]; Balachowsky 1958b: 150 (female) [Africa].

CITATIONS: Almeid1973b [host, distribution: 8]; Balach1954c [taxonomy: 78]; Balach1958b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 150-152]; BenDov1974c [taxonomy: 19,22]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 53]; Borchs1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 316]; DeLott1967a [host, distribution: 112]; Hall1946a [taxonomy: 520,536,548]; Lindin1913 [taxonomy: 73]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 544]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy: 255,425]; Mamet1950 [host, distribution: 22]; Mamet1951 [taxonomy, description, distribution: 216-217]; Mamet1959a [host, distribution : 386]; Matile1978 [host, distribution: 67]; MatileNo1984 [host, distribution: 67]; McKenz1947b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 111-114]; Newste1913 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 78-79]; Sassce1915 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 35].



Africonidia carreti Balachowsky

NOMENCLATURE:

Africonidia carreti Balachowsky, 1954c: 78. Type data: CAMEROON: near the falls of river Lobe, 10 km south of Kribi, on branches of undetermined bush. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

Varicaspis carreti; Borchsenius, 1966: 316. Change of combination.



HOST: Fabaceae: Erythrina caffra [Balach1958b].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Cameroon [Balach1954c]; Tanzania [Balach1958b].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Balachowsky (1954c; 1958b).

STRUCTURE: Scale of female circular or subcircular, convex; colour snow-white; larval exuviae placed centrally or subcentrally; rounded, colour pale grey (Balachowsky, 1954c).

KEYS: Ben-Dov 1974c: 22 (female) [World]; Balachowsky 1958b: 150 (female) [Africa].

CITATIONS: Balach1954c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 78-80]; Balach1958b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 152-154]; BenDov1974c [taxonomy: 19,22]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 54]; Borchs1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 316].



Africonidia macdanieli Beardsley

NOMENCLATURE:

Africonidia macdanieli Beardsley, 1966: 505. Type data: FEDERATED STATES OF MICRONESIA: Palau Is., Ulebsehel (Auluptagel), on unknown vine. Holotype female. Type depository: Honolulu: Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Department of Entomology Collection, Hawaii, USA. Described: female. Illust.

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Federated States of Micronesia [Beards1966].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Beardsley (1966).

STRUCTURE: Female scale circular, light brown, second exuvium central (Beardsley, 1966).

KEYS: Ben-Dov 1974c: 22 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: Beards1966 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 505-506]; BenDov1974c [taxonomy: 19,22]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 54].



Africonidia mkuzensis Ben-Dov

NOMENCLATURE:

Africonidia mkuzensis Ben-Dov, 1974c: 19. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Natal, Lower Mkuze, on Euclea crispa. Holotype female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Ebenaceae: Euclea crispa [BenDov1974c].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [BenDov1974c].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ben-Dov (1974c).

STRUCTURE: Scale of female (secreted part) greyish white; circular; 0.8-1 mm in diameter; flat; larval exuviae central. Scale of male similar in colour to that of female, oval, 0.8 - 1 mm long, 0.5-0.6 mm wide; larval exuviae placed about the middle of longitudinal axis of the scale (Ben-Dov, 1974c).

KEYS: Ben-Dov 1974c: 22 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: BenDov1974c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 19-20,22]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 54].



Africonidia subsimplex (Hall)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia subsimplex Hall, 1931: 285. Type data: ZIMBABWE: Umtali and Mtoroshanga Pass, Umvukwes, on Acacia karroo and Acacia sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust. Notes:

Africonidia subsimplex; Balachowsky, 1954c: 78. Change of combination.

Varicaspis subsimplex; Borchsenius, 1966: 317. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Fabaceae: Acacia [Hall1931, DeLott1967a], Acacia karroo [new].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Kenya [DeLott1967a]; South Africa [Hall1931, Balach1958b, BenDov1974c]; Zimbabwe [Hall1931].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Hall (1931) and by Balachowsky (1958b).

STRUCTURE: Scale of adult female circular in outline, capsular; it consists of two plates composed of the dorsal and ventral portions of the nymphal exuviae. These plates are more or less flat, highly chitinised, and overlap the sandwiched adult female. Male scale smaller than that of the adult female; narrowly oval. Exuviae black or very dark, with posterior portion pale brown; secretionary appendix dirty white (Hall, 1931).

KEYS: Ben-Dov 1974c: 22 (female) [World]; Balachowsky 1958b: 150 (female) [Africa].

CITATIONS: Balach1954c [taxonomy: 78]; Balach1958b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 154-156]; BenDov1974c [taxonomy, host, distribution: 19,22]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 55]; Borchs1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 317]; DeLott1967a [host, distribution: 112]; Hall1931 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 285-286]; Lindin1943b [taxonomy: 218].



Anaspidiotus Borchsenius & Williams

NOMENCLATURE:

Anaspidiotus Borchsenius & Williams, 1963: 381. Type species: Aspidiotus (Hemiberlesia) immaculatus Green, by monotypy and original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by Borchsenius & Williams (1963).

SYSTEMATICS: This genus differs from Aspidiotus Bouche in possessing large dorsal ducts with swollen inner ends, and from Hemiberlesia Cockerell in the position of the anal opening and the absence of paraphyses (Borchsenius & Williams, 1963).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [taxonomy, catalogue: 55]; BorchsWi1963 [taxonomy, description: 381]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 9].



Anaspidiotus immaculatus (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus (Hemiberlesia) immaculatus Green, 1904: 65. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Victoria, Shepperton, on stems of Styphelia virgata. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Aspidiotus immaculatus; Sanders, 1906: 13. Change of combination.

Neosignoretia immaculata; MacGillivray, 1921: 424. Change of combination.

Anaspidiotus immaculatus; Borchsenius & Williams, 1963: 381. Change of combination.



HOST: Epacridaceae: Styphelia virgata [Green1904, Sander1906, Frogga1914].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia [Sander1906] (Victoria [Green1904, Frogga1914]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Green (1904) and by Borchsenius & Williams (1963).

STRUCTURE: Female scale snowy-white; exuviae completely concealed - both above and below - by the white secretionary covering, but indicated by the presence of a raised disc above the first larval skin; form strongly convex; the apex tilted over towards the anterior extremity; diameter 1.25-1.5 mm (Green, 1904).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 55-56]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 275]; BorchsWi1963 [taxonomy, description, illustration: 381-382]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 44]; Frogga1914 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 315]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 19]; Green1904 [taxonomy, description, illustration, distribution: 65-68]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 424]; Sander1906 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 13].



Anastomoderma Beardsley

NOMENCLATURE:

Anastomoderma Beardsley, 1966: 507. Type species: Anastomoderma palauensis Beardsley, by original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by Beardsley (1966).

SYSTEMATICS: Anastomoderma is allied to Aspidiotus Bouche, but in species of the latter the prosoma is membranous at maturity. The sclerotized prosoma, and the distinctive reticulated venter in the female of Anastomoderma distinguish the latter from other known genera in the Aspidiotinae (Beardsley, 1966).

KEYS: Beardsley 1966: 502-504 (female) [Federated States of Micronesia].

CITATIONS: Beards1966 [taxonomy, description: 507]; BenDovGe2003 [taxonomy, catalogue: 56].



Anastomoderma palauense Beardsley

NOMENCLATURE:

Anastomoderma palauensis Beardsley, 1966: 507. Type data: FEDERATED STATES OF MICRONESIA: Palau Is., Koror, on Premna integrifolia. Holotype female. Type depository: Honolulu: Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Department of Entomology Collection, Hawaii, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Anastomoderma palauense; Williams, 2011: 67. Justified emendation.



HOST: Verbenaceae: Premna integrifolia [Beards1966].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Federated States of Micronesia [Beards1966].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Beardsley (1966).

STRUCTURE: Female scale brownish, roughly circular, living in shallow pits in gall-like callous growth on twigs of hosts (Beardsley, 1966).

CITATIONS: Beards1966 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 507-508]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 56]; GullanMiCo2005 [taxonomy, structure: 164,182-189]; Larew1990 [ecology, life history, structure: 293-300]; Willia2011 [taxonomy: 67].



Annonogena Takagi

NOMENCLATURE:

Annonogena Takagi, 2008: 83-85. Type species: Annonogena acutilobaba Takagi.

BIOLOGY: The known species occur on the lower surface of the leaves, females usually on the lateral sides of the midrib and other veins. The male tests are detached from the leaf surface except for the anterior end, with the ventral as well as the dorsal portion formed well. They are white, elongate, parallel-sided, and flat dorsally. (Takagi, 2008)

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Takagi, 2008.

STRUCTURE: Annonogena is a pupillarial genus, the adult female being entirely enclosed within the second-instar exuvial cast, which is strongly sclerotized and may appear like a minute plant seed. Body elongate ellitical, rounded on both ends, membranous, with segmentation obscrue except on ventral surface of prepygidial abdomen, pygidium appearing to comprise fourth or fifth and succeeding segments. The male constructs a good test. The first instar exuvial cast of the male is elliptical and bivalve, the dorsal and ventral surfaces separated from each other. (Takagi, 2008)

SYSTEMATICS: These species are mainly recognized on the basis of their second instar females. The adult females are very simplified in external structure, the second-instar males are uniform.

CITATIONS: Takagi2008 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 83-115].



Annonogena acutilobata Takagi

NOMENCLATURE:

Annonogena acutilobata Takagi, 2008: 85-86,97-102. Type data: PHILIPPINES: Mindoro Island, Puerto Galera, Villa Flor, on Artabotrys cumingiana, 8/15/1994, by S. Takagi. Holotype immature (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Los Banos: Entomological Museum, Museum of Natural History, University of the Philippines at Los Banos, College, Laguna, Luzon, Philippines; type no. 94pl-46. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Annonaceae: Artabotryx cumingiana [Takagi2008].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Philippines (Mindoro [Takagi2008]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustrations in Takagi, 2008)

STRUCTURE: Adult female pygifium with an irregularly undulate, partly reticulate linear pattern on dorsal margin; usually with 1 or 2 marginal ducts on each side towards apex. Second-instar female prepygidial region of body with about 30 ducts, strewn submarginally on each side; some ducts in a rather broad space between antennae; exuvial cast with dorsal surface of prepygidial region thickly strewn with irregularly shaped small areolae except on a broad marginal area. Second-instar male pygidium apically with a pair of low borad prominences separated from each other by a space and tenging to be sclerotic marginally. (Takagi, 2008)

CITATIONS: Takagi2008 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 85-86,97-102].



Annonogena aristata Takagi

NOMENCLATURE:

Annonogena aristata Takagi, 2008: 88. Type data: MALAYSIA: Sabah (Borneo Island, Tawau, Kawasan Pemuliharaan Lembah Danum (Danum Valley Conservation Area), on Ellipeia sp., 10/23/1988, by S. Takagi. Holotype female (examined), by original designation; type no. 88ML188. Described: female, male and first instar. Illust.



HOST: Annonaceae: Ellipeia sp. [Takagi2008]

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Malaysia (Sabah [Takagi2008]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustrations in Takagi, 2008.

STRUCTURE: Adult female pygidium protruding from an exuvial cast of the second-instar shows a total of 9 marginal ducts and no trace of an undulate or reticulate linear pattern. Second-instar female prepygidial region plain, not areolate, nor echinate; with about 30 ducts scattered submarginally on each side. Dorsal disc tending to be reticulate extensively; margin with a continuous row of about 38 sclerites, which are oblong and apically aristate except for ones occurring towards the base of the pygidium. Second=instar male pygidium apically with a pair of rather prominent, sclerotized, dentate processes, which may be interpreted as median trullae; another less prominent pair mayh represent the second trullae. (Takagi, 2008)

SYSTEMATICS: In the second-instar female, this species is commonly characterized with A echinata in having a perforated flap on the curved brim of the ventral surface of the pygidium, but it is easily distintuishable from the latter in having no spinous processes in the prepygidial region and in having aristate marginal sclerites on the dorsal disc of the pygidium. In the second-instar male, this species is recognizable in having a group of many microducts on the margin just anteriorly to the level of the anterior spiracle. (Takagi, 2008)

CITATIONS: Takagi2008 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 88,108-110].



Annonogena echinata Takagi

NOMENCLATURE:

Annonogena echinata Takagi, 2008: 87-88,105-107. Type data: MALAYSIA: Sabah (Borneo Island), Gunong Kinabalu, in Taman Kinabalu National Park, on Fissistigma kingi, 10/7/1988, by S. Takagi. Holotype female (examined). Described: female, male and first instar. Illust. Notes: Collected at 1500 m.



HOST: Annonaceae: Fissistigma kingi [Takagi2008].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Malaysia (Sabah [Takagi2008]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Takagi, 2008.

STRUCTURE: Adult female no postspiracular ducts observed. Pygidium with rudimentary lines forming an obscure pattern on dorsal margin; marginal ducts 5-10 on each side, 11-19 in total. Second-instar female (exuvial cast) prepygidial region equipped with a number of processes over a broad pleural area, which are swollen basally and abruptly narrowed to form an elongate spinous apical part; with about 20 ducts scattered submarginally on ventral surface on each side. Second-instar male pygidium apically with a pair of low sclerotic prominences (probably representing median trullae). (Takagi, 2008)

SYSTEMATICS: this species is readily distinguishable from the other species of Annonogena in having an echinate body in the second-instar female. (Takagi, 2008)

CITATIONS: Takagi2008 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 87-88,105-107].



Annonogena rotundilobata Takagi

NOMENCLATURE:

Annonogena rotundilobata Takagi, 2008: 86-87, 103-104. Type data: MALAYSIA: Sarawak (Borneo Island), Taman Bako (Bako National Park), on Friesodielsia sp., 10/11/1991, by S. Takagi. Holotype female, male and first instar (examined), by original designation; type no. 91ML132. Described: female, male and first instar. Illust.



HOST: Annonaceae: Friesodielsia sp. [Takagi2008]

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Malaysia (Sarawak [Takagi2008]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Takagi, 2008.

STRUCTURE: Adult female very similar to A. acutilobata, but distinguishable in having a reticulate linear pattern on a narrow marginal area of pygidial dorsum. Second-instar female also very similar to A. acutilobata but distinguishable mainly in the dorsal and ventral lobules of the pygidium rounded apically. No areolation on the dorsal surface of the exuvial cast. Second-instar male similar to A. acutilobata. (Takagi, 2008)

SYSTEMATICS: This species is similar to A. acutilobata, but is regarded as distinct since it is distinguidhable not only in the second-instar female but also in the adult female, (Takagi, 2008)

CITATIONS: Takagi2008 [description, distribution, host, illustration, physiology, taxonomy: 86-87,103-104].



Annulaspis Ferris

NOMENCLATURE:

Annulaspis Ferris, 1938a: 154. Type species: Annulaspis polygona Ferris, by original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and definition by Ferris (1938a, 1938b).

SYSTEMATICS: Ferris (1938a) assigned Annulaspis to the Odonaspidini, and his interpretation was accepted by McKenzie (1963) and Borchsenius (1966). Ben-Dov (1988b) concluded that the genus does not belong to the Odonaspidinae, but did not indicate a subfamily placement. Superficially the species placed in Annulaspis by Ferris (1938a) and by McKenzie (1963) resemble other Odonaspidini, in the absence of lobes and plates on the pygidial margin, but remarkably differ in the absence of crenulae on abdominal sternites. Moreover, it is evident that A. polygona and A. singularis, are not congeneric. More work is required to place them in appropriate higher level categories. Until this challenge will be met, Annulaspis is temporarily placed in the Aspidiotinae.

CITATIONS: Balach1949 [taxonomy: 109]; Balach1953g [taxonomy: 728]; BenDov1988b [taxonomy: 6]; BenDovGe2003 [taxonomy, catalogue: 56-57]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 227]; Ferris1938a [taxonomy, description: 154]; Ferris1938b [taxonomy, description: 71,73]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy: 64]; McKenz1963 [taxonomy: 29]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 10].



Annulaspis polygona Ferris

NOMENCLATURE:

Annulaspis polygona Ferris, 1938a: 155. Type data: U.S.A.: Texas, Chisos Mountains, on undetermined, small, perennial grass. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Dycryptaspis polygona; Lindinger, 1957: 544. Change of combination.

Annulaspis polygona; Borchsenius, 1966: 227. Revived combination.



HOST: Poaceae [Ferris1938a].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Texas [Ferris1938a]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the stems, protected by the bases of the leaves (Ferris, 1938a).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ferris (1938a).

STRUCTURE: Scale of the female white, elongate, slender, exuviae apical, a strong ventral scale being formed. Scale of the male similar in form, colour and texture (Ferris, 1938a).

SYSTEMATICS: Annulaspis polygona the type species of Annulaspis superficially resemble species of Odonaspidinae, in the absence of lobes and plates on the pygidial margin, but remarkably differs in the absence of crenulae on abdominal sternites. It is evident that A. polygona and A. singularis, are not congeneric. More work is required to place them in appropriate higher level categories. Until this challenge will be met, both species are retained in Annulaspis.

CITATIONS: BenDov1988b [taxonomy: 6]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 57]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 227]; Ferris1938a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 155]; Ferris1938b [taxonomy: 71,73]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 544].



Annulaspis singularis McKenzie

NOMENCLATURE:

Annulaspis singularis McKenzie, 1963: 29. Type data: MEXICO: Baja California, 100 miles north of La Paz, Loreto, on an undetermined species of Chenopodiaceae. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

COMMON NAME: Unique scale [McKenz1963].



HOST: Chenopodiaceae [McKenz1963].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico (Baja California Norte [McKenz1963]).

BIOLOGY: The scale was found in bark cracks of its host plant (McKenzie, 1963).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by McKenzie (1963).

STRUCTURE: The scale of the female and male were quite similar in size and color, and were described as resembling "little brown seeds" (McKenzie, 1963).

SYSTEMATICS: Based on the original description of A. polygona and A. singularis, it is evident that they are not congeneric. Until the appropriate higher level placement of this genus will be revised, this species are temporarily placed in the Annulaspis.

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 57-58]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 227]; McKenz1963 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 29-31].



Aonidia Targioni Tozzetti

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia Targioni Tozzetti, 1868: 735. Type species: Aonidia purpurea Targioni Tozzetti (= Aspidiotus lauri Bouche), by monotypy.

Oonididia; Signoret, 1877: 669. Misspelling of genus name.

Targionidea MacGillivray, 1921: 393. Type species: Aspidiotus campylanthi Lindinger, by original designation. Synonymy by Ben-Dov & German, 2003: 58.

Cupressaspis Borchsenius, 1962b: 866. Type species: Cupressaspis isfarensis Borchsenius, by original designation. Synonymy by Danzig, 1993: 214.

Aoninidia; Ulgenturk & Canakcioglu, 2004: 81. Misspelling of genus name.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by Froggatt (1914), Kuwana (1933), Ferris (1938a), Balachowsky (1951, 1958b), Lupo (1957), Borchsenius (1962b), Bazarov & Shmelev (1971) and by Danzig (1993).

SYSTEMATICS: The genus Aonidia includes 31 pupillarial species. It is related to Cryptaspidiotus Lindinger, differring from the latter in that the diameter of anal opening equals the width of the median lobes, whereas in species of Cryptaspidiotus it is about 1/5 of width of the median lobes.

KEYS: Gill 1997: 24-26 (female) [Genera of California]; Danzig 1993: 215 (female) [species Europe]; Zahradnik 1990b: 74 (female) [Czech Republic]; Tereznikova 1986: 83 (female) [Ukraine]; Chou 1985: 324 (female) [Genera of China]; Bazarov & Shmelev 1971: 186 (female) [Central Asia]; Munting 1965b: 189 (female) [South Africa]; Danzig 1964: 646 (female) [Europe]; Borchsenius 1962b: 869 (female) [species Palaearctic region]; Zahradnik 1959a: 546 (female) [Czech Republic]; Balachowsky 1958b: 232 (female) [Aspidiotina of Africa]; Ezzat 1958: 237-239 (female) [Egypt]; McKenzie 1956: 22 (female) [U.S.A.: California]; Balachowsky 1951: 603 (female) [Mediterranean]; Borchsenius 1950b: 168 (female) [USSR]; Gomez-Menor Ortega 1946: 59-61 (female) [Spain]; Ruiz Castro 1944: 57 (female) [Spain]; Ferris 1942: 25 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1942: 29 (female) [species North America]; Archangelskaya 1937: 94 (female) [Middle Asia]; Borchsenius 1937: 100 (female) [USSR]; Borchsenius 1937a: 32-33 (female) [Palaearctic Region]; Kuwana 1933a: 43-45 (female) [Japan]; Archangelskaya 1929: 189 (female) [Palaearctic Region]; Leonardi 1920: 26 (female) [Italy]; Lawson 1917: 206 (female) [U.S.A.: Kansas]; Hempel 1900a: 496-497 (female) [Brazil]; Green 1896e: 37 (female) [Sri Lanka].

CITATIONS: Archan1929 [taxonomy: 189]; Archan1937 [taxonomy, description: 94,112]; Ashmea1891 [taxonomy: 102]; Balach1948b [taxonomy: 269]; Balach1951 [taxonomy, description: 603]; Balach1958b [taxonomy, description: 232-233]; BazaroSh1971 [taxonomy, description: 223]; BenDovGe2003 [taxonomy, catalogue: 58-59]; BenDovGe2003 [taxonomy, catalogue: 58-59]; BerlesLe1898a [taxonomy, description: 10-11]; BlayGo1993 [taxonomy, description: 387,393]; Bodenh1949 [taxonomy, description: 26,38-39]; Bodenh1952 [taxonomy: 329]; Borchs1937 [taxonomy, description: 100]; Borchs1937a [taxonomy, description: 33,68]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description: 168,234]; Borchs1962b [taxonomy, description: 866-868,871]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 252,360,361]; Brain1918 [taxonomy: 116]; Brain1919 [taxonomy: 214]; Chou1985 [taxonomy, description: 325]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 338]; Cocker1897i [taxonomy: 31]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 396]; Comsto1883 [taxonomy: 128]; Danzig1964 [taxonomy: 654]; Danzig1993 [taxonomy, description: 214]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 179]; Ezzat1958 [taxonomy: 237]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 301]; Ferris1921b [taxonomy: 94]; Ferris1937c [taxonomy: 50,52]; Ferris1938a [taxonomy, description: 175]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy: 446:25]; Frogga1914 [taxonomy, description: 599]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, description: 25]; Gill1997 [taxonomy: 44]; GomezM1937 [taxonomy, description: 99-100]; GomezM1946 [taxonomy: 60]; Green1896e [taxonomy, description: 37,68]; Hadzib1983 [taxonomy: 243]; Hempel1900a [taxonomy: 496]; Hender2011 [catalogue: 75]; HowellTi1990 [taxonomy: 57]; Kozar1990f [distribution: 143]; Kuwana1933 [taxonomy, description: 39-40,43]; Lawson1917 [taxonomy, description: 208]; Leonar1897 [taxonomy: 284-286]; Leonar1897b [taxonomy: 109,111]; Leonar1899 [taxonomy: 204]; Leonar1900 [taxonomy, description: 320-323]; Leonar1903 [taxonomy: 3-4]; Leonar1920 [taxonomy, description: 26,85-86]; Lindin1906 [taxonomy: 4,15,16]; Lindin1908b [taxonomy: 98]; Lindin1924 [taxonomy: 173]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 197]; Lindin1943b [taxonomy: 206]; Lupo1957 [taxonomy, description: 77-78]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description: 393,395,449,462-463]; Maskel1887a [taxonomy, description: 40]; Maskel1895b [taxonomy, description: 42-43]; McKenz1956 [taxonomy, description: 22]; Miller1990 [taxonomy: 169-178]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 13,52,193]; Muntin1965b [taxonomy: 189]; Muntin1969 [taxonomy: 119]; Ramakr1930 [taxonomy: 13]; RuizCa1944 [taxonomy: 57]; Schmut1959 [taxonomy, description: 125]; Signor1869 [taxonomy: 860]; Signor1869b [taxonomy, description: 99]; Signor1870 [taxonomy: 102-103]; Tao1999 [taxonomy: 72]; Targio1868 [taxonomy, description: 735]; Targio1888 [taxonomy, description: 419,422]; UlgentCa2004 [taxonomy: 81]; Varshn2002 [taxonomy: 18]; Willia1969a [taxonomy: 319]; Yasar1995a [taxonomy, description: 40].



Aonidia atlantica Ferris

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia atlantica Ferris, 1942: 424. Type data: U.S.A.: Florida, Tampa, on Juniperus sp. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Cryptaspidiotus atlanticius; Lindinger, 1957: 544. Change of combination.

Cupressaspis atlantica; Borchsenius, 1966: 360. Change of combination.

Aonidia atlantica; Danzig, 1993: 214. Revived combination.

COMMON NAME: juniper needle scale [Dekle1965c].



HOSTS: Cupressaceae: Chamaecyparis thyoides [BesheaTiHo1973], Juniperus [Ferris1941d, Merril1953, Dekle1965c], Juniperus virginiana [BesheaTiHo1973].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Alabama [BesheaTiHo1973], Florida [Ferris1942, Merril1953, Dekle1965c], Georgia [BesheaTiHo1973]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the inner surface of the needles (Ferris, 1942).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ferris (1942).

STRUCTURE: Scale of the female somewhat elongate oval, composed of the enlarged second exuvia which is covered with a thin film of wax, the color being a yellowish brown. First exuvia placed toward the anterior end of the scale. Scale of the male not recognized (Ferris, 1942).

KEYS: Ferris 1942: 29 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 59-60]; BesheaTiHo1973 [host, distribution: 9]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 360]; Dekle1965c [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 18]; Dekle1976 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, economic importance: 29]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 29,424]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 544]; Merril1953 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 12-13]; Nakaha1982 [host, distribution: 6].



Aonidia badia Brain

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia badia Brain, 1919: 217. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Zeerust, on Rhus sp.; collected May 1915. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Munting, 1970a: 36. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa; type no. 291/1. Described: female. Illust.

Targionia badia; Lindinger, 1957: 544. Change of combination.

Aonidia badia; Borchsenius, 1966: 362. Revived combination.



HOST: Anacardiaceae: Rhus [Brain1919, Muntin1965a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [Brain1919, Muntin1965a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Brain (1919) and by Balachowsky (1958b).

STRUCTURE: Scale of adult female almost circular, flat, about 1.2 mm. in diameter, consisting of the thickened second stage plus a very thin, transparent layer of secretion, which is only noticeable where it projects at the margins (Brain, 1919).

KEYS: Munting 1965b: 189 (female) [South Africa].

CITATIONS: Balach1958b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 234-235]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 60]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 362]; Brain1919 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 217-218]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 544]; Muntin1965a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 181,183,189]; Muntin1970a [taxonomy: 36-37].



Aonidia banksiae Fuller

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia banksiae Fuller, 1897b: 1346. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Western Australia, on Banksia attenuata, B. menziesii, B. prionotes and B. ilicifolia. Syntypes, female. Described: female.

Aonidia banksiae; Fuller, 1897c: 11. Notes: Described again as n. sp.

Aonidia banksiae; Fuller, 1899: 473. Notes: Described again as n. sp.



HOSTS: Proteaceae: Banksia attenuata [Fuller1897b, Frogga1914], Banksia ilicifolia [Fuller1897b, Frogga1914], Banksia menziesii [Fuller1897b, Frogga1914], Banksia prionotes [Fuller1897b, Frogga1914].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Western Australia [Fuller1897b, Frogga1914]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description of adult female by Fuller (1897, 1897c).

STRUCTURE: Female scale grey, but appearing orange-red owing to the colour of large second exuvia, circular, very convex; diameter one-fiftieth of an inch (Fuller, 1897, 1897c).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 60-61]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 362]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 396]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 302]; Frogga1914 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 599]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 25]; Fuller1897b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 1346]; Fuller1897c [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 11]; Fuller1899 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 473]; Lindin1911 [taxonomy: 173]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 462].



Aonidia biafrae Lindinger

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia biafrae Lindinger, 1909e: 40. Type data: CAMEROON: Bipinde, Urwaldgebiet, on Crudia zenkeri and Schotia humboldtioides. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Hamburg: Zoologisches Institut und Zoologisches Museum, Universitat von Hamburg, Germany. Described: female. Illust.

Greeniella biafrae; MacGillivray, 1921: 459. Change of combination.

Aonidia biafrae; Borchsenius, 1966: 362. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Fabaceae: Crudia zenkeri [Lindin1909e, Balach1958b], Cynometra [Balach1958b], Schotia humboldtioides [Lindin1909e, Balach1958b].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Cameroon [Lindin1909e, Balach1958b].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Lindinger (1909e).

STRUCTURE: Pupillarial species; scale thin; colour dark yellow-brown (Lindinger, 1909e).

CITATIONS: Balach1958b [host, distribution: 240]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 61]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 362]; Lindin1909e [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 40-42]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 362]; Sassce1911 [taxonomy: 70]; Vayssi1913 [host, distribution: 431]; WeidneWa1968 [taxonomy: 171].



Aonidia bullata Green

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia bullata Green, 1896e: 72. Type data: SRI LANKA: Punduloya, on an undetermined tree. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Anacardiaceae: Nothopegia colebrookiana [Green1900a, Ramakr1921a].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Sri Lanka [Green1896e, Green1900a, Ramakr1921a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Green (1896e).

STRUCTURE: The female and male scale were skillfully illustrated and described in great details by Green (1896e).

KEYS: Green 1896e: 68 (female) [Sri Lanka].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 61]; DEDAC1923 [host, distribution]; Green1896e [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 72-73]; Green1900a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 73]; Green1922 [taxonomy: 460]; Johnst1915 [host, distribution, biological control: 1-33]; Ramakr1921a [host, distribution: 358].



Aonidia campylanthi (Lindinger)

NOMENCLATURE:

Targionia ? campylanthi Lindinger, 1911a: 25. Type data: CANARY ISLANDS: Tenerife, between Santa Cruz and San Andres, on Campylanthus salsoloides. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Hamburg: Zoologisches Institut und Zoologisches Museum, Universitat von Hamburg, Germany. Described: female. Illust.

Aspidiotus campylanthi; MacGillivray, 1921: 393. Change of combination.

Targionidea campylanthi; MacGillivray, 1921: 449. Change of combination.

Aonidia campylanthi; Balachowsky, 1946: 211. Change of combination.

Targionidea campylanthi; Borchsenius, 1966: 252. Revived combination.

Aonidia campylanthi; Danzig & Pellizzari, 1998: 179. Revived combination.



HOST: Scrophulariaceae: Campylanthus salsoides [Lindin1911a, Balach1946].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Canary Islands [Balach1946, MatileOr2001].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Lindinger (1911a).

STRUCTURE: The material available for the original description was in very poor condition. The female scale whitish. Second instar was not available (Lindinger, 1911a).

CITATIONS: Balach1946 [host, distribution: 211]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 61-62]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 252]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 179-180]; Ferris1937c [taxonomy, illustration: 52,100]; Ferris1943a [taxonomy: 85]; Lindin1911 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 25-26]; Lindin1912b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 93]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 393,449]; MatileOr2001 [host, distribution: 190]; Sassce1912 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 94]; WeidneWa1968 [taxonomy: 179].



Aonidia chaetachmeae Brain

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia chaetachmeae Brain, 1919: 215. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Natal, Durban, on "umkavoti", Chaetachme [=Chaetacme] aristata; collected by C. Fuller, October 12, 1914. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female. Illust.

Aonidia chaetachmes Lindinger, 1932f: 196. Unjustified emendation; discovered by Borchsenius, 1966: 362.



HOST: Ulmaceae: Chaetacme aristata [Brain1919, Balach1958b, Muntin1965a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [Brain1919, Balach1958b, Muntin1965a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Brain (1919) and by Munting (1965a).

STRUCTURE: Scale of female small, about 1-1.3 mm long, pyriform, with irregularly crenulate edges, dull pitch black in colour, with as scanty white layer of waxy secretion, which is most noticeable around the margins. The larval exuviae are central, raised, black, with dark brown margins (Brain 1919).

KEYS: Munting 1965b: 189 (female) [South Africa].

CITATIONS: Balach1958b [host, distribution: 240]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 62]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 362]; Brain1919 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 215]; Lindin1932f [taxonomy: 196]; Muntin1965a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 182-183,189].



Aonidia crenulata Green

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia ebeni Leonardi, 1899: 205. Nomen nudum.

Aonidia ebeni Leonardi, 1900: 329. Type data: SRI LANKA: on Diospyros sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Portici: Dipartimento de Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria di Portici, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Italy. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Sanders, 1906: 16. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Green" as author.

Aonidia crenulata Green, 1900a: 74. Type data: SRI LANKA: Peradeniya, near Kandy, Royal Botanic Gardens, on Memecylon umbellatum. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Gymnaspis ebeni; Lindinger, 1909: 149. Change of combination.

Gymnaspis crenulata; MacGillivray, 1921: 257. Change of combination.

Aonidia crenulata; Borchsenius, 1966: 362. Revived combination.



FOE: FUNGI Ascomycotina: Nectria diploa [EvansPr1990].

HOSTS: Dipterocarpaceae: Vatica lanceifolia [Green1919c, Ramakr1921a]. Ebenaceae: Diospyros [Leonar1900]. Memecylaceae: Memecylon [Green1905a], Memecylon umbellatum [Green1900a, Green1905a, Green1922, Green1937].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: India [Ramakr1921a, Green1937] (Assam [Green1919c]); Sri Lanka [Green1900a, Leonar1900, Green1905a, Green1922, Green1937].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Green (1900a).

STRUCTURE: Female scale circular, diameter 1 mm; moderately convex; dull pale reddish or yellowish-brown, with darker zones caused by the transmitted colour of the sub lying pellicle. Male scale similar in size and colour to that of female, but flatter and slightly oval (Green, 1900a).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 62-63]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 362]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 396]; Cocker1922a [taxonomy: 149]; EvansPr1990 [biological control: 3-17]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 302-303]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 43]; Green1900a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 74]; Green1905a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 348]; Green1919c [host, distribution: 441]; Green1922 [host, distribution: 463]; Green1937 [host, distribution: 336]; Johnst1915 [host, distribution, biological control: 1-33]; Leonar1899 [taxonomy: 205]; Leonar1900 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 329-330]; Leonar1903a [taxonomy: 6]; Lindin1909 [taxonomy: 149]; Lindin1911 [taxonomy: 12]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 257]; Petch1921a [biological control: 89-167]; Ramakr1921a [host, distribution : 359]; Sander1906 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 16]; Varshn2002 [host, distribution: 18].



Aonidia echinata Green

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia echinata Green, 1905a: 347. Type data: SRI LANKA: Anaradhapura, on Hemicyclia sepiaria. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Euphorbiaceae: Hemicyclia sepiaria [Green1905a, Sander1906, Ramakr1921a, Green1922, Green1937].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Sri Lanka [Green1905a, Sander1906, Ramakr1921a, Green1922, Green1937].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Green (1905a).

STRUCTURE: Female scale dull reddish-brown (yellowish when immature), roughened with innumerable slender curved spines that are firmly attached to the nymphal pellicle and persist after treatment with caustic-potash; circular; strongly convex; diameter 0.35 mm. (Green, 1905a).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 63-64]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 363]; DEDAC1923 [host, distribution]; Green1905a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 347]; Green1922 [host, distribution: 463]; Green1937 [host, distribution: 337]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 463]; Ramakr1921a [host, distribution: 359]; Sander1906 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 16]; Varshn2002 [host, distribution: 18].



Aonidia elaeagna Maskell

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia elaeagnus Maskell, 1897a: 241. Type data: JAPAN: on Elaeagnus macrophylla. Syntypes, female and first instar. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female.

Aonidia eleagnus; Leonardi, 1900: 241. Incorrect synonymy.

Aonidia eleagnus; Leonardi, 1900: 327. Misspelling of species name. Notes: See discussion in Systematics.

Aonidia elaeagna; Borchsenius, 1966: 363. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.



HOST: Elaeagnaceae: Elaeagnus macrophylla [Kuwana1933].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Japan [Kuwana1917a, Kuwana1933].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Maskell (1897a) and by Kuwana (1933).

STRUCTURE: Female scale very small, reddish-brown, very slightly convex; exuviae yellow (Maskell, 1897a).

SYSTEMATICS: Leonardi (1900: 327) regarded Aonidia elaeagnus Maskell, 1897a, a synonym of Aonidia lauri Bouche, 1833, whereas Borchsenius (1966) retained it as an unrecognizable, but valid, species.

KEYS: Kuwana 1933b: 50 (female) [Japan].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 64]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 363]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 396]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 180]; DeitzTo1980 [taxonomy: 36]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 302]; Kuwana1917a [taxonomy, distribution: 176]; Kuwana1933 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 40]; Maskel1897a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 241]; Maskel1898 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 227-228].



Aonidia formosana Takahashi

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia tentaculata formosana Takahashi, 1935: 35. Type data: TAIWAN: Habon, near Musha, on Cinnamomum sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Taichung: Entomology Collection, Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, Wu-feng, Taichung, Taiwan. Described: female. Illust.

Aonidia formosana; Borchsenius, 1966: 363. Change of status.



HOST: Lauraceae: Cinnamomum [Takaha1935, Takagi1970].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Taiwan [Takaha1935, Takagi1970].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Takahashi (1935).

STRUCTURE: Scale of the adult female yellowish brown, shining, with a large longitudinal black patch at the median part, flattened smooth (Takahashi, 1935).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 64]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 363]; Chou1985 [taxonomy: 325]; Chou1985 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution]; Takagi1970 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 131]; Takaha1935 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 35-36]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 72].



Aonidia ilicitana Gómez-Menor Ortega

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia ilicitana Gómez-Menor Ortega, 1968: 542. Type data: SPAIN: Elche, Pantano de Vinalapo, Alicante and Valencia, Benejama, on Pinus. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Madrid: Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Spain. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Pinaceae: Pinus [GomezM1968].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Spain [GomezM1968].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Gómez-Menor Ortega (1968).

STRUCTURE: Pupillarial species. Female scale 0.8-0.9 mm long, 0.85-0.95 mm wide; elliptical; ventral scale white, attached to host plant. Male scale white; 1.1-1.2 mm long, 0.6 mm wide; ventral scale white (Gomez-Menor Ortega, 1986).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 65]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 180]; GomezM1968 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 542-546]; Martin1983 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 60].



Aonidia isfarensis (Borchsenius)

NOMENCLATURE:

Cryptaspidiotus mediterraneus; Archangelskaya, 1937: 112. Misidentification; discovered by Borchsenius, 1966: 360.

Cryptaspidiotus mediterraneus; Borchsenius, 1950b: 234. Misidentification; discovered by Borchsenius, 1966: 360.

Cupressaspis isfarensis Borchsenius, 1962b: 870. Type data: TADZHIKISTAN: Turkestan mountain ridge, south of Voruh, on Juniperus sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Aonidia isfarensis; Danzig, 1993: 215. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Cupressaceae: Juniperus [Borchs1962b], Juniperus seravschanica [BazaroSh1971].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan) [Borchs1962b].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Borchsenius (1962b), Bazarov & Shmelev (1971) and by Danzig (1993).

STRUCTURE: Female scale almost circular; exuviae not discernible from top, covered with white wax secretion; diameter 0.8-0.9 mm (Borchsenius, 1962b).

KEYS: Danzig 1993: 215 (female) [Europe]; Borchsenius 1962b: 869 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: Archan1937 [taxonomy: 112]; BazaroSh1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 223-226]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 65]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy: 234]; Borchs1962b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 868-870]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 360]; Danzig1993 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, economic importance: 215-217]; Sassce1911 [taxonomy: 71].



Aonidia laticornis Balachowsky

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia laticornis Balachowsky, 1949b: 114. Type data: MOROCCO: on Cupressus sempervirens. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Cupressaceae: Cupressus sempervirens [Balach1949b, Balach1951].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Morocco [Balach1949b, Balach1951].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Balachowsky (1949, 1951).

STRUCTURE: Female scale subcircular, flat, white; larval exuviae bright yellow, subcentral; 0.8-1.2 mm; pupillarial species in which the adult female is enclosed in nymphal exuviae (Balachowsky, 1951).

KEYS: Balachowsky 1951: 604 (female) [Mediterranean].

CITATIONS: Balach1949b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 113-115]; Balach1951 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 612-615]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 65-66]; Borchs1962b [taxonomy, host, distribution: 868]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 363]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 180].



Aonidia lauri (Bouche)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus lauri Bouche, 1833: 52. Type data: GERMANY: Berlin, in greenhouse, on laurel [=Laurus nobilis]. Syntypes, both sexes. Described: both sexes. Notes: Type material lost (Sachtleben, 1944).

Chermes lauri; Boisduval, 1867: 340. Change of combination.

Diaspis aonidum Targioni-Tozzetti, 1867: 78. Synonymy by Borchsenius, 1966: 363.

Aonidia purpurea Targioni Tozzetti, 1868: 735. Unjustified replacement name for Aspidiotus lauri Bouche.

Aonidia lauri; Signoret, 1870: 327. Change of combination.

Aoninidia lauri; Ulgenturk & Canakcioglu, 2004: 81. Misspelling of genus name.

COMMON NAMES: cochenille du laurier [SchmutKlLu1957]; laurel scale [McKenz1956]; Lorbeerschildlaus [SchmutKlLu1957].



FOES: ACARI Hemisarcoptidae: Hemisarcoptes malus (Shimer) [GersonOcHo1990]. FUNGI Ascomycotina: Myriangium duriaei [EvansPr1990], Nectria flammea [EvansPr1990]. HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Aphytis aonidiae (Mercet) [RosenDe1979], Aphytis chilensis Howard [RosenDe1979], Aphytis mytilaspidis (Le Baron) [RosenDe1979], Hispaniella lauri Mercet [Viggia1990a], Pteroptrix lauri (Mercet) [SengonUyKa1998, ErlerTu2001].

HOSTS: Lauraceae: Apollonias canariensis [Bodenh1949, BlayGo1993], Laurus [Bodenh1928, Bodenh1937, Balach1951, Bodenh1952], Laurus canariensis [Bodenh1949, BlayGo1993], Laurus nobilis [Bouche1833, Bouche1834, Balach1927, Balach1931a, Balach1932d, BachmaGe1950, Bodenh1952, Bachma1953], Laurus nobilis [SengonUyKa1998, UygunSeEr1998, ErlerTu2001], Ocotea foetens [Balach1951].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (California [McKenz1956]). Neotropical: Brazil [Hempel1900a]. Palaearctic: Algeria [Balach1927, Balach1932d, SaighiDoBi2005]; Azores [FrancoRuMa2011]; Canary Islands [MatileOr2001]; Corsica [Balach1931a, Balach1932d]; Crete [PellizPoSe2011]; Croatia [Bachma1953] [Masten2007]; Czech Republic [Zahrad1977, Zahrad1990b]; Egypt [Ezzat1958]; France [Signor1870, Balach1932d, Balach1937c]; Georgia [Hadzib1983]; Germany [Bouche1833]; Greece [Bodenh1928, Korone1934, ArgyriStMo1976, RosenDe1979]; Hungary [KozarKoFe2013]; Israel [Borchs1966]; Italy [Leonar1920, LongoMaPe1995]; Lebanon [AbdulNMo2006]; Madeira Islands [FrancoRuMa2011]; Morocco [Balach1932d]; Poland [Komosi1968, Dziedz1989]; Portugal [Seabra1942]; Sardinia [Pelliz2011]; Slovenia [Janezi1954, Seljak2010]; Spain [GomezM1954, GomezM1958c, RosenDe1979, Martin1983, BlayGo1993]; Switzerland [BachmaGe1950]; Tunisia [Balach1932d]; Turkey [Bodenh1949, Bodenh1952, SengonUyKa1998, UygunSeEr1998]; United Kingdom (England [Malump1997]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on twigs or leaves.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ferris (1938a), Balachowsky (1951), McKenzie (1956), Dziedzicka (1989), Tereznikova (1986), Zahradník (1990b) and by Danzig (1993). Aspidiotus lauri was also described as n.sp. by Bouche (1834) page 16.

STRUCTURE: Scale of the female somewhat oval, rather convex, brown, first exuvia near one end; that of the male similar in color, oval, exuvia at one end; pupillarial species (Ferris, 1938a).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: The laurel scale is widely distributed in the Mediterranean basin, almost exclusively on Laurus nobilis and other species of Laurus. Dense populations may develop of laurel, causing leaf drop and twig die-back (Balachowsky, 1951).

KEYS: Danzig 1993: 215 (female) [Europe]; Ezzat 1958: 240 (female) [Egypt]; McKenzie 1956: 23 (female) [U.S.A.: California]; Balachowsky 1951: 604 (female) [Mediterranean]; Ferris 1942: 29 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: AbdulNMo2006 [host, distribution: 517-520]; Apstei1915 [taxonomy: 119]; ArgyriStMo1976 [host, distribution, biological control: 24]; Bachma1953 [host, distribution: 182]; BachmaGe1950 [host, distribution: 119]; Balach1927 [host, distribution: 178]; Balach1931a [host, distribution: 98]; Balach1932d [taxonomy, host, distribution: XII, XLVIII]; Balach1937c [host, distribution: 3]; Balach1951 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 604-607]; BaldanGaVi1999 [biological control: 209-215]; BenDov1990c [taxonomy: 116]; BenDov2012 [catalogue, distribution, host: 28, 43]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 66-68]; Blanch1840 [taxonomy: 214]; BlayGo1993 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 388-392]; Bodenh1928 [host, distribution: 191]; Bodenh1935 [host, distribution: 247]; Bodenh1937 [host, distribution: 217]; Bodenh1949 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 84-86]; Bodenh1952 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 351]; Boisdu1867 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 340]; Borchs1937 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 137]; Borchs1937a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 69-70]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 235]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 363]; Bouche1833 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 52]; Bouche1834 [taxonomy: 16]; Brown1963 [taxonomy, structure: 360-406]; BurgerUl1990 [economic importance: 313-327]; Burmei1835 [taxonomy: 68]; Comsto1883 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 129]; Costan1938 [host, distribution: 25-44]; Danzig1964 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 654]; Danzig1972 [taxonomy, host, distribution, economic importance: 206]; Danzig1993 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 219-220]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 180]; DeBach1964d [biological control: 5-18]; Dingle1924 [taxonomy: 371]; Dziedz1989 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 97-98]; ErlerTu2001 [host, distribution, biological control: 299-305]; EvansPr1990 [biological control: 3-17]; Ezzat1958 [distribution: 240]; EzzatNa1987 [distribution: 86]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 302]; Ferris1937c [taxonomy, illustration: 50,59]; Ferris1938a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 176]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 45]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy: 29]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Foldi2002 [host, distribution: 246]; Foldi2003 [host, distribution: 151]; FrancoRuMa2011 [distribution: 8,23]; Garcia1930 [host, distribution, biological control]; GersonOcHo1990 [biological control: 77-97]; Gill1997 [host, distribution, taxonomy, illustration: 43,44]; GomezM1937 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 100-104]; GomezM1954 [host, distribution: 120]; GomezM1958a [host, distribution: 7]; GomezM1958c [host, distribution: 406]; Green1937 [host, distribution: 338]; Hadzib1983 [taxonomy, host, distribution, economic importance: 244]; Hempel1900a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 508]; Iperti1961 [economic importance: 14-30]; Janezi1954 [host, distribution: 123]; Komosi1968 [host, distribution: 205-208]; Korone1934 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 26-27]; Koteja1990b [life history, structure, anatomy: 233-242]; KozarHi1996 [host, distribution: 91-96]; KozarKoFe2013 [distribution, taxonomy: 53]; LandiDe1994 [host, distribution, life history: 33-45]; Leonar1897 [taxonomy: 286]; Leonar1900 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 327-329]; Leonar1903a [taxonomy: 4]; Leonar1920 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 86-89]; Lindin1909a [taxonomy: 324]; Lindin1912b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 70,197,255]; Lindin1935 [taxonomy: 127]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 125]; Lupo1957 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 78-84]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 464]; Malump1997 [host, distribution: 195-198]; Martin1983 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 61]; Masten2007 [host, distribution, taxonomy: 1-242]; MatileOr2001 [host, distribution: 189]; McKenz1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 36-38]; Melis1949 [host, distribution: 17-25]; MillerDa1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 300]; MohammGh2008 [distribution: 150]; Nakaha1982 [host, distribution: 6]; Nur1990a [taxonomy, structure, chromosomes: 184-185]; Peleka1962 [host, distribution: 62]; Pelliz2011 [distribution: 311]; PellizPoSe2011 [distribution, host: 295,297]; Porcel1995 [structure: 25-45]; Priore1964 [host, distribution: 131-178]; Priore1965 [host, distribution: 101-145]; Pulsel1927 [biological control: 300-327]; RosenDe1979 [host, distribution, biological control: 349-354,464-473,]; Ruhl1913 [host, distribution: 79-80]; Ryan1946 [host, distribution: 124-125]; Saakya1954 [host, distribution, economic importance]; SaighiDoBi2005 [host, distribution: 429-433]; Schmut1957a [host, distribution: 137]; Schmut1959 [taxonomy: 125]; SchmutKlLu1957 [host, distribution, economic importance: 493]; Seabra1942 [distribution: 2]; Seljak2010 [host, distribution: 106]; SengonUyKa1998 [host, distribution, biological control: 128-131]; Signor1869 [taxonomy: 860,868]; Signor1870 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 103-105]; Targio1867 [taxonomy: 78]; Targio1868 [taxonomy: 735]; Terezn1986 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 84-85]; UygunSeEr1998 [host, distribution: 183-191]; Varshn2002 [host, distribution: 18]; Viggia1990a [biological control: 128]; Yasar1995a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 40-42]; Zahrad1977 [taxonomy, distribution: 119]; Zahrad1990b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 78-80].



Aonidia longa Lindinger

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia longa Lindinger, 1911: 172. Type data: NEW CALEDONIA: Mont Humboldt, on Podocarpus gnidioides; collected 16.xi.1902. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Hamburg: Zoologisches Institut und Zoologisches Museum, Universitat von Hamburg, Germany; type no. MP156. Described: female. Illust.

Greeniella longa; MacGillivray, 1921: 462. Change of combination.

Aonidia longa; Borchsenius, 1966: 363. Revived combination.



HOST: Podocarpaceae: Podocarpus gnidioides [Lindin1911, Laing1933].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Caledonia [Lindin1911, Laing1933].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Lindinger (1911).

STRUCTURE: Scales were not available for the description (Lindinger, 1911).

SYSTEMATICS: This is a species described by Lindinger (1911: 172) from New Caledonia, on Podocarpus gnidioides. (Williams & Watson, 1988) noted that they have examined specimens (deposited in Zoologisches Institut und Zoologisches Museum, Universitat Hamburg) of this interesting pupillarial species. They indicated that it does not belong to Aonidia as presently understood, but the specimens available were not adequate for illustration and further description.

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 68-69]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 363]; Laing1933 [host, distribution: 676]; Lindin1911 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 172-174]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 462]; Sassce1912 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 92]; WeidneWa1968 [taxonomy: 171]; WilliaWa1988 [taxonomy: 17].



Aonidia loranthi Green

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia loranthi Green, 1896e: 74. Type data: SRI LANKA: on Loranthus sp. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Loranthaceae: Loranthus [Green1896e, Leonar1900, Ramakr1921a, Green1937].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Sri Lanka [Green1896e, Leonar1900, Green1937].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Green (1896e)

STRUCTURE: The female scale was skillfully illustrated and described in great details by Green (1896e).

KEYS: Green 1896e: 68 (female) [Sri Lanka].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 69]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 363]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 396]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 363]; Green1896e [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 68,74-75]; Green1937 [host, distribution: 336]; GullanMiCo2005 [taxonomy, structure: 164,182-189]; Larew1990 [ecology, life history, structure: 293-300]; Leonar1900 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 335-336]; Leonar1903a [taxonomy: 6]; Lindin1943b [taxonomy: 264]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 464]; Ramakr1921a [host, distribution: 358]; Varshn2002 [host, distribution: 18].



Aonidia marginalis Brain

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia marginalis Brain, 1919: 216. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Transvaal, Zeerust, on stems of Rhus sp.; collected by A. Kelly, May 1915. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Munting, 1970a: 39. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa; type no. 292/1. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Anacardiaceae: Rhus [Brain1919, Balach1958b, Muntin1965a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [Brain1919, Balach1958b, Muntin1965a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Brain (1919) and by Munting (1965a).

STRUCTURE: Scale of adult female about 1.5 mm long, composed of large second exuviae, with a thin layer of buff-coloured secretion. Exuviae often showing through, black (Brain 1919).

KEYS: Munting 1965b: 189 (female) [South Africa].

CITATIONS: Balach1958b [host, distribution: 240]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 69-70]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 363-364]; Brain1919 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 216-217]; Muntin1965a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 184-185,189]; Muntin1970a [taxonomy: 39].



Aonidia maroccana Balachowsky

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia maroccana Balachowsky, 1949b: 115. Type data: MOROCCO: Moyen Atlas, 12 km northwest of Ksiba, altitude 1500 m, on Laurus nobilis. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

Cryptaspidiotus maroccanus; Lindinger, 1957: 545. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.

Aonidia maroccana; Borchsenius, 1966: 364. Revived combination.



HOST: Lauraceae: Laurus nobilis [Balach1949b, Balach1951].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Morocco [Balach1949b, Balach1951].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Balachowsky (1949b, 1951).

STRUCTURE: Pupillarial species; female scale subcircular, light brown, sometimes covered with white, fine secretion; diameter 0.6-0.8 mm. Male scale of similar structure, more oval, elongated, 0.5 mm (Balachowsky, 1949b, 1951).

KEYS: Balachowsky 1951: 604 (female) [Mediterranean].

CITATIONS: Balach1949b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 115-116]; Balach1951 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 610-612]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 70]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 364]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 180]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 545].



Aonidia mediterranea (Lindinger)

NOMENCLATURE:

Cryptaspidiotus mediterraneus Lindinger, 1910c: 437. Type data: ALGERIA: on Juniperus phoenicea. Holotype female. Type depository: Hamburg: Zoologisches Institut und Zoologisches Museum, Universitat von Hamburg, Germany. Described: female. Illust.

Aonidia mediterranea; Ferris, 1942: 424. Change of combination.

Cryptaspidiotus juniperi Borchsenius, 1949b: 352. Type data: ARMENIA: Megri, on Juniperus sp. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Danzig, 1993: 219. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Danzig, 1993: 215.

Cupressaspis juniperi; Borchsenius, 1962b: 869. Change of combination.

Cupressaspis mediterranea; Borchsenius, 1962b: 869. Change of combination.

Aonidia mediterranea; Danzig, 1993: 215. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Cupressaceae: Callitris articulata [Balach1951], Callitris quadrivalvis [Lindin1910c, Rungs1935], Cupressus sempervirens [Balach1951], Cupressus sp. [PellizPoSe2011], Juniperus [Borchs1949b, Martin1983, KaydanKoAt2009], Juniperus communis [PellizFo1996], Juniperus oxycedrus [GomezM1960O, BlayGo1993], Juniperus phoenicea [Lindin1910c, GomezM1960O, Zahrad1972, Martin1983, BlayGo1993], Thuja orientalis [Balach1951, Zahrad1972], Thuja sp. [PellizPoSe2011]

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Algeria [Lindin1910c]; Armenia [Borchs1949b]; Crete [PellizPoSe2011]; France [Foldi2002]; Greece [Korone1934]; Morocco [Rungs1935]; Sardinia [Pelliz2011] [PellizFo1996]; Sicily [NucifoWa2001]; Spain [GomezM1960O, Martin1983, BlayGo1993]; Turkey [ErlerKoTu1996, KaydanKoAt2009]; Uzbekistan [Balach1951].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Lindinger (1910c), Borchsenius (1949b), Balachowsky (1951) and by Danzig (1993).

STRUCTURE: Female scale small, 0.9 mm; subcircular, flat; larval exuviae central or subcentral, faint yellow; adult secretion white (Balachowsky, 1951).

KEYS: Danzig 1993: 215 (female) [Europe]; Borchsenius 1962b: 869, 871 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Borchsenius 1962b: 869 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Balachowsky 1951: 604 (female) [Mediterranean].

CITATIONS: Archan1937 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 112]; Balach1951 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 607-609]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 70-71]; BlayGo1993 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 394-397]; Borchs1949b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 352]; Borchs1949d [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 251]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 234]; Borchs1962b [taxonomy: 869,871]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 360]; Danzig1993 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 215-219]; ErlerKoTu1996 [host, distribution: 53-59]; Ferris1937c [taxonomy: 51,68,106]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 45]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy: 424]; Foldi2002 [host, distribution: 246]; GomezM1960O [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 174-177]; KaydanKoAt2009 [host, distribution: 44]; Korone1934 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 25-26]; Lindin1910c [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 437]; Lindin1912b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 89,189-190]; Lindin1935 [taxonomy: 132]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 426]; Martin1983 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 63]; NucifoWa2001 [host, distribution: 207-209]; Pelliz2011 [distribution: 311]; PellizFo1996 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 133]; PellizPoSe2011 [distribution, host: 295.297]; Rungs1935 [host, distribution: 270]; TerGri1962 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 151-152]; UlgentCaKa2004 [host, distribution: 100]; WeidneWa1968 [taxonomy: 174]; Zahrad1972 [host, distribution: 440].



Aonidia mesembryanthemae Brain

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia mesembryanthemae Brain, 1919: 216. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Natal, Durban, on fleshy leaves of Mesembryanthemum edule; collected 20.iv.1915. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Munting, 1970a: 39. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa; type no. 290/1. Described: female. Illust.

Aonidia mesembryanthemi Lindinger, 1932f: 196. Unjustified emendation; discovered by Borchsenius, 1966: 364.



HOST: Aizoaceae: Mesembryanthemum edule [Brain1919, Balach1958b].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [Brain1919, Balach1958b].

BIOLOGY: The developing scale induces the formation of pits on fleshy leaves of Mesembryanthemum edule (Brain, 1919).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Brain (1919) and by Balachowsky (1958b).

STRUCTURE: The dorsal scale of the adult female is about 1.5 mm long and 1 mm broad, white, thin, translucent, very delicate with the buff-coloured larval exuviae central. Male scale about 1 mm. long, slightly more elongate and more convex than the female scale, white to buff in colour, with yellowish larval exuviae (Brain, 1919).

KEYS: Munting 1965b: 189 (female) [South Africa].

CITATIONS: Balach1958b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 234-237]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 71]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 364]; Brain1919 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 216]; Lindin1932f [taxonomy: 196]; Muntin1965b [taxonomy: 189]; Muntin1970a [taxonomy: 39].



Aonidia mimusopis Green

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia mimusopis Green, 1922a: 1009. Type data: SRI LANKA: Peradeniya, on the smaller branches of Diospyros thwaitesii. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Ebenaceae: Diospyros thwaitesii [Green1922a]. Sapotaceae: Mimusops hexandra [Green1937].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Sri Lanka [Green1922a, Green1937].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Green (1922a).

STRUCTURE: Female scale small and inconspicuous; pale grayish ochreous, with a darker central area; broadly ovate, flat. Exuviae concealed by the secretionary covering (Green, 1922a).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 72]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 364]; Green1922a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 1009-1010]; Green1937 [host, distribution: 338]; Varshn2002 [host, distribution: 19].



Aonidia nullispina Munting

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia nullispina Munting, 1969: 119. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Cape Province, Tosca, on Olea sp.; collected 8.iii.1967. Holotype female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa; type no. 2713/14. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Capparidaceae: Boscia albitrunca [Muntin1969], Boscia foetida [Muntin1969]. Oleaceae: Olea [Muntin1969].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Namibia (=South West Africa) [Muntin1969]; South Africa [Muntin1969].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Munting (1969).

STRUCTURE: Scale of adult female oval, brown, with a pale white secretory covering, about 1 mm in length. Male scale oval, cream coloured, with a yellow subcentral exuviae; about 1 mm long (Munting, 1969).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 72]; BenDovGi2014 [catalogue: 230]; Muntin1969 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 119-120,145].



Aonidia obscura Green

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia obscura Green, 1896e: 76. Type data: SRI LANKA: Punduloya, on Loranthus sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Loranthaceae: Loranthus [Green1896e, Ramakr1921a].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Sri Lanka [Green1896e, Ramakr1921a, Green1937].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Green (1896e) and by Leonardi (1900).

STRUCTURE: The female scale was skillfully illustrated and described in great details by Green (1896e).

KEYS: Ferris 1943: 64 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1942: 36 (female) [North America]; Green 1896e: 76 (female) [Sri Lanka].

CITATIONS: BeardsDaHo1976 [economic importance: 105]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 72-73]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 364]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 396]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 303]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy: 446:36]; Green1896e [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 76]; Green1937 [host, distribution: 336]; Leonar1900 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 336-337]; Leonar1903a [taxonomy: 6]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 464]; Ramakr1921a [host, distribution: 358]; Varshn2002 [host, distribution: 19].



Aonidia obtusa Green & Laing

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia obtusa Green & Laing, 1921: 126. Type data: SEYCHELLES: on Verschaffeltia splendida. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Arecaceae: Verschaffeltia splendida [GreenLa1921, Mamet1943a, Balach1958b, Borchs1966].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Seychelles [GreenLa1921, Mamet1943a, Balach1958b, Borchs1966].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Green & Laing (1921).

STRUCTURE: Female scale consisting almost entirely of the enlarged nymphal exuvia; transversely oval, flat, or very slightly convex; a narrow marginal area ornamented with sutures running irregularly from without inwards and intertwining; colour varying from pale to dark brown, often thinly coated with white powdery secretion over a wide marginal area, leaving only the centre bare (Green & Laing, 1921).

CITATIONS: Balach1958b [host, distribution: 240]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 73]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 364]; GreenLa1921 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 126-127]; Mamet1943a [catalogue: 156].



Aonidia oleae Leonardi

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia oleae Leonardi, 1913c: 66. Type data: ERITREA: on olive [=Olea europaea]. Holotype female. Type depository: Portici: Dipartimento de Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria di Portici, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Italy. Described: female. Illust.

Aonidiae oleae; Borchsenius, 1966: 409. Misspelling of genus name.



HOST: Oleaceae: Olea europaea [Leonar1913c].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Eritrea [Leonar1913c].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Leonardi (1913c).

STRUCTURE: Female and male scale illustrated by Leonardi (1913c).

CITATIONS: Balach1958b [taxonomy: 249]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 73]; Leonar1913c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 66-68]; Lindin1928 [taxonomy: 106]; Lindin1931a [taxonomy: 89]; Lindin1943b [taxonomy: 221].



Aonidia operta De Lotto

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia operta De Lotto, 1957: 225. Type data: KENYA: Nairobi, on branches of Ficus hochstetteri. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Moraceae: Ficus hochstetteri [DeLott1957].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Kenya [DeLott1957].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by De Lotto (1957).

STRUCTURE: Scale of female represented by larval and nymphal exuviae only, moderately convex; colour black; diameter up to 2.5 mm. Fresh specimens covered by a thin film of whitish wax. Scale of male elongate with subapical exuvia; dirty white; length up to 1.4 mm. (De Lotto, 1957).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 73]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 364]; DeLott1957 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 225-227].



Aonidia paradoxa (Lindinger)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia ? paradoxa Lindinger, 1911: 173. Type data: AUSTRALIA: South Australia, Mount Lyndhurst, on Casuarina glauca; collected x.1899. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Hamburg: Zoologisches Institut und Zoologisches Museum, Universitat von Hamburg, Germany; type no. MP158. Described: female.

Greeniella paradoxa; MacGillivray, 1921: 460. Change of combination.

Aonidia paradoxa; Borchsenius, 1966: 364. Revived combination.



HOST: Casuarinaceae: Casuarina glauca [Lindin1911].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (South Australia [Lindin1911]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Lindinger (1911).

STRUCTURE: Female scale white, slightly elongate (Lindinger, 1911).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 74]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 364]; Lindin1911 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 173]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 460]; Sassce1912 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 92]; WeidneWa1968 [taxonomy: 171].



Aonidia perplexa Green

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia perplexa Green, 1900a: 252. Type data: SRI LANKA: Peradeniya, Botanic Gardens, on the under surface of leaves of Messua ferrea. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Fiorinia ? perplexa; Lindinger, 1943b: 220. Change of combination.

Aonidia perplexa; Borchsenius, 1966: 364. Revived combination.



HOST: Guttiferae: Mesua ferrea [Green1900a, Sander1909a, Ramakr1921a, Green1922, Green1937].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Sri Lanka [Green1900a, Sander1909a, Ramakr1921a, Green1922, Green1937].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Green (1900a).

STRUCTURE: Female scale oval, flat; Secretionary area greenish-grey, semi-transparent, completely covering the pellicles except over a circular spot in the centre of the first, where the surface of the pellicles is exposed; length of complete scale 1.75 mm; Breadth 1.25 mm. Male scale greyish, semi-transparent. Pellicle very pale yellow: a circular spot in the centre exposed. Length 1.50 mm. Breadth 1 mm. (Green, 1900a).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 74]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 364]; DEDAC1923 [host, distribution]; Green1900a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 252]; Green1922 [host, distribution: 463]; Green1937 [host, distribution: 337]; Lindin1909b [taxonomy: 109]; Lindin1943b [taxonomy: 220]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 462]; Ramakr1921a [host, distribution: 358]; Ruther1915a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 108]; Varshn2002 [host, distribution: 19].



Aonidia planchonioides Green

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia planchonioides Leonardi, 1899: 205. Nomen nudum; discovered by Borchsenius, 1966: 364.

Aonidia planchonioides; Leonardi, 1900: 333. Notes: Correct citation of "Green" as author.

Aonidia planchonioides Green, 1900a: 252. Type data: SRI LANKA: Peradeniya, Botanic Gardens, on leaves of Ficus sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Aonidia planchonoides; Ramakrishna, 1921a: 358. Misspelling of species name.



HOST: Moraceae: Ficus [Green1901a, Leonar1900, Ramakr1921a, Green1922, Green1937].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Sri Lanka [Green1901a, Leonar1900, Ramakr1921a, Green1922, Green1937].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Green (1901a).

STRUCTURE: Female scale oval: very pale yellow, transparent, revealing the adult insect enclosed within the large second pellicle (Green, 1901a).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 74-75]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 364]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 396]; DEDAC1923 [host, distribution]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 303]; Green1901a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 252-253]; Green1905a [taxonomy: 348]; Green1937 [host, distribution: 337]; Leonar1899 [taxonomy: 205]; Leonar1900 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 333-334]; Leonar1903a [taxonomy: 6]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 462]; Ramakr1921a [host, distribution: 358]; Varshn2002 [host, distribution: 19].



Aonidia pusilla Green

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia pusilla Green, 1905a: 347. Type data: SRI LANKA: Northern Province, Elephant Pass, on Carissa spinarum. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Apocynaceae: Carissa spinarum [Green1905a, Ramakr1921a, Green1922].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Sri Lanka [Green1905a, Ramakr1921a, Green1922, Green1937].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Green (1905a).

STRUCTURE: Female scale oval, yellow; obscured - in very fresh examples - by a thin covering of whitish secretion which, in older examples, persists only as a marginal fringe, leaving the yellow nymphal pellicle exposed. Total length 0.50 mm. Male scale oval; somewhat larger, but much less convex: pellicle pale-yellow, occupying anterior two-thirds of scale: secretionary area whitish, translucent. Length 0.65 mm. (Green, 1905a).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 75]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 364]; Green1905a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 347-348]; Green1922 [host, distribution: 463]; Green1937 [host, distribution: 337]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 463]; Ramakr1921a [host, distribution: 359]; Sander1906 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 16]; Varshn2002 [host, distribution: 19].



Aonidia rageaui Cohic nomen nudum

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia rageaui Cohic, 1958: 12. Nomen nudum.

Aonidia rageaui Borchsenius, 1966: 376. Nomen nudum.

Aonidia rageaui Williams & Watson, 1988: 17. Nomen nudum.



Aonidia rarasana Takahashi

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia rarasana Takahashi, 1934: 31. Type data: TAIWAN: Rarasan, near Urai, on undetermined host. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Taichung: Entomology Collection, Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, Wu-feng, Taichung, Taiwan. Described: female. Illust.

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Taiwan [Takaha1934, Takagi1970].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Takahashi (1934).

STRUCTURE: Takahashi (1934) did not describe the scale cover.

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 75-76]; Takagi1970 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 131]; Takaha1934 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 31-32].



Aonidia relicta Balachowsky

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia relicta Balachowsky, 1958b: 236. Type data: ERITREA: on Juniperus procera. Holotype female. Type depository: Portici: Dipartimento de Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria di Portici, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Italy. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Cupressaceae: Juniperus procera [Balach1958b].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Eritrea [Balach1958b].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Balachowsky (1958b).

STRUCTURE: Female scale oval, small, moderately convex; larval exuviae yellow, slightly covered with white secretion; 0.8 mm long. Male scale unknown (Balachowsky, 1958b).

CITATIONS: Balach1958b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 236,238-239]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 76]; Borchs1962b [taxonomy: 868]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 364].



Aonidia rhusae Brain

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia simplex; Brain, 1919: 214. Illust. Misidentification; discovered by Munting, 1965a: 185.

Aonidia rhusae Brain, 1919: 215. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Cape Town, on Rhus sp.; collected by C. Fuller 1898. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female. Illust.

Cryptaspidiotus rhois Lindinger, 1931a: 43. Unjustified emendation; discovered by Borchsenius, 1966: 364.

Cryptaspidiotus rhois; Lindinger, 1931a: 43. Change of combination.

Aonidia rhusae; Balachowsky, 1958b: 238. Revived combination.



FOE: HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Metaphycus [Prinsl1983].

HOSTS: Anacardiaceae: Rhus [Brain1919, Balach1958b, Muntin1965a], Rhus longispina [Muntin1965a]. Boraginaceae: Ehretia hottentottica [Brain1919], Ehretia rigida [Muntin1965a]. Oleaceae: Olea africana [Muntin1969].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [Brain1919, Balach1958b, Muntin1969].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Brain (1919) and by Balachowsky (1958b).

STRUCTURE: Scale of adult female about 1.5 mm. long, brown, or blackish brown, owing to the black second stage skin showing through the brownish dorsal scale. The dorsal scale is comparatively large and robust, brownish in colour, probably from the admixture of epidermal tissues. Exuviae central, dark brown. Male scale almost circular to elongate oval, somewhat conical, smooth, parchment-like, buff, or brownish with dark brown central exuviae (Brain, 1919).

KEYS: Munting 1965b: 189 (female) [South Africa].

CITATIONS: Balach1958b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 238,241]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 76-77]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 364-365]; Brain1919 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 215-216]; Lindin1931a [taxonomy: 43,90]; Muntin1965a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 185,187,189]; Muntin1969 [host, distribution: 120]; Muntin1970a [taxonomy: 39-40]; Prinsl1983 [distribution, biological control: 26].



Aonidia sclerosa Munting

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia sclerosa Munting, 1969: 120. Type data: NAMIBIA: on escarpment of Weissrand, 7 miles from Gibeon to Witbooisvlei, on Zygophyllum suffruticosum; collected 28.viii.1967. Holotype female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa; type no. 3194/14. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Zygophyllaceae: Zygophyllum suffruticosum [Muntin1969].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Namibia (=South West Africa) [Muntin1969].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Munting (1969).

STRUCTURE: Scale of adult female oval or slightly pyriform, covered with a whitish secretion, about 1.3 mm in length; when secretory matter is rubbed off golden brown second instar exuviae is exposed. Male scale oval, whitish, about 1.3 mm in length (Munting, 1969).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 77]; BenDovGi2014 [catalogue: 230]; Muntin1969 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 120-121].



Aonidia shastae (Coleman)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus coniferarum shastae Coleman, 1903: 67. Type data: USA: California, Shasta County, Clear Creek, near Shasta P.O., on Cupressus macnabiana; collected August 29, 1901. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female.

Aonidia juniperi Marlatt, 1908c: 24. Type data: USA: Utah, Logan, on fruit of Juniperus sp.; collected by E.G. Titus. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA; type no. 14123. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Ferris, 1943a: 86.

Aspidiotus shastae; Ferris, 1920b: 54. Change of status.

Gonaspidiotus shastae; MacGillivray, 1921: 432. Change of combination.

Targionia juniperi; MacGillivray, 1921: 448. Change of combination.

Aonidia shastae; Ferris, 1938a: 177. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus juniperi; Ferris, 1943a: 86. Change of combination.

Cupressaspis shastae; Borchsenius, 1966: 361. Change of combination.

Aonidia shastae; Danzig, 1993: 214. Revived combination.

COMMON NAMES: red cedar scale [MillerDa2005]; red-wood scale [Borchs1966]; redwood scale [McKenz1956]; Utah cedar scale [MillerDa2005].



HOSTS: Cupressaceae: Juniperus [Marlat1908c, Sander1909a, Ferris1938a, McKenz1956], Juniperus virginiana [Ferris1938a], Libocedrus decurrens [Ferris1938a, McKenz1956]. Ericaceae: Macnabia [McKenz1956]. Pinaceae: Cupressus goveniana [Ferris1938a, McKenz1956], Cupressus macnabiana [Colema1903, Sander1906, McDani1968]. Taxodiaceae: Sequoia sempervirens [Ferris1920b, McKenz1956].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Arizona [Nakaha1982], California [Colema1903, Sander1906, McKenz1956], Kansas [Ferris1938a], Missouri [Nakaha1982], New Jersey [Nakaha1982], Oklahoma [Nakaha1982], Texas [McDani1968], Utah [Marlat1908c, Ferris1938a]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the needles.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Marlatt (1908c) (as Aonidia juniperi), Ferris (1920b, 1938a) and by McKenzie (1956).

STRUCTURE: The outer scale of female is a thin, transparent, brownish-white cone, about 1 mm in diameter, with a minute yellowish exuvia at the apex; beneath this shell there is a thick, opaque, reddish-brown skin, enclosing the insect; there is a very thin white ventral scale; the outer scale is very similar to the little drops of exuded gum of the host tree, Cupressus macnabiana (Coleman, 1903). Scale of the female elongate oval, composed of the second exuvia, which in undisturbed specimens is covered with wax and is of a gray color; in rubbed specimens the exuvia shows as yellow or red. Scale of the male oval, exuvia nearly central (Ferris, 1938a).

KEYS: McKenzie 1956: 23 (female) [U.S.A.: California]; Ferris 1942: 29 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 77-78]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 361]; Colema1903 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 67]; Ferris1920b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 54-55]; Ferris1921b [taxonomy: 94]; Ferris1938a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 177]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 48]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy: 446:29]; Ferris1943a [taxonomy: 86]; FurnisCa1977 [host, distribution: 111]; Koehle1964 [host, distribution, control]; Lawson1917 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 208-209]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 431-432,448]; Marlat1908c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 24]; McDani1968 [taxonomy, illustration, host, distribution: 207,209]; McKenz1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 23,38-39]; MillerDa1990 [economic importance: 301]; MillerDa2005 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, economic importance: 142-144]; Nakaha1982 [host, distribution: 6]; Nur1990a [taxonomy, structure, chromosomes: 184-185]; RahmanAn1941 [taxonomy, description: 825]; RossHaOk2012 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 199]; Sander1906 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 13]; Sander1909a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 56]; SchmutKlLu1957 [host, distribution, economic importance: 493].



Aonidia simplex Leonardi

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia simplex Leonardi, 1914: 209. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Pretoria, on an undetermined plant. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Portici: Dipartimento de Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria di Portici, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Italy. Described: female. Illust.

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [Leonar1914, Balach1958b].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Leonardi (1914).

STRUCTURE: Female scale of irregular shape, slightly wider than long; not highly convex; exuviae not central; dorsal secreted part of scale dirty grey; ventral vellum fairly robust, white (Leonardi, 1914).

CITATIONS: Balach1958b [host, distribution: 240]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 78]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 365]; Brain1919 [taxonomy: 214]; Leonar1914 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 209-210]; Muntin1965a [taxonomy: 185].



Aonidia sp.

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia sp. Mestre Novoa et al., 2011: 11. Notes: J.R. Johnston and C.H. Ballou collected an Aonidia sp. on Stigmaphyllum diversifolium in San Diego de los Baños.



HOST: Malpighiaceae: Stigmaphyllum diversifolium [MestreHaEv2011].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Cuba [MestreHaEv2011].

CITATIONS: MestreHaEv2011 [catalogue, distribution, host: 10].



Aonidia spatulata Green

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia spatulata Green, 1900a: 73. Type data: SRI LANKA: Pundaluoya, on upper surface of leaves of Psychotria thwaitesii. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Rubiaceae: Psychotria [Ramakr1921a, Green1922], Psychotria thwaitesii [Green1900a, Green1937].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Sri Lanka [Green1900a, Ramakr1921a, Green1922, Green1937].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Green (1900a).

STRUCTURE: Female scale hemispherical, consisting chiefly of the enlarged second pellicle, which completely encloses the adult insect; diameter 1.75 mm. Male scale circular, flattish, pellicle central; colour reddish-yellow, pellicle pale clear yellow; diameter equal to that of female, 0.75 mm (Green, 1900a).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 78-79]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 365]; DEDAC1923 [host, distribution]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 303]; Green1900a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 73-74]; Green1905a [taxonomy: 348]; Green1922 [host, distribution: 463]; Green1937 [host, distribution: 337]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 463]; Ramakr1921a [host, distribution: 358]; Varshn2002 [host, distribution: 19].



Aonidia truncata Green & Laing

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia truncata Green & Laing, 1923: 128. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Queensland, Magnetic Island, on leaves of an unknown plant. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Greeniella truncata; Brimblecombe, 1958: 83. Change of combination.

Aonidia truncata; Borchsenius, 1966: 365. Revived combination.

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Queensland [GreenLa1923, Brimbl1958]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Green & Laing (1923) and by Brimblecombe (1958).

STRUCTURE: Female scale circular or subcircular, highly convex; shining black. Ventral scale thin, adhering to the leaf. Diameter averaging 0.5 mm. (Green & Laing, 1923). Insects in small numbers on leaves; female scale circular, 0.6 mm in diameter; second exuviae black, covering the adult body; first exuviae an orange colour with a grey margin; pale secreted filaments arising from the first exuviae (Brimblecombe, 1958).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 79]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 365]; Brimbl1958 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 83-85]; GreenLa1923 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 129-130].



Aonidia visci Hall

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia visci Hall, 1931: 286. Type data: ZIMBABWE: Bulawayo Park, on Viscum sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Viscaceae: Viscum [Hall1931, Balach1958b].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Zimbabwe [Hall1931, Balach1958b].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Hall (1931) and by Balachowsky (1958b).

STRUCTURE: Adult female entirely enclosed within the nymphal exuviae. Nymphal exuviae pyriform, relatively flat, dark reddish brown in colour and coated with a thin semi-transparent dirty-white film, which extends somewhat beyond the margin. Female scale: length, 1.25 mm.; breadth, 1 mm. Male scale relatively large, more or less parallel-sided and rounded at either extremity. Length, 1.4 mm.; breadth, 0.6 mm. (Hall, 1931).

CITATIONS: Balach1958b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 235,238,240]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 79-80]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 365]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 41]; Hall1931 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 286-288]; Lindin1943b [taxonomy: 218].



Aonidia yomae Munting

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia yomae Munting, 1965a: 187. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Cape Province. Ysterfontein, on Mesembryanthemum sp.; collected 21.v.1962. Holotype female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa; type no. 487/1. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Aizoaceae: Mesembryanthemum [Muntin1965a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [Muntin1965a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Munting (1965a).

STRUCTURE: Scale of adult female oval, covered, with a cream-coloured secretion, occurring in cracks in the bark of host plant and about 1.5 mm long; male scale oval, felty-white, about 1 mm in length, with exuvium at one end (Munting, 1965a).

KEYS: Munting 1965b: 189 (female) [South Africa].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 80]; BenDovGi2014 [catalogue: 230]; Muntin1965a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 186-187,189].



Aonidia zizyphi Rahman & Ansari

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidia zizyphi Rahman & Ansari, 1941: 824. Type data: INDIA: Punjab, Bannu (Nartahal Ram) on Ziziphus jujube. Holotype female. Type depository: UAFP. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Rhamnaceae: Ziziphus jujube [RahmanAn1941].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: India (Punjab [RahmanAn1941]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Rahman & Ansari (1941).

STRUCTURE: Female scale 1.1-1.2 mm long, 0.9-1.1 mm broad; whitish gray; almost circular, convex dorsally; exuviae yellow to dark orange, slightly towards the margin (Rahman & Ansari, 1941)

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 80]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 365]; RahmanAn1941 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 824-825]; Varshn2002 [host, distribution: 19].



Aonidiella Berlese & Leonardi

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidiella Berlese & Leonardi, 1896: 77. Type species: Aspidiotus aurantii Maskell, by monotypy.

Chrysomphalus (Aonidiella); Cockerell, 1897i: 9. Change of status.

Aonidiella; Fernald, 1903b: 285. Revived rank.

Heteraspis Leonardi, 1914: 197. Type species: Aspidiotus replicatus Lindinger, by monotypy and original designation. Synonymy by Ferris, 1937c: 55. Homonym of Heteraspis Chevrolat, 1836, in Coleoptera.

Abnidiella; Chou, 1985: 283. Misspelling of genus name.

Aomidiella; Chou, 1985: 401. Misspelling of genus name.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by McKenzie (1938, 1939, 1956), Borchsenius (1950b), Lupo (1954a), Balachowsky (1948b, 1956), Gomez-Menor Guerrero (1962), Takagi (1969a), Velasquez (1971) and by Williams & Watson (1988).

SYSTEMATICS: Aonidiella Berlese & Leonardi has been synonymized with Chrysomphalus by early authors. It differs from Chrysomphalus in the cephalothorax being sclerotized and reniform, in the prepygidial lobes curving posteriorly to the pygidium, and the paraphyses are shorter than the adjacent lobes (Takagi, 1969a; Williams & Watson, 1988).

KEYS: Smith-Pardo et al. 2012: 3-4 (female) [Key to the Aspidiotinae (Diaspididae) genera similar to the genus Chrysomphalus]; Henderson 2011: 44-45 (female) [Key to Genera of Diaspididae in New Zealand]; Ben-Dov 2006: 55-57 (female) [World (33 species)]; Claps & Wolff 2003: 14 (female) [Genera of South America]; Colon-Ferrer & Medina-Gaud 1998: 28-32 (female) [genera of Puerto Rico]; Gill 1997: 24-26 (female) [Genera of California]; Gill 1997: 44 (female) [Species of California]; Blay Goicoechea 1993: 473 (female) [Spain]; Danzig 1993: 159-160 (female) [species Europe]; Wolff & Corseuil 1993: 29 (female) [Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul]; Williams & Watson 1988: 19 (female) [Tropical South Pacific]; Tereznikova 1986: 83 (female) [Ukraine]; Chou 1985: 283 (female) [Genera of China]; Chou 1985: 292 (female) [Species of China]; Paik 1978: 291 (female) [species South Korea]; Velasquez 1971: 118 (female) [Philippines]; McDaniel 1968: 215 (female) [species U.S.A.: Texas]; Beardsley 1966: 502-504 (female) [Federated States of Micronesia]; Beardsley 1966: 509 (female) [species Federated States of Micronesia]; Danzig 1964: 645 (female) [Europe]; Gomez-Menor Guerrero 1962: 157 (female) [Canary Islands]; Zahradnik 1959a: 548 (female) [Czech Republic]; Balachowsky 1958b: 226 (female) [Aspidiotina of Africa]; Ezzat 1958: 237-239 (female) [Egypt]; Gómez-Menor Ortega 1956: 7-8 (female) [Spain]; McKenzie 1956: 22 (female) [U.S.A.: California]; Bodenheimer 1952: 330 (female) [Turkey]; Balachowsky 1951: 600 (female) [Mediterranean]; Borchsenius 1950b: 167 (female) [USSR]; Zimmerman 1948: 351 (female) [Hawaii]; Gomez-Menor Ortega 1946: 59-61 (female) [Spain]; McKenzie 1946: 29 (female) [World]; Ruiz Castro 1944: 57 (female) [Spain]; Ferris 1942: 26 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1942: 29 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1938: 17-18 (female) [species World]; Archangelskaya 1937: 94 (female) [Middle Asia]; Borchsenius 1937: 99 (female) [USSR]; Borchsenius 1937a: 32-33 (female) [Palaearctic Region]; Gomez-Menor Ortega 1937: 43 (female) [Spain]; Leonardi 1920: 26 (female) [Italy]; Leonardi 1920: 75 (female) [Species of Italy].

CITATIONS: Archan1937 [taxonomy: 94,95]; Balach1948b [taxonomy, description: 359-360]; Balach1951 [taxonomy: 600]; Balach1956 [taxonomy, description: 22-25]; Balach1958b [taxonomy: 149,226]; Beards1966 [taxonomy: 507]; BenDov1990h [taxonomy: 81]; BenDov2006 [taxonomy: 51-57]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 80-82]; Berles1895c [taxonomy: 206]; BerlesLe1896 [taxonomy, description: 77]; BlayGo1993 [taxonomy, description: 517]; Bodenh1949 [taxonomy, description: 37]; Bodenh1952 [taxonomy: 330]; Borchs1937 [taxonomy, description: 99,121]; Borchs1937a [taxonomy, description: 33,62]; Borchs1949d [taxonomy, description: 194,232]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description: 220]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 291]; Brimbl1962a [taxonomy: 403-404]; Bustsh1958 [taxonomy, description: 239]; Chou1985 [taxonomy, description: 283,291-292]; ClapsDo2003 [taxonomy: 13]; Cocker1897i [taxonomy, description: 9,13]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 396]; ColonFMe1998 [taxonomy, description: 35]; Danzig1964 [taxonomy: 651]; Danzig1993 [taxonomy, description: 159]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 181]; Ezzat1958 [taxonomy: 238]; Ferris1937c [taxonomy: 50,51,53,55,60]; Ferris1938a [taxonomy, description: 178]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy: 446:26]; Ghauri1962 [taxonomy: 210]; Gill1997 [taxonomy: 44]; GomezM1937 [taxonomy, description: 43,84]; GomezM1946 [taxonomy: 60]; GomezM1956 [taxonomy, description: 41-42]; GomezM1962 [taxonomy, description: 186]; Hadzib1983 [taxonomy: 226]; Hender2011 [taxonomy: 8,44,75]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy: 211]; Kozar1990f [distribution: 143]; Leonar1897 [taxonomy: 284-286]; Leonar1897a [taxonomy: 375]; Leonar1897b [taxonomy: 109,111]; Leonar1899 [taxonomy: 174]; Leonar1914 [taxonomy, description: 197]; Leonar1920 [taxonomy, description: 26,74-75]; Lepage1938 [taxonomy: 391]; Lepesm1947 [taxonomy, description: 203-]; Lindin1949 [taxonomy: 211]; Lupo1954a [taxonomy, description: 40-41]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description: 392,442]; Mamet1949 [taxonomy: 52-53]; McKenz1937 [taxonomy: 324]; McKenz1937a [taxonomy, description: 176-177]; McKenz1938 [taxonomy, description: 2-3]; McKenz1939 [taxonomy, description: 64-65]; McKenz1939 [taxonomy: 53]; McKenz1942b [taxonomy: 141-142]; McKenz1944 [taxonomy: 55]; McKenz1946 [taxonomy: 29]; McKenz1947b [taxonomy: 111-112]; McKenz1950 [taxonomy: 99]; McKenz1956 [taxonomy: 22]; Miller1990 [taxonomy: 169-178]; MorrisMo1922 [taxonomy, description: 96]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 8,92]; Nel1933 [taxonomy: 417-419]; RuizCa1944 [taxonomy: 57]; SmithPEvDo2012 [taxonomy: 3-4]; Takagi1969a [taxonomy, description: 81-82]; TakagiGe2008 [host: 128]; Tao1999 [taxonomy: 71]; ThiemGe1934a [taxonomy, description: 232]; Varshn2002 [taxonomy: 20]; Velasq1971 [taxonomy, description: 117-118]; WilliaWa1988 [taxonomy, description: 35]; WolffCo1993 [taxonomy: 29]; Yasar1995a [taxonomy, description: 42-43]; Zimmer1948 [taxonomy: 361].



Aonidiella abietina Hall & Williams

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidiella abietina Hall & Williams, 1962: 35. Type data: PAKISTAN: Murree, on the needles of Abies pindrow; collected 1.XI.1961. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Pinaceae: Abies pindrow [HallWi1962].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Pakistan [HallWi1962].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Hall & Williams (1962).

STRUCTURE: Scale of the female circular, translucent, the body of the sublying female showing through; exuviae subcentral, pale brown or reddish brown. Diameter about 1.5 mm. Male scale not seen (Hall & Williams, 1962).

KEYS: Ben-Dov 2006: 55-57 (female) [World (33 species)].

CITATIONS: BenDov2006 [taxonomy: 55-57]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 82]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 292]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 181]; HallWi1962 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 35-36]; Varshn2002 [host, distribution: 20].



Aonidiella araucariae Costa Lima

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidiella araucariae Costa Lima, 1951: 174. Type data: BRAZIL: Santa Catarina State, Canoinhas, Tries Barras, Parque Florestal do Instituto Nacional do Pinho, on Araucaria angustifolia brasiliensis. Holotype female. Type depository: UFRR; type no. 10.250. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Araucariaceae: Araucaria angustifolia brasiliensis [Newste1920], Araucaria angustifolia [ClapsWoGo2001].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil [CostaL1951] (Rio Grande do Sul [ClapsWoGo2001], Santa Catarina [ClapsWoGo2001], Sao Paulo [ClapsWoGo2001]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Costa Lima (1951).

STRUCTURE: Female scale circular, flat, colour of bright ash; slightly transparent; exuviae almost central, yellow; diameter about 1.25 mm. Male scale similar in colour and structure to that of female; exuviae eccentric; 1 mm long, 0.75 mm wide (Costa Lima, 1951).

KEYS: Ben-Dov 2006: 55-57 (female) [World (33 species)].

CITATIONS: BenDov2006 [taxonomy: 55-57]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 82-83]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 292]; ClapsWoGo2001 [host, distribution: 240]; CostaL1951 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 174-175].



Aonidiella atlantorum Matile-Ferrero & Balachowsky

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidiella atlantorum Matile-Ferrero & Balachowsky, 1972: 110. Type data: CANARY ISLANDS: Tenerife, Puertito de Guimar, on Euphorbia canariensis. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Euphorbiaceae: Euphorbia canariensis [MatileBa1972], Euphorbia sp. [BenDov2013]

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Canary Islands [MatileBa1972, MatileOr2001, BenDov2013].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Matile-Ferrero & Balachowsky (1972).

STRUCTURE: Female scale circular, flat, larval exuviae central or subcentral; colour bright brown, semi-transparent, with exuviae darker; the whole scale covered with a white layer (Matile-Ferrero & Balachowsky, 1972).

KEYS: Ben-Dov 2006: 55-57 (female) [World (33 species)].

CITATIONS: BenDov2006 [taxonomy: 55-57]; BenDov2013 [ecology, host: 72]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 83]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 181]; MatileBa1972 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 110-112]; MatileOr2001 [host, distribution: 189].



Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus aurantii Maskell, 1879: 199. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: Governors Bay, on oranges and lemons imported to New Zealand from Sydney. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.

Aonidia gennadii Targioni Tozzetti, 1881: 151. Type data: ITALY: on undetermined host plant. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Synonymy by Leonardi, 1920: 75. Notes: Type material probably lost; G. Pellizzari-Scaltriti, 1998, personal information to Yair Ben-Dov.

Aspidiotus coccineus Gennadius, 1881: 189. Type data: GREECE: Chio Island, on Citrus sp., Euonymus japonicus, Ficus elastica, Pistacia lentiscus and Vitis sp. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Synonymy by Lindinger, 1914: 157. Notes: Depository of type material unknown.

Aspidiotus citri Comstock, 1881: 8. Type data: U.S.A.: California, southern California, on Citrus sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Cockerell, 1896b: 334.

Aonidia aonidum Targioni Tozzetti, 1884: 386. Unjustified replacement name for Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell).

Aonidiella aurantii; Berlese, 1895a: 125. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Aonidiella) aurantii; Cockerell, 1897i: 29. Change of combination.

Chrysomphalus (Aonidiella) aurantii; Cockerell, 1899a: 396. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Chrysomphalus) aurantii; Kuwana, 1902: 70. Change of combination.

Chrysomphalus citri; Lindinger, 1935: 132. Change of combination.

Aonidiella coccineus; McKenzie, 1939: 54. Change of combination.

Aonidiella gennadi; McKenzie, 1939: 54. Change of combination.

Chrysomphalus coccineus; Lindinger, 1949: 211. Change of combination.

COMMON NAMES: California red scale [MerrilCh1923, Merril1953, McKenz1956, Dekle1965c, GersonZo1973]; california red scale [GersonZo1973]; escama roja [RipaRoLa2008]; escama roja de California [CoronaRuMo1997]; escama roja de los citricos [Gonzal1989]; krasnaya pomeranzevaya shitovka [Borchs1936]; pijo rojo de California [Lloren1990]; pinta-vermelha [CarvalAg1997]; pou rouge de Californie [Smirno1951a]; red-scale of california [Comsto1881a].



ASSOCIATE: FLAVOBACTERIA [RosenbSaSa2012].

FOES: ACARI Camerobiidae: Neophyllobius ambulans [Meyer1962]. Hemisarcoptidae: Hemisarcoptes coccophagus [Meyer1962], Hemisarcoptes cooremani Thomas [HouckOc1996, LuckJiHo1999], Hemisarcoptes malus (Shimer) [GersonOcHo1990, HouckOc1996]. Phytoseiidae: Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) [JuanBlVeUr2008], Euseius delhiensis (Naryanan & Kaur) [ErlerTu2001], Euseius finlandicus (Quedemans) [ErlerTu2001]. COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Chilocorus bipustulatus L. [NadelBi1964, BenDovRo1969, RosenDe1978], Chilocorus bisugus infernalis Mulsant [RosenDe1978], Chilocorus bivulnerus Mulsant [Comper1961], Chilocorus circumdatus Gyllenhal [RosenDe1978, SmithSmLi1999], Chilocorus discoideus Crotch [RosenDe1978], Chilocorus distigma Klug [RosenDe1978], Chilocorus hauseri Weise [RosenDe1978], Chilocorus kuwanae Silvestri [RosenDe1978], Chilocorus nigritus (Fabricius) [RosenDe1978, Samway1989], Chilocorus politus Muls. [Kalsho1981], Chilocorus rubidus tristis Fald. [RosenDe1978], Chilocorus stigma (Say) [RosenDe1978], Chilocorus wahlbergi Mulsant [RosenDe1978], Coccidophilus citricola Brethes [Elguet1932, Flande1936a, Clause1952, RosenDe1978], Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant [SmithSmLi1999], Exochomus flavipes Thunb. [RosenDe1978], Lindorus lophanthae (Blaisdell) [Comper1961, RosenDe1978], Lotis neglecta Mulsant [RosenDe1978], Lotis niggerima Casey [RosenDe1978], Microweisia coccidivora (Ashmead) [RosenDe1978], Nephus includens Kirsch [ErlerTu2001], Orcus australasiae Boisduval [RosenDe1978], Orcus chalybeus (Boisduval) [Comper1961, RosenDe1978], Paropsis caseyi [Fursch1985], Pentilia nigella Weise [RosenDe1978], Pharoscymnus [RosenDe1978], Pharoscymnus exiguus Weise [RosenDe1978], Pharoscymnus horni (Weise) [Flande1934a, RosenDe1978], Rhyzobius satellus Blacb. [RosenDe1978], Rhyzobius ventralis [Pope1981], Scymnus [RosenDe1978, ErlerTu2001], Scymnus marginicollis Mann. [RosenDe1978], Scymnus notescens Blackb. [RosenDe1978], Spiliconis picticornis Banks [RosenDe1978], Telsimia [RosenDe1978], Telsimia emarginata Chapin [Flande1934a, Comper1961, RosenDe1978]. Nitidulidae: Cybocephalus binotatus Grouvelle [BlumbeSw1974], Cybocephalus fodori-minor Enrody-Younga [ErlerTu2001], Cybocephalus micans Reitter [Blumbe1971, Blumbe1973a], Cybocephalus nigriceps nigriceps (Sahlberg) [Blumbe1971, Blumbe1973a, BlumbeSw1974]. DIPTERA Cecidomyiidae: Cecidomyia coccidarum (Cockerell) [Harris1990], Lestodiplosis aonidiellae Harris [Harris1990, Harris1997]. FUNGI : Fusarium coccinellum [Moore2002], Fusarium lateritium [Moore2002]. Ascomycotina: Myriangium duriaei [EvansPr1990], Nectria aurantiicola [EvansPr1990], Nectria coccophila [Kalsho1981], Nectria flammea [EvansPr1990]. Deuteromycotina: Fusarium [EvansPr1990]. HETEROPTERA Isometopidae: Isomethopus mirificus Mulsant & Rey [ErlerTu2001]. HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Aphytis [SengonUyKa1998], Aphytis africanus Quednau [RosenDe1978, RosenDe1979], Aphytis aonidiae (Mercet) [RosenDe1979], Aphytis capillatus (Howard) [RosenDe1979], Aphytis chilensis Howard [RosenDe1979], Aphytis chrysomphali (Mercet) [BartleFi1950, Flande1953a, RosenDe1978, RosenDe1979, ErlerTu2001, SmailiAbBo2013], Aphytis coheni DeBach [RosenDe1979], Aphytis comperei DeBach & Rosen [RosenDe1979, MyartsRu2000], Aphytis desantisi DeBach & Rosen [RosenDe1979], Aphytis diaspidis (Howard) [RosenDe1979], Aphytis fisheri DeBach [RosenDe1979], Aphytis hispanicus (Marcet) [Gordh1979], Aphytis holoxanthus DeBach [RosenDe1978], Aphytis immaculatus Compere [Gordh1979], Aphytis lingnanensis Compere [DeBachLaWh1962, RosenDe1978, RosenDe1979, MyartsRu2000, BasheeAsRa2014], Aphytis maculicornis (Masi) [ErlerTu2001, BasheeAsRa2014], Aphytis mandalayensis Rosen & DeBach [RosenDe1979], Aphytis melinus DeBach [DeBachLaWh1962, RosenDe1978, RosenDe1979, SengonUyKa1998, HareMo2000], Aphytis mytilaspidis (Le Baron) [RosenDe1979], Aphytis paramaculicornis DeBach & Rosen [RosenDe1979], Aphytis philippiensis DeBach & Rosen [RosenDe1979], Aphytis pinnaspidis Rosen & DeBach [RosenDe1979, MyartsRu2000], Aphytis proclia (Walker) [RosenDe1979, SengonUyKa1998], Aphytis sinaii [AbdRab2005b], Aphytis yasumatsui Azim [RosenDe1979], Aspidiotiphagus citrinus (Craw) [RosenDe1978, Blumbe1997], Aspidiotiphagus lounsburyi (Berlese & Paoli) [RosenDe1978], Azotus [SengonUyKa1998], Coccophagoides moeris (Walker) [ErlerTu2001], Coccophagus lycimnia Walker [Bolu2012], Encarsia aurantii (Howard) [PolaszAbHu1999], Encarsia citrina (Craw) [MyartsRu2000, AbdRab2001a], Encarsia lounsburyi (Berlese & Paoli) [MyartsRu2000, AbdRab2001a], Encarsia perniciosi (Tower) [Rosen1987, StouthLu1991, MyartsRu2000], Marietta carnesi (Howard) [RosenDe1978], Physcus debachi Compere [RosenDe1978], Prospaltella aurantii (Howard) [Gordh1979, Blumbe1997], Prospaltella perniciosi Tower [RosenDe1978], Pteroptrix chinensis (Howard) [ComperSm1927, FlandeGrFi1958, RosenDe1978, Blumbe1997], Pteroptrix wanhsiensis (Compere) [RosenDe1978]. Encyrtidae: Adelencyrtus sarawaki Trjapitzin & Myartseva [TrjapiMy2001], Aphycus immaculatus Howard [Gordh1979], Comperiella bifasciata Howard [ComperSm1927, Coy1938, RosenDe1978, BlumbeLu1990, Blumbe1997, SengonUyKa1998], Comperiella unifasciata Ishii [Trjapi1989], Habrolepis rouxi Compere [Comper1936a, Comper1961, Flande1962, Comper1963, RosenDe1978, BlumbeDe1979, Blumbe1997], Pseudhomalopoda prima Girault [Gordh1979]. Signiphoridae: Signiphora fax Girault [Woolle1990], Signiphora flavella [Woolle1990], Signiphora flavopalliata Ashmead [Gordh1979, Woolle1990], Signiphora merceti [Woolle1990], Signiphora occidentalis Howard [Gordh1979], Signiphora prepauca Girault [Woolle1990]. NEUROPTERA Chrysopidae: Chrysopa californica [Comper1961], Chrysoperla plorabunda (Fitch) [Drea1990]. Coniopterygidae: Conwentzia psociformis (Curtis) [Drea1990]. THYSANOPTERA Phlaeothripidae: Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin) [PalmerMo1990, WatsonDuLi2000].

HOSTS: Acanthaceae: Libonia [Brain1919]. Aceraceae: Acer [Brain1919]. Agavaceae: Agave [Green1896, RahmanAn1941, Balach1948b, McKenz1956], Agave americana [Green1896e, RahmanAn1941, Green1937], Agave variegata [RahmanAn1941], Cordyline [Brain1919], Yucca [Brain1919, DeLott1967a]. Amaryllidaceae: Clivia [McKenz1946a], Doryanthes [Brain1919]. Anacardiaceae: Mangifera indica [Hall1923, Takaha1933, RahmanAn1941, WolffCo1993a, KinjoNaHi1996], Pistacia lentiscus [Bodenh1924, Bodenh1928]. Apocynaceae: Alstonia scholaris [RahmanAn1941], Nerium odorum [RahmanAn1941], Nerium oleander [RahmanAn1941], Nerium oleander [UygunSeEr1998], Rhyncospermum [Wilson1917]. Aquifoliaceae: Ilex aquifolium [McKenz1946a], Ilex opaca [McDani1968]. Araliaceae: Aralia [Wilson1917, Brain1919], Hedera helix [Hall1923], Heptapleurum octophyllum [Takaha1929], Schefflera heptaphylla [MartinLa2011]. Araucariaceae: Araucaria [Brain1919]. Arecaceae: Areca alicaceae [Wilson1917], Areca triandra [Wilson1917], Chamaedorea [Wilson1917], Cocos [McKenz1956], Cocos nucifera [WilliaBu1987, WilliaWa1988], Cocos plumosa [Wilson1917], Dictyosperma album [Wilson1917], Dictyosperma rubrum [Wilson1917], Dypsis madagascariensis [Wilson1917], Hyophorbe [Wilson1917], Kentia fostercana [Wilson1917], Latania [Wilson1917], Phoenix [McKenz1946a], Phoenix canariensis [Wilson1917], Phoenix dactylifera [Hall1922], Roscheria melanochaetes [Wilson1917], Seaforthia [Wilson1917], Washingtonia robusta [Wilson1917]. Asteraceae: Ambrosia artemisiifolia [McDani1968], Calendula officinalis [Hall1923], Gynura [Brain1919], Leptilon canadensis [McDani1968], Zinnia [Brain1919, McKenz1946a]. Aucubaceae: Aucuba [Brain1919, Balach1948b]. Balsaminaceae: Impatiens [Brain1919]. Berberidaceae: Berberis [Brain1919], Mahonia [McKenz1946a]. Bignoniaceae: Bignonia [Brain1919], Jacaranda [Brain1919], Tecoma [RahmanAn1941]. Bombacaceae: Bombax malabaricum [RahmanAn1941]. Boraginaceae: Benthamia [Brain1919], Cordia myxa [RahmanAn1941]. Buxaceae: Buxus [McKenz1946a]. Cactaceae: Cactus [Laing1929]. Cannaceae: Canna indica [RahmanAn1941]. Caprifoliaceae: Viburnum [Brain1919, McKenz1946a], Viburnum tinus [BenDov2012]. Caricaceae: Carica papaya [Takaha1935]. Casuarinaceae: Casuarina [Brain1919], Casuarina equisetifolia [Mamet1943a, Mamet1949, Borchs1966]. Celastraceae: Euonymus [McKenz1946a, Bodenh1952, McKenz1956, McDani1968, UygunSeEr1998], Euonymus japonica [Bodenh1928, RahmanAn1941]. Chenopodiaceae: Chenopodium ambrosiodes [McKenz1946a]. Combretaceae: Laguncularia racemosa [LincanHoCa2010]. Cornaceae: Cornus [Brain1919]. Crassulaceae: Sedum [McKenz1946a]. Cruciferae: Brassica nigra [McKenz1946a]. Cucurbitaceae: Cucurbita [McKenz1946a], Cucurbita pepo [WilliaWa1988]. Cupressaceae: Cupressus [Brain1919], Thuja [Brain1919]. Cycadaceae: Cycas [Green1904a, MerrilCh1923, Balach1948b, McKenz1956, Cohic1958], Cycas revolute [BenDov2012]. Cyperaceae: Cyperus [Brain1919]. Ebenaceae: Diospyros kaki [Leonar1909, Hall1923], Diospyros montana [RahmanAn1941]. Elaeagnaceae: Elaeagnus [Brain1919]. Ericaceae: Arbutus unedo [McKenz1946a]. Erythropalaceae: Mackaya [Brain1919]. Euphorbiaceae: Aleurites [Lepage1938], Bridelia ovata [Takaha1934], Gelonium aequoreum [Takaha1933], Phyllanthus [Hall1922], Poinsettia [Brain1919, RahmanAn1941], Ricinus communis [Hall1922, Hall1923, Bodenh1924, Lepage1938, WilliaWa1988]. Fabaceae: Acacia [Balach1948b, McKenz1956, RosenDe1979, UygunSeEr1998], Acacia farnesiana [Bodenh1924], Acacia longifolia [Bodenh1924], Bauhinia [Brain1919, McDani1968], Bauhinia alba [RahmanAn1941], Bauhinia racemosa [RahmanAn1941], Cassia [RahmanAn1941], Cassia fistula [RahmanAn1941], Ceratonia siliqua [Hall1922, Bodenh1924, McKenz1946a, InserrCa1987], Erythrina [Brain1919, Hall1923], Genista [McKenz1946a], Gleditsia [Brain1919], Kennedia [Brain1919, MerrilCh1923], Pongamia glabra [RahmanAn1941], Robinia [Brain1919], Sesbania cannabina [McDani1968], Sophora [Brain1919]. Fagaceae: Quercus rubra [Balach1956]. Flacourtiaceae: Scolopia oldhami [Takaha1932a, Takaha1933]. Goodeniaceae: Scaevola frutescens [Takaha1932a, Takaha1933]. Greyaceae: Greyia [Brain1919]. Hamamelidaceae: Trichocladus [Brain1919]. Hydrangeaceae: Deutzia [Brain1919], Hydrangea [Brain1919]. Illiciaceae: Illicium randaiense [Takaha1935]. Iridaceae [Mamet1954, Borchs1966]. Juglandaceae: Juglans [McKenz1946a], Juglans regia [McKenz1946a]. Lamiaceae: Salvia [Brain1919]. Lauraceae: Camphora officinalis [Green1904a], Cinnamomum [McKenz1946a], Laurus nobilis [Hall1923, MerrilCh1923, Bodenh1924, Almeid1973b], Persea americana [McKenz1946a, GersonZo1973], Persea gratissima [DeLott1967a], Umbellularia californica [McKenz1946a]. Liliaceae: Aloe vera [RahmanAn1941], Asparagus [Takaha1933], Asparagus officinalis [Hall1923], Asparagus plumosus [McDani1968], Convallaria [Brain1919], Dracaena [Brain1919]. Lythraceae: Lagerstroemia [Brain1919], Lagerstroemia indica [RahmanAn1941], Punica granatum [Moghad2013a]. Magnoliaceae: Liriodendron [Brain1919], Liriodendron lucidum [Merril1953], Michelia champaca [Green1900a]. Malvaceae: Abutilon [Brain1919], Hibiscus [RahmanAn1941], Hibiscus mutabilis [McDani1968]. Marantaceae: Maranta [Brain1919]. Meliaceae: Cedrela [Brain1919], Cedrela odorata [Wilson1917], Melia [Brain1919], Melia azedarach [McDani1968], Trichilia [Brain1919]. Menispermaceae: Cocculus [Merril1953, Dekle1965c]. Moraceae: Artocarpus [MerrilCh1923, McKenz1956, Beards1966], Artocarpus altilis [WilliaWa1988], Broussonetia papyrifera [RahmanAn1941, WilliaWa1988], Ficus [Lepage1938, RahmanAn1941, Balach1948b, Dekle1965c], Ficus benghalensis [RahmanAn1941], Ficus carica [Hall1923, Almeid1971], Ficus elastica [Wilson1917, RahmanAn1941], Ficus infectoria [Hall1923], Ficus religiosa [RahmanAn1941], Ficus roxburghii [RahmanAn1941], Morus [Hall1922, Ferris1953], Morus alba [Lepage1938, RahmanAn1941, Balach1948b]. Musaceae: Musa sapientum [Bodenh1924, RahmanAn1941, Cohic1958]. Myrsinaceae: Ardisia [Takaha1929], Maesa tenera [Takagi1969a]. Myrtaceae: Callistemon [Brain1919, McKenz1946a], Eucalyptus [Wilson1917, Brain1919, RahmanAn1941], Eugenia [Brain1919], Eugenia jambolana [RahmanAn1941], Myrtus [McKenz1946a, Bodenh1952], Psidium guajava [RahmanAn1941, Matile1984c], Tristania [Brain1919]. Nyctaginaceae: Bougainvillea [Brain1919]. Oleaceae: Forsythia [Brain1919], Jasminum [Hall1923, McKenz1946a], Jasminum humile [McDani1968], Jasminum pubescens [RahmanAn1941], Jasminum sambac [RahmanAn1941], Ligustrum [McKenz1946a, McKenz1956, RosenDe1979], Ligustrum japonicus [McDani1968], Ligustrum lucidum [Merril1953, Dekle1965c, McDani1968], Olea [Hall1922, Bodenh1952], Olea europaea [McKenz1946a], Osmanthus [Brain1919]. Orchidaceae: Cypripedium [Laing1929]. Pandanaceae: Pandanus [Wilson1917, Brain1919], Pandanus tectorius [Takaha1935]. Phytolaccaceae: Phytolacca dioica [Brain1919]. Pinaceae: Pinus [Hall1923], Pinus thunbergii [Takaha1932a, Takaha1933, Takagi1969a]. Pittosporaceae: Pittosporum [McKenz1946a]. Plumbaginaceae: Statice [Brain1919]. Poaceae: Bambusa [McKenz1946a], Bambusa vulgaris [WilliaWa1988], Cydonia vulgaris [Green1923b]. Podocarpaceae: Podocarpus [MerrilCh1923], Podocarpus chinensis [Kuwana1902], Podocarpus macrophyllus [Takagi1969a], Podocarpus neriifolius [Balach1930a, Balach1932d, Borchs1934, Borchs1936]. Proteaceae: Grevillea [Green1900a, Brain1919], Grevillea robusta [RahmanAn1941], Hakea [Brain1919]. Rhamnaceae: Rhamnus [Brain1919], Ziziphus [RahmanAn1941]. Rosaceae: Amygdalus communis [BenDov2012], Amygdalus persica [Moghad2013a], Cotoneaster [McKenz1946a], Cotoneaster horizontalis [McKenz1946a], Cotoneaster microphylla [McKenz1946a], Heteromeles [RosenDe1979], Laurocerasus [McKenz1946a], Laurocerasus officinalis [McKenz1946a], Malus sp. [BenDov2012], Prunus domestica [Hall1922, Bodenh1926], Prunus tomentosa [McKenz1946a], Pyrus [DeLott1967a], Pyrus communis [Hall1923, Almeid1971], Pyrus cydonia [Hall1922], Pyrus malus [Hall1922], Rosa [Bodenh1937, Lepage1938, RahmanAn1941, Mamet1943a, McKenz1946a, Mamet1949, McKenz1956, Borchs1966], Rosa indica [WilliaWa1988], Spiraea [Brain1919]. Rubiaceae: Bouvardia [Brain1919], Coprosma [Brain1919]. Ruscaceae: Ruscus hypoglossum [Balach1930a], Ruscus hypophyllus [Hall1923]. Rutaceae: Aegle marmelos [RahmanAn1941], Choisya [Brain1919, McKenz1946a], Citrus [Mamet1943a, Mamet1949, Mamet1954, Mamet1954a, Borchs1966, UygunSeEr1998], Citrus [Ferris1921a, Takaha1929, Bodenh1930, Lepage1938, Takaha1939b, Takaha1942d, McKenz1946a, Bodenh1952], Citrus [MerrilCh1923, SengonUyKa1998], Citrus aurantium [Bodenh1924, Bodenh1926, Bodenh1928, Borchs1934, Takagi1975, WilliaWa1988], Citrus decumana [Green1896e], Citrus grandis [McKenz1946a, NakaoTaTa1977, WilliaWa1988], Citrus limon [Green1929, McKenz1946a, Almeid1973b, Martin1983, WilliaWa1988], Citrus maxima [WilliaWa1988], Citrus nobilis unshiu [Borchs1934], Citrus nobilis [Borchs1934], Citrus paradisi [WilliaWa1988], Citrus pomela [Green1896], Citrus reticulata [WilliaWa1988], Citrus sinensis [McKenz1946a, Takagi1969a, Moghad2013a], Murraya exotica [RahmanAn1941]. Salicaceae: Populus sp. [BenDov2012], Salix [Bodenh1924, Bodenh1937], Salix babylonica [Hall1923], Salix discolor [McKenz1946a]. Sapotaceae: Chrysophyllum [Brain1919]. Scrophulariaceae: Penstemon [Brain1919], Veronica [Brain1919]. Solanaceae: Capsicum frutescens [WilliaWa1988], Cestrum [Brain1919], Solanum [Hall1923]. Sterculiaceae: Dombeya [Brain1919], Dombeya acutangula [RahmanAn1941], Sterculia [Brain1919]. Strelitziaceae: Strelitzia [Brain1919], Strelitzia reginae [McKenz1946a]. Taxaceae: Taxus baccata [Borchs1936]. Taxodiaceae: Cryptomeria [Brain1919], Taxodium [Brain1919]. Theaceae: Camellia [McKenz1946a], Thea [Balach1956]. Verbenaceae: Clerodendrum [McKenz1946a], Duranta [Brain1919]. Vitaceae: Ampelopsis [Brain1919], Vitis [RahmanAn1941, McKenz1946a, Bodenh1952], Vitis vinifera [Hall1923, RahmanAn1941].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Angola [Almeid1973b]; Guinea [Balach1956]; Kenya [Balach1956, DeLott1967a]; Madagascar [Mamet1954, Borchs1966]; Mauritius [GrandpCh1899, Mamet1949, Borchs1966]; Mozambique [Almeid1971]; Reunion [Mamet1957, GermaiMiPa2014]; Rodriques Island [Mamet1954a, Borchs1966]; Saint Helena [Matile1976]; South Africa [BrainKe1917, Newste1917b, Brain1919, McKenz1937, RosenDe1978, Bedfor1989a]; Sudan [Balach1956]; Tanzania [Newste1911a]; Uganda [Balach1956]; Zaire [Ghesqu1932]; Zanzibar [Balach1956]; Zimbabwe [Newste1917b, Hall1928, Balach1956]. Australasian: Australia [Mamet1943a] (New South Wales [Laing1929, RosenDe1978], Queensland [Brimbl1962a], Victoria [Laing1929]); Bonin Islands (=Ogasawara-Gunto) [Kuwana1909a, Mamet1943a]; Cook Islands [WilliaWa1988]; Federated States of Micronesia (Caroline Islands [Takaha1942d]); Fiji [WilliaWa1988, HodgsoLa2011]; Indonesia (Java [Green1904a, Kalsho1981]); Marshall Islands [Beards1966]; New Caledonia [Cohic1958]; New Zealand [Spille1952, Hender2011]; Niue [WilliaWa1988]; Palau [Takaha1939b]; Papua New Guinea [WilliaWa1988]; Solomon Islands [WilliaWa1988]; Tonga [WilliaWa1988]; Vanuatu (=New Hebrides) [WilliaBu1987, WilliaWa1988]; Western Samoa [WilliaWa1988]. Nearctic: Mexico [MyartsRu2000] (Tamaulipas [LunaSaMa1995]); United States of America (California [Comsto1881a, McKenz1956, RosenDe1978, RosenDe1979], Florida [Wilson1917, MerrilCh1923, Merril1953, Dekle1965c], Mississippi [Herric1911], Texas [McKenz1937, McDani1968, RosenDe1978]). Neotropical: Argentina [McKenz1937, Mamet1943a, ClapsTe2001, GranarCl2003]; Brazil [WolffCo1993a] (Alagoas [WolffCo1993], Ceara [WolffCo1993], Distrito Federal (=Brasilia) [Lepage1938, WolffCo1993], Maranhao [WolffCo1993], Paraiba [WolffCo1993], Parana [WolffCo1993], Pernambuco [WolffCo1993], Rio Grande do Norte [WolffCo1993], Rio Grande do Sul [Lepage1938, WolffCo1993], Rio de Janeiro [Lepage1938, WolffCo1993], Santa Catarina [WolffCo1993], Sao Paulo [WolffCo1993]); Chile [McKenz1937, GonzalCh1968, Gonzal1989, RipaRoLa2008]; Galapagos Islands [CaustoPeSi2006, LincanHoCa2010]; Haiti [PerezG2008]; Puerto Rico & Vieques Island (Puerto Rico [Martor1976, ColonFMe1998]); Saint Lucia [Malump2012b]. Oriental: Burma (=Myanmar) [RosenDe1979]; China (Yunnan [Ferris1953]); Hong Kong [RosenDe1979]; India [Green1900a, McKenz1937, RosenDe1979] (Bihar [Ali1968], Punjab [RahmanAn1941], West Bengal [Nath1972]); Nepal [Takagi1975]; Pakistan [Janjua1959]; Philippines [VelasqRi1969] (Luzon [Velasq1971], Palawan [Velasq1971]); Ryukyu Islands (=Nansei Shoto) [KinjoNaHi1996]; Sri Lanka [Green1896, Green1896e, Ramakr1921a]; Taiwan [Ferris1921a, Takaha1929, Takaha1932a, Takaha1934, Takagi1969a, WongChCh1999]; Thailand [Takaha1942b, NakaoTaTa1977]; Vietnam [DanzigKo1990]. Palaearctic: Afghanistan [Siddiq1966]; Algeria [SaighiDoBi2005]; Canary Islands [PerezGCa1987, MatileOr2001]; China [McKenz1937] [Tang1984] (Henan (=Honan) [Shen1993]); Crete [Ayouta1940, PellizPoSe2011]; Croatia [Masten2007]; Cyprus [Balach1932d, RosenDe1978]; Egypt [Hall1922, Balach1932d, Ezzat1958]; France [Balach1930a, Balach1932d, Germai2011]; Georgia (Abkhaz ASSR [Borchs1934, Borchs1936], Adzhar ASSR [Borchs1934], Georgia [Borchs1934]); Greece [Bodenh1928, Korone1934, RosenDe1978]; Iran [Bodenh1944b, Kaussa1955, Moghad2004]; Israel [Bodenh1924, Bodenh1930, Balach1932d, Bodenh1937, GersonZo1973, RosenDe1979]; Italy [Leonar1909, Leonar1920, Lupo1936, Viggia1970a, LongoMaPe1995]; Japan [Kuwana1902, Sakai1939, Kawai1980]; Lebanon [Bodenh1926, AbdulNMo2006]; Madeira Islands [Green1923b, CarvalAg1997]. Palaearctic: Mongolia [DanzigKo1990]. Palaearctic: Morocco [Balach1932d, RosenDe1978]; Portugal [FrancoRuMa2011]; Sardinia [Pelliz2011]; Saudi Arabia [Beccar1971, Matile1984c]; Sicily [RosenDe1978, InserrCa1987]; Slovenia [Seljak2010]; Spain [GomezM1937, Martin1983, BlayGo1993]; Syria [Balach1932d]; Tunisia [Balach1932d]; Turkey [Bodenh1949, Bodenh1952, SengonUyKa1998, UygunSeEr1998, ErlerTu2001, KaydanUlEr2007].

BIOLOGY: The California red scale (CRS) is a biparental, ovoviviparous species, that may infest all the above-ground parts of host plants (Ferris, 1938a; Bartlett, 1978). Crawlers of CRS responded to various solutions behind artificial membranes by secreting wax threads that form the scale cover. This response was used to evaluate gustatory stimuli responsible for crawler settling (Walker & Bendar, 1986). The sex pheromne of CRS has been identified and synthesized (Roelofs et al., 1978). Millar & Hare (1993) isolated and identified a kairomone from the scale cover, which functions as an oviposition stimulant. CRS males have difficulty finding and mating with CRS females when exposed to an environment with high concentration of CRS sex pheromone. The CRS females subjected to the pheromone treatment showed a slower developmental time and lower population fecundity than the control CRS females. The delay in development under may extend the exposure of the immature developmental stages to their natural enemies, thus lengthening the time during which they are vulnerable. (Vanachlocha, et al., 2012) Aonidiella aurantii does not show a preference for the inner zones of the canopy. Crawlers show positive phototropism and tend to travel to the outer canopy, settling on fruits and recent leaves. (Campos-Rivela, 2012) A. aurantii seem to show a preference for young trees in a good vegetative state, which is where infestations tend to be most severe (Bodenheimer, 1951). Based on the number of adults captured in traps in citrus groves in Tarragona, Spain, Campos-Rivela, et al. 2012 observed four A. aurantii male flights Almost all males of Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell) (Coccoidea: Diaspididae) that emerged during a given afternoon were dead the next morning (Mendel, et al., 2012)

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Leonardi (1910), Kuwana (1933), Ferris (1938a), McKenzie (1938, 1956), Balachowsky (1948b, 1956), Takagi (1969a), Velasquez (1971), Chou (1985, 1986), Tereznikova (1986), Williams & Watson (1988), Gill (1997) and by Colon-Ferrer & Medina-Gaud (1998).

STRUCTURE: Scale of the female circular, quite flat, exuviae central, the scale itself actually quite thin and pale permitting the red-brown colour of the heavily sclerotized adult female to show through. Scale of the male elongate oval, color paler than in the female, exuvia slightly toward one end (Ferris, 1938a). Colour photograph by Gonzalez (1989), Katsoyannos (1996), Carvalho & Aguiar (1997), Gill (1997) and by Wong et al. (1999) and by Claps & Wolff (2003).

SYSTEMATICS: Adult female with expanded prosoma, giving a reniform shape, and becoming sclerotised when mature. With 3 pairs of lobes, not bilobed, with fringed plates between them and lateral to L3. Ducts 1-barred, long and slender, in pore furrows on pygidium. Prevulvar scars (apophyses and scleroses) present and of distinctive shape. Perivulvar pores absent. (Henderson, 2011) For a detailed discussion on the differences between Aonidiella aurantii and Aonidiella citrina refer to Nel (1933); McKenzie, (1937); Compere (1961), and to Remarks of Aonidiella citrina.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: The California red scale, is the most important pest of citrus pest in most citrus-growing areas of the world (Quayle, 1911a, 1938a; Bodenheimer, 1951; Ebeling, 1959; Rosen & DeBach, 1978). Besides the extensive research on chemical control (see Citation) there were extensive studies on biological control of this pest (Compere, 1961; Rosen & DeBach, 1978). According to the results published in Boyero, et al., 2014, the recommended species to use in biocontrol programs in Spain is Aphytis melinus because it is well-adapted to Spanish citrus growing conditions. Furthermore, because E. perniciosi plays a role in controlling A. aurantii in twigs, releases should be made in those areas where it can become established.

KEYS: Evans, Watson & Miller 2009: 63-67 (female) [Diaspididae species found on avocado]; Ben-Dov 2006: 55-57 (female) [World (33 species)]; Claps & Teran 2001: 392 (female) [South America]; Gill 1997: 44 (female) [Species of California]; Danzig 1993: 159 (female) [Europe]; Williams & Watson 1988: 35 (female) [Tropical South Pacific]; Tereznikova 1986: 85 (female) [Ukraine]; Chou 1985: 292 (female) [Species of China]; Kawai 1980: 211 (female) [Japan]; Gerson & Zor 1973: 516 (female) [Israel]; Velasquez 1971: 118 (female) [Philippines]; McDaniel 1968: 210 (female) [U.S.A.: Texas]; Beardsley 1966: 509 (female) [Federated States of Micronesia]; Ezzat 1958: 240 (female) [Egypt]; Balachowsky 1956: 25 (female) [Africa]; McKenzie 1956: 24 (female) [U.S.A.: California]; Lupo 1954a: 41 (female) [Italy]; McKenzie 1953: 36 (female) [World]; Balachowsky 1948b: 362 (female) [Mediterranean]; McKenzie 1946: 33 (female) [World]; Ferris 1942: 29 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1942b: 144-145 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1938: 17-18 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1937a: 178 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1937: 330 (female) [World ]; Lupo 1936: 261 (female) [World]; Kuwana 1933: 26 (female) [Japan]; Kuwana 1933b: 49 (female) [Japan]; Fullaway 1932: 95-97, 107 (female) [Hawaii]; Britton 1923: 376 (female) [U.S.A.: Connecticut]; Leonardi 1920: 75 (female) [Italy]; Brain 1919: 198 (female) [South Africa]; Lawson 1917: 210 (female) [U.S.A.: Kansas]; Robinson 1917: 24 (female) [Philippines]; Dietz & Morrison 1916a: 289-290, 307 (female) [U.S.A.: Indiana]; Newstead 1901b: 81 (female) [England]; Green 1896e: 40 (female) [Sri Lanka]; Comstock 1883: 55-57 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: Abbas1992 [host, distribution, life history: 477-485]; Abbass1980 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-166]; AbdelFElDa1978a [host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 74-78]; AbdElKDaKo1988 [chemical control, biological control: 270-275]; Abdelr1973 [economic importance, chemical control, biological control: 119-133]; Abdelr1974 [life history, ecology, biological control: 203-212]; Abdelr1974a [life history, ecology, biological control: 213-220]; Abdelr1974b [life history, ecology, biological control: 231-247]; AbdRab2001a [host, distribution, biological control: 174-176]; AbdRab2005b [host, distribution, biological control: 159]; AbdulNMo2006 [host, distribution: 517-520]; AblesRi1981 [biological control, economic importance: 273]; AbouEl2001 [host, distribution, biological control: 185-195]; AbulNaSwAh1975b [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 149-159]; Aldric1996 [life history, physiology, chemistry, chemical ecology: 201-204]; Alexan1980 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 555-560]; Alexan1981 [host, distribution, economic importance: 12-25]; Alexan1983 [host, distribution, life history: 831-838]; AlexanMi1982 [host, distribution, life history: 639-644]; Alfier1929 [host, distribution: 7-9]; Ali1968 [host, distribution: 132]; Almeid1971 [host, distribution: 6,8]; Almeid1973b [host, distribution: 8]; AltierNi1999 [biological control: 975-991]; AltierNi1999 [biological control: 17-44]; Amin1981 [host, distribution, life history: 1-11]; AndersAdCh1980 [chemistry, chemical ecology: 2229-2236]; AndersWuGr2010 [molecular data: 992-1003]; Andrie1932 [host, distribution, economic importance, control]; Anneck1963 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 195-225]; AnneckIn1971 [host, distribution, biological control: 14]; Archan1937 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 95-96]; ArgovZcRo1995 [life history, biological control: 315-320]; Argyri1969 [biological control: 817-822]; Argyri1970 [host, distribution, biological control: 57-65]; Argyri1974 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 89-94]; Argyri1979a [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 517-520]; Argyri1986 [host, distribution, biological control: 545-548]; Argyri1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 579-583]; ArgyriMo1983 [host, distribution, economic importance: 623-627]; ArgyriStMo1976 [host, distribution, biological control: 24-25]; AsplanGa1998 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 637-646]; AsplanGa2001 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 54-67]; AsquitCrHo1980 [control, chemistry, economic importance]; Atkins1977 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 65-87]; Atkins1983 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 239-258]; Atkins1983a [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 417-426]; AungLeJe2001 [host, distribution, chemical control: 93-100]; AungLeJe2004 [chemical control: 45-50]; AvidovBaGe1970 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 191-207]; AvidovRo1965 [biological control: 572-573]; AvidovRoGe1963 [biological control, economic importance, chemical control, host, distribution: 205-212]; Ayouta1940 [host, distribution: 2-4]; AytasYuMa2001 [host, distribution, life history, biological control, chemical ecology: 97-101]; Azeved1923A [host, distribution: 86-90]; Baker1976 [biological control, life history: 1-25]; Balach1930a [host, distribution: 179]; Balach1932d [taxonomy, host, distribution: XII, XLVIII]; Balach1948b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 366-370]; Balach1950e [chemical control, biological control: 220-223]; Balach1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 29-32]; Ballou1912 [host, distribution, economic importance, control]; Ballou1912a [host, distribution: 412-425]; Ballou1913 [host, distribution: 61-65]; Banks1990 [physiology, chemistry: 267-274]; Barany1953 [life history, chemistry, physiology, structure: 202-209]; Barnes1930 [biological control: 319-329]; Bartle1953a [chemical control, biological control: 565-569]; Bartle1963 [chemical control, biological control: 694-698]; Bartle1964 [chemical control, biological control: 489-511]; BartleFi1950 [biological control: 802-806]; BarZakPeHe1989 [life history, physiology: 1228-1231]; BasheeAsRa2014 [biological control, distribution, host: 50-52]; BasuNaCh1969 [economic importance, host, distribution: 169-178]; BatraSaSo1989 [host, distribution, economic importance: 161-162]; BazaroSh1970 [host, distribution, taxonomy: 109-111]; Beards1966 [host, distribution: 509]; BeardsDaHo1976 [economic importance: 103]; BeardsGo1975 [economic importance: 49]; Beatti1977 [chemical control: 5-6]; Beatti1986 [host, distribution, economic importance, ecology: 25-29]; BeattiGe1983 [host, distribution: 220-226]; BeattiHu1988 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 386]; BeattiRi1980 [chemical control: 171-174]; Beccar1971 [host, distribution: 193]; Bedfor1968a [biological control, economic importance: 1-15]; Bedfor1968b [host, distribution, chemical control, biological control: 1-14]; Bedfor1969 [chemical control, biological control: 3-10]; Bedfor1973 [host, distribution, chemical control, biological control: 5-11]; Bedfor1981 [host, distribution, chemical control, biological control: 1-6]; Bedfor1989a [economic importance, life history, host, distribution, biological control, chemical control: 1-4]; Bedfor1990 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 507-513]; Bedfor1998 [host, distribution, chemical control, biological control, economic importance, life history: 132-144]; Bedfor2001 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history, chemical control, biological control: 175-180]; BedforBo1981 [host, distribution, chemical control, biological control: 1-15]; BedforCi1994 [host, distribution, biological control: 143-179]; BedforDe1984 [host, distribution, chemical control, biological control: 1-7]; BedforDo1977 [host, distribution, chemical control, biological control: 1-10]; BedforGe1978 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history, chemical control, biological control: 109-242]; BedforGr1983 [host, distribution, chemical control, biological control: 616-620]; BedforVaDe1998 [host, distribution, economic importance, chemical control, biological control]; BedforVeDe1985 [host, distribution, chemical control, biological control: 1-15]; BedforVeKo1992 [host, distribution, chemical control, biological control: 1-112]; BellowMo1988 [chemical control, biological control: 892-898]; BellowVa1999 [ecology, biological control: 199-223]; Benass1958 [biological control, chemical control: 867-872]; Benass1959 [biological control: 283-291]; Benass1959b [host, distribution, biological control, chemical control: 867-872]; Benass1961b [host, distribution, ecology: 1-157]; Benass1965a [host, distribution, chemical control, biological control, economic importance, life history: 112-125]; Benass1969 [biological control: 793-799]; BenassAlLi1984 [host, distribution: 325-327]; BenassBi1967 [host, distribution: 247-256]; BenassBi1974 [distribution, biological control: 39-50]; BenassEu1966 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 19-26]; BenassEu1967 [biological control: 449-459]; BenassEu1968 [host, distribution, biological control: 1-60]; BenassEu1970 [biological control: 95-100]; BenassEu1970a [host, distribution, biological control: 357-372]; BenassViRo1979 [biological control: 281-287]; BenDov1990a [taxonomy: 89]; BenDov2006 [taxonomy, distribution: 55-57]; BenDov2006a [host, distribution: 206]; BenDov2012 [catalogue, distribution, host: 28, 43]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 83-110]; BenDovRo1969 [biological control, life history, economic importance: 1057-1060]; BenfatCa1996 [host, distribution, chemical control: 38,73-76]; BenfatCa2002 [chemical ecology: 73-75]; Bennan1972 [chemical control: 47-63]; BennetRoCo1976 [biological control, economic importance: 359-395]; BerlesLe1899 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 265-273]; BiezanFr1939 [host, distribution: 1-18]; BiezanSe1940 [host, distribution: 67-68]; BilogOMo2000 [host, distribution, biological control: 137-147]; BlayGo1993 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 518-522]; BlissBrWa1931 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 1222-1229]; Blumbe1971 [economic importance, biological control: 434-440]; Blumbe1973a [host, distribution, biological control: 125-131]; Blumbe1976 [biological control: 131-139]; Blumbe1990 [structure, biological control: 221-228]; Blumbe1997 [biological control, ecology: 225-236]; BlumbeDe1979 [life history, biological control: 299-306]; BlumbeIsGo1994 [chemical control, biological control: 434-440]; BlumbeIsGo1994 [chemical control, biological control: 434-440]; BlumbeLu1990 [life history, biological control: 591-597]; BlumbeSw1974 [host, distribution, biological control: 437-443]; BlumbeSw1974a [biological control: 3-11]; BlumbeSw1982a [biological control: 67-76]; BoboyeCa1975 [chemical control: 473-476]; Bodenh1924 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 34-36]; Bodenh1926 [host, distribution: 42]; Bodenh1928 [host, distribution: 191]; Bodenh1930 [host, distribution: 4]; Bodenh1934 [life history, taxonomy, ecology, host: 139-148]; Bodenh1935 [host, distribution: 247]; Bodenh1936 [taxonomy: 4]; Bodenh1937 [host, distribution: 217]; Bodenh1938 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history, biological control, economic importance: 6-7]; Bodenh1944b [host, distribution: 93]; Bodenh1949 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 72-75]; Bodenh1951 [structure: 133]; Bodenh1951a [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history, economic importance, chemical control, biological control: 202-274]; Bodenh1952 [host, distribution: 345]; Bodkin1925 [host, distribution, chemical control: 143-149]; BogranHeCi2002 [biological control: 653-668]; Bolu2012 [biological control: 110]; Bondar1914 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1064-1106]; Bondar1915 [host, distribution, economic importance: 44-47]; Borchs1934 [host, distribution, economic importance: 30-31]; Borchs1937 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 121]; Borchs1937a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 63-65]; Borchs1939 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 8,18]; Borchs1949d [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 234]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 219,221]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 292-294]; Borer2002 [life history, ecology, biological control: 957-965]; BorerMuSw2004 [biological control: 677-678]; BorianNi1995 [chemical control: 43]; BourijBo1982 [life history, ecology: 303-315]; Boyce1928 [chemical control, physiology: 715-720]; Boyce1948 [host, distribution, economic importance, control ]; Boyce1950 [host, distribution, economic importance: 741-766]; BoyceKaPe1939 [chemical control: 432-450]; BoyeroVeWo2014 [biological control: 244-251]; Brain1919 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 199-200]; BrainKe1917 [distribution: 184]; Brewer1971 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 53-63]; Brick1912 [host, distribution: 1-22]; Brimbl1962 [host, distribution, economic importance: 219]; Brimbl1962a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 404-408]; Britto1923 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 376-377]; Brock1925 [chemical control: 349,366]; BrownPo1990 [biological control: 527-533]; BruwerDe1988 [host, distribution, biological control: 12-16]; BurgerUl1990 [economic importance: 313-327]; Burke1930 [host, distribution, biological control: 783-785]; Bustsh1958 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 220,245]; Busvin1954 [physiology, chemistry: 60-65]; Buxton1920 [host, distribution: 287-303]; CABI1968 [host, distribution: 1-2]; CABI1996 [host, distribution: 1-5]; Calkin1983 [distribution, economic importance: 321-359]; Caltag1985 [taxonomy, biological control: 189-200]; Caltag1999 [ecology, life history: 217]; CameroCa1969 [host, biological control, life history: 694-696]; Campbe1970 [chemical control: 20]; Campbe1972 [host, distribution, biological control: 43]; Campbe1975 [host, distribution, chemical control, biological control: 161-164]; Campbe1976MM [host, distribution, biological control: 659-668]; CamposMaFi2012 [distribution, ecology: 198-208]; Cangar1960 [host, distribution, chemical control: 69-77]; Carman1948 [chemical control: 1]; Carman1953 [chemical control: 307-308]; Carman1956 [chemical control: 103-111]; Carman1981 [host, distribution: 7,9,11]; CarmanElEw1954 [host, distribution, chemical control : 1-11]; CarmanEw1950 [chemical control: 15A-16A]; CarmanEw1950a [chemical control]; CarmanEwJe1951 [host, distribution, chemical control: 1-16]; CarmanEwJe1956 [chemical control]; CarmanEwJe1957 [chemical control]; CarmanEwJe1958 [chemical control]; CarmanEwJe1959 [chemical control]; CarmanEwJe1960 [chemical control]; CarmanEwJe1961 [chemical control]; CarmanEwJe1962 [chemical control]; CarmanEwJe1976 [host, distribution, control: 14-68]; CarmanEwRi1980 [host, distribution, control: 14-77]; CarmanLi1956 [chemical control: 534-539]; Carmin1936 [biological control: 173-175]; CarminSc1931 [host, distribution, economic importance, control: 242-274]; Carnes1907 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 214]; CarotGaLa2003 [life history, ecology, host, distribution: 103-106]; Carrol1979 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 1-145]; CarrolLu1984 [host, distribution, life history, ecology, biological control: 847-853]; CarrolLu1984a [host, distribution, life history, ecology, biological control: 179-183]; CarvalAg1997 [life history, description, economic importance, biological control, host, distribution: 249-257]; CasasNiSw2000 [biological control: 185-193]; CasasSwMu2004 [biological control: 657-665]; Castel1951a [biological control: 95-98]; CasuOnGe1999 [host, distribution, chemical ecology, control: 69-72]; Catlin1971 [host, distribution, biological control: 393-411]; Catlin1971a [host, distribution, biological control: 5-9]; CaustoPeSi2006 [distribution: 137]; Cendan1937 [host, biological control: 337-339]; Charle1998 [distribution, economic importance, biological control: 51N,]; CharleHe2002 [host, distribution, economic importance: 587-615]; CharmoGe1921 [host, distribution: 188]; Chen1936 [taxonomy: 211]; Chiesa1948 [host, distribution, economic importance]; Chiesa1948a [host, distribution, economic importance]; Chorle1939 [host, distribution]; Chou1947a [chemical control: 34]; Chou1985 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 292-295]; Chou1986 [taxonomy, illustration: 446]; Chou1986 [taxonomy, illustration: 676]; ChuaWo1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 543-552]; ClapsDo2003 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 17]; ClapsTe2001 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, economic importance: 392-394]; ClapsWoGo2001a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 11]; ClarkFr1932 [economic importance, life history, host, distribution, chemical control, biological control: 1-35]; Clause1956 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control]; Clause1958 [economic importance, biological control: 291-310]; Clause1958a [host, distribution, biological control: 443-447]; CliftBe1993 [life history, chemical control: 470-472]; Cocker1893cc [host, distribution: 101]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy, distribution: 334]; Cocker1897i [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 13,29]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 396]; Cocker1900k [taxonomy: 350]; Cohen1969 [biological control, economic importance: 769-772]; Cohen1975 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 38-41]; CohenPoEl1994 [chemical control, biological control: 183-190]; Cohic1958 [host, distribution: 12]; ColazzPeBu2007 [control, chemical ecology: 35-41]; Collar1918 [host, distribution: 154-162]; Collie1995 [life history, biological control, host, distribution: 206-214]; CollieMuNi1994 [life history, biological control, host, distribution: 299-306]; Collin1950 [host, distribution, economic importance: 158-160]; CollinLaBo1994 [host, distribution, physiology, chemical control: 325-326]; ColonFMe1998 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 35-36]; Comper1926 [host, distribution, biological control: 33-50]; Comper1936 [host, distribution, biological control]; Comper1936a [biological control, host, distribution: 493-496]; Comper1953 [biological control: 35-46]; Comper1955 [biological control: 271-319]; Comper1961 [taxonomy, host, distribution, biological control, economic importance: 173-278]; Comper1961a [biological control: 17-71]; Comper1963 [host, distribution, biological control: 493-496]; Comper1969 [biological control: 755-764]; Comper1969a [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 5-10]; ComperAn1961 [host, distribution, biological control: 17]; ComperFlSm1941 [biological control: 291,301]; ComperSm1927 [biological control: 63-73]; Comsto1881 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 8-9]; Comsto1881a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 293-295]; Comsto1883 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 59]; Cook1909 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, chemical control: 15]; Coquil1888 [chemical control: 123-133]; Coquil1890a [chemical control: 9-17]; Coquil1891a [chemical control, taxonomy: 19-36]; CoronaRuMo1997 [host, distribution: 38-41]; CostaL1942 [taxonomy: 284]; CostaL1949 [host, distribution, biological control: 65-87]; CostaLRa1922 [host, distribution: 1101]; Costan1956a [host, distribution, economic importance: 74-79]; CostilOsBa1970 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 57-65]; Cottie1956 [host, distribution, economic importance, chemical control, biological control: 209-215]; Coy1938 [biological control: 445-446]; Craw1906 [host, distribution: 139-158]; Creigh1942 [host, distribution, control: 219-233]; Cressm1941 [chemical control: 859]; Cressm1943 [host, distribution, chemical control: 17-26]; Cressm1943a [chemical control: 413-419]; Cressm1955 [chemical control: 216-217]; Cressm1956 [chemical control: 406,408]; Cressm1957 [chemical control: 593-595]; Cressm1958 [chemical control: 911-912]; CressmBr1943 [chemical control: 439-441]; CressmBr1944 [chemical control: 809-813]; CressmBr1953 [chemical control: 907]; CressmBrMu1954 [chemical control: 379,392,395]; CressmBrMu1954a [chemical control: 100-102]; CressmBrMu1957 [chemical control: 1-7]; CressmMuBr1949 [chemical control: 332,350,351]; CressmMuBr1950 [chemical control: 610-614]; CressmMuBr1953 [chemical control: 1070-1074]; CressmMuBr1954 [chemical control: 424-440,441,444]; Crouze1971 [biological control: 200]; Crouze1973 [host, distribution, biological control: 15-39]; CrouzeBiZa1973 [host, distribution, biological control: 251-318]; CrouzeJu1970 [host, distribution, control: 56]; DaaneMiTa2002 [biological control: 36-38]; DahlstHa1999 [economic importance: 919-933]; DahmsSm1994 [host, distribution, biological control: 245-255]; DaneelMeJa1994 [host, distribution: 72-74]; Danzig1972 [taxonomy, host, distribution, economic importance: 206-207]; Danzig1993 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, economic importance: 161-162]; DanzigKo1990 [host, distribution: 45]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 181-182]; DarvasFaKo1985 [chemical control: 347-350]; DarvasVa1990 [chemical control: 393-408]; DavidsDiFl1991 [chemical control: 1-47]; DavidsMi1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 603-632]; Davies1982 [chemical control, biological control: 77-84]; DaviesMc1977 [physiology, chemical control, biological control: 323-328]; Dean1955 [biological control: 444-447]; DeBach1948 [host, distribution, biological control: 985]; DeBach1951a [biological control: 443-447]; DeBach1958 [host, distribution, biological control, ecology: 187-194]; DeBach1958a [biological control: 759-768]; DeBach1958b [host, distribution, ecology: 187-194]; DeBach1960 [host, distribution, biological control: 701-705]; DeBach1962a [distribution, economic importance, biological control: 17-25]; DeBach1962c [biological control, host, distribution: 686-690]; DeBach1964 [biological control]; DeBach1964b [biological control: 673-713]; DeBach1964c [host, distribution, biological control, ecology, life history, economic importance: 221-224]; DeBach1964d [biological control: 5-18]; DeBach1965 [biological control, ecology: 848-863]; DeBach1966 [host, distribution, biological control, ecology, life history : 183-212]; DeBach1969 [biological control: 801-815]; DeBach1969a [biological control: 11-28]; DeBach1971 [biological control: 293-307]; DeBach1971a [biological control: 211-233]; DeBach1974 [biological control]; DeBach1977 [distribution, biological control: 6-7]; DeBachAr1967 [host, distribution, biological control: 325-342]; DeBachBa1951 [chemical control, biological control: 372-383]; DeBachBa1964 [biological control: 402-426]; DeBachDiFl1949 [biological control: 546-547]; DeBachDiFl1950 [biological control: 783-802]; DeBachDiFl1951 [biological control: 347-348]; DeBachFiLa1955 [biological control, life history: 742-753]; DeBachFlDi1949 [biological control: 12,14]; DeBachHeRo1978 [host, distribution, life history, ecology, biological control: 1-35]; DeBachHu1971 [biological control: 113-140]; DeBachHuMa1976 [biological control: 255-285]; DeBachLa1959 [biological control: 301-304]; DeBachLaJe1959 [biological control: 12,15]; DeBachLaWh1955 [biological control, economic importance, host, distribution: 254,271-275]; DeBachLaWh1962 [biological control, economic importance: 2-3]; DeBachRa1968 [biological control: 332-337]; DeBachRo1976a [host, distribution, biological control: 541-545]; DeBachRo1991 [biological control]; DeBachRoKe1971 [biological control: 165-194]; DeBachSi1960 [biological control: 153-160]; DeBachSu1963 [biological control: 105-166]; DeBachWh1960 [life history, biological control: 4-58]; DEDAC1923 [host, distribution]; DeitzTo1980 [taxonomy: 33]; Dekle1965c [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 19]; Dekle1976 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, economic importance: 30]; DeLott1967a [host, distribution: 112]; Delucc1965 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history, biological control: 739-788]; Delucc1969 [biological control: 871-874]; DeluccRoSc1976 [taxonomy, biological control: 81-91]; Dent1991 [host, distribution, economic importance]; deOngKnCh1927 [host, distribution, chemical control: 351-384]; DeSant1940 [biological control: 29-44]; DeSant1941a [host, distribution, biological control: 21-24]; DeSant1979 [biological control]; DeStef1910 [host, distribution: 189-196]; Dickso1941 [chemical control, physiology, structure: 515-522]; Dickso1951 [structure, life history: 596-602]; DicksoLi1947 [host, distribution, economic importance: 6-7,34]; DicksoLi1947a [host, distribution, economic importance, chemical control: 524,542-544]; Dietri1981 [biological control, economic importance, host, distribution: 151-160]; DietzMo1916a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 289,307-308]; Dikov1965 [host, distribution, control: 8-9]; Dingle1924 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history: 368]; Dohani1937 [host, distribution, biological control: 243-247]; DomingPiVe2003 [chemical control, biological control: 117]; DomingViZa2003 [chemical control: 119]; Doutt1959 [biological control: 161-182]; Dowson1935 [host, distribution: 225]; Dozier1933 [host, distribution, biological control: 85-100]; Drea1990 [biological control: 51-59]; DreistClFl1994 [taxonomy, life history, economic importance, control]; Dry1921 [host, distribution: 103-104]; Dunkel1999 [chemistry, life history, chemical ecology: 251-276]; DuToit1996 [host, distribution, biological control, chemical control: 526-529]; Dutta1990 [host, distribution: 152-163]; DziedzKa1990 [host, distribution: 39-43]; Early1984 [host, distribution, biological control: 271-308]; Ebelin1931 [chemical control: 669-672]; Ebelin1932 [chemical control: 1007-1012]; Ebelin1933 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 851-854]; Ebelin1934 [biological control: 362-363]; Ebelin1936 [chemical control, life history: 95-25]; Ebelin1940 [chemical control: 92-102]; Ebelin1945 [chemical control: 556-563]; Ebelin1947 [chemical control: 619-632]; Ebelin1949 [host, distribution, life history, control]; EbelinPe1953 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-35]; Edward1936 [host, distribution, economic importance: 335-337]; Efimof1937 [host, distribution]; EHG1897 [host, distribution: 67-85]; Ehrhor1926c [host, distribution: 20]; EhrhorFuSw1913 [distribution: 295-300]; ElekciSe2007 [host, didtribution, biological control: 29-34]; Elguet1932 [biological control: 85]; ElirazRo1978 [biological control: 96-101]; ElKaouGuCh2004 [host, distribution, biological control, life history: 169-179]; ElmerBr1982 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 699-700]; ElmerBrEw1980 [host, distribution, economic importance: 20-21]; ElMinsElHa1974 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 223-232]; ElzenKi1999 [biological control: 253-270]; EMPPO2004c [host, distribution]; ErichsSaHa1991 [biological control: 493-498]; ErlerTu2001 [host, distribution, biological control: 299-305]; Ervin1982 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-174]; ErvinGaBa1986 [host, distribution, economic importance: 71-77]; Esaki1940a [host, distribution: 274-280]; Essig1949 [host, distribution: 673-677]; EssigCh1909 [host, distribution, taxonomy: 1-14]; EtzelLe1999 [biological control: 125-197]; Euvert1967 [biological control: 59-100]; Evans1942 [host, distribution, taxonomy, chemical control: 156-159]; Evans1943 [host, distribution, taxonomy, chemical control]; EvansPr1990 [biological control: 3-17]; EvansWaMi2009 [taxonomy: 63-67]; Ewart1969 [chemical control: 879-880]; EwartCaJe1954 [chemical control: 1-11]; EwingYaBa2002 [host, distribution, ecology, biological control: 35-50]; Ezzat1958 [distribution: 240]; EzzatNa1987 [distribution: 86]; EzzatRa1966 [control: 1-46]; FargerMo1974 [life history, chemistry, biological control: 26-28]; Fawcet1948 [biological control: 627-664]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 287-288]; FernanWa1997 [biological control: 137-144]; FernanWa1999 [biological control, life history: 416-425]; Ferris1921a [host, distribution: 219]; Ferris1937c [taxonomy: 50,60]; Ferris1938a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 179]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 41-43]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy: 446:29]; Ferris1953 [host, distribution: 65]; FinneyFi1964 [biological control: 328-355]; Fisher1964 [biological control: 305-325]; FisherDe1976 [biological control: 43-50]; Flande1934a [biological control: 723-724]; Flande1936a [biological control: 1023-1024]; Flande1940b [biological control: 245-253]; Flande1942c [biological control, life history: 834-835]; Flande1943a [biological control: 233-235]; Flande1943b [biological control: 78]; Flande1944a [biological control: 365-371]; Flande1945a [biological control: 711-712]; Flande1945b [life history, biological control: 122-141]; Flande1947 [host, biological control: 746-747]; Flande1949 [biological control: 160-162]; Flande1949a [biological control: 257-274]; Flande1950a [biological control: 719-720]; Flande1951b [biological control: 93-98]; Flande1953 [biological control: 10-28]; Flande1953a [host, distribution, biological control, economic importance: 266-269]; Flande1954 [biological control: 343-352]; Flande1958a [biological control: 579-584]; Flande1959b [biological control: 125-142]; Flande1962 [biological control: 1133-1147]; Flande1966 [biological control: 79-82]; Flande1969 [biological control: 29-33]; Flande1971 [biological control, life history : 857-872]; FlandeGrFi1958 [biological control, economic importance: 65-91]; Flesch1960 [biological control: 183-208]; Fletch1951 [host, distribution, chemical control: 1-24]; FlintVa1981 [biological control: 1]; Foldi1982 [structure, taxonomy: 317-330]; Foldi1990 [structure: 43-54]; Foldi1990d [life history, structure: 257-265]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; FoldiPe1978 [structure: 321-337]; FonsecAu1932a [host, distribution: 202-214]; ForsteLu1996 [host, distribution, biological control: 504-507]; ForsteLuGr1995 [host, distribution, life history, biological control, taxonomy, illustrations: 1-12]; FoxWil1939 [host, distribution, economic importance: 2296]; FrancoRuMa2011 [distribution: 8,23]; Frogga1914 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 132-133]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 9]; FrohliRo1970 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-10]; Fryer1936 [host, distribution, economic importance]; FuesteKoFo2004 [control: 1861-1867]; Fullaw1932 [taxonomy: 97,107]; Fuller1897c [host, distribution: 3]; Fuller1907 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, economic importance, control: 1031-1055]; FultonBu1943 [chemical control: 628-629]; Furnes1977 [chemical control: 220/622]; FurnesBuGe1983 [host, distribution, chemical control, biological control: 199-212]; Fursch1985 [biological control: 223-231]; Gaprin1954 [biological control: 587-597]; Garcia1930 [host, distribution, biological control]; Garcia1931a [host, distribution, biological control: 659-669]; Garcia1931a [host, distribution, biological control]; Garcia2003 [biological control]; GarciaRo1995 [host, distribution, life history, chemical control: 118-125]; GardneErMo1983 [economic importance, life history, biological control: 601-604]; Gavalo1931 [host, distribution: 8]; Gavalo1936 [host, distribution: 81-82]; Geerin1962 [chemical control: 595-602]; Gennad1881 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 189-192]; Gennad1904 [host, distribution: 4-5]; Georga1963a [economic importance, control: 5,7]; Georga1964a [chemical control: 3-15]; Georga1967 [chemical control: 3,5]; Georga1983 [chemical control: 75-76]; Georga1984 [economic importance, chemical control: 13-18]; Georga1984a [chemical control: 9-12]; GeorgaBuHo1972 [chemical control: 16-22]; GeorghMe1983 [life history, chemical control: 1-46]; GeorghTa1976 [chemical control: 759]; Germai2011 [distribution, economic importance: 31-34]; Germai2011a [distribution, economic importance: 8]; GermaiMiPa2014 [distribution: 22]; Gerson1967c [host, distribution, biological control: 632-638]; GersonIz1997 [biological control: 33-42]; GersonOcHo1990 [biological control: 77-97]; GersonOcHo1990 [biological control: 77-97]; GersonRo1982 [biological control: 150-154]; GersonZo1973 [taxonomy, life history, host, distribution, economic importance: 513-533]; Ghabbo1995 [taxonomy: 379-387]; Ghauri1962 [taxonomy, structure: 211]; Ghesqu1927 [host, distribution: 310-316]; Ghesqu1932 [host, distribution: 59]; Giesel1990 [life history, chemistry: 221-224]; Giesel1990a [chemistry: 225-232]; GieselHeAn1980 [life history, chemistry, chemical ecology: 179-182]; GieselRi1990 [life history, ecology, chemistry: 349-352]; Giliom1981 [host, distribution, chemical control, biological control: 6-12]; Gill1997 [host, distribution, taxonomy, description, illustration, economic importance: 7,44-47]; Glover1935 [host, distribution, chemical control, biological control: 151-153]; GomezC1950 [host, distribution, biological control : 1-18]; GomezM1937 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 84-88]; GomezM1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, biological control: 42-49]; GomezM1957 [host, distribution: 48]; GomezM1958a [host, distribution: 8]; Gonzal1969 [biological control: 839-848]; Gonzal1989 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, economic importance: 93]; GonzalCh1968 [distribution: 110]; GonzalRo1967 [biological control, distribution: 138]; Gordh1977 [host, distribution, biological control: 125-148]; Gordh1979 [biological control: 893-896,900,907,911,]; Gordh1994 [biological control: 188-205]; GordhBe1999 [taxonomy, biological control: 45-55]; GordhDe1978 [life history, biological control: 1-39]; Gowdey1921 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 31]; GraebnMoBa1984 [host, distribution, biological control, ecology, life: 27-33]; Grafto1994 [chemical control: 7-9]; Grafto2000a [chemical control: 107-113]; GraftoLeSt2006 [chemical control, biological control: 733-744]; GraftoMoOC2000 [host, distribution, control]; GraftoOu1993 [chemical control: 21-29]; GraftoOuSa1998 [host, distribution, economic importance, chemical control, life history, physiology: 812-819]; GraftoOuSt2001 [distribution, chemical control, resistance: 20-25]; GraftoRe1995 [host, distribution, life history, biological control, chemical control: 1717-1725]; GraftoStOu1996 [host, distribution, biological control, chemical control: 553-555]; GraftoVe1995 [host, distribution, life history, biological control, chemical control: 495-504]; GrahamSt1996 [host, distribution, chemical control: 640-651]; GranarCl2003 [host, distribution: 625-637]; GrandpCh1899 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 22-23]; GrayKi1929 [chemical control: 878-892]; GreanyViLe1984 [biological control: 690-696]; Greath1971 [host, distribution, biological control ]; Greath1976 [biological control, economic importance ]; Greath1986 [biological control: 289-318]; Greath1989 [biological control: 28-37]; Greath1990 [life history, ecology: 305-308]; Green1896 [host, distribution: 4]; Green1896e [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 40,58-59]; Green1900a [host, distribution: 71]; Green1900c [host, distribution: 2]; Green1904a [host, distribution: 208]; Green1907 [host, distribution: 203]; Green1923b [host, distribution: 89]; Green1929 [host, distribution: 377]; Green1937 [host, distribution: 331]; Greig1944 [host, distribution, control]; GressiFl1949 [biological control: 150]; GriffiHoLu1985 [host, distribution, biological control: 1-6]; GroutDuHo1989 [host, distribution, life history, ecology, biological control: 793-798]; GroutRi1989 [host, distribution, life history, ecology, biological control: 277-283]; GroutRi1989a [life history, biological control, chemistry: 11-13]; GroutRi1991 [host, distribution, chemical control: 1802-1805]; GroutRi1991a [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 20-27]; GroutRi1992 [host, distribution, chemical control: 1-7]; GroutRiSt1992 [chemical control: 34-36]; GroveDeDa2013 [distribution, host: 377]; GruwelMoNo2007 [taxonomy, endosymbionts]; GullanCo2007 [taxonomy: 413-425]; GumusUy1992 [host, distribution, life history: 209-216]; Haas1934 [chemistry, chemical control, physiology: 477-492]; HabibSaAm1971 [host, distribution, life history: 318-330]; HabibSaAm1972 [host, distribution, life history: 324-338]; HabibSaAm1972a [host, distribution, life history: 378-385]; Hadzib1983 [host, distribution: 229]; HakkonPi1984 [biological control: 1109-1121]; Hall1922 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 32-33]; Hall1923 [host, distribution: 46]; Hall1924a [host, distribution, economic importance: 4-5]; Hall1928 [host, distribution: 276]; Hall1969 [economic importance: 823-826]; HallFo1933 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-55]; HammadKaRa1981 [host, distribution, economic importance: 252-268]; HanksDe1998 [life history, ecology: 239-262]; Hanson1963 [host, didtribution: 1-155]; HardieMi1999 [chemistry, life history]; Hardis1941 [control: 283,308-309]; HardmaCr1941 [chemical control, physiology: 187]; Hare1983 [host, distribution, life history: 655]; Hare1996 [host, chemistry, life history, biological control: 263-269]; HareLu1991 [life history, biological control, host: 1576-1585]; HareMiLu1993 [biological control, chemistry, ecology: 92-94]; HareMo1997 [host, distribution, biological control: 207-214]; HareMo2000 [life history, ecology, biological control, chemistry: 509-519]; HareMoNg1997 [life history, biological control: 73-81]; HareYuLu1990 [host, life history: 1451-1460]; HarpazRo1971 [biological control: 458-468]; Harris1990 [biological control: 61-66]; Harris1997 [host, distribution, biological control: 65]; Hart1980 [biological control: 154-156]; Hart1990 [life history, ecology, distribution, economic importance: 353-356]; Hassan1999 [chemical control: 23-29]; HassanSu1997 [chemical control: 415-418]; HasselWa1984 [biological control, ecology: 89-114]; Hattin1996 [chemical control, biological control: 14-17]; Hattin1996a [host, distribution, biological control: 710]; HattinSa1990 [biological control: 385-390]; HattinSa1991 [host, distribution, biological control: 169-174]; HattinSa1991a [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 143-148]; HattinTa1995 [host, distribution, biological control, chemical control: 489-493]; HattinTa1996 [host, distribution, biological control, chemical control: 523-525]; HattinTa1996a [host, distribution, biological control, chemical control: 560-563]; HavronKeRo1991 [host, distribution, biological control: 229-235]; HavronRo1992 [chemical control, biological control: 984-987]; HavronRo1994 [biological control: 209-220]; HavronRoRu1995 [chemical control, biological control: 309-313]; Hawkin1994 [biological control: 3]; Hayat1989 [host, distribution, biological control: 1-3]; Haywar1939 [host, distribution, control: 1]; Hecht1936 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 299-236]; HeCuBa1991 [life history: 58-60]; HefetzKrPe1988 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 1121-1127]; HeimpeRoKa1997 [life history, biological control: 305-315]; HelmyHaHa1992 [chemical control: 763-771]; HelmyHiHa1997 [chemical control: 601-609]; Hempel1904 [host, distribution: 322]; Hempel1937 [taxonomy: 27]; Hender2011 [description,, distribution, host, structure, taxonomy: 8,11,28,75-76,222]; HenrikCaAn1982 [chemistry, chemical ecology: 27-60]; HeratySc1998 [biological control: 1227-1244]; HernanRoGa2002 [host, distribution, economic importance, ecology: 469-478]; Herric1911 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 11,30-31,48]; Herric1925 [host, distribution, description, life history, economic importance]; Hewitt1943 [host, distribution: 266-274]; Hill1975 [host, distribution, economic importance, control]; Hill1989a [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 177-182]; HiroseNaTa1990 [biological control: 171-183]; Hodgso1969c [economic importance, life history, biological control, chemical control: 18-19]; HodgsoLa2011 [host, distribution: 22]; HoffmaKe1985 [life history: 19-20]; HoffmaRiSh1998 [biological control: 268-293]; HoleSa1997 [chemical control: 12-13]; HoleSa1998 [host, distribution, life history: 199-200]; HoleSa1999 [host, distribution, life history: 93-102]; HondaLu1995 [life history, biological control: 441-450]; Honiba1975 [biological control: 217-220]; HonibaGiRa1979 [biological control, economic importance: 17-18]; Horn1988 [host, distribution, chemical control ]; Horton1918 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 1-74]; Hosny1968 [host, distribution, ecology: 179-182]; HosnyAmEl1972 [host, distribution, economic importance: 286-296]; Houck1999 [life history, biological control: 97-118]; HouckJeMo1989 [chemical control: 287-292]; HouckOc1996 [life history, ecology, biological control: 667-682]; Howard1894 [taxonomy, biological control: 228]; Howard1895e [biological control: 1-44]; Howard1908 [host, distribution: 265-277]; Howard1911 [host, distribution, biological control: 276-277]; Hoy1990 [biological control: 441-451]; HoyHe1985 [biological control]; Hsu1935 [host, distribution: 578-590]; Huffak1990 [biological control: 205-220]; HuffakGu1990a [biological control, economic importance: 473-492]; HuffakMeDe1971 [biological control: 16-67]; HuffakSiLa1976 [biological control: 41-78]; HuffakSm1980 [chemical control, biological control, chemistry, host, distribution: 1-24]; HuffakSt1971 [biological control: 333-350]; IFAC1962d [host, distribution: 140]; Imms1931 [biological control: 98-102]; Inserr1966 [host, distribution, biological control: 176-186]; Inserr1966a [host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 1-26]; Inserr1968 [host, distribution, biological control: 45-77]; Inserr1969 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance, control: 1-26]; Inserr1970a [host, distribution, biological control: 39-46]; InserrCa1987 [host, distribution: 93]; IntegrPeMa1991 [taxonomy, life history, biological control: 1]; Ishaay1971 [chemistry, physiology: 935-943]; IshaayBlYa1989 [chemical control: 1003-1008]; IshaayMeBl1992 [chemical control, biological control: 67-71]; IshaaySw1970 [host, chemistry, physiology: 37-42]; IshaaySw1970a [chemistry, physiology: 1599-1605]; IshaaySw1990 [physiology, chemistry: 353-356]; IshaaySwNe1980 [chemistry, physiology: 212]; Ishii1923 [host, distribution, biological control: 69]; Ishii1926 [biological control: 31-36]; Ishii1928 [host, distribution, biological control: 79]; Ishii1932a [host, distribution, biological control: 161]; JacobsReCr1978 [chemistry: 448-457]; JamesStOM1997 [host, distribution, biological control: 257-259]; Janjua1959 [distribution: 231-264]; Jenkin1945 [host, distribution, life history, taxonomy, chemical control, biological control: 10-16]; Jeppso1969 [economic importance, chemical control, physiology: 917-921]; JiIzGa1996 [life history, biological control: 503-509]; Jimene1969 [biological control: 781-784]; JiYa1990 [biological control: 134-136]; JohnsoTa1999 [biological control: 297-317]; Johnst1915 [host, distribution, biological control: 1-33]; Johnst1959 [chemical control: 127,131]; Jones1936 [host, distribution, life history, chemical control, biological control: 11-52]; Jourdh1979 [biological control: 75-79]; JuanBlVeUr2008 [biological control: 187]; Kalsho1981 [description, distribution, host, illustration: 165-166]; KamelAbHi2003 [host, distribution, biological control: 1009-1023]; KansuUy1979 [host, distribution, biological control: 565-567]; Kapur1942 [biological control: 49-66]; Karaca1998 [host, distribution, biological control, life history: 101-108]; KaracaSeUy1987 [life history, ecology: 129-138]; KaracaUy1990 [host, distribution, biological control: 97-108]; KaracaUy1992 [host, distribution, life history: 9-19]; KaracaUyEl2002 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 313-317]; Katsoy1993 [host, distribution, biological control: 177-198]; Katsoy1996 [life history, economic importance, host, distribution, chemical control, biological control: 15-17,61-63]; KattarHeOd1999 [biological control: 640-644]; Kaussa1955 [host, distribution: 15]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 213]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 92]; KeetchWh1972 [biological control, chemical control: 253-263]; KehatBlGr1968 [economic importance, chemical control: 28-29]; KfirLu1979 [life history, biological control: 335-344]; KfirLu1984 [life history, biological control: 314-320]; KfirRo1981 [biological control: 141-150]; KiddJe1996 [biological control: 293]; KingLe1984 [biological control: 1]; KingMo1984 [biological control: 206-222]; KinjoNaHi1996 [host, distribution: 125-127]; Kiritc1932a [taxonomy: 250]; KiriukTa1947 [host, distribution: 1-4]; Klein1935 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 71-73,115-116]; Klein1940 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance, control]; Knight1932 [life history: 1]; Koebel1890 [host, distribution, biological control: 1-32]; Koebel1893 [host, distribution, biological control: 1-39]; Koehle1964 [host, distribution, control]; KollerCoCo1997 [host, distribution, biological control: 122]; Komosi1964 [host, distribution, taxonomy, description, illustration: 210-212]; KonarGh1994 [host, distribution, ecology: 9-14]; Korone1934 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 22-23]; Koszta1990 [structure, biological control: 307-311]; Kotins1909 [host, distribution: 97]; Kozar1990a [life history, economic importance: 341-347]; KozarKi1979 [host, distribution: 246-250]; KozarKoFe2013 [distribution, taxonomy: 54]; Krambi1977 [host, distribution, biological control: 351-353]; KrishnRa1995 [chemical control, biological control: 71-79]; KrishnRa1998 [chemical control, biological control: 83-88]; KrishnRa1999 [biological control: 86-87]; Kuwana1902 [host, distribution: 70]; Kuwana1907 [host, distribution: 196]; Kuwana1909a [host, distribution: 160]; Kuwana1917a [taxonomy, distribution: 175]; Kuwana1927 [host, distribution: 72]; Kuwana1933 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 26,29-30]; Laing1929 [host, distribution: 25]; Lawson1917 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 210]; LawsonHa1984 [ecology, life history: 451]; LegnerBe1999 [biological control: 87-101]; Lenter1994 [biological control, life history: 13-39]; Leonar1897 [taxonomy: 286]; Leonar1899 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 175,176,184]; Leonar1907a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 122]; Leonar1910 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 5-10]; Leonar1920 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 75-81]; Lepage1938 [catalogue: 392]; Lepesm1947 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history: 204-207]; Lever1969 [host, distribution]; LevitiCo1998 [chemical control, physiology, chemistry: 115-121]; LiangMeAn2010 [host, distribution, chemical control, biological control: 414-426]; LiLi1990 [host, biological control: 68-70]; LincanHoCa2010 [host, distribution: 5]; Lindgr1938 [chemical control: 213-225]; Lindgr1941 [chemical control: 499-511]; LindgrBo1944 [chemical control: 123-124]; LindgrDi1942 [chemical control: 827-829]; LindgrDi1945 [chemical control, physiology: 296-299]; LindgrGe1947 [chemical control: 680-682]; LindgrLaDi1945 [chemical control: 567-572]; LindgrLaDo1944 [chemical control: 6,7,30]; LindgrLaDo1944a [chemical control: 180-181]; LindgrSi1944 [chemical control, physiology: 303-315]; Lindin1909c [taxonomy, host, distribution: 449]; Lindin1910b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 40]; Lindin1912b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 49,108,153]; Lindin1913a [host, distribution: 347]; Lindin1914 [taxonomy: 157]; Lindin1935 [taxonomy: 132]; Lindin1943a [taxonomy: 145]; Lindin1943b [taxonomy: 218]; Lindin1949 [taxonomy: 211]; Liotta1970 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 35-36]; LiottaMi1974 [chemical control, host, distribution: 381-385]; LiottaMiRa1977 [host, economic importance: 29-67]; LizzioSiLo1998 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 165-183]; Lloren1990 [taxonomy, illustration, life history, host, distribution, biological control, life history: 41-49]; Lobdel1937 [taxonomy: 78]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 125]; LongoMaRu1995a [host, distribution: 126-129]; Lorbee1971 [biological control, host, distribution: 199-201]; Lounsb1898 [host, distribution: 35-38]; Lounsb1906 [host, distribution: 80-91]; Lounsb1914 [host, distribution: 1]; Lounsb1916 [host, distribution: 83-103]; Lounsb1921 [host, distribution: 35-38]; Lounsb1922 [host, distribution: 205-210]; Lu1989 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 207-217]; Lu1989a [host, distribution, life history, ecology, biological control: 218-223]; Luck1986 [biological control: 69-84]; Luck1986a [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 355-363]; LuckAlBa1980 [host, distribution, biological control, ecology, economic importance: 365-396]; LuckFoMo1996 [host, distribution, ecology, economic importance: 499-503]; LuckJiHo1999 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history, biological control: 173-183]; LuckPo1985 [life history, ecology, biological control: 904-913]; LuckPoKf1982 [life history, biological control: 397-408]; LuckUy1986 [life history, chemistry, biological control: 129-136]; LuckVaGa1977 [chemical control, economic importance, host, distribution: 606-611]; LunaSaMa1995 [host, distribution: 265]; Lupo1936 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 249-255]; Lupo1954a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 41-49]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 443]; Mackie1936 [host, distribution: 455]; MagaguSa2000 [biological control, chemical control, host, distribution, economic importance: 47-56]; MahmouHaHe2001 [chemistry, structure: 441]; Maksim1978a [life history: 46]; Maksim1991 [chemical ecology, chemistry: 42]; MalipaDuSm2000 [biological control: 54,56,59,65,66,80]; Mallam1954 [distribution: 24-60]; MaltbyJiDe1968 [biological control: 1086-1088]; Malump2012b [distribution: 210]; Mamet1943a [catalogue: 156]; Mamet1949 [catalogue: 53]; Mamet1954 [host, distribution: 15]; Mamet1954a [host, distribution: 265]; Mamet1957 [distribution: 369]; Marco1959 [host, distribution, biological control: 25-30]; Marlat1897 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control, chemical control: 217-236]; Marlat1903 [host, distribution, taxonomy, economic importance, control: 24]; Marlat1915 [host, distribution]; Martin1983 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 60]; MartinGrSh2003 [host, distribution, biological control: 279-286]; MartinLa2011 [catalogue, distribution, host: 37]; MartinSoGa2006 [host, distribution, chemical control, physiology: 255-257]; Martor1976 [host, distribution: 63,65,77,120,176,224]; Maskel1879 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 199]; Maskel1884 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 120-121]; Maskel1887a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 42]; Maskel1892 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 12-13]; Maskel1893b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 206]; Maskel1895b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 40-41]; Masten2007 [host, distribution, taxonomy: 1-242]; Matile1976 [host, distribution: 311]; Matile1984c [host, distribution: 220]; MatileOr2001 [host, distribution: 189]; Maxwel1903 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 37]; MayneGh1934 [host, distribution: 3-38]; MazzeoLoBe2002 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 485-488]; McBethAl1941 [chemical control: 310-311]; McClur1990b [taxonomy, host, distribution, ecology: 285-288]; McClur1990c [ecology, host: 289-291]; McClur1990e [life history, ecology: 309-314]; McClur1990f [life history: 315-318]; McClur1990g [taxonomy, host, distribution, ecology: 319-330]; McClur1990h [life history, ecology: 331-337]; McCullBhPi1991 [chemistry, chemical ecology: 9727-9736]; McDani1968 [taxonomy, illustration, host, distribution: 210-211]; McKenz1935 [host, distribution, life history, control: 1-48]; McKenz1937 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 324-327,331]; McKenz1938 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 6-7,23]; McKenz1939 [taxonomy: 53-54]; McKenz1942b [taxonomy: 145]; McKenz1946 [taxonomy: 33]; McKenz1946a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 95-99]; McKenz1953 [taxonomy: 36]; McKenz1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 38-40]; McLare1971 [life history, ecology: 189-204]; McLareBu1973 [host, distribution, biological control: 111-117]; Mead1983 [host, distribution: 1-5]; Mead1987 [host, distribution: 2-4]; MeatsWh2010 [ecology, life history: 146-153]; Melis1949 [host, distribution: 17-25]; MendelBlIs1994 [chemical control, biological control: 199-209]; MendelPoRo1990 [biological control: 289-290]; MendelPrJa2012 [behaviour: 390]; Merkel1938 [host, distribution: 88-99]; Merril1953 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 13]; MerrilCh1923 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, economic importance: 221]; MessenBiVa1976 [biological control: 543-565]; MessenVa1971 [biological control: 68-92]; MessenWiWh1976 [biological control: 209]; Metcal1982 [chemical control: 217-277]; MetcalCaMu1949 [chemical control: 5,12]; MetcalMe1993 [economic importance, host, distribution, control]; Meyer1962 [biological control: 411-417]; MichaePr1960 [chemical control: 389-391]; Michel1962 [biological control, ecology: 95-96]; MillarHa1993 [life history, chemistry, biological control: 1721-1736]; MillerDa1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 300]; MillerDa2005 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, economic importance: 50-53]; Miyosh1926 [host, distribution: 303-326]; MoffitBa1990 [ecology, economic importance: 357-362]; Moghad2004 [host, distributionn: 13]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 15]; MohammGh2008 [distribution: 150]; MohammGhTa2001 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 413-418]; Monast1958 [economic importance, control: 131-165]; Monte1930 [host, distribution: 3-36]; Moore1933 [chemical control: 1140-1161]; Moore1934 [chemical control: 1042-1055]; Moore1936 [chemical control: 65-78]; Moore2002 [biological control: 30-32]; Moreno1972 [structure, anatomy, chemistry, chemical ecology: 1283-1286]; Moreno1983 [chemical ecology, control: 77-79]; MorenoFa1975 [structure, anatomy, chemical ecology: 425-428]; MorenoFaSh1973 [life history, chemical ecology, control: 1333]; MorenoFaSh1976 [chemical control, life history: 292-297]; MorenoKe1983 [economic importance, life history, chemistry, biological control: 687-689]; MorenoKe1985 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 1-9]; MorenoLu1992 [host, distribution, biological control, economic importance: 1112-1119]; MorenoRiCa1972 [life history, chemistry, chemical ecology: 698-701]; MorganHa1997 [biological control: 679-684]; MorganHa1998 [life history, ecology, biological control: 463-479]; MorganHa1998a [host, distribution, biological control, life history: 235-245]; Morley1909 [host, distribution, biological control: 254-257]; MorrisKi1977 [host, distribution, biological control: 183-217]; MorrisKi1977 [host, biological control: 183-217]; MorrisMo1922 [taxonomy: 96]; MorseArMo1985 [control: 8-10]; MorseBe1986 [chemical control, biological control: 311-314]; MorseBeIw1986 [chemical control: 281-283]; MorseGrCl2005 [taxonomy, phylogeny. molecular data: 79-94]; MorseNo2006 [molecular biology, phylogeny: 338-349]; MoutiaMa1947 [distribution]; Moznet1922 [host, distribution]; Munger1948 [life history, physiology: 422-423]; MungerCr1948 [life history, physiology: 424-427]; Muraka1970 [host, distribution, life history: 69-70]; Murdoc1990 [biological control: 1-24]; MurdocBrNi1996 [biological control: 807-826]; MurdocChCh1985 [biological control: 344]; MurdocLuSw1995 [host, distribution, life history, ecology, biological control: 206-217]; MurdocLuWa1989 [host, distribution, life history, biological control, ecology: 1707-1714]; MurdocNiLu1992 [host, distribution, life history, biological control, ecology: 533-541]; MurdocSwBr2006 [biological control: 297-305]; MurdocSwLu1996 [host, distribution, life history, biological control, ecology: 424-444]; MyartsRu2000 [distribution, biological control: 7-33]; NadelBi1964 [biological control: 195-206]; Nafus1996 [host, distribution: 1]; NagarkSa1990 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 553-542]; Nakaha1982 [host, distribution: 6]; NakaoTaTa1977 [host, distribution: 65]; NandakReSh1988 [chemical control: 275-277]; Nath1972 [host, distribution: 1]; Nel1933 [taxonomy, life history, anatomy, host, distribution: 416-466]; NelDeVa1979 [chemical control, physiology: 275-281]; Newste1901b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 81,88-91]; Newste1911a [host, distribution: 168]; Newste1917b [host, distribution: 130-131]; NourElRi1970 [host, distribution: 123-127]; Noyes1990a [biological control: 155]; NRC1969 [taxonomy, economic importance, ecology, biological control, chemical control]; NSWDAE1963 [host, distribution, taxonomy, economic importance]; Nur1990a [taxonomy, structure, chromosomes: 182,186]; OfekHuYz1997 [host, distribution, chemical control, biological control: 212-218]; OhgushNiTa1967 [host, distribution, life history: 118-121]; OlkowsOlKa1978 [biological control: 311-347]; OmerCoJoWh1946 [biological control: 154]; OmerCoWh1950 [host, distribution, biological control: 3,12]; OmerCoWhGl1946 [biological control: 5-8]; Onder1982 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 1-171]; OppLu1986 [biological control: 700-704]; Orphan1983 [life history, host, distribution, biological control: 203-212]; Orphan1984 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 195-209]; Orphan1984a [biological control, host, distribution: 275-281]; Orphan1996 [host, distribution, biological control: 53-57]; OrtuAc1999 [life history, host, distribution: 127-131]; OrtuCo2004 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 54-58]; OuvrarKoGu2013 [biological control, economic importance: 3]; Pace1939 [host, distribution: 664-665]; Painte1951 [economic importance, control]; Paoli1927a [host, distribution: 382-387]; Paolo1920 [biological control: 31-38]; PappasCa1952 [chemical control]; Passar1989 [chemistry, chemical ecology: 1-213]; Pedigo1999 [life history, structure]; PekasAgTe2010 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 132-140]; Peleg1982 [chemical control: 27-32]; Peleg1983 [chemical control: 367-372]; Peleg1988 [chemical control: 88-92]; PelegBa1995 [economic importance, host, distribution: 261-264]; PelegGo1981 [chemical control: 124-126]; Peleka1962 [host, distribution: 61]; Peleka1974 [host, distribution, biological control: 14-20]; Pelliz2011 [distribution: 311]; PellizPoSe2011 [distribution, host: 295,297]; Penzig1887 [host, distribution: 3]; PeralL1968 [host, biological control: 22-29]; Perez1972 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 227-245]; PerezG2008 [distribution: 213]; PerezGCa1987 [host, distribution: 128]; Perkin1982 [economic importance, chemical control, biological control: 5]; PessonFo1978 [structure: 389-399]; Petch1921 [biological control: 18-40]; Petch1921a [biological control: 89-167]; PicartMa2000 [host, distribution: 16]; Pickel1928 [taxonomy: 55]; PietriBiCo1969 [chemical control: 909-915]; PietriBiCo1969 [chemical control: 909-915]; PinaEsVe2003 [host, life history, ecology: 123]; PinaMaVe2003 [host, distribution, economic importance: 109-115]; PinaVe2007 [host, distribution, biological control: 311]; PinaVe2007a [host, distribution, biological control: 357]; Podole1981 [life history, biological control: 179-190]; PolaszAbHu1999 [host, distribution: 131-163]; Pope1981 [biological control: 19-31]; Popova1962 [host, distribution, biological control: 147-175]; Porcel1995 [structure: 25-45]; Porcel2008 [taxonomy, anatomy, life history: 13-19]; PowellHo1979 [host, distribution]; Price1984 [biological control: 19]; PriesnHo1940 [biological control: 58-70]; Prinsl1983 [distribution, biological control: 26]; Prinsl1984 [taxonomy, biological control: 25-35]; Priore1964 [host, distribution: 131-178]; Priore1965 [host, distribution: 101-145]; PruthiBa1960 [host, distribution, economic importance,: 1-113]; PruthiMa1945 [host, distribution, life history, control: 1-42]; PuttarCh1953a [biological control: 87-95]; Quayle1910 [biological control: 398-401]; Quayle1911 [life history: 301-306]; Quayle1911a [host, distribution, description, economic importance, life history, biological control: 99-150]; Quayle1911d [host, distribution, description, economic importance, life history, biological control: 443-512]; Quayle1911e [biological control: 510-515]; Quayle1916 [life history, ecology: 486-492]; Quayle1916a [chemical control, physiology: 333-334,358]; Quayle1920 [chemical control: 188,189,193]; Quayle1922 [chemical control, host, distribution: 400-405]; Quayle1927 [chemical control, physiology: 667-673]; Quayle1932 [life history, chemical control: 1-87]; Quayle1938 [chemical control, physiology: 183-210]; Quayle1938a [host, distribution, life history, economic importance, chemical control, biological control]; Quayle1942 [chemical control, physiology: 813-816]; QuayleEb1934 [chemical control: 1-22]; QuayleRo1934 [chemical control: 1083-1095]; Quedna1964 [biological control, life history: 335-340]; Quedna1964a [host, distribution, biological control: 521-530]; Quedna1964b [biological control: 86-116]; Quedna1965 [life history, biological control: 43-56]; QuednaAn1963 [economic importance, biological control: 11-18]; QuednaHu1964 [life history, biological control: 543-554]; Quilis1935 [life history, ecology: 621-633]; QuisumKy1989 [life history, chemistry: 149-171]; RabbDeKe1984 [ecology, biological control: 697]; RacitiSa2001 [host, distribution, biological control: 39-40]; RacitiSaSi2003 [biological control, distribution: 125-134]; RacitiTuCa1995 [chemistry, chemical ecology, biological control: 23, 73-76]; RacitiTuMa1996 [host, distribution, biological control: 652-658]; RagusaRu1989 [host, distribution: 71-74]; RahmanAn1941 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 817-818]; Ramakr1919 [host, distribution, economic importance: 623]; Ramakr1919a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 20]; Ramakr1921a [host, distribution: 356]; Ramakr1930 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 25]; Ramakr1938a [host, distribution: 341-351]; RangelGo1945 [distribution, description: 1-44]; Rao1969 [biological control: 785-792]; RaoCh1950 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 14,27]; RauchLh1964 [chemical control, host, distribution, economic importance: 61-73]; ReeveMu1985 [biological control: 797-816]; RehmatAnKh2011 [biological control, distribution: 274]; RiceMo1969 [life history, chemistry: 558-560]; RiceMo1969a [life history, host, chemistry, chemical ecology: 958]; RiceMo1970 [life history: 91-96]; Richar1960AM [host, distribution: 693-698]; RidgwaKiCa1977 [host, distribution, biological control: 379-416]; Riehl1969 [chemical control: 897-907]; Riehl1990 [chemical control: 365-392]; RiehlBrMc1980 [chemical control, biological control, economic importance : 319-363]; RiehlCa1953 [chemical control: 1007-1013]; RiehlGaLa1964 [chemical control: 522-525]; RiehlLa1950 [chemical control: 29-43]; RiehlLa1952 [chemical control: 25-36]; RiehlLaRo1958 [chemical control: 193-195]; RiehlLaRo1959 [chemical control: 857-860]; RiehlLaRo1965 [chemical control: 907-909]; RipaRoLa2008 [description, life history, host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 173-177]; Rivnay1945 [biological control: 117-122]; Rivnay1968 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 1-156]; RobbCoBe2001 [host, distribution, taxonomy, control]; Robert1971 [chemistry, physiology: 449-456]; Robert1973 [chemistry, physiology: 313-323]; RobertSl1974 [chemistry, physiology: 163-175]; Robins1917 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 24-25]; RodrigGa1990 [host, distribution, life history: 25-35]; RodrigGa1992 [host, distribution, life history, chemical ecology: 31-44]; RodrigGa1994 [host, distribution: 151-164]; RodrigGa2003 [distribution, economic importance: 107]; RodrigGaRo2004 [host, distribution, ecology, life history: 569-575]; RodrigTrGa1996 [host, distribution, biological control: 77-94]; RoelofGiCa1977 [chemistry: 698-699]; RoelofGiCa1978 [chemistry, life history: 211-224]; RoelofGiMo1982 [chemistry, chemical ecology: 348]; RongGr1998 [biological control: 43-63]; Rose1990a [biological control, host: 263-287]; Rose1990b [biological control, economic importance: 433-440]; Rose1990c [distribution, economic importance: 535-541]; Rose1990d [host, biological control, economic importance: 357-365]; RoseDe1990a [biological control: 461-472]; Rosen1965 [host, distribution, biological control: 388-396]; Rosen1966 [taxonomy, biological control: 43-79]; Rosen1967b [host, distribution, biological control: 1422-1427]; Rosen1969 [biological control: 45-53]; Rosen1987 [taxonomy, biological control: 191]; Rosen1990 [biological control: 413-415]; Rosen1990a [biological control: 497-498]; Rosen1993 [biological control: 411-416]; RosenbSaSa2012 [ecology, molecular data, physiology: 2357-2368]; RosenDe1973 [biological control, taxonomy: 215-222]; RosenDe1978 [economic importance, biological control, distribution, life history: 79-91]; RosenDe1979 [host, distribution, biological control: 262-268,349-354,]; Rosenh1987 [life history, biological control: 1-171]; RosenhHe1994 [life history, biological control: 41-78]; RosenhRo1991 [life history, biological control: 873-893]; RosenhRo1992 [life history, biological control: 263-272]; RossHaOk2012 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 199]; RossleRo1990 [biological control: 519-526]; RSEA1915 [host, distribution, description, life history, economic importance, control: 1]; RugmanAnMo2010 [taxonomy, phylogenetics, molecular data: 30-38]; RugmanFoGu2010 [biological control, chemical control: 265]; Ruhl1913 [host, distribution: 79-80]; Rungs1970 [host, distribution, economic importance: 91-94]; Russo1959 [economic importance, chemical control: 11-12]; Ruther1948 [economic importance, biological control: 55,68]; Saba1978 [biological control: 443-446]; SaighiDoBi2005 [host, distribution: 429-433]; Sailer1983 [distribution, economic importance: 15-38]; Sakai1939 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution : 45-62]; SalamaAmHa1972 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 395-405]; SalamaSa1984 [host, distribution, life history, chemistry: 393-398]; SalasMaCa2004 [chemical control: 22-23]; SalemEl1979 [host, distribution, life history, chemical ecology: 129-138]; SalemSa1992 [host, distribution, life history: 209-216]; Samway1981 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 663-670]; Samway1981a [biological control: 1]; Samway1985 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 379-393]; Samway1986 [host, distribution, life history, biological control, chemical control: 671-683]; Samway1986a [host, distribution, life history, biological control, chemical control: 265-274]; Samway1989 [biological control: 345-351]; SamwayGrPr1998 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 234-242]; SamwayMa1983 [biological control: 4-6]; SamwayNePr1982 [biological control: 155-157]; SamwayOsHa1999 [biological control: 795-812]; Sander1904a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 70-71]; Sankar1984 [host, distribution, biological control]; SchildSc1928 [biological control]; SchlinDo1964 [taxonomy, biological control: 247-280]; Schmut1969 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 108-109]; Schmut1995 [chemical control]; Schmut2001 [host, distribution: 339-345]; SchmutKlLu1957 [host, distribution, economic importance, distribution: 482-483]; SchmutKlLu1959 [taxonomy: 374]; SchoonGi1982 [chemical control, biological control: 261-273]; SchoonGi1984 [chemical control, biological control: 6-8]; Searle1964 [host, distribution: 1-18]; SearleAnWi1963 [economic importance, chemical control, biological control: 3-9]; SekeroUyKa1989 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 147-152]; SelhimBr1977 [host, distribution, biological control: 475-478]; Seljak2010 [host, distribution: 107]; SenalKaUn2002 [biological control: 427-433]; SengonUyKa1998 [host, distribution, biological control: 128-131]; Sharon1980 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 1-59]; ShawMoFa1971 [life history, control: 1305-1306]; ShawMoHe1971 [life history, control: 67-69]; ShawSuMo1973 [life history, chemical control, chemical ecology: 1062-1063]; Shen1993 [host, distribution: 57]; ShiLi1991 [host, distribution: 165]; SibbetVaFe2000 [host, distribution, control]; Siddiq1966 [host, distribution, economic importance: 4-5]; Siddiq1981 [economic importance, host, distribution: 172-180]; Silves1926a [host, distribution, control: 97-101]; Silves1929 [host, distribution: 897-904]; Simant1962 [chemical control: 99-103]; Simmon1944 [host, distribution, biological control, ecology: 38-39]; Simmon1969a [biological control: 765-767]; SimmonGr1977 [host, distribution, ecology: 109-124]; Singh1964 [host, distribution, economic importance: 213]; SiscarLoLi1999 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history, biological control: 41-52]; SismanUl2010 [host, distribution: 219-224]; SkaifeLeBa1981 [taxonomy, distribution: 1-5]; SmailiAbBo2013 [biological control, distribution: 155–166]; SmailiAbBo2013 [biological control: 157]; SmailiAbBo2013 [biological control: 157]; Smetni1991 [chemistry: 92-129]; Smirno1950a [biological control: 190-194]; Smirno1951a [economic importance, host, distribution, chemical control: 47-55]; Smirno1952 [host, distribution, biological control: 63-69]; Smirno1957a [host, distribution, economic importance, control: 47-55]; Smit1964 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control, chemical control]; Smith1926 [biological control: 294-302]; Smith1934 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 280-282]; Smith1941 [biological control: 76-77]; Smith1948 [biological control: 597]; Smith1948a [economic importance: 813]; Smith1957 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 219-230]; Smith1964 [chemical control: 275-293]; SmithBeBr1997 [host, distribution, description, life history, biological control, chemical control]; SmithCo1931a [biological control: 328]; SmithEsFa1933 [economic importance: 1]; SmithFl1948 [biological control: 17-20]; SmithFl1950 [biological control: 362,376,378]; SmithFrPa1996 [biological control]; SmithMa1986 [life history, biological control, host, distribution: 452-434]; SmithSmLi1999 [biological control, chemical control: 995-1000]; SnyderBoCh2005 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 75-94]; SokoloKl1941 [biological control: 40-41]; SokoloKl1942 [biological control: 187-198]; SokoloKl1943 [biological control: 6-7]; Solomi1913 [host, distribution: 694-695]; SongMeRi2006 [host, distribution, ecology, life history: 49-54]; SorribRoRo2008 [host, distribution, biological control: 201]; SoyluOr1977 [biological control: 77-112]; Spille1952 [life history, ecology, host, distribution: 483-487]; SpolleHo1993 [chemical control, biological control: 16-19]; SpolleHo1993a [chemical control, biological control: 195-204]; SpolleHo1993b [chemical control, biological control: 87-94]; SpolleRoHo1994 [biological control: 189-208]; Sproul1981 [economic importance, host, chemical control, biological control: 50]; StarleRi1977 [host, distribution, biological control: 431-448]; Starne1897 [taxonomy: 23]; Statha2001b [life history, biological control: 113-116]; Stehr1974 [biological control: 124-136]; SteinbPoRo1994 [life history, biological control, ecology: 79-91]; Steine1987 [host, distribution, description, economic importance, control: 1-7]; SternAdBe1976 [biological control: 593]; Sternl1973a [host, distribution, biological control: 513-519]; Steyn1951 [life history, ecology: 165-170]; Steyn1954 [life history, biological control, ecology: 252-264]; Steyn1954a [host, distribution, life history, biological control, ecology, economic importance: 1-96]; Steyn1955 [life history, biological control, ecology, host, distribution: 93-105]; Steyn1958 [host, distribution, biological control: 589-594]; Steyn1959 [host, distribution, biological control: 899-902]; Stofbe1937a [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 1-24]; StouthLu1991 [biological control: 150-157]; StreibFrKa1994 [chemical control: 23-30]; Sumaro1967 [biological control: 179-185]; Suzuki2004 [host, distribution: 87-88]; Sweetm1958 [biological control, economic importance: 449-459]; Swirsk1976b [host, distribution, economic importance: 555-559]; Swirsk1989 [biological control: 11-44]; SwirskAr1971 [host, distribution: 12-15]; SwirskWyIz2002 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history, economic importance, biological control: 105-110]; Takagi1969a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 82,102]; Takagi1975 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 11]; TakagiRo1981 [host, distribution, biological control: 314-321]; Takaha1929 [host, distribution: 80-81]; Takaha1932a [host, distribution: 104]; Takaha1933 [host, distribution: 25-34]; Takaha1934 [host, distribution: 34]; Takaha1935 [host, distribution: 3-4]; Takaha1936c [host, distribution: 118]; Takaha1939b [host, distribution: 270]; Takaha1942b [host, distribution: 47]; Takaha1942d [host, distribution: 358]; Takaha1953a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 10-13]; Talhou1950 [host, distribution, economic importance: 133-141]; Talhou1969 [host, distribution, economic importance: 107-109]; Talhou1975 [economic importance: 25]; Talhou2002 [host, distribution, economic importance: 91-93]; Tamaki1997 [structure, chemistry]; Tanaka1966 [biological control: 1-42]; Tang1984 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 37]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 71]; Targio1881 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 151,153]; Targio1884 [taxonomy: 386-388]; Targio1885 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 108-109]; Tashir1966 [host, biological control: 604-608]; Tashir1966 [host, life history, biological control: 604-608]; TashirBe1968 [life history: 1009-1014]; TashirBeMo1969 [life history, taxonomy: 279-280]; TashirCh1967 [life history, chemical ecology: 1166-1170]; TashirChMo1969 [life history, chemical ecology: 935-940]; TashirGiRo1979 [chemistry, chemical ecology: 931-934]; TashirMo1968 [life history: 1014-1020]; TawfikGh2001 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 267-272]; Terezn1986 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 85-87]; Thorpe1930WH [taxonomy: 177]; TianCh1991 [biological control: 64-66]; Timber1916 [host, distribution, biological control]; TorabiVaHo2010 [host, distribution: 153-162]; Torres1922 [host, distribution: 72]; Toumey1895 [host, distribution, economic importance, taxonomy, description, life history, chemical control: 48-56]; Trabou1969 [distribution, host, biological control: 5-72]; TrabouBe1965 [host, distribution, biological control: 1-13]; TranfaVi1987a [economic importance, control: 215-221]; TremblRo1975 [chemical ecology: 195-200]; Trjapi1989 [biological control: 296]; TrjapiMy2001 [biological control, distribution: 163-165]; TronchRoGa1992 [host, distribution, biological control: 11-30]; Trujil1942 [host, distribution, economic importance]; Tryon1889 [taxonomy: 129]; Tschor1939 [host, distribution: 90]; TsolakSi1995 [chemical control: 223-229]; Tsukam1983 [chemical control, life history,: 71-98]; TumminAmCo2001 [host, distribution, chemical control, biological control: 31-36]; TumminCoMa2003 [chemical control: 175-183]; TumminCoSa1996 [life history, ecology, host, distribution, biological control: 493-503]; Tuncyu1970 [host, distribution, economic importance: 30-52]; Tuncyu1970a [host, distribution, economic importance: 67-80]; Tuncyu1976 [host, distribution, biological control: 32-45]; Tuncyu1977 [biological control: 200-212]; UlgentCa2004 [host, distribution: 79-84]; Ullyet1946 [host, distribution, biological control: 333-337]; UygunEl1998 [host, distribution, biological control, life history: 153-162]; UygunEl1998 [host, life history, biological control: 153-162]; UygunKaSe1992 [host, distribution, economic importance: 171-182]; UygunKaSe1995 [life history, economic importance, host, distribution, biological control: 239-246]; UygunKaUl1995 [host, distribution, biological control: 171-183]; UygunSeEr1998 [host, distribution: 183-191]; Vacant1985a [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 749-758]; VacasAlNa2009 [host, distribution, chemical ecology: 415-423]; Valent1963 [biological control: 6-13]; Valent1967 [biological control: 1100]; VanaclVaAl2012 [biological control, economic importance, life history: 1092-1097]; VandenTe1964 [ecology, biological control: 459-488]; VanDij1998 [host, distribution, biological control, economic importance: 23-28]; VanWyk1994 [chemical control]; Varshn2002 [host, distribution: 20]; Varshn2005 [taxonomy, illustration, host, distribution: 159-160]; VehrsGr1994 [host, distribution, chemical control: 1046-1057]; Velasq1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 120-123]; VelasqRi1969 [host, distribution: 195-208]; VermaDi2005 [host, distribution: 423-426]; VidalDoZa2003 [life history, chemical control,: 121]; Viggia1970a [host, distribution, economic importance: 51]; Viggia1971b [host, distribution, biological control: 5-6]; Viggia1984 [biological control: 257-276]; Viggia1989 [economic importance, host, distribution: 63-64]; Vinson1977 [host, distribution, biological control, chemistry: 237-279]; Vinson1990 [biological control, chemistry: 453-459]; WadhiBa1964 [host, distribution: 227-260]; WaldeLuYu1989 [host, distribution, life history, biological control, ecology: 1700-1706]; WalkerAi1996 [host, distribution, biological control, chemical control: 175-180]; WalkerAiOC1990 [host, distribution, chemical control: 189-196]; WalkerBe1986 [behaviour, life history, physiology: 549-553]; WalkerZaAr1999 [biological control, economic importance: 47-58]; WalkerZaAr1999a [economic importance, biological control: 906-914]; WaltonKrSa2009 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-6]; WappleBe2008 [taxonomy, fossil: 627-634]; WarePa1996 [host, distribution, biological control: 511-514]; WartheRuMo1970 [chemical ecology, life history: 2207-2209]; WashinWa1990 [structure, histology: 939-948]; Waterh1997 [host, distribution, economic importance: 156-171]; Watson1918 [host, distribution]; Watson1926 [host, distribution]; WatsonBe1937 [host, distribution, control]; WatsonDuLi2000 [biological control, economic importance: 351-357]; Wentze1970 [host, biological control, life history: 195-198]; Wester1918 [host, distribution, economic importance: 5-57]; Whitna1959 [host, distribution, economic importance: 5-9]; Willar1972 [host, distribution, life history: 37-47]; Willar1972a [host, distribution, life history: 49-65]; Willar1973 [host, distribution, life history: 217-229]; Willar1973a [host, distribution, life history: 567-573]; Willar1974 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 531-548]; Willar1976 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 7-11]; WilliaBu1987 [host, distribution: 94]; WilliaPa2012 [taxonomy: 228]; WilliaWa1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, economic importance: 8,36-37]; Wilson1917 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 12]; WilsonGo1962 [host, distribution, economic importance, control: 41-61]; Woglum1923 [chemical control, economic importance: 1-59]; Woglum1925 [chemical control, physiology: 593-597]; Woglum1925b [chemical control, physiology: 178]; Woglum1926 [chemical control: 723-733]; Woglum1942 [chemical control: 1-3]; Woglum1943 [host, distribution, biological control: 412]; WoglumLa1926 [chemical control, physiology: 396-397]; WolffCo1993 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 32-33]; WolffCo1993a [host, distribution: 153]; WolffPuSi2004 [biological control, host, distribution: 355-361]; WongChCh1999 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 18-19,58]; Wood1962 [distribution, biological control: 8-11]; Wood1964 [chemical control: 339-353]; Woodhi1928 [chemical control: 561]; WoodwaEvEa1970 [distribution]; Woodwo1903 [taxonomy: 39]; Woolle1990 [biological control: 167-176]; Wysoki1997 [host, distribution, economic importance: 805-811]; XieXuZh2004a [chemistry: 512-518]; YamamoOg1989 [chemistry: 123-148]; Yan1981 [life history]; YanIs1986 [life history, ecology: 971-975]; YanIs1986 [life history: 971-975]; YaromBlIs1988 [chemical control: 1581-1585]; Yasar1995a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 44-46]; Yasnos1987 [economic importance: 229-234]; YerushCo2002 [chemistry, chemical control: 133-141]; YigitCaZa1994a [host, distribution: 409-420]; YuLu1988 [life history, host, taxonomy, biological control: 154-161]; YuLuMu1990 [host, distribution, life history, biological control, ecology: 469-480]; Yust1941 [taxonomy: 785]; Yust1943 [life history: 868-872]; YustBuHo1942 [chemical control: 521-524]; YustBuNe1942 [chemical control, physiology: 816-820]; YustFuNe1951 [chemical control, physiology: 833-838]; YustHo1942 [chemical control: 821-824]; YustNeBu1942 [chemical control: 339-342]; YustNeBu1943 [chemical control: 744-749]; YustNeBu1943a [chemical control: 872-874]; YustSh1952 [chemical control, physiology: 220-228]; Zahrad1959b [host, distribution: 60]; ZappalSiSa2006 [biological control: 181-186]; ZchoriBePo2005 [endosymbionts, Cardinium: 211-221]; ZchoriFaZe1995 [life history, structure: 173-178]; ZchoriRoRo1994 [life history, structure, biological control: 169-172]; ZhangGu1994 [host, distribution, biological control: 103-105]; ZhangGuZh1992 [life history, biological control: 1,45]; Zhao1990 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 1-245].



Aonidiella bruni Balachowsky

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidiella bruni Balachowsky, 1952a: 101. Type data: GUINEA: on the slopes of Gangan Ridge, north of Kindia, at altitude of 1000 meters, on shoots of Vitis sp.; collected 13.xii.1951. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Vitaceae: Vitis [Balach1952a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Guinea [Balach1952a, Balach1956].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Balachowsky (1952a, 1956).

STRUCTURE: Female scale circular or subcircular, very flat, colour brown; larval exuviae central covered with slight white, powdery matter in fresh specimens; 1.8-2.2 mm. Male scale white, exuviae central, greenish; form variable, but generally oval; 1.1-1.2 mm (Balachowsky, 1952a, 1956)

KEYS: Ben-Dov 2006: 55-57 (female) [World (33 species)]; Balachowsky 1956: 26 (female) [Africa].

CITATIONS: Balach1952a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 101-104]; Balach1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 31-32,34]; BenDov2006 [taxonomy: 55-57]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 110]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 295].



Aonidiella citrina (Coquillett)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus citrinus; Craw, 1891: 10. Notes: The species was listed as "Aspidiotus citrinus Coquillett".

Aspidiotus citrinus Coquillett, 1891a: 29. Type data: U.S.A.: California, San Gabriel Valley, on Citrus. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Aspidiotus aurantii citrinus; Howard, 1894: 228. Change of status.

Aspidiotus citrinus; Cockerell, 1896b: 334. Incorrect synonymy. Notes: Incorrect synonymy with (Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell).

Aspidiotus (Aonidiella) aurantii citrinus; Cockerell, 1897i: 29. Change of combination and rank.

Aonidiella aurantii citrina; Leonardi, 1899: 175. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.

Chrysomphalus aurantii citrinus; Fernald, 1903b: 288. Change of combination.

Chrysomphalus citrinus; Lindinger, 1914: 118. Change of status.

Aonidiella aurantii; Kiritchenko, 1929: 173. Misidentification; discovered by Borchsenius, 1966: 295.

Aonidiella citrina; Nel, 1933: 417. Change of combination.

Aonidiella citrina; Danzig, 1993: 160. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Craw" as author.

Aonidiella citrina; Moghaddam, 2004: 13. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Craw" as author.

COMMON NAMES: escama amarilla [CoronaRuMo1997]; jeltaya pomeranzevaya shitovka [Borchs1936]; yellow scale [MerrilCh1923, McKenz1956, Dekle1965c, Borchs1966, MillerDa2005].



FOES: ACARI Cheyletidae: Hemicheyletia bakeri (Ehara) [GersonOcHo1990]. Hemisarcoptidae: Hemisarcoptes dzhashii Dzhibladze [GersonOcHo1990]. COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Coccidophilus citricola [AguileMeVa1984]. HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Aphytis aonidiae (Mercet) [RosenDe1979, MyartsRu2000], Aphytis chrysomphali (Mercet) [RosenDe1978, RosenDe1979], Aphytis citrinus Compere [RosenDe1978], Aphytis coheni DeBach [RosenDe1979], Aphytis holoxanthus DeBach [AnneckIn1971], Aphytis lingnanensis Compere [RosenDe1979], Aphytis mazalae DeBach & Rosen [RosenDe1979], Aphytis melinus DeBach [RosenDe1979], Aphytis mytilaspidis (Le Baron) [Hadzib1983], Aspidiotiphagus citrinus (Craw) [RosenDe1978, Hadzib1983], Encarsia aurantii (howard) [PolaszAbHu1999], Prospaltella aurantii (Howard) [RosenDe1978, Gordh1979]. Encyrtidae: Comperiella bifasciata Howard [Coy1938, Flande1953a, RosenDe1978, Rosen1987], Comperiella unifasciata Ishii [Trjapi1989]. Signiphoridae: Signiphora flavopalliata Ashmead [Gordh1979, Woolle1990], Signiphora occidentalis Howard [Gordh1979]. NEUROPTERA Coniopterygidae: Coniopteryx [Drea1990], Conwentzia barretti (Banks) [Drea1990], Conwentzia nigrans Carpenter [Drea1990].

HOSTS: Agavaceae: Agave [Hadzib1983]. Anacardiaceae: Mangifera indica [KondoKa1995a]. Apocynaceae: Carissa grandiflora [Merril1953, Dekle1965c]. Aquifoliaceae: Ilex aquifolium [McKenz1956], Ilex colchica [Hadzib1983]. Araliaceae: Aralia [McKenz1956], Hedera helix [McKenz1956], Schefflera heptaphylla [MartinLa2011]. Arecaceae: Livistona subglobosa [Takagi1969a], Phoenix dactylifera [McDani1968]. Aucubaceae: Aucuba [MerrilCh1923]. Berberidaceae: Mahonia aquifolium [McKenz1956]. Buxaceae: Buxus colchica [Hadzib1983], Buxus sempervirens [McKenz1956]. Caprifoliaceae: Viburnum [McKenz1956]. Celastraceae: Euonymus [MerrilCh1923, Merril1953, McKenz1956, Dekle1965c]. Cornaceae: Cornus sp. [Moghad2013a]. Elaeagnaceae: Elaeagnus [McKenz1956]. Ericaceae: Arbutus unedo [McKenz1956]. Lauraceae: Laurus cerasus [McKenz1956], Persea americana [McKenz1956]. Liliaceae: Aspidistra [McKenz1956]. Moraceae: Ficus elastica [McKenz1956, TakahaTa1956], Ficus indica [MerrilCh1923], Ficus retusa [KawaiMaUm1971]. Myrsinaceae: Ardisia sieboldii [Takagi1969a], Maesa tenera [Takagi1969a]. Myrtaceae: Eugenia jambolana [RahmanAn1941], Leptospermum [McKenz1956], Myrtus [McKenz1956], Psidium guajava [DanzigKo1990]. Nyctaginaceae: Ceodes umbellifera [KawaiMaUm1971]. Oleaceae: Jasminum [McKenz1956], Ligustrum [McKenz1956], Ligustrum lucidum [Merril1953, Dekle1965c], Ligustrum medium [KawaiMaUm1971], Olea europaea [McKenz1956], Olea fragrans [Borchs1936], Osmanthus [McKenz1956]. Proteaceae: Helicia formosana [Takagi1969a]. Rosaceae: Photinia arbutifolia [McKenz1956], Prunus ilicifolia [McKenz1956], Prunus laurocerasus [Borchs1936, McKenz1956], Prunus lyoni [McKenz1956], Rosa [McKenz1956]. Rutaceae: Choisya ternata [McKenz1956], Citrus [Kuwana1933, Borchs1936, RahmanAn1941, Merril1953, KawaiMaUm1971, Danzig1972c, BesheaTiHo1973], Citrus [UygunSeEr1998], Citrus bigaradia [Moghad2013a], Citrus limetta [Moghad2013a], Citrus limon [Hadzib1983], Citrus paradisi [Hadzib1983], Citrus sinensis [McKenz1956, Takagi1969a, RosenDe1979, Hadzib1983], Citrus unshiu [TakahaTa1956, Hadzib1983], Poncirus trifoliata [Hadzib1983]. Smilacaceae: Smilax [Takagi1969a]. Theaceae: Camellia [McKenz1956], Camellia japonica [Hadzib1983], Cleyera japonica morii [Takagi1969a], Schima mertensiana [KawaiMaUm1971]. Thymelaeaceae: Daphne [MerrilCh1923].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Benin [CABI1997a]; Cameroon [CABI1997a]; Congo [CABI1997a]; Côte d'Ivoire (=Ivory Coast) [CABI1997a]; Ethiopia [CABI1997a]; Gabon [CABI1997a]; Guinea [CABI1997a]; Madagascar [CABI1997a]; Mali [CABI1997a]; Mauritius [CABI1997a]; Niger [CABI1997a]; Saint Helena [Matile1976, CABI1997a]; Senegal [CABI1997a]; Tanzania [CABI1997a]; Yemen (North Yemen [CABI1997a], South Yemen [Nakaha1982, CABI1997a]); Zimbabwe [Balach1956]. Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [CABI1997a], South Australia [CABI1997a], Victoria [CABI1997a], Western Australia [CABI1997a]); Bonin Islands (=Ogasawara-Gunto) [KawaiMaUm1971, Kawai1987]; Fiji [Nakaha1982]; Papua New Guinea [Nakaha1982]; Western Samoa [Nakaha1982]. Nearctic: Mexico [CABI1997a, MyartsRu2000]; United States of America (California [McKenz1956, Takagi1969a, RosenDe1978, RosenDe1979], Florida [Wilson1917, MerrilCh1923, Merril1953, Dekle1965c, BesheaTiHo1973, CABI1997a], Texas [McKenz1937, McDani1968]). Neotropical: Argentina [CABI1997a]; Chile [GonzalCh1968]; Trinidad and Tobago [CABI1997a]. Oriental: Bangladesh [CABI1997a, Nakaha1982]; China (Fujian (=Fukien) [CABI1997a], Guangdong (=Kwangtung) [CABI1997a], Guangxi (=Kwangsi) [CABI1997a], Hubei (=Hupei) [CABI1997a], Hunan [CABI1997a], Jiangsu (=Kiangsu) [CABI1997a], Jiangxi (=Kiangsi) [CABI1997a], Sichuan (=Szechwan) [CABI1997a], Yunnan [CABI1997a]); Hong Kong [CABI1997a]; India [McKenz1937] (Andhra Pradesh [CABI1997a], Delhi [CABI1997a], Karnataka [CABI1997a], Maharashtra [CABI1997a], Punjab [RahmanAn1941], Uttar Pradesh [CABI1997a]). Oriental: Indonesia [Nakaha1982]. Oriental: Malaysia (Sabah [CABI1997a], Sarawak [CABI1997a]); Nepal [Takagi1975]; Pakistan [RosenDe1979, Nakaha1982, CABI1997a]; Philippines [CABI1997a] (Luzon [Velasq1971]); Taiwan [TakahaTa1956, Takagi1969a]; Thailand [CABI1997a]; Vietnam [DanzigKo1990]. Palaearctic: Afghanistan [Siddiq1966, Danzig1972c, CABI1997a]; Armenia [Nakaha1982]; Azerbaijan [Hadzib1983, CABI1997a] [Nakaha1982]; China (Hebei (=Hopei) [CABI1997a], Henan (=Honan) [Shen1993], Qinghai (=Chinghai) [CABI1997a], Xizang (=Tibet) [CABI1997a]); Corsica [new]; Cyprus [SismanUl2010]; France [GermaiBe2002]; Georgia (Abkhaz ASSR [Borchs1936], Adzhar ASSR [Borchs1936], Georgia [Borchs1936, CABI1997a, YasnosTaCh2005]); Iran [CABI1997a]; Italy [CABI1997a]; Japan [Kuwana1917a, Sakai1939, Kawai1980] (Honshu [TakahaTa1956, CABI1997a], Kyushu [TakahaTa1956], Shikoku [TakahaTa1956]); Libya [CABI1997a]. Palaearctic: Mongolia [DanzigKo1990]. Palaearctic: Saudi Arabia [CABI1997a]; South Korea [CABI1997a]; Turkey [Tuncyu1970a, CABI1997a, UygunSeEr1998, KaydanUlEr2007].

BIOLOGY: A biparental species, ovoviviparous, infesting chiefly leaves and fruit, rarely or not at all on the bark (Ferris, 1938a). The female sex pheromone has been identified (Gieselmann et al., 1979).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by McKenzie (1938, 1956), Ferris (1938a), Balachowsky (1956), Takagi (1969a), Velasquez (1971), Chou (1985, 1986), Tereznikova (1986), Danzig (1993) and by Gill (1997).

STRUCTURE: Scale of the female circular, flat, exuviae subcentral, the scale itself thin and pale and permitting the yellow color of the sclerotized female to show through. Scale of the male elongate oval, colour about as in the female, exuvia near one end (Ferris, 1938a). Colour colour photograph by Gill (1997).

SYSTEMATICS: The California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell, 1879) was first introduced into USA, California in 1879 from Australia. The yellow scale, Aonidiella citrina (Coquillett, 1891) was present in USA, California at the San Gabriel district as early as 1872. During the early 1880's, field entomologists, taxonomists and biological control experts in California observed evident differences in the injuriousness, physiology and ecology of the above two species, but failed to find reliable morphological distinguishing features. The morphological basis for separating these species has been first provided by McKenzie (1937). The authorship of Aonidiella citrina was generally credited to Coquillett (1891) (Fernald, 1903; McKenzie, 1937). However, Danzig (1993: 160) suggested that this name was first published by Craw (1891). Here, we follow the interpretation of Nel (1933: 418) who stated that "the first description of Aonidiella citrina (Coq.) was made by Coquillett in 1891, who was conducting some spray experiments on scale insects at the San Gabriel Valley, California. He [Coquillett] referred to it as follows: "The orange tree experimented upon was infested with the yellow scale (Aspidiotus citrinus)". Coquillett (1891) followed the binominal format, presented a brief description, locality and host plant, making therefore the name Aspidiotus citrinus Coquillett valid. Moreover, Craw (1891, 1891a) clearly credited the species to Coquillett. For a more detailed discussion refer to Nel (1933) and Compere (1961).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: The yellow scale which is morphologically related to Aonidiella aurantii, is a polyphagous insect, and a serious pest of citrus in certain citrus-growing areas of the world, such as California, Texas, Florida, China, Japan, India, Iran, Australia (Ebeling, 1959; Rosen & DeBach, 1978). The recent distribution map (CABI, 1997a) indicates that A. citrina is more widely distributed in other territories of Africa, South America, Mediterranean Basin, and Oriental region.

KEYS: Evans, Watson & Miller 2009: 63-67 (female) [Diaspididae species found on avocado]; Ben-Dov 2006: 55-57 (female) [World (33 species)]; Gill 1997: 44 (female) [Species of California]; Danzig 1993: 159 (female) [Europe]; Tereznikova 1986: 85 (female) [Ukraine]; Chou 1985: 292 (female) [Species of China]; Kawai 1980: 211 (female) [Japan]; Velasquez 1971: 118 (female) [Philippines]; McDaniel 1968: 210 (female) [U.S.A.: Texas]; Balachowsky 1956: 25 (female) [Africa]; McKenzie 1956: 24 (female) [U.S.A.: California]; McKenzie 1953: 36 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1946: 33 (female) [World]; Ferris 1942: 29 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1942b: 144-145 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1938: 17-18 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1937a: 178 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1937: 330 (female) [World]; Lupo 1936: 261 (female) [World]; Kuwana 1933b: 49 (female) [Japan].

CITATIONS: AguileMeVa1984 [life history, biological control: 47-54]; AlamSa1965 [host, distribution, life history: 161-171]; Aldric1996 [life history, physiology, chemistry, chemical ecology: 201-204]; AndersHe1979 [chemistry, life history: 773-779]; AndersWuGr2010 [molecular data: 992-1003]; AonidiCi2005 [taxonomy: 327-330]; AsquitCrHo1980 [control, chemistry, economic importance]; Balach1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 29,34]; Bartle1959 [biological control: 1-2]; BeardsDaHo1976 [economic importance: 106]; BeardsGo1975 [economic importance: 49]; BeattiGe1983 [host, distribution: 220-226]; BenDov1990a [taxonomy: 89]; BenDov2006 [taxonomy, distribution: 55-57]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 110-117]; BesheaTiHo1973 [host, distribution: 4]; Blumbe1990 [structure, biological control: 221-228]; Borchs1935a [taxonomy: 36]; Borchs1936 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance, biological control: 135-137]; Borchs1937 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 121]; Borchs1937a [taxonomy: 63,66]; Borchs1939 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 8,20]; Borchs1949d [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 234]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 212,221]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 295]; Boyce1948 [host, distribution, economic importance, control]; Boyce1950 [host, distribution, economic importance: 741-766]; Brooks1969 [chemical control: 923-932]; BrooksBu1966 [host, distribution, chemical control: 185-188]; Browni1994a [biological control: 27-49]; BurgerUl1990 [economic importance: 313-327]; Bustsh1958 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 220,245]; CABI1975 [host, distribution: 1-3]; CABI1997a [host, distribution: 1-3]; Calkin1983 [distribution, economic importance: 321-359]; Caltag1985 [taxonomy, biological control: 189-200]; Carman1953 [chemical control: 307-308]; CarmanElEw1954 [host, distribution, chemical control : 1-11]; CarmanEw1950 [chemical control: 15A-16A]; CarmanEwJe1951 [host, distribution, chemical control : 1-16]; CarmanEwJe1956 [chemical control]; CarmanEwJe1957 [chemical control]; CarmanEwJe1958 [chemical control]; CarmanEwJe1959 [chemical control]; CarmanEwJe1960 [chemical control]; CarmanEwJe1961 [chemical control]; CarmanEwJe1962 [chemical control]; CarmanEwJe1976 [host, distribution, control: 14-68]; CarmanEwRi1980 [host, distribution, control: 14-77]; CarmanLi1956 [chemical control: 534-539]; Carnes1907 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 216]; Chou1985 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 295-296]; Chou1986 [structure, anatomy: 441,443]; Chou1986 [taxonomy, illustration: 677]; ClapsWoGo2001a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 11]; Clause1956 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control]; Clause1958 [economic importance, biological control: 291-310]; Clause1958a [host, distribution, biological control: 443-447]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy, distribution: 334]; Cocker1897i [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 29]; Comper1961 [taxonomy, host, distribution, biological control, economic importance: 173-278]; Comper1969 [biological control: 755-764]; Cook1909 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, chemical control: 19]; Coquil1891a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, chemical control: 19-26]; CoronaRuMo1997 [host, distribution: 38-41]; Coy1938 [biological control: 445-446]; Craw1891 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 10]; DahlstHa1999 [economic importance: 919-933]; Danzig1964 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 651]; Danzig1972 [taxonomy, host, distribution, economic importance: 207]; Danzig1972c [host, distribution: 583]; Danzig1993 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, economic importance: 160-161]; DanzigKo1990 [host, distribution: 45]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 182]; DavidsMi1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 603-632]; Dean1955 [biological control: 444-447]; DeBach1958 [host, distribution, biological control, ecology: 187-194]; DeBach1958a [biological control: 759-768]; DeBach1958b [host, distribution: 187-194]; DeBach1964 [biological control]; DeBach1966 [host, distribution, biological control, ecology, life history: 183-212]; DeBach1969 [biological control: 801-815]; DeBach1971a [biological control: 211-233]; DeBach1974 [biological control]; DeBachBa1951 [chemical control, biological control: 372-383]; DeBachDiFl1951 [biological control: 347-348]; DeBachHeRo1978 [host, distribution, life history, ecology, biological control: 1-35]; DeBachRo1991 [biological control]; Dekle1965c [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 20]; Dekle1976 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, economic importance: 31]; DeSant1979 [biological control]; Drea1990 [biological control: 51-59]; Dunkel1999 [chemistry, life history, chemical ecology]; Dzhash1970 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 176]; Ebelin1949 [host, distribution, life history, control]; Ehler1996 [host, distribution, biological control: 337-342]; ElirazRo1978 [biological control: 96-101]; ElmerEwCa1951 [economic importance, biological control, host, distribution: 593-597]; Essig1949 [host, distribution: 673-677]; EvansWaMi2009 [taxonomy: 63-67]; Ewart1969 [chemical control: 879-880]; EwartCa1951 [host, distribution, chemical control: 1-10]; EwartCaJe1952 [host, distribution, chemical control: 1-6]; EwartCaJe1953 [host, distribution, chemical control: 1-7]; FargerMo1974 [life history, chemistry, biological control: 26-28]; FDACSB1983 [host, distribution: 6-8]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 288]; Ferris1938b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 179]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 42]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy: 29]; FisherDe1976 [biological control: 43-50]; Flande1934 [host, distribution: 145-150]; Flande1944a [biological control: 365-371]; Flande1945a [host, distribution, biological control: 711-712]; Flande1948a [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 56,76-77]; Flande1953 [biological control: 10-28]; Flande1953a [host, distribution, biological control, economic importance: 266-269]; Flande1958a [biological control: 579-584]; Flande1966 [biological control: 79-82]; Flande1971 [biological control, life history: 857-872]; Flesch1960 [biological control: 183-208]; FlintVa1981 [biological control: 1]; FrohliRo1970 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-10]; Gaprin1954 [biological control: 587-597]; Gaprin1956 [host, distribution: 103-137]; Germai2011 [distribution, economic importance: 31-34]; Germai2011a [distribution, host: 8]; GermaiBe2002 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 49-51]; GersonOcHo1990 [biological control: 77-97]; Ghabbo1995 [taxonomy: 379-387]; GhahhaShBa2004 [host, distribution, biological control: 121-122]; Giesel1990 [life history, chemistry: 221-224]; Giesel1990a [chemistry: 225-232]; GieselMoFa1979 [chemistry, chemical ecology: 27-33]; GieselRi1990 [life history, ecology, chemistry: 349-352]; GieselRiJo1979 [chemistry, chemical ecology: 891-900]; Gill1997 [host, distribution, taxonomy, description, illustration, economic importance: 47-51]; Gonzal1969 [biological control: 839-847]; GonzalCh1968 [host, distribution: 110]; Gordh1979 [biological control: 893-895,900,907,911,]; GordhBe1999 [biological control, taxonomy: 45-55]; Grafto1994 [chemical control: 7-9]; GraftoMiOC2000 [life history, chemistry, ecology, control, chemical ecology: 75-88]; GraftoOu1993 [chemical control: 21-29]; GraftoOuSt2001 [distribution, chemical control, resistance: 20-25]; GraftoVe1995 [host, distribution, life history, biological control, chemical control: 495-504]; GriffiTh1947 [chemical control: 386-388]; GriffiTh1949 [life history: 101-109]; GriffiTh1949a [taxonomy, description: 1-13]; GriffiTh1957 [host, distribution: 5-30]; Haas1934 [chemistry, chemical control, physiology: 477-492]; Hadzib1983 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history, biological control, economic importance: 226-228]; Hamble1947 [host, distribution: 949-956]; HardieMi1999 [chemistry, life history]; HarusaOsTa1992 [chemistry, chemical ecology: 2543-2546]; Hewitt1943 [host, distribution: 266-274]; Hinckl1963 [host, distribution, biological control]; HoffmaRiSh1998 [biological control: 268-293]; Howard1894 [taxonomy, biological control: 228]; Howard1895e [biological control: 1-44]; HoyHe1985 [biological control]; HoyHe1985 [biological control]; HuffakMeDe1971 [biological control: 16-67]; JacobsReCr1978 [chemistry: 448-457]; JiYa1990 [biological control: 134-136]; KattarHeOd1999 [biological control: 640-644]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 211]; Kawai1987 [host, distribution: 78]; KawaiMaUm1971 [host, distribution: 18-19]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 92]; Kiritc1929 [taxonomy: 173]; KiriukTa1947 [host, distribution: 1-4]; Koehle1964 [host, distribution, control]; KondoKa1995a [host, distribution: 97-98]; KreiteAuGe2006 [distribution, economic importance, host: 143]; KreiteGe2005 [host, distribution: 132]; Kuwana1909 [host, distribution: 154]; Kuwana1917a [taxonomy, distribution: 175]; Kuwana1933 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 30-31]; KwonHa2003 [host, distribution: 279-288]; Laport1948 [host, distribution, biological control: 35-37]; LawsonHa1984 [ecology: 451]; Leonar1899 [taxonomy: 175,176,187]; Lindin1912b [taxonomy: 357-358]; Lindin1914 [taxonomy: 118]; Lindin1943b [taxonomy: 145]; LongoMaPa2002 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 508-509]; LongoMaRu1994a [host, distribution, economic importance: 19-25]; LongoMaRu1995a [host, distribution: 126-129]; Lorbee1971 [biological control, host, distribution: 199-201]; Lupo1936 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 255-257]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 443]; Maranh1946 [taxonomy: 164-179]; MartinLa2011 [catalogue, distribution, host: 37]; Maskel1895b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 41]; Matile1976 [host, distribution: 311]; McDani1968 [taxonomy, illustration, host, distribution: 212]; McKenz1937 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 324-327,331]; McKenz1937a [taxonomy: 178]; McKenz1938 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 7-8,24]; McKenz1939 [taxonomy: 54]; McKenz1942b [taxonomy: 145]; McKenz1946 [taxonomy: 33]; McKenz1953 [taxonomy: 36]; McKenz1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 41-42]; McLare1971 [life history, ecology: 189-204]; Merril1953 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 13-14]; MerrilCh1923 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, economic importance: 221-223]; MessenBiVa1976 [biological control: 453-565]; MessenVa1971 [biological control: 68-92]; MessenWiWh1976 [biological control: 209]; MetcalMe1993 [economic importance, host, distribution, control]; MillerDa1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 300]; MillerDa2005 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, economic importance: 54-57]; Moghad2004 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 13]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 15]; MohammGh2008 [distribution: 150]; Moreno1972 [structure, anatomy, chemistry, chemical ecology: 1283-1286]; Moreno1983 [chemical ecology, control: 77-79]; MorenoCaFa1974 [life history: 15-20]; MorenoCaRi1972 [life history, chemistry, chemical ecology: 443-446]; MorenoFa1975 [structure, anatomy, chemical ecology: 425-428]; MorenoRiCa1972 [life history, chemistry, chemical ecology: 698-701]; Mori1981 [chemistry, chemical ecology: 41-53]; MoriKu1982 [chemistry, chemical ecology: 521-525]; Muma1948 [biological control: 193-194]; Muma1971 [host, distribution, biological control: 139-150]; MumaSeDe1961 [biological control, host, distribution: 1-39]; Muraka1970 [host, distribution: 71]; MyartsRu2000 [distribution, biological control: 7-33]; Nakaha1982 [host, distribution: 7]; Nel1933 [taxonomy, life history, anatomy, host, distribution: 416-466]; NSWDAE1963 [host, distribution, taxonomy, economic importance]; OlkowsOlKa1978 [biological control: 311-347]; Onder1982 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 1-171]; PalmerBeMa2005 [host, distribution, life history: 54-59]; Perkin1982 [economic importance, chemical control, biological control: 5]; PolaszAbHu1999 [host, distribution, biological control: 131-163]; Pratt1958 [taxonomy, illustration, distribution]; Quayle1911e [biological control: 510-515]; Quayle1932 [life history, chemical control: 1-87]; Quayle1938a [host, distribution, life history, economic importance, chemical control, biological control]; Quedna1964b [biological control: 86-116]; RahmanAn1941 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 818-819]; RiehlBrMc1980 [chemical control, biological control, economic importance: 319-363]; RoelofGiMo1982 [chemistry: 348]; Rose1990 [biological control: 229]; Rose1990a [biological control, host: 263-287]; Rose1990c [distribution, economic importance: 535-542]; Rosen1987 [taxonomy, biological control: 191]; RosenDe1973 [biological control, taxonomy: 215-222]; RosenDe1978 [economic importance, biological control, life history, distribution: 91-93]; RosenDe1979 [host, distribution, biological control : 476-483,533-542,]; RossHaOk2012 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 199]; RugmanAnMo2010 [taxonomy, phylogenetics, molecular data: 30-38]; Sakai1939 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 45-62]; SandsVa2003 [host, biological control: 41-53]; Schmut1995 [chemical control]; SchmutKlLu1957 [host, distribution, economic importance: 482]; SchmutKlLu1959 [taxonomy: 374]; SelhimBr1977 [host, distribution, biological control: 475-478]; Shen1993 [host, distribution: 57]; Siddiq1966 [host, distribution, economic importance: 4-5]; Siddiq1981 [economic importance, host, distribution: 172-180]; Simant1960a [host, distribution, life history: 49-57]; Simant1962a [biological control: 105-112]; Simant1969 [biological control, economic importance: 889-896]; Simant1969a [life history, economic importance, life history: 889-896]; Simant1976 [host, distribution, chemical control: 135-164]; SismanUl2010 [host, distribution: 219-224]; Smetni1991 [chemistry: 92-129]; Smith1941 [biological control: 76-77]; Smith1948 [biological control: 597]; SmithBeBr1997 [host, distribution, description, life history, biological control, chemical control]; SmithCo1931a [biological control: 328]; Sweetm1958 [biological control, economic importance: 449-458]; Takagi1969a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 82-83,100]; Takagi1975 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 11]; TakagiRo1981 [host, distribution, biological control: 314-321]; Takaha1953a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 10-13]; TakahaTa1956 [host, distribution: 16]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 71]; Terezn1986 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 87-89]; Trembl1999 [economic importance: 19-28]; TremblRo1975 [chemical ecology: 195-200]; Trjapi1989 [biological control: 296]; Tuncyu1970 [host, distribution, economic importance: 30-52]; Tuncyu1970a [host, distribution, economic importance: 67-80]; Tuncyu1976 [host, distribution, biological control: 32-45]; UlgentCa2004 [host, distribution: 79-84]; UygunKaUl1995 [host, distribution, biological control: 171-183]; UygunSeEr1998 [host, distribution: 183-191]; Varshn2002 [host, distribution: 20-21]; Velasq1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 124-127]; Wilson1917 [host, distribution: 64]; Woglum1923 [chemical control, economic importance: 1-59]; Woglum1925a [chemical control, physiology: 2]; WoglumLaLa1947 [biological control, chemical control: 818-820]; WoodwaEvEa1970 [distribution]; Woolle1990 [biological control: 167-176]; YamamoOg1989 [chemistry: 123-148]; Yasar1995a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 47-49]; Yasnos1987 [economic importance: 229-234]; Yasnos1994 [host, distribution, biological control: 317-333]; YasnosTaCh2005 [host, distribution, biological control: 295-302]; Yust1941 [structure: 785]; YustNeBu1942a [chemical control: 825-826]; ZiegleWo1975 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-6].



Aonidiella comperei McKenzie

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidiella comperei McKenzie, 1937: 327. Type data: INDIA: Bombay, Calaba, on Citrus sp. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Chrysomphalus comperei; Lindinger, 1957: 545. Change of combination.

Aonidiella comperei; Borchsenius, 1966: 295. Revived combination.

COMMON NAMES: Compere scale [VelasqRi1969]; escama falsa amarilla [CoronaRuMo1997]; false yellow scale [McKenz1937, Velasq1971].



HOSTS: Annonaceae: Annona muricata [Balach1958b, Takagi1962c, Takagi1970, Martor1976]. Arecaceae: Cocos nucifera [McKenz1946, Takagi1970]. Asteraceae: Pluchea odorata [WilliaWa1988]. Caricaceae: Carica papaya [MartinCuWo2004]. Cucurbitaceae: Cucurbita maxima [Velasq1971]. Ebenaceae: Diospyros [WilliaWa1988]. Euphorbiaceae: Annesijoa [WilliaWa1988]. Moraceae: Ficus [WilliaWa1988]. Musaceae: Musa [Takagi1970, WilliaWa1988]. Rubiaceae: Morinda citrifolia [WilliaWa1988]. Rutaceae: Citrus [McKenz1937, Takagi1962c, Takagi1970], Citrus aurantifolia [McKenz1946], Citrus grandis [McKenz1946]. Vitaceae: Vitis [McKenz1946].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Federated States of Micronesia (Caroline Islands [Beards1966], Truk Islands [Beards1966], Yap [Beards1966]); Kiribati [WilliaWa1988]; Marshall Islands [Beards1966]; Palau [Beards1966]; Papua New Guinea [WilliaWa1988]. Neotropical: Brazil (Espirito Santo [MartinCuWo2004, CulikMaVe2008], Rio Grande do Norte [MartinCuWo2004]); Dominica [McKenz1946]; Guadeloupe [Balach1957c]; Guatemala [McKenz1946]; Haiti [McKenz1946, PerezG2008]; Martinique [Balach1957c]; Puerto Rico & Vieques Island (Puerto Rico [Takagi1962c, Takagi1970, Martor1976]); Saint Martin & St. Barthelemy (Saint Martin [MatileEt2006]); U.S. Virgin Islands [Nakaha1983]. Oriental: India [McKenz1937, Takagi1962c, Takagi1970]; Philippines [McKenz1946, VelasqRi1969] (Cebu [Velasq1971]); Taiwan [Takagi1962c, Takagi1970]; Thailand [McKenz1946]; Vietnam [DanzigKo1990]. Palaearctic: China [Takagi1962c]; Japan [Takagi1970]. Palaearctic: Mongolia [DanzigKo1990].

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the leaves, twigs, and larger branches (McKenzie, 1937).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by McKenzie (1937), Balachowsky (1958b), Velasquez (1971), Chou (1985, 1986), Williams & Watson (1988) and by Colon-Ferrer & Medina-Gaud (1998).

STRUCTURE: Scale of female smooth, circular, flat, yellow, hard, and brittle, 1.5 to 1.75 mm. in diameter. Scale of male not identified (McKenzie, 1937).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: This is a polyphagous species, that has been recorded from South Pacific, Far East and Central America (see Distribution and Host Plants) but it was not considered a pest.

KEYS: Ben-Dov 2006: 55-57 (female) [World (33 species)]; Williams & Watson 1988: 35 (female) [Tropical South Pacific]; Velasquez 1971: 118 (female) [Philippines]; Beardsley 1966: 509 (female) [Federated States of Micronesia]; McKenzie 1946: 33 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1942b: 144-145 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1938: 17-18 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1937a: 178 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1937: 330 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: Balach1957c [host, distribution: 199]; Balach1958b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 223-224,227]; Beards1966 [host, distribution: 509]; BenDov2006 [taxonomy: 55-57]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 118-119]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 295-296]; Chou1986 [taxonomy, illustration: 681]; ClapsWoGo2001a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 12]; ColonFMe1998 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 37]; CoronaRuMo1997 [host, distribution: 38-41]; CulikMaVe2008 [host, distribution: 1-6]; DanzigKo1990 [host, distribution: 45]; Ebelin1949 [host, distribution, life history, control]; Hunt1939 [host, distribution: 548-566]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 545]; MartinCuWo2004 [host, distribution: 655-657]; Martor1976 [host, distribution: 14]; MatileEt2006 [host, distribution: 168]; McKenz1937 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 327-330]; McKenz1937a [taxonomy: 178]; McKenz1938 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 8-9,17,25]; McKenz1942b [taxonomy: 144]; McKenz1946 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 31-33]; MillerDa1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 300]; Nakaha1983 [host, distribution: 8]; PerezG2008 [distribution: 214]; PruthiMa1945 [host, distribution, life history, control: 1-42]; Sander1909a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 52]; SchmutKlLu1957 [host, distribution, economic importance: 484]; Takagi1962c [host, distribution: 52]; Takagi1970 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 131]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 71]; Varshn2002 [host, distribution: 21]; Velasq1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 118-119]; VelasqRi1969 [host, distribution: 195-208]; WilliaWa1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 37-40].



Aonidiella crenata Balachowsky

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidiella crenata Balachowsky, 1953b: 77. Type data: CONGO: on Eriocoelum microspermum. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Euphorbiaceae: Cleistanthus polystahyus [Almeid1973b]. Sapindaceae: Eriocoelum microspermum [Balach1953b].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Angola [Almeid1973b]; Zimbabwe [Balach1953b].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Balachowsky (1953b, 1956).

STRUCTURE: Female scale circular, colour uniform red; glassy aspect formed by the shiny, central exuviae; the marginal crenulations are visible beneath the scale. Ventral scale flat, white, completely sealing the scale below; 1.8-2.1 mm. Male scale unknown (Balachowsky, 1953b, 1956).

KEYS: Ben-Dov 2006: 55-57 (female) [World (33 species)]; Balachowsky 1956: 25 (female) [Africa].

CITATIONS: Almeid1973b [host, distribution: 8]; Balach1953b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 77-80]; Balach1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 33-36]; BenDov2006 [taxonomy: 55-57]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 119]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 296].



Aonidiella ensifera McKenzie

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidiella ensifera McKenzie, 1942b: 142. Type data: CHILE: Valparaiso, on Hedera helix; collected May 14, 1935. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.



FOE: HYMENOPTERA Signiphoridae: Signiphora flavella [Woolle1990].

HOST: Araliaceae: Hedera helix [McKenz1942b, ClapsWoGo2001].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Chile [GonzalCh1968, ClapsWoGo2001] (Valparaiso [McKenz1942b]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the leaves (McKenzie, 1942b).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by McKenzie (1942b).

STRUCTURE: Scale of the female quite thin, of a pale reddish-brown color, the area of the second exuvia being slightly paler than the remainder; no male scale found (McKenzie, 1942b).

KEYS: Ben-Dov 2006: 55-57 (female) [World (33 species)]; McKenzie 1946: 33 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1942d: 144-145 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: BenDov2006 [taxonomy: 55-57]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 119-120]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 296]; ClapsWoGo2001 [host, distribution: 240]; GonzalCh1968 [distribution: 110]; McKenz1942b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 142-143,147]; McKenz1946 [taxonomy: 33]; Woolle1990 [biological control: 167-176].



Aonidiella eremocitri McKenzie

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidiella eremocitri McKenzie, 1937a: 177. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Queensland, Marmor, on Eremocitrus glauca. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Chrysomphalus eremocitri; Lindinger, 1943b: 207. Change of combination.

Aonidiella eremocitri; Borchsenius, 1966: 296. Revived combination.



FOE: HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Comperiella bifasciata Howard [Flande1944a].

HOSTS: Anacardiaceae: Campnosperma brevipetiolata [Beards1966]. Arecaceae: Cocos nucifera [McKenz1946, Beards1966, WilliaBu1987, WilliaWa1988]. Celastraceae: Celastrus bilocularis [Brimbl1962a]. Euphorbiaceae: Glochidion [Beards1966]. Lecythidaceae: Barringtonia [WilliaWa1988]. Meliaceae: Owenia venosa [Brimbl1962a]. Orchidaceae: Coelogyne asperata [McKenz1946]. Rutaceae: Citrus [WilliaWa1988], Eremocitrus glauca [McKenz1937a].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Queensland [McKenz1937a, Brimbl1962a]); Fiji [WilliaWa1988, HodgsoLa2011]; Palau [Beards1966]; Papua New Guinea [WilliaWa1988]; Solomon Islands [McKenz1946, WilliaWa1988]; Vanuatu (=New Hebrides) [WilliaBu1987, WilliaWa1988]. Oriental: Thailand [McKenz1946].

BIOLOGY: Occurring on leaves, twigs and larger branches (McKenzie, 1937a).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by McKenzie (1937a, 1938) and by Williams & Watson (1988).

STRUCTURE: Scale of female smooth, circular, flat, yellow, hard, and brittle, 1.5 to 1.75 mm. in diameter. Male scale not identified (McKenzie, 1937a).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Considered a pest of oil palm and coconut (Mariau, 1998).

KEYS: Ben-Dov 2006: 55-57 (female) [World (33 species)]; Williams & Watson 1988: 35 (female) [Tropical South Pacific]; Beardsley 1966: 509 (female) [Federated States of Micronesia]; McKenzie 1946: 33 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1942b: 144-145 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1938: 17-18 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1937a: 178 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: Balach1958b [taxonomy: 224]; Beards1966 [host, distribution: 510]; BenDov2006 [taxonomy: 55-57]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 120-21]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 296]; Brimbl1962a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 408-409]; Flande1944a [biological control: 365-371]; HodgsoLa2011 [host, distribution: 22]; Lindin1943b [taxonomy: 207]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 545]; Mariau1998 [host, distribution, economic importance: 269-277]; McKenz1937a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 177-179]; McKenz1938 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 9,26]; McKenz1942b [taxonomy: 144]; McKenz1946 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 32-33]; WilliaBu1987 [host, distribution: 94]; WilliaWa1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 39-40].



Aonidiella eugeniae (Hempel)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus eugeniae Hempel, 1937: 25. Type data: BRAZIL: Sao Paolo, Santos, on Eugenia sp. Holotype female. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo, Brazil; type no. 718. Described: female. Illust.

Aonidiella eugeniae; McKenzie, 1938: 9. Change of combination.

Chrysomphalus eugeniae; Lindinger, 1957: 545. Change of combination.

Aonidiella eugeniae; Borchsenius, 1966: 296. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Melastomataceae: Miconia [ClapsWoGo2001]. Myricaceae: Myrica jaboticaba [ClapsWoGo2001]. Myrtaceae: Eugenia [Hempel1937, Lepage1938, ClapsWoGo2001], Eugenia cauliflora [McKenz1946], Eugenia dombeyi [ClapsWoGo2001], Paivaea langsdorffii [ClapsWoGo2001].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Sao Paulo [Hempel1937, Lepage1938, McKenz1946, ClapsWoGo2001]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Hempel (1937) and by McKenzie (1938).

STRUCTURE: Female scale slender, flat, approximately circular, about 2 mm in diameter (Hempel, 1937).

KEYS: Ben-Dov 2006: 55-57 (female) [World (33 species)]; McKenzie 1946: 33 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1942b: 144-145 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1938: 17-18 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: BenDov2006 [taxonomy: 55-57]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 121-]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 296]; Claps1993 [taxonomy: 6]; ClapsWoGo2001 [host, distribution: 241]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 43]; Hempel1937 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 25-27]; Lepage1938 [catalogue: 394]; Lindin1943b [taxonomy: 207]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 545]; McKenz1938 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 9,27]; McKenz1942b [taxonomy: 145]; McKenz1944 [taxonomy, description, illustration: 55,59]; McKenz1946 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 32-33]; Rungs1941 [taxonomy: 29].



Aonidiella godfreyi Takahashi

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidiella godfreyi Takahashi, 1942b: 48. Type data: THAILAND: Chiengmai, on an undetermined tree. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Taichung: Entomology Collection, Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, Wu-feng, Taichung, Taiwan. Described: female. Illust.

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Thailand [Takaha1942b].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Takahashi (1942b).

STRUCTURE: Scale circular, slightly convex, pale yellowish brown, a little grayish, 1.5 mm. in diameter (Takahashi, 1942b).

KEYS: Ben-Dov 2006: 55-57 (female) [World (33 species)].

CITATIONS: BenDov2006 [taxonomy: 55-57]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 121]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 296]; Takaha1942b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 48-49].



Aonidiella gracilis (Balachowsky)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus gracilis Balachowsky, 1929: 141. Type data: ZAIRE: Sankuru, on leaves of cacao; collected by Ghesqiere, January 1925. . Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

Aspidiotus gracillimus Lindinger, 1937: 180. Unjustified replacement name for Aspidiotus gracilis Balachowsky.

Aonidiella gracilis; McKenzie, 1938: 9. Change of combination.

Chrysomphalus gracillimus; Lindinger, 1943b: 218. Change of combination.

Aonidiella gracillima; Schmutterer et al., 1957: 484. Change of combination.

Aonidiella gracilis; Borchsenius, 1966: 296. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Arecaceae: Elaeis guineensis [Balach1956]. Rutaceae: Coffea. Sterculiaceae: Theobroma cacao [Balach1929, Liegeo1944].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Zaire [Balach1929, Ghesqu1932, MayneGh1934, Liegeo1944]; Zimbabwe [Balach1956].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by McKenzie (1938) and by Balachowsky (1956).

STRUCTURE: Female scale, circular, small 1.4-1.8 mm; sometimes posterior part projecting giving a pyriform shape; moderately convex, larval exuviae central; scale brown. Male scale same colour, oval, 0.8-1 mm (Balachowsky, 1956).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Recorded as a pest of cocoa in Congo (Liegeois, 1944).

KEYS: Ben-Dov 2006: 55-57 (female) [World (33 species)]; Balachowsky 1956: 26 (female) [Africa]; McKenzie 1946: 33 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1942b: 144-145 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1938: 17-18 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: Balach1929 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 141-145]; Balach1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 35-38]; BenDov2006 [taxonomy: 55-57]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 121-122]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 296]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 44]; Ghesqu1932 [host, distribution: 59]; Liegeo1944 [host, distribution, economic importance: 164-165]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 180]; Lindin1943b [taxonomy: 218]; MayneGh1934 [host, distribution: 3-38]; McKenz1938 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 9-10,28]; McKenz1942b [taxonomy: 145]; McKenz1946 [taxonomy: 33]; MillerDa1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 300]; SchmutKlLu1957 [host, distribution, economic importance: 484].



Aonidiella inornata McKenzie

NOMENCLATURE:

Chrysomphalus aurantii; Robinson, 1917: 24. Misidentification; discovered by McKenzie, 1938: 10.

Aonidiella inornata McKenzie, 1938: 10. Type data: PHILIPPINES: Luzon, Los Banos, on Astronia sp.; collected April 1915, by C.F. Baker. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Aonidiella inormata; Borchsenius, 1966: 296. Misspelling of species name.

Aonidiella inormata; Chou, 1986: 682. Misspelling of species name.

COMMON NAME: papaya red scale [LeeWe1977].



HOSTS: Agavaceae: Cordyline terminalis [McKenz1946, Zimmer1948]. Anacardiaceae: Campnosperma brevipetiolata [Takaha1941b, McKenz1946], Mangifera indica [McKenz1946]. Apocynaceae: Allemanda [WilliaWa1988], Nerium oleander [McKenz1938], Ochrosia [Beards1966], Plumeria acuminata [Takaha1939b, Beards1966], Plumeria rubra [WilliaWa1988]. Arecaceae [McKenz1938, Takagi1969a], Areca catechu [McKenz1946], Cocos nucifera [Beards1966, Takagi1969a], Nypa fruticans [Beards1966]. Caricaceae: Carica papaya [Takaha1939c, LeeWe1977]. Casuarinaceae: Casuarina [Beards1966]. Cycadaceae: Cycas [Takagi1969a]. Euphorbiaceae: Annesijoa [WilliaWa1988], Bischofia javanica [WilliaWa1988], Euphorbia [WilliaWa1988]. Fabaceae: Cassia [WilliaWa1988]. Hippocrateaceae: Salacea [WilliaWa1988]. Lecythidaceae: Barringtonia [WilliaWa1988]. Loganiaceae: Fagraea cambageana [Brimbl1962a]. Moraceae: Artocarpus alticis [Beards1966]. Musaceae: Musa [WilliaBu1987, WilliaWa1988]. Myrtaceae: Melaleuca [WilliaWa1988]. Oleaceae: Jasminum sambac [McKenz1946, Zimmer1948, Beards1966]. Pandanaceae: Pandanus odoratissimus [WilliaWa1988]. Piperaceae: Piper [Zimmer1948], Piper aduncum [WilliaWa1988], Piper betle [McKenz1938, McKenz1946], Piper methysticum [WilliaBu1987, WilliaWa1988]. Podocarpaceae: Podocarpus macrophyllus [MartinLa2011]. Polygonaceae: Polygonum [WilliaWa1988]. Rhizophoraceae: Rhizophora mucronata [Beards1966]. Rubiaceae: Hedyotis ocutangulus [McKenz1938], Platanocephalus morindaefolius [WilliaWa1988]. Rutaceae: Astronia [McKenz1938, Takagi1969a], Citrus [McKenz1938, Beards1966], Citrus paradisi [McKenz1946], Citrus reticulata [McKenz1946]. Vitaceae: Vitis vinifera [WilliaWa1988]. Zingiberaceae: Elettaria cardamomum [WilliaWa1988].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Guinea [McKenz1946]. Australasian: Australia (Queensland [Brimbl1962a]); Federated States of Micronesia (Caroline Islands [Takaha1939b, Takaha1941b, Beards1966], Kosrae (=Kusaie) [Beards1966], Ponape Island [Beards1966], Truk Islands [Beards1966], Yap [Beards1966]); Fiji [WilliaWa1988, HodgsoLa2011]; Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii [McKenz1938, McKenz1946, Zimmer1948, Takagi1969a]); Indonesia (Irian Jaya [WilliaWa1988]); Kiribati [WilliaWa1988]; Marshall Islands [Beards1966]; Palau [Takaha1939b, Beards1966]; Papua New Guinea [WilliaWa1988]; Vanuatu (=New Hebrides) [WilliaBu1987, WilliaWa1988]; Wake Island [Beards1966]; Western Samoa [WilliaWa1988]. Nearctic: United States of America (Texas [Nakaha1982]). Neotropical: Dominican Republic [Nakaha1982]; Ecuador [Nakaha1982]; Haiti [PerezG2008]; Puerto Rico & Vieques Island (Puerto Rico [ColonFMe1998]). Oriental: Hong Kong [McKenz1938, Takagi1969a]; India (Uttar Pradesh [GuptaSi1988]); Philippines [McKenz1946] (Luzon [McKenz1938, Takagi1969a]); Taiwan [Takaha1939c, Takagi1969a, LeeWe1977]; Thailand [Nakaha1982]. Palaearctic: China [Tang1984] (Henan (=Honan) [Shen1993]); Japan [Sakai1939, Kawai1980].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by McKenzie (1938), Zimmerman (1948), Takagi (1969a), Velasquez (1971), Tang (1984), Chou (1985, 1986), Williams & Watson (1988) and by Colon-Ferrer & Medina-Gaud (1998).

STRUCTURE: Female scale yellow-brown, translucent, with the outline of the body showing through; "waxy margin of the scale tending to be abruptly descending at the margin of the body of the insect" [sic]. Male scale yellow-brown, elongate (McKenzie, 1938).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Has been recorded as pest of papaya in Taiwan (Lee & Wen, 1977) and mango in the Philippines and Puerto Rico (Chua & Wood, 1990).

KEYS: Ben-Dov 2006: 55-57 (female) [World (33 species)]; Williams & Watson 1988: 35 (female) [Tropical South Pacific]; Chou 1985: 292 (female) [Species of China]; Kawai 1980: 211 (female) [Japan]; Velasquez 1971: 118 (female) [Philippines]; McDaniel 1968: 210 (female) [U.S.A.: Texas]; Beardsley 1966: 509 (female) [Federated States of Micronesia]; McKenzie 1946: 33 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1942b: 144-145 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1938: 17-18 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: Beards1966 [host, distribution: 510-511]; BenDov2006 [taxonomy: 55-57]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 122-124]; Borchs1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 296]; Brimbl1962a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 410]; Chou1985 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 298-299]; Chou1986 [taxonomy, illustration: 682]; ChuaWo1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 543-552]; ColonFMe1998 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 37-38]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 182]; Esaki1940a [host, distribution: 274-280]; GuptaSi1988 [host, distribution, control: 357-361]; Hinckl1963 [host, distribution, biological control]; HodgsoLa2011 [host, distribution: 22]; Hunt1939 [host, distribution: 548-566]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 211-212]; LeeWe1977 [economic importance, life history, host, distribution, chemical control: 196-201]; Lindin1943b [taxonomy: 207]; McClur1990e [taxonomy, host, distribution, ecology: 309-314]; McDani1968 [taxonomy, illustration, host, distribution: 212-215]; McKenz1938 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 10-11,29-30]; McKenz1942b [taxonomy: 145]; McKenz1946 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 32-33]; Nafus1996 [host, distribution: 1]; Nakaha1982 [host, distribution: 7]; PerezG2008 [distribution: 214]; Robins1917 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 24-25]; Sakai1939 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 45-62]; Schmut2001 [host, distribution: 339-345]; Shen1993 [host, distribution: 58]; Takagi1969a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 83-84,103]; Takaha1939b [taxonomy, host, distribution: 270]; Takaha1939c [taxonomy, host, distribution: 88]; Takaha1941b [host, distribution: 220]; Tang1984 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 39-40]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 71]; Varshn2002 [host, distribution: 21]; Velasq1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 128-130]; VelasqRi1969 [host, distribution: 195-208]; WilliaBu1987 [host, distribution: 94]; WilliaWa1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 41-42]; Zimmer1948 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 361,364,366].



Aonidiella lauretorum (Lindinger)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus lauretorum Lindinger, 1911a: 15. Type data: CANARY ISLANDS: Gran Canaria, on Dracaena draco; Tenerife, on Gymnosporia cassinoides, Ilex canariensis, I. platyphylla, Oreodaphne foetens, Picconia excelsa, Smilax canariensis, Hedera helix canariensis, Appolonias canariensis. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Hamburg: Zoologisches Institut und Zoologisches Museum, Universitat von Hamburg, Germany. Described: female. Illust.

Aonidiella lauretorum; McKenzie, 1938: 11. Change of combination.

Aonidiella mimeuri Rungs, 1941: 27. Type data: PORTUGAL: Cintra, botanic garden, on Dicksonia squarrosa; collected by M.J.M. Mimeur, 19.ix.1935. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France; type no. 1416. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Borchsenius, 1966: 296.



HOSTS: Aquifoliaceae: Ilex canariensis [Lindin1911a, GomezM1962], Ilex platyphylla [Lindin1911a, GomezM1962]. Araliaceae: Hedera canariense [Balach1938a], Hedera helix canariensis [GomezM1962], Hedera helix [Balach1948b], Hedera helix canariensis [Lindin1911a]. Celastraceae: Gymnosporia [Balach1948b], Gymnosporia cassinoides [Lindin1911a]. Cyatheaceae: Dicksonia squarrosa [Rungs1941, Balach1948b]. Gentianaceae: Wildpretina viscosa [Balach1948b]. Lauraceae: Apollonias [Balach1948b], Apollonias canariensis [Lindin1911a, GomezM1962], Laurus canariensis [Lindin1911a, GomezM1962, GomezM1967O], Ocotea foetens [Balach1946, GomezM1962, GomezM1967O], Oreodaphne foetens [Lindin1911a, Balach1938a], Persea indica [Balach1948b]. Liliaceae: Dracaena [Lindin1912b], Dracaena draco [Balach1948b]. Myrsinaceae: Heberdenia excelsa [Lindin1911a, GomezM1962]. Oleaceae: Picconia excelsa [Lindin1911a, GomezM1962]. Ruscaceae: Semele androgyna [Balach1948b]. Smilacaceae: Smilax [Balach1948b], Smilax canariensis [Lindin1911a]. Theaceae: Visnea mocanera [Lindin1911a, Balach1948b, GomezM1962].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Canary Islands [Lindin1911a, Balach1946, Balach1948b, GomezM1962, GomezM1967O, MatileOr2001]; Madeira Islands [Balach1938a, FrancoRuMa2011]; Portugal [Rungs1941, FrancoRuMa2011].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description of adult female by Lindinger (1911a), McKenzie (1938), Balachowsky (1948b) and by Gomez-Menor Guerrero (1962).

STRUCTURE: Female scale white or bright yellow-brown, transparent; exuviae more or less central; 2.5-3 mm long2-2.5 wide. Male scale white, elongate, 1-1.2 mm long 0.7-0.8 mm wide; exuviae eccentric (Lindinger, 1911a). Female scale circular or subcircular, very flat, without any projections; colour red-yellow or yellow, transparent; larval exuviae central or subcentral of similar colour; 1.8-2.1 mm (Balachowsky, 1948b).

KEYS: Ben-Dov 2006: 55-57 (female) [World (33 species)]; Gomez-Menor Guerrero 1962: 187 (female) [Canary Islands]; Balachowsky 1948b: 361 (female) [Mediterranean]; McKenzie 1946: 33 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1942b: 144-145 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1938: 17-18 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: Balach1938a [host, distribution: 151-152]; Balach1946 [host, distribution: 212]; Balach1948b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 373-376]; BenDov2006 [taxonomy, distribution: 51, 55-57]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 124-125]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 296-297]; Bustsh1958 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 220,242]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 182]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 45]; FrancoRuMa2011 [distribution: 2,8,23]; GomezM1962 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 196-198]; GomezM1967O [host, distribution: 132]; Lindin1911a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 15-17]; Lindin1912b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 69-70,135,174,175,]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 402]; MatileOr2001 [host, distribution: 189]; McKenz1938 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 11-12,31]; McKenz1942b [taxonomy: 145]; McKenz1946 [taxonomy: 31,33]; Rungs1941 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 27-30]; Sassce1912 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 93]; WeidneWa1968 [taxonomy: 172].



Aonidiella longicorna McKenzie

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidiella longicorna McKenzie, 1939: 65. Type data: ETHIOPIA: Nefasit, on undetermined, ornamental plant. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Aspidiotus longicornis; Lindinger, 1943b: 207. Change of combination.

Aonidiella longicorna; Borchsenius, 1966: 297. Revived combination.

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Ethiopia [McKenz1939].

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the leaves (McKenzie, 1939).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by McKenzie (1939) and by Balachowsky (1956).

STRUCTURE: Scale of the female gray-brown, translucent, with the outline of the insect showing through, the waxy margin tending to be considerably extended beyond the body of the insect itself; scale of the male gray, elongate-oval, with the exuvia et one end (McKenzie, 1939).

KEYS: Ben-Dov 2006: 55-57 (female) [World (33 species)]; Balachowsky 1956: 25 (female) [Africa]; McKenzie 1946: 33 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1942b: 144-145 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: Balach1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 37-40]; BenDov2006 [taxonomy: 55-57]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 125-126]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 297]; Lindin1943b [taxonomy: 207]; McKenz1939 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 65,76]; McKenz1942b [taxonomy: 145]; McKenz1946 [taxonomy: 33].



Aonidiella marginipora McKenzie

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidiella marginipora McKenzie, 1946: 30. Type data: UGANDA: Kampala, on Hydnocarpus sp. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Flacourtiaceae: Hydnocarpus [McKenz1946].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Sierra Leone [Balach1956]; Uganda [McKenz1946].

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the leaves (McKenzie, 1946).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by McKenzie (1946) and by Balachowsky (1956).

STRUCTURE: Scale of the female approximately 1.20 mm in diameter, circular, pale brown, thin, with a series of puffy wax layers forming a somewhat convex mound. Scale of the male elongate, light yellowish (McKenzie, 1946).

KEYS: Ben-Dov 2006: 55-57 (female) [World (33 species)]; Balachowsky 1956: 26 (female) [Africa]; McKenzie 1946: 33 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: Balach1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 39-42]; BenDov2006 [taxonomy: 55-57]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 126]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 297]; McKenz1946 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 30,33,35].



Aonidiella messengeri McKenzie

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidiella messengeri McKenzie, 1953: 35. Type data: RYUKYU: Miyako Islands, on Calophyllum inophyllum; collected September 5 1951, by A.P. Messenger. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Arecaceae: Phoenix roebelenii [TakahaTa1956, Takagi1970]. Cycadaceae: Cycas revoluta [Takaha1955f]. Daphniphyllaceae: Daphniphyllum glaucescens [TakahaTa1956, Takagi1970]. Guttiferae: Calophyllum inophyllum [Takagi1970]. Moraceae: Ficus retusa [Takaha1955f]. Myrsinaceae: Bladhia siebaldi [Takagi1970].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Ryukyu Islands (=Nansei Shoto) [McKenz1953, TakahaTa1956, Takagi1970]; Taiwan [McKenz1953, TakahaTa1956, Takagi1970]. Palaearctic: Japan [Takaha1955f, Takagi1970, Kawai1980] (Honshu [TakahaTa1956], Shikoku [TakahaTa1956]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by McKenzie (1953).

STRUCTURE: Female scale about 1.5 mm in diameter, circular, thin and translucent with the reddish body of the insect showing through; the scale develops a wide, grayish-white marginal zone much exceeding the body of the insect itself. Male scale elongate, and with body colour similar to female (McKenzie, 1953).

KEYS: Ben-Dov 2006: 55-57 (female) [World (33 species)]; Kawai 1980: 211 (female) [Japan]; McKenzie 1953: 36 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: BenDov2006 [taxonomy: 55-57]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 126-127]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 183]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 213]; McKenz1953 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 35-38]; Muraka1970 [host, distribution: 71]; Takagi1970 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 131]; TakahaTa1956 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 15-16]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 71].



Aonidiella orientalis (Newstead)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus orientalis Newstead, 1894c: 26. Type data: INDIA: Andhra Pradesh, Seven Pagodas, on Panicum sp. Syntypes. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Aspidiotus osbeckiae Green, 1896: 4. Type data: SRI LANKA: Punduloya, on Osbeckia sp. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Synonymy by Green, 1922: 459.

Aspidiotus (Diaspidiotus) osbeckiae; Cockerell, 1897i: 28. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Evaspidiotus) orientalis; Leonardi, 1898a: 76. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Evaspidiotus) osbechiae; Leonardi, 1898a: 76. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Evaspidiotus) osbechiae; Leonardi, 1898a: 76. Misspelling of species name. Notes: Mis-spelling of "osbechiae" for "osbeckiae".

Aspidiotus (Chrysomphalus) pedronis Green, 1905a: 341. Type data: SRI LANKA: Pedrotalagalla, altitude of about 8000 feet, on an undetermined tree. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Ferris, 1941e: 46.

Aspidiotus (Aonidiella) taprobanus Green, 1905a: 344. Type data: SRI LANKA: Peradeniya, on Phyllanthus myrtifolius. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by McKenzie, 1939: 65.

Chrysomphalus pedronis; Sanders, 1906: 15. Change of combination.

Chrysomphalus taprobanus; Sanders, 1906: 15. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Aonidiella) cocotiphagus Marlatt, 1908c: 14. Type data: CUBA: Santiago de las Vegas, on Cocos nucifera; collected by W.T. Horne, August 1914. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA; type no. 14136. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Lindinger, 1908: 241.

Aspidiotus cocotiphagus; Lindinger, 1908e: 241. Change of combination.

Chrysomphalus orientalis; Lindinger, 1913: 73. Change of combination.

Chrysomphalus pedroniformis Cockerell & Robinson, 1915: 107. Type data: PHILIPPINES: Luzon, Bataan on Eriodendron anfractuosum; Laguna, Los Banos, on Vitis vinifera. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Borchsenius, 1966: 297.

Furcaspis cocotiphaga; MacGillivray, 1921: 408. Change of combination.

Furcaspis orientalis; MacGillivray, 1921: 408. Change of combination.

Aonidiella taprobana; MacGillivray, 1921: 444. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.

Aspidiotus orientalis cocotiphagus; Merrill & Chaffin, 1923: 204. Change of combination and rank.

Aspidiotus (Furcaspis) orientalis; Glover, 1933: 1. Change of combination.

Aonidiella orientalis; McKenzie, 1937: 327. Change of combination.

Aonidiella orientalis; McKenzie, 1938: 12. Change of combination.

Aonidiella cocotiphagus; Ferris, 1938a: 190. Change of combination.

Aonidiella pedroniformis; McKenzie, 1939: 54. Change of combination.

Aonidiella pedronis; McKenzie, 1939: 54. Change of combination.

Abgrallaspis narainus Dutta & Singh, 1990: 1. Type data: INDIA: Uttar Pradesh, District Firozabad, Shikohabad, from Musa paradisiaca and Carica papaya; collected 2.ix.1986. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Normark et al., 2014: 44.

Agbrallaspis narainus; Dutta & Singh, 1990: 1. Misspelling of genus name.

Abgrallaspis azadirachti Ojha, 2005: 11. Type data: INDIA: Uttar Pradesh, Agra, Firozabad, Kudhi village, near Shikohabad, on Azadirachta indica. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Normark et al., 2014: 44.

COMMON NAMES: escama amarilla oriental [CoronaRuMo1997]; Oriental Scale [Merril1953, Dekle1965c, MillerDa2005].



FOES: ACARI Hemisarcoptidae: Hemisarcoptes coccophagus Meyer [OfekHuYz1997]. COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Chilocorus baileyi (Blackburn) [ElderBe1998], Chilocorus bipustulatus Linnaeus [OfekHuYz1997, SwirskWyIz2002], Chilocorus circumdatus Gyllenhal [ElderBe1998], Stethorus gilvifrons Mulsant [OfekHuYz1997]. Nitidulidae: Cybocephalus aonidiellae Kirejtshuk & Fallahzadeh [KirejtFa2010]. HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Ablerus guadrii Agarwal [OfekHuYz1997], Aphytis aonidiae (Mercet) [RosenDe1979], Aphytis coheni [RehmatAnKh2011], Aphytis lingnanensis Compere [OfekHuYz1997], Aphytis melinus DeBach [OfekHuYz1997, ElderSmBe1998], Aphytis mytilaspidis (Le Baron) [RosenDe1979], Aphytis peculiaris (Girault) [RosenDe1979], Aphytis riyadhi DeBach [DeBach1979], Coccobius aligarhensis [RehmatAnKh2011], Coccobius eticulates [RehmatAnKh2011], Coccophagoides orientalis [RehmatAnKh2011], Encarsia aurantii (Howard) [PolaszAbHu1999], Encarsia bifasciafacies [RehmatAnKh2011], Encarsia citrina Craw [ElderSmBe1998], Marietta javensis Howard [OfekHuYz1997], Marlattiella maculata [RehmatAnKh2011], Pteroprix logiclavata [RehmatAnKh2011]. Encyrtidae: Comperiella bifasciata Howard [OfekHuYz1997, SwirskWyIz2002], Comperiella lemniscata Compere & Annecke [ElderGuSm1997, ElderSmBe1998], Comperiella unifasciata Ishii [Trjapi1989], Habrolepis aspidiotii Compere & Annecke [OfekHuYz1997, MohammGhTa2001, SwirskWyIz2002], Habrolepis obscura Compere & Annecke [Prinsl1983]. NEUROPTERA Chrysopidae: Chrysoperla carnea Stephens [OfekHuYz1997].

HOSTS: Acanthaceae: Adhatoda vasica [RahmanAn1941], Barleria cristata [RahmanAn1941], Thunbergia grandiflora [RahmanAn1941]. Aceraceae: Acer oblongum [RahmanAn1941], Acer pictum [RahmanAn1941]. Agavaceae: Agave [RahmanAn1941], Agave americana [RahmanAn1941], Agave sisalana [Balach1948b, Beards1966, DeLott1967a, Matile1978], Agave variegata [RahmanAn1941]. Anacardiaceae: Mangifera indica [RahmanAn1941, McKenz1946, KinjoNaHi1996, OfekHuYz1997, GermaiVaMa2010], Pistacia integerrima [RahmanAn1941], Pistacia lentiscus [BenDov2012], Spondias cytherea [McKenz1946]. Annonaceae: Annona [Houser1918, Merril1953], Annona glabra [MerrilCh1923], Annona squamosa [McKenz1946], Polyalthia korihthi [Balach1948b], Polyathia [Ramakr1919a], Rollinia emarginata [Merril1953]. Apocynaceae: Allamanda cathartica [LincanHoCa2010], Alstonia [RahmanAn1941], Alstonia scholaris [RahmanAn1941], Calotropis procera [Moghad2013a], Carissa [Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1921a, Merril1953], Carissa carandas [MerrilCh1923, RahmanAn1941], Nerium [RahmanAn1941], Nerium oleander [RahmanAn1941, Bodenh1944a, Beards1966], Periploca aphylla [Moghad2013a], Plumeria [MerrilCh1923, Beards1966], Tabernaemontana [MerrilCh1923], Tabernaemontana coronaria [RahmanAn1941]. Araliaceae: Hedera [Dekle1965c]. Arecaceae [Houser1918], Cocos [Green1937, Balach1948b], Cocos nucifera [Marlat1908c, Houser1918, McKenz1946, Dekle1965c, BesheaTiHo1973], Inodes neglecta [MerrilCh1923], Loroma amethystiora [MerrilCh1923, Merril1953], Phoenix [Houser1918, RahmanAn1941], Phoenix dactylifera [McKenz1946, Moghad2004], Roystonea regia [McKenz1946]. Aristolochiaceae: Aristolochia [RahmanAn1941]. Asclepiadaceae: Calotropis [Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1921a], Calotropis procera [RahmanAn1941, Balach1948b]. Bignoniaceae: Bignonia radicans [RahmanAn1941], Bignonia vinusta [RahmanAn1941], Kigelia pinnata [RahmanAn1941], Oroxylum indicum [RahmanAn1941], Tecoma australis [RahmanAn1941], Tecoma stans [RahmanAn1941], Tecoma undulata [RahmanAn1941]. Bombacaceae: Adansonia [Merril1953], Bombax malabaricum [RahmanAn1941], Eriodendron anfractuosum [CockerRo1915]. Boraginaceae: Cordia [RahmanAn1941], Cordia myxa [RahmanAn1941, Bodenh1944a], Cordia obliqua [RahmanAn1941], Cordia rothii [RahmanAn1941], Ehretia serrata [RahmanAn1941]. Burseraceae: Boswellia serrata [RahmanAn1941], Bursera serrata [RahmanAn1941]. Buxaceae: Buxus sempervirens [RahmanAn1941]. Cactaceae: Cactus [RahmanAn1941], Opuntia [RahmanAn1941]. Cannaceae: Canna indica [RahmanAn1941]. Capparidaceae: Crataeva religiosa [RahmanAn1941]. Caprifoliaceae: Lonicera chinensis [RahmanAn1941], Sambucus javanica [Velasq1971]. Caricaceae: Carica papaya [Green1914c, Balach1948b, Brimbl1962a, WilliaWa1988, DuttaSi1990, MartinLa2011]. Celastraceae: Catha edulis [MerrilCh1923], Celastrus paniculata [RahmanAn1941]. Chenopodiaceae: Bassia latifolia [RahmanAn1941]. Combretaceae: Quisqualis indica [RahmanAn1941], Terminalia arjuna [RahmanAn1941], Terminalia belerica [RahmanAn1941], Terminalia catappa [LincanHoCa2010]. Convolvulaceae: Calonyction roxburghii [RahmanAn1941], Ipomoea [RahmanAn1941], Porana paniculata [RahmanAn1941]. Cunoniaceae: Weinmannia [Lepage1938]. Cycadaceae: Cycas [MerrilCh1923, McKenz1937], Cycas revoluta [Green1900c, Houser1918]. Ebenaceae: Diospyros [Green1937, Balach1948b], Diospyros embryopteris [RahmanAn1941], Diospyros montana [RahmanAn1941]. Elaeagnaceae: Elaeagnus pungens [Merril1953]. Euphorbiaceae: Acalypha [Matile1984c], Bischofia javanica [RahmanAn1941], Croton tiglium [RahmanAn1941], Mallotus philippinensis [RahmanAn1941], Phyllanthus myrtifolius [Green1905a, Sander1906, Ramakr1921a, Green1922, Green1937], Poinsettia [RahmanAn1941], Putranjiva roxburghii [RahmanAn1941], Ricinus [Green1937, Balach1948b, Beards1966], Ricinus communis [RahmanAn1941, Beards1966, Moghad2004], Sapium sebiferum [RahmanAn1941]. Fabaceae: Acacia cyanophila [Matile1984c], Albizia [RahmanAn1941], Albizia julibrissin [Moghad2013a], Albizia lebbek [RahmanAn1941], Atylosia [Ramakr1921a], Atylosia candollii [Green1900a, Ramakr1919a], Bauhinia [Green1937, Balach1948b], Bauhinia alba [RahmanAn1941], Bauhinia purpurea [RahmanAn1941], Bauhinia racemosa [RahmanAn1941], Bauhinia vahlii [RahmanAn1941], Bauhinia variegata [RahmanAn1941], Butea frondosa [RahmanAn1941], Caesalpinia bonducella [RahmanAn1941], Cassia [Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1921a, Green1937, Balach1948b], Cassia auriculata [RahmanAn1941], Cassia fistula [RahmanAn1941], Ceratonia siliqua [RahmanAn1941, Moghad2004], Dalbergia [Green1908a, Green1937, Balach1948b], Dalbergia lanceolaria [RahmanAn1941], Dalbergia sissoo [RahmanAn1941, Bodenh1943, Bodenh1944a, McKenz1946, Moghad2004], Erythrina crista galli [RahmanAn1941], Inga dulcis [RahmanAn1941], Poinciana regia [Matile1984c], Pongamia glabra [RahmanAn1941], Prosopis spicigera [Moghad2013a], Saraca indica [RahmanAn1941], Tamarindus [Green1908a, Green1937, Balach1948b], Tamarindus indica [RahmanAn1941], Tephrosia [Ramakr1919a]. Flindersiaceae: Chloroxylon swietenia [Ramakr1919a]. Heliconiaceae: Heliconia [Velasq1971]. Liliaceae: Aloe vera [RahmanAn1941], Asparagus [RahmanAn1941], Asparagus sprengeri [MerrilCh1923, Merril1953]. Lythraceae: Lagerstroemia indica [RahmanAn1941], Lawsonia inermis [Matile1984c], Punica granatum [Moghad2013a]. Magnoliaceae: Magnolia grandiflora [RahmanAn1941]. Malpighiaceae: Hiptage madablota [RahmanAn1941]. Malvaceae: Hibiscus [MerrilCh1923]. Melastomataceae: Osbeckia [Green1896, Green1896e, Ramakr1921a, Green1937, Balach1948b], Wrightia coccinea [RahmanAn1941]. Meliaceae: Azadirachta indica [Ojha2005], Azedarach indica [Schmut1998], Cedrela toona [RahmanAn1941], Melia [Green1937, Balach1948b], Melia azadirachta [RahmanAn1941], Melia composita [RahmanAn1941], Melia indica [RahmanAn1941], Melia volkensii [Schmut1990a], Swietenia mahagoni [RahmanAn1941]. Menispermaceae: Cocculus laurifolius [RahmanAn1941]. Moraceae: Broussonetia papyrifera [RahmanAn1941], Ficus [MerrilCh1923, Green1937, RahmanAn1941, Bodenh1944b, McKenz1946, Balach1948b, Merril1953, Danzig1972c], Ficus benghalensis [RahmanAn1941], Ficus carica [RahmanAn1941], Ficus elastica [RahmanAn1941], Ficus glomerata [RahmanAn1941], Ficus infectoria [RahmanAn1941], Ficus nitida [Matile1984c, AlAhmeBa1991], Ficus orbicularis [Green1916e, Balach1948b], Ficus palmata [RahmanAn1941], Ficus religiosa [RahmanAn1941, Matile1984c], Ficus retusa [RahmanAn1941], Ficus roxburghii [RahmanAn1941], Ficus salicifolia [Balach1948b], Maclura aurantiaca [RahmanAn1941], Morus [RahmanAn1941], Morus alba [RahmanAn1941], Morus laevigata [RahmanAn1941]. Moringaceae: Moringa pterygosperma [RahmanAn1941]. Musaceae: Musa [Green1937, Balach1948b], Musa paradisiaca [DuttaSi1990], Musa sapientum [RahmanAn1941]. Myrtaceae [Lepage1938], Callistemon lophanthus [Moghad2013a], Callistemon rigidus [RahmanAn1941], Eucalyptus [RahmanAn1941, Matile1984c], Eugenia [Green1937, Balach1948b], Eugenia jambolana [RahmanAn1941], Myrrhinium rubriflorum [Lepage1938], Myrtus communis [RahmanAn1941], Psidium guajava [RahmanAn1941, Matile1984c], Syzygium aromaticum [Moghad2013a]. Naucleaceae: Stephegyne parviflora [RahmanAn1941]. Nyctaginaceae: Bougainvillea [RahmanAn1941], Mirabilis jalapa [RahmanAn1941], Nyctaginia [RahmanAn1941]. Ochnaceae: Ochna squarrosa [RahmanAn1941]. Oleaceae: Jasminum [RahmanAn1941], Olea europaea [Bodenh1943, Danzig1972c, Matile1984c]. Orchidaceae [Lepage1938]. Oxalidaceae: Averrhoa carambola [RahmanAn1941]. Poaceae: Panicum [Mamet1951, Borchs1966]. Podocarpaceae: Podocarpus lamberti [Lepage1938], Podocarpus neriifolius [Balach1948b]. Polygonaceae: Antigonon leptopus [RahmanAn1941]. Proteaceae: Grevillea robusta [RahmanAn1941]. Punicaceae: Punica granatum [RahmanAn1941]. Ranunculaceae: Clematis paniculatus [RahmanAn1941]. Rhamnaceae: Rhamnus persicus [RahmanAn1941], Ziziphus [Green1937, RahmanAn1941, Balach1948b], Ziziphus jujuba [RahmanAn1941], Ziziphus oenoplia [RahmanAn1941], Ziziphus spina-christi [Moghad2013a]. Rhizophoraceae: Bruguiera sexangulata [Beards1966], Rhizophora mucronata [Beards1966]. Rosaceae: Eriobotrya japonica [RahmanAn1941], Prunus armeniaca [Matile1984c], Pyrus sinensis [RahmanAn1941], Rosa [Green1937, RahmanAn1941, Balach1948b, Matile1984c]. Rutaceae: Aegle [Green1937], Aegle marmelos [RahmanAn1941], Casimiroa [MerrilCh1923, Merril1953], Citrus [RahmanAn1941, Bodenh1944a, Bodenh1944b, Balach1948b, Matile1976], Citrus aurantium [Bodenh1943], Citrus bigaradia [Moghad2013a], Citrus grandis [BenDov2012], Citrus limetta [Moghad2013a], Citrus limon [DeLott1967a], Citrus paradisi [BenDov2012], Citrus sinensis [Moghad2013a], Citrus trifoliata [Houser1918, MerrilCh1923], Feronia elephantum [RahmanAn1941], Limonia [Green1937], Murraya exotica [MerrilCh1923, RahmanAn1941]. Salicaceae: Populus alba [RahmanAn1941], Populus euphratica [Bodenh1943], Salix tetrasperma [RahmanAn1941]. Santalaceae: Santalum album [Balach1948b]. Sapindaceae: Dodonaea viscosa [RahmanAn1941, Matile1984c], Litchi chinensis [McKenz1946, Balach1948b], Nephelium litchi [RahmanAn1941], Sapindus detergens [RahmanAn1941]. Sapotaceae: Achras sapota [BenDov2012], Manilkara zapota [Moghad2013a], Mimusops elengi [RahmanAn1941], Mimusops kauki [RahmanAn1941]. Simaroubaceae: Ailanthus aladulosa [RahmanAn1941]. Solanaceae: Solanum arundo [Balach1948b], Solanum melongena [Beards1966, TakagiMo2005]. Sterculiaceae: Pterospermum acerifolium [RahmanAn1941], Sterculia [RahmanAn1941], Sterculia alata [RahmanAn1941]. Tamaricaceae: Tamarix indica [Moghad2013a]. Theaceae: Camellia [Green1937, Balach1948b], Thea [Green1937, Balach1948b]. Tiliaceae: Grewia asiatica [RahmanAn1941]. Ulmaceae: Celtis [RahmanAn1941], Celtis australis [RahmanAn1941], Ulmus [RahmanAn1941], Ulmus integrifolia [RahmanAn1941]. Verbenaceae: Callicarpa macrophyla [RahmanAn1941], Citharexylum subserratum [RahmanAn1941], Clerodendrum phlomoides [RahmanAn1941], Duranta ellisi [RahmanAn1941], Duranta plumieri [Matile1984c], Gmelina arborea [RahmanAn1941], Nyctanthes arbor-tristis [RahmanAn1941], Vitex negundo [RahmanAn1941]. Vitaceae: Vitis vinifera [CockerRo1915, RahmanAn1941]. Zamiaceae: Zamia [Merril1953]. Zingiberaceae: Alpinia nutans [RahmanAn1941].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Benin [GermaiVaMa2010]; Comoros [Balach1956, Matile1978]; Kenya [Newste1917b, DeLott1967a, Schmut1998]; Madagascar [Balach1956, Borchs1966]; Mali [MuniapWaVa2012]; Saint Helena [Matile1976]; Senegal [MuniapWaVa2012]; Somalia [Maleno1916a, Balach1956, Borchs1966, DeLott1967a]; South Africa [Balach1956, Borchs1966]; Tanzania [DeLott1967a]. Australasian: Australia (Northern Territory [Green1914c, Green1916e], Queensland [Brimbl1962a, Borchs1966]); Federated States of Micronesia (Yap [Beards1966]); Papua New Guinea [WilliaWa1988]. Nearctic: United States of America (Florida [MerrilCh1923, Merril1953, Dekle1965c, Borchs1966, BesheaTiHo1973]). Neotropical: Bahamas [McKenz1946]; Brazil [Borchs1966] (Rio Grande do Sul [Lepage1938], Rio de Janeiro [Lepage1938], Santa Catarina [Lepage1938]); Colombia [Kondo2001]; Cuba [Marlat1908c, Houser1918, McKenz1946, Borchs1966]; Galapagos Islands [CaustoPeSi2006, LincanHoCa2010]; Guadeloupe [MatileEt2006]; Haiti [PerezG2008]; Jamaica [Borchs1966]; Martinique [MatileEt2006]; Panama [McKenz1946, Borchs1966]; Puerto Rico & Vieques Island (Puerto Rico [McKenz1946, Borchs1966, Martor1976, ColonFMe1998]); U.S. Virgin Islands [Nakaha1983]. Oriental: China (Guangdong (=Kwangtung) [Borchs1966]); Hong Kong [MartinLa2011]; India [Green1908a, Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1921a, Green1937, McKenz1937, McKenz1946] (Andhra Pradesh [Mamet1951, Borchs1966], Bihar [Ali1968], Karnataka [UsmanPu1955], Punjab [RahmanAn1941], Uttar Pradesh [DuttaSi1990, Ojha2005]); Philippines [McKenz1946, Borchs1966, VelasqRi1969] (Luzon [Velasq1971]); Ryukyu Islands (=Nansei Shoto) [KinjoNaHi1996]; Sri Lanka [Green1896, Green1896e, Green1900a, Green1905a, Ramakr1921a, Borchs1966]. Palaearctic: China [McKenz1946]; Iran [Lindin1909b, Bodenh1944a, Bodenh1944b, Borchs1966, RosenDe1979, Moghad2004]; Iraq [Bodenh1943, Borchs1966]; Israel [BenDovVe1983, BenDov1985]; Saudi Arabia [Beccar1971, Matile1984c, AlAhmeBa1991].

BIOLOGY: Occurring usually upon the foliage (Ferris, 1938a).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by McKenzie (1938), Ferris (1938a), Balachowsky (1948b, 1956), Velasquez (1971), Tang (1984), Chou (1985, 1986), Williams & Watson (1988) and by Colon-Ferrer & Medina-Gaud (1998).Description and illustration of adult female by Ojha (2005).Description and illustration of adult female by Dutta & Singh (1990).

STRUCTURE: As it occurs on coconut the scale of the female is quite thick, flat, circular, ranging in color from almost white to a very light brown, exuviae central, the second exuvia dark brown. Scale of the male slightly elongate oval, the yellowish exuvia near one end (Ferris, 1938a).Scale of female roughly circular, 1.44 mm long, 1.2 mm wide, flat, pinkish or light brown with subcentrally first and second larval exuviae (Dutta & Singh, 1990).

SYSTEMATICS: The recent synonymy of Aonidiella narainus and A. azadirachti with A. orientalis is based on examination of the type series of A. narainus and all available material of A. azadirachti at the Natural History Museum(NHM)by Gillian W. Watson and Benjamin Normark. (Normark, et al., 2014)

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: The oriental red scale is a highly polyphagous scale insect (see Host Plants) and widely distributed in tropical and subtropical (CABI, 1978b, and see Distribution). It has been recorded as a pest of several agricultural crops: Citrus (Rose, 1990c); Tea (Nagarkatti & Sankaran, 1990); date palm, India (Glover, 1933; Rajagopal & Krishnamoorty, 1996); date palms, Saudi Arabia (Hammad et al., 1981; Moussa, 1986); palms and ornamentals, Florida (Dekle, 1976); papaya, Queensland, Australia (Elder et al., 1998); mango, Israel (Ben-Dov & Wysoki, 1990; Swirski et al., 2002).

KEYS: Evans, Watson & Miller 2009: 63-67 (female) [Diaspididae species found on avocado]; Ben-Dov 2006: 55-57 (female) [World (33 species)]; Danzig 1993: 160 (female) [Europe]; Williams & Watson 1988: 35 (female) [Tropical South Pacific]; Chou 1985: 292 (female) [Species of China]; Velasquez 1971: 118 (female) [Philippines]; Beardsley 1966: 509 (female) [Federated States of Micronesia]; Balachowsky 1956: 26 (female) [Africa]; Balachowsky 1948b: 360 (female) [Mediterranean]; McKenzie 1946: 33 (female) [World]; Ferris 1942: 29 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1942b: 144-145 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1938: 17-18 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1937a: 178 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1937: 330 (female) [World]; Robinson 1917: 24 (female) [Philippine Islands]; Green 1896e: 40 (female) [Sri Lanka].

CITATIONS: AbouEl2001 [host, distribution, biological control: 185-195]; AlAhmeBa1991 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 279-286]; Ali1968 [host, distribution: 132-133]; BadawiAl1990 [host, distribution, life history: 81-89]; BaghelDu2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 76-78]; Balach1948b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 362-365]; Balach1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 41-42]; Beards1966 [host, distribution: 511]; BeardsDaHo1976 [economic importance: 106]; Beccar1971 [host, distribution: 193]; BenDov1985 [host, distribution: 186-187]; BenDov2006 [taxonomy, distribution: 51, 55-57]; BenDov2012 [catalogue, distribution, host: 28, 43]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 33, 127-135]; BenDovVe1983 [host, distribution: 124-125]; BenDovWy1990 [economic importance, host, distribution: 1242]; BesheaTiHo1973 [host, distribution: 4]; BindraVa1972 [host, distribution, economic importance: 14-24]; Bodenh1943 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 3-4]; Bodenh1944a [host, distribution: 81]; Bodenh1944b [host, distribution: 94]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 297-298]; Brimbl1962a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 410]; CABI1978b [taxonomy, distribution, host: 1-2]; CaustoPeSi2006 [distribution: 137]; Chou1985 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 296-298]; Chou1986 [taxonomy, illustration: 678]; ChuaWo1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 453-552]; ClapsWoGo2001a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 12]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 334]; Cocker1897i [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 28]; CockerRo1915 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 107]; ColonFMe1998 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 38-39]; Comper1961a [biological control: 17-71]; ComperAn1961 [host, distribution, biological control: 17]; CoronaRuMo1997 [host, distribution: 38-41]; DahmsSm1994 [host, distribution, biological control: 245-255]; DaneelMeJa1994 [host, distribution: 72-74]; Danzig1972 [taxonomy, host, distribution, economic importance: 207]; Danzig1972c [host, distribution: 583]; DanzigPe1998 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 183-184]; DavidsMi1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 603-632]; DeBach1969a [biological control: 11-28]; DeBach1979 [host, distribution, biological control: 131-138]; DEDAC1923 [host, distribution]; Dekle1965c [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 21]; Dekle1976 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, economic importance: 32]; DeLott1967a [host, distribution: 112]; deVill2001d [host, distribution, economic importance, life history, chemical control, biological control: 222-223]; Dutta1990 [host, distribution: 152-163]; DuttaBa1991 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, economic importance: 31-35]; DuttaSi1990 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 1-6]; Ebelin1949 [host, distribution, life history, control]; ElderBe1998 [host, distribution, biological control: 362-365]; ElderGuSm1997 [host, distribution, biological control: 299-301]; ElderSm1995 [host, distribution, biological control: 253-254]; ElderSmBe1998 [host, distribution, biological control, economic importance: 74-79]; Elwan2000 [host, distribution: 653-664]; EtzelLe1999 [biological control: 125-197]; EvansWaMi2009 [taxonomy: 63-67]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 268]; Ferris1938a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 180]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 42,46,48]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy: 29]; Flande1971 [biological control, life history: 857-872]; GermaiVaMa2010 [host, distribution: 126]; Ghabbo1995 [taxonomy: 379-387]; Ghauri1962 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 82,211]; Glover1933 [economic importance, host, distribution, life history: 1-23]; Green1896 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 4]; Green1896e [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 47-48]; Green1900a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 69]; Green1900c [host, distribution: 3]; Green1905a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 341-342,344]; Green1908a [host, distribution: 33]; Green1914c [host, distribution: 232]; Green1916e [host, distribution: 53]; Green1922 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 459,462-463]; Green1937 [host, distribution: 329-332]; GroveDeDa2013 [distribution, host: 377]; Halber2000 [host, distribution: 3-4]; HammadKaRa1981 [host, distribution, economic importance: 252-268]; Hayat1989 [host, distribution, biological control: 1-3]; Houser1918 [host, distribution: 162]; Howard1991 [host, distribution, life history, ecology, control: 217-225]; Kapur1942 [biological control: 49-66]; Kaussa1955 [host, distribution: 15]; KhalafSo1993 [host, life history, biological control: 11-12]; KinjoNaHi1996 [host, distribution: 125-127]; KirejtFa2010 [host, distribution, biological control: 326-329]; Kondo2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 43]; KonstaGu1987 [host, distribution: 161]; Laing1929a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 490]; Lale1998 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history: 191-197]; Leonar1898a [taxonomy: 76]; Leonar1898c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 77-80]; Lepage1938 [catalogue: 396]; LincanHoCa2010 [host, distribution: 5]; Lindin1908e [taxonomy: 241]; Lindin1909b [host, distribution: 108]; Lindin1909c [taxonomy, host, distribution: 449]; Lindin1913 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 73]; Lindin1943b [taxonomy: 146]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 408,419,444]; Maleno1916a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 326-329]; MalipaDuSm2000 [biological control: 82]; Mamet1951 [distribution: 225]; ManiKr1996 [host, distribution, biological control: 273-274]; Marlat1908c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 14-15]; MartinLa2011 [catalogue, distribution, host: 37]; Martor1976 [host, distribution: 61,108,177,200,266]; Matile1976 [host, distribution: 311-312]; Matile1978 [host, distribution: 60]; Matile1984c [host, distribution: 220-221]; MatileEt2006 [host, distribution: 168]; McKenz1937 [taxonomy: 327]; McKenz1938 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 12-13,32]; McKenz1939 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 54-55,65-66]; McKenz1942b [taxonomy: 145]; McKenz1946 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 32-33]; Merril1953 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 14-15]; MerrilCh1923 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, economic importance: 204-205]; MillerDa1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 300]; MillerDa2005 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, economic importance: 58-61]; Moghad2004 [host, distribution: 13]; Moghad2008 [host, distribution, economic importance: 155-156]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 16]; MohammGh2008 [distribution: 150]; MohammGhTa2001 [host, distribution, biological control: 413-418]; Montgo1921 [host, distribution: 41-55]; Moussa1986 [host, distribution, biological control, life history, ecology: 227-234]; MuniapWaVa2012 [distribution: 37-48]; NagarkSa1990 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 553-542]; Nair1964 [host, distribution, economic importance: 72]; NairMe1963 [host, distribution: 139-147]; Nakaha1982 [host, distribution: 8]; Nakaha1983 [host, distribution: 8]; Newste1894c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 26-27]; Newste1917b [host, distribution: 132]; OfekHuYz1997 [host, distribution, life history, biological control, economic importance, chemical control: 212-218]; Ojha2005 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 11-14]; PadmanDa2003 [host, distribution, biological control: 422-424]; PerezG2008 [distribution: 214]; PolaszAbHu1999 [host, distribution, biological control: 131-163]; Ponnam1999 [host, distribution, chemical control: 445-451]; Prinsl1983 [distribution, biological control: 26]; PruthiBa1960 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-113]; PruthiMa1945 [host, distribution, life history, control: 1-42]; RahmanAn1941 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 819-821]; RajagoKr1996 [host, distribution, economic importance, control: 139-146]; Ramakr1919a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 17]; Ramakr1921a [host, distribution: 357,359]; Ramakr1930 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 21]; Rao1969 [biological control: 785-792]; RaoCh1950 [taxonomy: 28]; RehmatAnKh2011 [biological control, distribution]; Robins1917 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 24]; Rose1990c [distribution, economic importance: 535-542]; RosenDe1979 [host, distribution, biological control: 238-241,464-484]; Ruther1915a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 106-107]; Sander1906 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 15]; Sander1909a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 51]; Sankar1984 [host, distribution, biological control]; Sassce1923 [host, distribution: 152-158]; Schmut1969 [host, distribution: 116]; Schmut1990a [economic importance, host, distribution: 392,398]; Schmut1998 [economic importance, host, distribution: 37]; Schmut2001 [host, distribution: 339-345]; SchmutKlLu1957 [host, distribution, economic importance: 484]; Shalab1961 [host, distribution: 211-228]; ShalabHaHa2000 [biological control, host, distribution: 531-544]; Singh1964 [host, distribution, economic importance: 213]; SinghSi2005 [life history: 209-211]; SinhaDi1984 [host, distribution, biological control: 7-13]; Soares1942 [host, distribution, economic importance: 54-56]; Soares1945 [host, distribution, economic importance: 49-81]; SwirskWyIz2002 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history, economic importance, biological control: 110-111]; TakagiMo2005 [host, distribution: 52]; Tang1984 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 39,41]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 71]; Trjapi1989 [biological control: 296]; UsmanPu1955 [host, distribution: 48]; Varshn2002 [host, distribution: 21-22]; Velasq1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 119-120]; VelasqRi1969 [host, distribution: 195-208]; VermaDi2005 [host, distribution: 423-426]; WadhiBa1964 [host, distribution, economic importance: 227-260]; WaltonKrSa2009 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-6]; Wester1918 [host, distribution, economic importance: 5-57]; Wester1920 [host, distribution]; Willia1985a [taxonomy: 237]; WilliaWa1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 42-44]; WysokiIsRo1995 [life history, biological control: 267].



Aonidiella pini Young {in}: Young & Lu

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidiella pini Young {in}: Young & Lu, 1988: 189. Type data: CHINA: Sichuan, Zi Gong, Xinglong Xiang, on Pinus elliottii or Pinus taeda; host plant of holotype not indicated; collected September 1988 by Dehui Lu. Holotype female. Type depository: Shanghai: Shanghai Institute of Entomology, China. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Pinaceae: Pinus elliottii [YoungLu1988], Pinus taeda [YoungLu1988].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: China (Sichuan (=Szechwan) [YoungLu1988]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Young & Lu (1988).

STRUCTURE: Female scale circular, flat, translucent, pale brownish with exuviae subcentral. Male scale elongate, pale brownish (Young & Lu, 1988).

KEYS: Ben-Dov 2006: 55-57 (female) [World (33 species)].

CITATIONS: BenDov2006 [taxonomy: 55-57]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 135]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 71]; YoungLu1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 189-192].



Aonidiella pothi Rutherford

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidiella pothi Rutherford, 1914: 262. Type data: SRI LANKA: Paradeniya, on Pothos scandens and on Loranthus sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Aonidiella pothi; MacGillivray, 1921: 445. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Green" as author.

Aspidiotus (Aonidiella) pothi; Ferris, 1941e: 47. Change of combination.

Aonidiella pothi; Borchsenius, 1966: 298. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Araceae: Pothos scandens [Ruther1914, Ramakr1921a, Green1922, Green1937]. Loranthaceae: Loranthus [Ruther1914, Green1922, Green1937].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Sri Lanka [Ruther1914, Ramakr1921a, Green1922, Green1937].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description of adult female by Rutherford (1914)

STRUCTURE: Female scale very dark brown colour and shining; the first exuvium has a reddish tinge; the whole scale is slightly elongated, with the exuviae towards on end; when removed a faint white ventral scale is left (Rutherford, 1914).

KEYS: Ben-Dov 2006: 55-57 (female) [World (33 species)].

CITATIONS: BenDov2006 [taxonomy: 55-57]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 135-136]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 298]; DEDAC1923 [host, distribution]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 47]; Green1922 [host, distribution: 462]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 445]; McKenz1938 [taxonomy: 4]; Ramakr1921a [host, distribution: 358]; Ruther1914 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 262]; Varshn2002 [host, distribution: 22].



Aonidiella replicata (Lindinger)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus replicatus Lindinger, 1909e: 17. Type data: CAMEROON: Bipinde, Urwaldgebiet, on Ehretia cymosa, Anacardiaceae, Illigera pentaphylla; Viktoria, on Mitragyne macrophylla. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Hamburg: Zoologisches Institut und Zoologisches Museum, Universitat von Hamburg, Germany. Described: female. Illust.

Heteraspis replicatus; Leonardi, 1914: 197. Change of combination.

Comstockaspis replicata; MacGillivray, 1921: 439. Illust. Change of combination.

Aonidiella replicata; McKenzie, 1938: 13. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Anacardiaceae [Lindin1909e, Balach1956]. Arecaceae: Neodypsis [Mamet1951, Borchs1966]. Boraginaceae: Ehretia cymosa [Lindin1909e, Leonar1914, Balach1956, MatileNo1984]. Euphorbiaceae: Manihot glaziovii [Balach1956]. Fabaceae: Acrocarpus fraxinifolius [DeLott1967a]. Flacourtiaceae: Hydnocarpus [Mamet1951, Borchs1966]. Hernandiaceae: Illigera pentaphylla [Lindin1909e, Leonar1914, Balach1956]. Lauraceae: Laurus camphora [Mamet1954, Borchs1966]. Rubiaceae: Mitragyna macrophylla [Lindin1909e, Leonar1914, Balach1956]. Sterculiaceae: Theobroma cacao [Strick1951]. Ulmaceae: Chaetacme aristata [DeLott1967a]. Urticaceae: Myrianthus arboreus [DeLott1967a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Cameroon [Lindin1909e, Balach1956, MatileNo1984]; Guinea [Balach1956]; Kenya [DeLott1967a]; Madagascar [Mamet1951, Mamet1954, Borchs1966]; South Africa [Leonar1914]; Tanzania [Balach1956]; Uganda [McKenz1946].

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the leaves (McKenzie, 1946).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Lindinger (1909e), McKenzie (1946) and by Balachowsky (1956).

STRUCTURE: Scale of the female approximately 1.20 mm. in diameter; very similar with that of A. marginipora; generally circular, pale brown, thin and with a series of puffy wax layers forming a somewhat convex mound. Scale of the male elongate, light yellowish (McKenzie, 1946).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Has been recorded from cocoa in Ghana, but of no economic importance (Chua & Wood, 1990).

KEYS: Balachowsky 1956: 25 (female) [Africa]; McKenzie 1946: 33 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1942b: 144-145 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1938: 17-18 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: Balach1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 43-46]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 136-137]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 298]; ChuaWo1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 549]; DeLott1967a [host, distribution: 113]; Ferris1937c [taxonomy: 51,53,55]; Ferris1938a [taxonomy: 178]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 47]; Leonar1914 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 197]; Lindin1909e [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 17-19]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 439]; Mamet1951 [host, distribution: 225]; Mamet1954 [host, distribution: 15]; Mamet1959a [host, distribution: 386]; MatileNo1984 [host, distribution: 64]; McKenz1938 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 13]; McKenz1942b [taxonomy: 145]; McKenz1946 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 30-31,33,36]; Sassce1911 [taxonomy: 70]; Strick1951 [host, distribution: 725-748]; Vayssi1913 [host, distribution: 430]; WeidneWa1968 [taxonomy: 173].



Aonidiella rex Balachowsky

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidiella rex Balachowsky, 1953b: 78. Illust. Nomen nudum.

Aonidiella rex Balachowsky, 1954d: 296. Type data: ZAIRE: Mont Hawa, near d'Aru, on a plant of Euphorbiaceae. Holotype female. Type depository: Tervuren: Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Section d'Entomologie, Belgium. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Arecaceae: Elaeis guineensis [Balach1956]. Euphorbiaceae [Balach1954d], Euphorbia candelabrum [Balach1956].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Zaire [Balach1954d].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Balachowsky (1954d, 1956).

STRUCTURE: Female scale circular, flat, formed of three envelopes of white secretion; larval exuviae black, subcircular, central, white; second instar exuviae bivalvate: dorsal, subcircular, black and ventral, flat, circular, attached to venter of adult female; diameter 1.8-2.1 mm. Male scale oval; with larval exuviae black, circular; nymphal secretion white; 1.2-1.3 mm long (Balachowsky, 1956).

KEYS: Ben-Dov 2006: 55-57 (female) [World (33 species)]; Balachowsky 1956: 25 (female) [Africa].

CITATIONS: Balach1953b [taxonomy: 78]; Balach1954d [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 296-298]; Balach1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 45-48]; BenDov2006 [taxonomy: 55-57]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 137]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 298].



Aonidiella schoutedeni Balachowsky

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidiella schoutedeni Balachowsky, 1954d: 298. Type data: ZAIRE: massif forestier central, Eala s/Ruki, on Macrolobium dewevrei. Holotype female. Type depository: Tervuren: Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Section d'Entomologie, Belgium. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Fabaceae: Macrolobium dewevrei [Balach1954d].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Zaire [Balach1954d].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Balachowsky (1954d, 1956).

STRUCTURE: Female scale subcircular or slightly oval, slightly convex; secretion of the adult large, flat; colour red, shiny, translucent; a distinct, circular mark is retained on the leaves after removal of the scale; diameter 1.4-1.6 mm. Male scale not observed in many samples that have been collected (Balachowsky, 1956).

KEYS: Ben-Dov 2006: 55-57 (female) [World (33 species)]; Balachowsky 1956: 26 (female) [Africa].

CITATIONS: Balach1954d [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 298-300]; Balach1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 47-48]; BenDov2006 [taxonomy: 55-57]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 137-138]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 298].



Aonidiella simplex (Grandpré & Charmoy)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus aloes simplex Grandpré & Charmoy, 1899: 20. Type data: MAURITIUS: on Furcraea gigantea. Syntypes. Described: female. Notes: Type-material lost (Mamet, 1941).

Aspidiotus hederae simplex; Fernald, 1903b: 264. Change of combination and rank.

Aspidiotus andersoni Laing, 1929a: 489. Type data: KENYA: on an unknown host plant; collected by T.J. Anderson. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Borchsenius, 1966: 298.

Aonidiella andersoni; McKenzie, 1938: 6. Change of combination.

Hemiberlesia simplex; Mamet, 1941: 25. Change of combination.

Aonidiella simplex; Balachowsky, 1958b: 224. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Agavaceae: Agave amaniensis [Mamet1949, Borchs1966], Furcraea gigantea [GrandpCh1899, Mamet1943a, Mamet1949, Borchs1966]. Apocynaceae: Nerium oleander [Laing1929, McKenz1938, Balach1956]. Cleomaceae: Cleome viscosa [Mamet1943a, Mamet1949, Borchs1966]. Euphorbiaceae: Ricinus communis [Mamet1941, Mamet1943a, Mamet1949, Borchs1966]. Solanaceae: Solanum melongena [Mamet1941, Mamet1943a, Mamet1949, Borchs1966].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Kenya [Laing1929, Balach1956]; Mauritius [GrandpCh1899, Mamet1941, Mamet1943a, Mamet1949, Mamet1953a, Borchs1966]; Tanzania [Laing1929, Balach1956].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Laing (1929a) (as A. andersoni, McKenzie (1938), Balachowsky (1956) (as A. andersoni and by Tang (1984).

STRUCTURE: Scale of the female of Aspidiotus aloes simplex convex, white greyish; exuviae central, brown-reddish or yellow (Charmoy, 1899). Scale of the female of the synonym Aspidiotus andersoni subcircular, greyish white; exuviae subcentral, very dark, almost a reddish brown; diameter 1.2 mm (Laing, 1929a).

SYSTEMATICS: Balachowsky (1956: 28) suggested that the features of Aspidiotus andersoni Laing, 1929 were identical with those of Aonidiella orientalis (Newstead), differing from the latter only in the absence of perivulvar pores. Later, Balachowsky (1958b: 224) concluded, following a study of type material, that Aspidiotus andersoni was a synonym of Aspidiotus aloes simplex (Grandpre & Charmoy, 1899: 20). Balachowsky (1958b: 224) re-iterated that Aonidiella simplex (Grandpre & Charmoy, 1899) was a viviparous form of Aonidiella orientalis (Newstead), but interpreted each of them as a distinct species.

KEYS: Ben-Dov 2006: 55-57 (female) [World (33 species)]; Balachowsky 1956: 26 (female) [Africa]; McKenzie 1946: 33 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1942b: 145 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1938: 17-18 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: Balach1948b [taxonomy: 360]; Balach1953k [taxonomy: 114]; Balach1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 28,41]; Balach1958b [taxonomy, host, distribution: 224]; BenDov2006 [taxonomy: 55-57]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 138-139]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 298-299]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 264]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 40,48]; GrandpCh1899 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 20]; Green1907 [host, distribution: 203]; Laing1929 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 489-490]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 545]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 400]; Mamet1941 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 25-26]; Mamet1943a [catalogue: 161]; Mamet1949 [catalogue: 61]; Mamet1953a [taxonomy: 152]; McKenz1938 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 6,22]; McKenz1942b [taxonomy: 145]; McKenz1946 [taxonomy: 33]; MoutiaMa1947 [distribution]; Tang1984 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 42-43]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 71]; UsmanPu1955 [host, distribution: 48]; Varshn2002 [host, distribution: 20].



Aonidiella sotetsu (Takahashi)

NOMENCLATURE:

Chrysomphalus sotetsu Takahashi, 1933: 57. Type data: TAIWAN: Ishigaki, Miyako, on Cycas revoluta and Ficus retusa. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Taichung: Entomology Collection, Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, Wu-feng, Taichung, Taiwan. Described: female. Illust.

Aonidiella sotetsu; McKenzie, 1938: 13. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Cycadaceae: Cycas revoluta [Takaha1933]. Moraceae: Ficus retusa [Takaha1933].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Taiwan [Takaha1933]; Thailand [Takaha1942b]. Palaearctic: China (Henan (=Honan) [Shen1993]); Japan [Sakai1939, Kawai1980].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Takahashi (1933), McKenzie (1938) and by Chou (1985, 1986).

STRUCTURE: Scale of adult female pale brown, semi-transparent, thin, nearly circular, about 1.3 mm. in diameter (Takahashi, 1933).

KEYS: Ben-Dov 2006: 55-57 (female) [World (33 species)]; Kawai 1980: 211 (female) [Japan]; McKenzie 1946: 33 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1942b: 144-145 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1938: 17-18 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: BenDov2006 [taxonomy: 55-57]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 139]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 299]; Chou1986 [taxonomy, illustration: 679]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 184]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 211-212]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 545]; McKenz1938 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 13-14,33]; McKenz1939 [taxonomy: 55]; McKenz1942b [taxonomy: 145]; McKenz1946 [taxonomy: 33]; Muraka1970 [host, distribution: 71]; Sakai1939 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 45-62]; Shen1993 [host, distribution: 58]; Takaha1933 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 57-58]; Takaha1942b [host, distribution: 47]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 72]; WuPaZh1998 [host, distribution, life history: 51-57]; YoungLu1988 [taxonomy: 190,191].



Aonidiella taorensis (Lindinger)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus taorensis Lindinger, 1911a: 17. Type data: CANARY ISLANDS: Gran Canaria, Barranco Guinguada, near Las Palmas, on Euphorbia aphylla, E.regis-jubae; Baia del Confital, on E. aphylla; Tenerife, Valle de Taoro on E. regis-juba, E. aphylla. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Hamburg: Zoologisches Institut und Zoologisches Museum, Universitat von Hamburg, Germany. Described: female. Illust.

Hemiberlesia taorensis; MacGillivray, 1921: 436. Change of combination.

Aonidiella taorensis; McKenzie, 1938: 14. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Euphorbiaceae: Euphorbia aphylla [Lindin1911a, Balach1948b, GomezM1962, MatileBa1972], Euphorbia canariensis [GomezM1962], Euphorbia regis-jubae [Lindin1911a, Balach1948b, GomezM1962, MatileBa1972].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Canary Islands [Lindin1911a, Balach1948b, MatileBa1972, MatileOr2001].

BIOLOGY: This species was found to induce the formation of pit-like pseudo-galls on the leaves of Euphorbiaceae (Balachowsky, 1948b).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Lindinger (1911a), Balachowsky (1948b) and by Gomez-Menor Guerrero (1962).

STRUCTURE: Female scale circular, white; larval exuviae yellow, central. Male scale unknown. The species causes the formation of pit-like pseudo-galls on the leaves of Euphorbiaceae (Balachowsky, 1948b).

KEYS: Ben-Dov 2006: 55-57 (female) [World (33 species)]; Gomez-Menor Guerrero 1962: 187 (female) [Canary Islands]; Balachowsky 1948b: 361 (female) [Mediterranean]; McKenzie 1946: 33 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1942b: 144-145 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1938: 17-18 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: Balach1946 [host, distribution: 211]; Balach1948b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 376-379]; BenDov2006 [taxonomy: 55-57]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 140]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 299]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 184]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 48]; GomezM1962 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 191-196]; GullanMiCo2005 [taxonomy, structure: 164,182-189]; Houard1913 [host, distribution: 1]; Larew1990 [ecology, life history, structure: 293-300]; Lindin1911a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 17-18]; Lindin1912b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 148-149]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 436]; MatileBa1972 [host, distribution: 112-113]; MatileOr2001 [host, distribution: 189]; McKenz1938 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 14]; McKenz1942b [taxonomy: 145]; McKenz1946 [taxonomy: 33]; Sassce1912 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 94]; WeidneWa1968 [taxonomy: 173].



Aonidiella taxus Leonardi

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidiella aurantii; Berlese & Leonardi, 1895: 23. Misidentification.

Aonidiella taxus Leonardi, 1906: 1. Type data: ITALY: Portici, on Taxus baccata. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Portici: Dipartimento de Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria di Portici, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Italy. Described: other. Illust.

Chrysomphalus taxus; Sanders, 1909a: 55. Change of combination.

Aonidiella taxa; MacGillivray, 1921: 443. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.

Aspidiotus britannicus; Balachowsky, 1928a: 138. Misidentification; discovered by Borchsenius, 1966: 299.

Aspidiotus taxus; Lindinger, 1935: 132. Revived combination.

Aspidiotus taxus; Lindinger, 1935: 132. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.

Aonidiella taxus; McKenzie, 1938: 15. Revived combination.

COMMON NAME: Asiatic red scale [McKenz1956, MillerDa2005].



FOES: HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Aphytis japonicus DeBach & Azim [RosenDe1979], Aphytis vandenboschi DeBach & Rosen [RosenDe1979], Aphytis yasumatsui Azim [RosenDe1979], Marietta carnesi (Howard) [Viggia1990b]. Encyrtidae: Comperiella bifasciata Howard [Flande1944a].

HOSTS: Cephalotaxaceae: Cephalotaxus drupacea [TakahaTa1956], Cephalotaxus fortunei [Hadzib1983]. Podocarpaceae: Podocarpus [Takaha1955f, Takagi1970, BesheaTiHo1973], Podocarpus andina [McKenz1937, Ferris1942, McKenz1956], Podocarpus elongata [Balach1948b], Podocarpus halli [Hadzib1983], Podocarpus macrophyllus [McKenz1946, McKenz1956, TakahaTa1956, Dekle1965c, Takagi1970, RosenDe1979], Podocarpus nageia [Ferris1942, McKenz1956], Podocarpus neriifolia [Ferris1942, Balach1948b, McKenz1956], Podocarpus sinensis [McKenz1937, Ferris1942, McKenz1956]. Taxaceae: Taxus [Takagi1970], Taxus adpressa [McKenz1946], Taxus baccata [Leonar1906, Sander1909a, Leonar1920, Balach1927, McKenz1937, Ferris1942, Balach1948b, Tang1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Alabama [Nakaha1982], California [McKenz1946, Ferris1942, McKenz1956], Florida [Dekle1965c], Georgia [BesheaTiHo1973], Louisiana [Ferris1942]). Neotropical: Argentina [Ferris1942] (Buenos Aires [McKenz1937]); Brazil [Nakaha1982]. Oriental: Philippines [Velasq1971]; Taiwan [Takagi1970]. Palaearctic: Algeria [Balach1927, SaighiDoBi2005]; China [Tang1984] (Henan (=Honan) [Shen1993]); Georgia [Hadzib1983]; Italy [Leonar1906, Leonar1920, McKenz1937, Ferris1942, LongoMaPe1995]; Japan [McKenz1937, Ferris1942, Takaha1955f, RosenDe1979, Kawai1980] (Honshu [TakahaTa1956], Kyushu [TakahaTa1956], Shikoku [TakahaTa1956]); Spain [BlayGo1993].

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the leaves (Ferris, 1942).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ferris (1942), McKenzie (1938, 1956), Velasquez (1971), Tang (1984), Chou (1985, 1986) and by Gill (1997).

STRUCTURE: Scale of the female flat, circular, thin and translucent, with the red-brown body of the adult showing through it. The body of the adult female is of a diameter much smaller than the diameter of the scale and a conspicuous, pale, marginal zone thus appears. Scale of the male pale gray or slightly yellowish, the exuvia toward one end (Ferris, 1942).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: This species is distributed in southern USA, South America, some Mediterranean countries, Japan and China, damaging Taxus and Podocarpus trees (Schmutterer, 1957; Miller & Davidson, 1990).

KEYS: Ben-Dov 2006: 55-57 (female) [World (33 species)]; Gill 1997: 44 (female) [Species of California]; Danzig 1993: 159 (female) [Europe]; Tereznikova 1986: 85 (female) [Ukraine]; Chou 1985: 292 (female) [Species of China]; Kawai 1980: 211 (female) [Japan]; McKenzie 1956: 23 (female) [U.S.A.: California]; Lupo 1954a: 41 (female) [Italy]; McKenzie 1953: 36 (female) [World]; Balachowsky 1948b: 361 (female) [Mediterranean]; McKenzie 1946: 33 (female) [World]; Ferris 1942: 29 (female) [North America]; McKenzie 1942b: 144-145 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1938: 17-18 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1937a: 178 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1937: 330 (female) [World]; Lupo 1936: 261 (female) [World]; Leonardi 1920: 75 (female) [Italy].

CITATIONS: Balach1927 [host, distribution: 178]; Balach1928a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 138,142]; Balach1948b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 370-373]; BeardsDaHo1976 [economic importance: 103]; BenDov2006 [taxonomy, distribution: 51,55-57]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 140-143]; BesheaTiHo1973 [host, distribution: 4]; BlayGo1993 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 523-526]; Borchs1939 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 8,21]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 212,221]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 299]; Bustsh1958 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 220,248]; Caltag1985 [taxonomy, biological control: 189-200]; Chou1985 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 296]; Chou1986 [taxonomy, illustration: 680]; ClapsWoGo2001a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 12]; ComperFlSm1941 [biological control: 291,301]; CoronaRuMo1997 [host, distribution: 38-41]; Danzig1993 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, economic importance: 162-163]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 184]; DavidsMi1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 603-632]; Dekle1957 [host, distribution: 71-72]; Dekle1965c [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 22]; Dekle1976 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, economic importance: 33]; Ebelin1949 [host, distribution, life history, control]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 48]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 425,446:29]; Flande1944a [biological control: 365-371]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Gill1997 [host, distribution, taxonomy, illustration: 50-51]; Hadzib1983 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history, biological control, economic importance: 227-229]; HoyHe1985 [biological control]; HoyHe1985 [biological control]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 211]; Leonar1906 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 1-5]; Leonar1907a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 131]; Leonar1920 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 81-83]; Lindin1912b [taxonomy: 358]; Lindin1935 [taxonomy: 132]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 125]; Lupo1936 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 257-260]; Lupo1954a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 49-55]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 443]; McKenz1937 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 327-328,331]; McKenz1938 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 15,34]; McKenz1939 [taxonomy: 55]; McKenz1942b [taxonomy: 145]; McKenz1946 [taxonomy, host, distribution : 32-33]; McKenz1953 [taxonomy: 36]; McKenz1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 42-43]; Mead1983 [host, distribution: 1-5]; MillerDa1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 300]; MillerDa2005 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, economic importance: 62-64]; Muraka1970 [host, distribution: 71]; Nakaha1982 [host, distribution: 8]; QinTaFe1997 [host, distribution, life history: 109-113]; Robiso1990 [structure, anatomy: 213]; RosenDe1979 [host, distribution, biological control: 400-402,558-562,]; Ryan1946 [host, distribution: 124-125]; SaighiDoBi2005 [host, distribution: 429-433]; Sakai1939 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 45-62]; Sander1909a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 55]; SchmutKlLu1957 [host, distribution, economic importance: 484]; Shen1993 [host, distribution: 58]; StoetzDa1974 [taxonomy, life history: 138-140]; Takagi1970 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 131]; Takagi1990b [taxonomy, structure: 7,17]; TakagiRo1981 [host, distribution, biological control: 314-321]; Takaha1955f [host, distribution: 242]; TakahaTa1956 [host, distribution: 15]; Tang1984 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 37-38]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 72]; Terezn1986 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 88-89]; Uemats1972 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 187-192]; Uemats1974 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 177-182]; Uemats1978 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 25-31]; Uemats1979 [host, distribution, life history, ecology, biological control: 79-86]; Velasq1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 127-128]; Viggia1990b [biological control: 180]; Zahrad1990 [host, distribution, description: 642].



Aonidiella tectaria (Lindinger)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus tectarius Lindinger, 1909e: 20. Type data: CAMEROON: Bipinde, Urwaldgebiet, on Euphorbia sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Hamburg: Zoologisches Institut und Zoologisches Museum, Universitat von Hamburg, Germany. Described: female. Illust.

Neosignoretia tectaria; MacGillivray, 1921: 425. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.

Aonidiella tectaria; McKenzie, 1938: 16. Change of combination.



HOST: Euphorbiaceae: Euphorbia [Lindin1909e, Balach1956].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Cameroon [Lindin1909e, Balach1956].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Lindinger (1909e) and by Balachowsky (1956).

STRUCTURE: Lindinger (1909e) did not describe the scale cover.

KEYS: Ben-Dov 2006: 55-57 (female) [World (33 species)]; Balachowsky 1956: 25 (female) [Africa]; McKenzie 1946: 33 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1942b: 145 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1938: 17-18 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: Balach1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 25,43,49]; BenDov2006 [taxonomy: 55-57]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 143]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 299]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 48]; Hall1946a [taxonomy: 536]; Lindin1909e [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 20]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 425]; McKenz1938 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 16]; McKenz1942b [taxonomy: 145]; McKenz1946 [taxonomy: 33]; Sassce1912 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 94]; Vayssi1913 [host, distribution: 430]; WeidneWa1968 [taxonomy: 173].



Aonidiella tinerfensis (Lindinger)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus tinerfensis Lindinger, 1911a: 18. Type data: CANARY ISLANDS: Tenerife, Valle de Taoro, on Dracaena draco. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Hamburg: Zoologisches Institut und Zoologisches Museum, Universitat von Hamburg, Germany. Described: female. Illust.

Hemiberlesia tinerfensis; MacGillivray, 1921: 437. Change of combination.

Aonidiella tinerfensis; McKenzie, 1938: 16. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Liliaceae: Dracaena [Lindin1912b, Balach1948b, Fernan1992], Dracaena draco [Lindin1911a, Balach1946, GomezM1962, GomezM1967O].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Canary Islands [Lindin1911a, Balach1946, Balach1948b, GomezM1962, GomezM1967O, MatileOr2001]; Portugal [Fernan1992].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Lindinger (1911a), McKenzie (1938), Balachowsky (1948b) and by Gomez-Menor Guerrero (1962).

STRUCTURE: Female scale circular or subcircular, slightly convex; in fresh specimens the scale is entirely covered with white secretion; larval exuviae brown red; larval exuviae central or subcentral, 2-2.2 mm diameter. Male scale oval, elongate, white; larval exuviae brown-red, central; 1.3-1.5 mm long (Balachowsky (1948b).

KEYS: Ben-Dov 2006: 55-57 (female) [World (33 species)]; Gomez-Menor Guerrero 1962: 187 (female) [Canary Islands]; Balachowsky 1948b: 361 (female) [Mediterranean]; McKenzie 1946: 33 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1942b: 144-145 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1938: 17-18 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: Balach1946 [host, distribution: 212]; Balach1948b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 379-382]; BenDov2006 [taxonomy: 55-57]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 143-144]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 299]; Bustsh1958 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 220,242]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 184-185]; Fernan1992 [host, distribution: 60]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 49]; FrancoRuMa2011 [distribution: 2,8,23]; Garcia1930 [host, distribution, biological control]; GomezM1962 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 187-191]; GomezM1967O [host, distribution: 132]; Lindin1911a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 18-20]; Lindin1912b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 136]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 437]; MatileOr2001 [host, distribution: 189]; McKenz1938 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 16,35]; McKenz1942b [taxonomy: 145]; McKenz1946 [taxonomy: 33]; Sassce1912 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 94]; Seabra1942 [distribution: 2]; WeidneWa1968 [taxonomy: 173].



Aonidiella tsugae Takagi

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidiella tsugae Takagi, 1969a: 84. Type data: TAIWAN: Tung-pu, on the leaf of Tsuga chinensis var. formosana. Holotype female. Type depository: Sapporo: Entomological Institute, Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Japan. Described: female. Illust.

Aomidiella tsugae; Chou, 1985: 401. Misspelling of genus name.

Aonidiella tsagae; Chou, 1985: 401. Misspelling of species name.



HOST: Pinaceae: Tsuga chinensis formosana [Takagi1969a].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Taiwan [Takagi1969a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Takagi (1969a) and by Chou (1985, 1986).

STRUCTURE: Female scale dark brown, rather nipple-like in shape (Takagi, 1969a).

KEYS: Ben-Dov 2006: 55-57 (female) [World (33 species)]; Kosztarab 1996: 543 (female) [Northeastern North America].

CITATIONS: BeardsDaHo1976 [economic importance: 106]; BenDov2006 [taxonomy: 55-57]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 144]; Chou1985 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 401-402]; Chou1986 [taxonomy, illustration: 683]; Takagi1969a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 84-85]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 72].



Aonidiella yehudithae Ben-Dov

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidiella yehudithae Ben-Dov, 2006: 52. Type data: GREECE: Island of Crete, about 5 km south of Avgeniki, near the road to Agios Thomas, on leaves of Hedera helix; collected 22.v.2001, Y. Ben-Dov. Holotype female. Type depository: Bet Dagan: Department of Entomology, The Volcani Center, Israel; type no. 3492/1. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Araliaceae: Hedera helix [BenDov2006, JansenBeKa2011].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Crete [BenDov2006, JansenBeKa2011].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ben-Dov (2006).

KEYS: Ben-Dov 2006: 55-57 (Female) [World].

CITATIONS: BenDov2006 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 51-57]; JansenBeKa2011 [host, distribution: 483-484]; PellizPoSe2011 [distribution, host: 295].



Aspidaspis Ferris

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidaspis Ferris, 1938: 45. Nomen nudum.

Aspidaspis Ferris, 1938a: 181. Type species: Aspidiotus densiflorae Bremner, by original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by Ferris (1938a) and by Balachowsky (1950b, 1958b).

SYSTEMATICS: Ferris (1938a) introduced Aspidaspis as an attempt to create some satisfactory groupings of the numerous species assigned to Aspidiotus. It is very close to Diaspidiotus and Abgrallaspis, from which it differs in the absence of paraphyses or intersegmental scleroses on the pygidium margin.

KEYS: Gill 1997: 24-26 (female) [Genera of California]; Gill 1997: 58-59 (female) [Species of California]; Ezzat & Afifi 1966: 371-372 (female) [Egypt]; Balachowsky 1958b: 228 (female) [Aspidiotina of Africa]; Ezzat 1958: 237-239 (female) [Egypt]; McKenzie 1956: 23 (female) [U.S.A.: California]; Balachowsky 1951: 599 (female) [Mediterranean]; Ferris 1942: 28 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1942: 29 (female) [species North America].

CITATIONS: Balach1948b [taxonomy: 307]; Balach1950b [taxonomy, description: 534-536]; Balach1951 [taxonomy: 599]; Balach1958b [taxonomy, description: 156-158,228]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 145]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 302]; ColonFMe1998 [taxonomy, description: 39]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 185]; Ezzat1958 [taxonomy: 238]; Ferris1938 [taxonomy: 45]; Ferris1938a [taxonomy, description: 181]; Ferris1938b [taxonomy, description: 65-66]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy: 446:28]; Gill1997 [taxonomy: 58]; Kozar1990f [distribution: 142]; McKenz1939 [taxonomy: 53]; McKenz1956 [taxonomy: 23]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 16].



Aspidaspis arctostaphyli (Cockerell & Robbins)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus arctostaphyli Cockerell & Robbins, 1909a: 104. Type data: U.S.A.: California, Tehama Co., Red Bluff, on Arctostaphylos viscida. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Aspidiella arctostaphyli; MacGillivray, 1921: 404. Change of combination.

Aspidaspis arctostaphyli; Ferris, 1938a: 182. Change of combination.

Aspidaspis arctoshaphyli; Borchsenius, 1966: 383. Misspelling of species name.

COMMON NAME: Arctostaphylis scale [McKenz1956].



HOSTS: Ericaceae: Arbutus menziesii [Ferris1938a, McKenz1956], Arctostaphylos [Ferris1920b], Arctostaphylos glauca [Ferris1938a, McKenz1956], Arctostaphylos manzanita [Ferris1938a, McKenz1956], Arctostaphylos viscida [CockerRo1909aWW, Ferris1938a, McKenz1956]. Lauraceae: Umbellularia californica [Ferris1938a, McKenz1956]. Poaceae: Stenotaphrum secundatum [Martor1976].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (California [Ferris1920b, McKenz1956], Oregon [Ferris1938a]). Neotropical: Puerto Rico & Vieques Island (Puerto Rico [Martor1976, ColonFMe1998]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring either on twigs or leaves, apparently more commonly on the later (Ferris, 1938a).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Cockerell & Robbins (1909a), Ferris (1920b, 1938a), McKenzie (1956), Gill (1997) and by Colon-Ferrer & Medina-Gaud (1998).

STRUCTURE: Scale of the female quite flat, circular, rather brownish, darker centrally, exuviae central or subcentral; scale of the male elongate oval, quite dark (Ferris, 1938a). Colour colour photograph by Gill (1997).

KEYS: Gill 1997: 58-59 (female) [Species of California]; McKenzie 1956: 24 (female) [U.S.A.: California]; Ferris 1942: 30 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 145-146]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 302-303,383]; CockerRo1909aWW [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 104-105]; ColonFMe1998 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 40]; Ferris1920b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 48-49]; Ferris1938a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 182]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy : 41]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 445:9;446:30]; Gill1997 [host, distribution, taxonomy, description, illustration, economic importance: 59-60]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 545]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 404]; Martor1976 [host, distribution: 250]; McKenz1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 43-45]; Nakaha1982 [host, distribution: 11]; RossHaOk2012 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 199]; Sassce1911 [taxonomy: 69]; SchuhMo1948 [host, distribution, control]; Willia1985a [taxonomy: 232].



Aspidaspis densiflorae (Bremner)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus densiflorae Bremner, 1907: 366. Type data: USA: California, Mendocino County, on Quercus densiflora. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Aspidiella densiflorae; MacGillivray, 1921: 405. Change of combination.

Aspidaspis densiflorae; Ferris, 1938a: 183. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: tan oak scale [McKenz1956].



FOE: HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Aphytis aonidiae (Mercet) [RosenDe1979].

HOSTS: Anacardiaceae: Rhus integrifolia [McKenz1956]. Berberidaceae: Mahonia aquifolium [McKenz1956]. Fagaceae: Lithocarpus densiflorus [McKenz1956], Quercus agrifolia [Ferris1938a, McKenz1956], Quercus chrysolepis [Ferris1920b, McKenz1956], Quercus densiflora [Bremne1907, Sander1909a], Quercus tomentella [Ferris1921, McKenz1956], Quercus wislizeni [McKenz1956].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico (Baja California Norte [Ferris1921]); United States of America (California [Bremne1907, McKenz1956]).

BIOLOGY: Apparently confined to the leaves (Ferris, 1938a).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Bremner (1907), Ferris (1920b, 1938a), McKenzie (1956) and by Gill (1997).

STRUCTURE: Female scale snow-white in colour, varying in form from round to sub-oval, according to position on leaf, and slightly convex; exuviae situated a little to one side of centre; first larval skin light-yellow, second nearly white; length 1.5-2 mm. Male scale much smaller than female (1 mm), snow white in colour and oval in form (Bremner, 1907). Scale of female almost white, quite convex; that of the male almost blue-gray, elongate oval (Ferris, 1938a).

KEYS: Gill 1997: 58-59 (female) [Species of California]; McKenzie 1956: 24 (female) [U.S.A.: California]; Ferris 1942: 30 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 146-147]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 303]; Bremne1907 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 366-367]; CSCSH1914 [host, distribution: 189]; Essig1928 [host, distribution: 76-78]; Ferris1920b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 50]; Ferris1921 [host, distribution: 126]; Ferris1938a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 183]; Ferris1938b [illustration: 66]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 42]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy: 446:30]; Gill1997 [host, distribution, taxonomy, description, illustration, economic importance: 59,62]; Lindin1932f [taxonomy: 196]; Lobdel1937 [taxonomy: 78]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 405]; McKenz1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 45-46]; Nakaha1982 [host, distribution: 11]; RosenDe1979 [taxonomy, description, biological control: 476-483]; Sander1909a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 52].



Aspidaspis dentilobus Kaussari & Balachowsky

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidaspis dentilobus Kaussari & Balachowsky, 1953a: 99. Type data: IRAN: Djahrom-Fars, on Atraphaxis spinosa. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

Aspidaspis dentiloba Borchsenius, 1966: 303. Unjustified emendation.

Aspidaspis dentilobus; Williams, 2011: 68. Justified emendation.



HOST: Polygonaceae: Atraphaxis spinosa [KaussaBa1953a, Moghad2004].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Iran [KaussaBa1953a, Moghad2004].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Kaussari & Balachowsky (1953a).

STRUCTURE: Female scale irregularly circular; slightly convex; white, exuviae yellow, central; diameter 1.5-1.8 mm (Kaussari & Balachowsky, 1953a).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 147]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 303]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 185]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 42]; Kaussa1955 [host, distribution: 16]; KaussaBa1953a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 99-102]; Moghad2004 [host, distribution: 19]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 16]; Willia2011 [taxonomy: 68].



Aspidaspis florenciae (Coleman)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus florenciae Coleman, 1903: 66. Type data: U.S.A.: California, Pine Ridge, on Pinus ponderosa; collected from herbarium specimens. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female.

Aspidaspis florenciae; Ferris, 1938a: 184. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: florence scale [McKenz1956].



HOSTS: Pinaceae: Pinus coulteri [Ferris1942, McKenz1956], Pinus ponderosa [Colema1903, Sander1906, McKenz1956].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Arizona [Nakaha1982], California [Colema1903, Sander1906, McKenz1956]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the needles (Ferris, 1938a).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ferris (1938a) and by McKenzie (1956).

STRUCTURE: Female scale of rectangular shape with rounded corners, nearly semi-cylindrical, about 3 mm long, 1 mm wide; colour light slaty blue, paler at the margin; exuviae bright red, usually situated near one end, but sometimes in the middle (Coleman, 1903). Scale of the female somewhat elongate, color variable, some specimens being almost white, others with dark center and pale margins, exuviae subcentral. Scale of the male not observed (Ferris, 1938a).

KEYS: Gill 1997: 58-59 (female) [Species of California]; McKenzie 1956: 24 (female) [U.S.A.: California]; Ferris 1942: 30 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 303]; Colema1903 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 66]; Ferris1938a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 185]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 43]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy: 30]; Gill1997 [host, distribution, taxonomy, description, illustration, economic importance: 63,64]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 399]; McKenz1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 45-46]; Nakaha1982 [host, distribution: 12]; Sander1906 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 13].



Aspidaspis gainesi McDaniel

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidaspis gainesi McDaniel, 1968: 215. Type data: U.S.A.: Texas, Cameron Co., southern tip of Padre Island, on Antirrhinum sp. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Scrophulariaceae: Antirrhinum [McDani1968].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Texas [McDani1968]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by McDaniel (1968).

STRUCTURE: McDaniel (1968) did not describe the scale cover.

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 148]; McDani1968 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 215-216]; Nakaha1982 [host, distribution: 12].



Aspidaspis longiloba (Hall)

NOMENCLATURE:

Targionia longiloba Hall, 1923: 28. Type data: EGYPT: Upper Egypt, Armant, on Tamarix sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Aspidaspis longilobus; Balachowsky, 1950b: 542. Change of combination.

Aspidaspis longiloba; Borchsenius, 1966. Justified emendation.



HOSTS: Polygonaceae: Atraphaxis spinosa [Balach1958a]. Tamaricaceae: Tamarix [Hall1923, Balach1950b, Balach1958b, EzzatAf1966].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Egypt [Hall1923, Balach1950b, Balach1958b, Ezzat1958].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Balachowsky (1950b, 1958b).

STRUCTURE: Scale of adult female small, approximately circular, highly convex, dusky white to dark brown in colour. Pellicles brownish, thinly coated with secretionary matter. Ventral scale well developed. Male scale elongate, ovate, only slightly smaller than the female scale, white and with yellow pellicle. Diameter of scale of adult female 0.8 mm (Hall, 1923).

KEYS: Ezzat 1958: 240 (female) [Egypt]; Balachowsky 1950b: 536 (female) [Mediterranean].

CITATIONS: Balach1950b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 542-544]; Balach1958a [host, distribution: 35]; Balach1958b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 157-158]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 148-149]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 303]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 185]; Ezzat1958 [distribution: 240]; EzzatAf1966 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 372-374]; EzzatNa1987 [distribution: 86]; Ferris1943a [taxonomy: 86]; Hall1923 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 28-29]; KaussaBa1953a [taxonomy: 102]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 545]; MohammGh2008 [distribution: 150].



Aspidaspis tubulifera (Balachowsky)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus (Evaspidiotus) tubuliferus Balachowsky, 1933b: 245. Type data: MOROCCO: Moyen Atlas, Midelt, on Vella glabrescens; collected by R. Maire. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

Aspidaspis tubuliferus; Balachowsky, 1950b: 540. Change of combination.

Aspidaspis tubulifera; Borchsenius, 1966: 303. Justified emendation.



HOST: Cruciferae: Vella glabrescens [Balach1933b].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Morocco [Balach1933b].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Balachowsky (1933b, 1950b).

STRUCTURE: Female scale circular or slightly subcircular, convex, flat; colour varies from bright grey to rose; in fresh specimens covered with white powdery wax; exuviae brown; secreted part rough, with fine concentric striation; ventral vellum thick, attached to the plant; diameter 1.4-1.8 mm. Male scale similar to that of female, but elongate; 1.1 mm long (Balachowsky, 1933b).

KEYS: Balachowsky 1950b: 536 (female) [Mediterranean].

CITATIONS: Balach1933b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 245-248]; Balach1950b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 540-542]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 149]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 303]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 185]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 49]; Rungs1936 [taxonomy: 53,55].



Aspidiella Leonardi

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus (Aspidiella) Leonardi, 1898a: 50, 60. Type species: Aspidiotus sacchari Cockerell, by original designation.

Aspidiella; MacGillivray, 1921: 387. Change of status.

Aspidiclla; Chou, 1985: 254. Misspelling of genus name.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by Ferris (1938a) and by Balachowsky (1958b).

SYSTEMATICS: This genus is closely related to Aspidiotus and its relatives, but differs in having only 2 pairs of well-developed lobes, while the third pair represented as short points (Williams & Watson, 1988).

KEYS: Colon-Ferrer & Medina-Gaud 1998: 28-32 (female) [Genera of Puerto Rico]; Williams & Watson 1988: 20 (female) [Tropical South Pacific]; Chou 1985: 254 (female) [China]; Komosinska 1969: 50 (female) [Abgrallaspis group]; Beardsley 1966: 502-504 (female) [Federated States of Micronesia]; Balachowsky 1958b: 282 (female) [Targionina of Africa]; Ferris 1942: 28 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1942: 30 (female) [species North America]; Leonardi 1920: 26-27 (female) [Italy].

CITATIONS: Balach1958b [taxonomy, description: 282-283]; Beards1966 [taxonomy: 512]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 149-150]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 243]; Brimbl1958 [taxonomy: 74]; Chou1985 [taxonomy, description: 254]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 395]; ColonFMe1998 [taxonomy, description: 41]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 186]; DuttaSi1990 [taxonomy: 1]; Fernal1903b [taxonomy: 251]; Ferris1937c [taxonomy: 50]; Ferris1938a [taxonomy, description: 187]; Ferris1941f [taxonomy: 22]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy: 28]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy: 230]; Leonar1898a [taxonomy, description: 60-62]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy: 387,403]; Mamet1949 [taxonomy: 53]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 16]; Tao1999 [taxonomy: 72]; Varshn2002 [taxonomy: 22]; Willia1969a [taxonomy: 320]; WilliaWa1988 [taxonomy: 44].



Aspidiella agalegae Mamet

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiella agalegae Mamet, 1974: 166. Type data: AGALEGA ISLANDS: South Island, on Musa sapientum. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Musaceae: Musa sapientum [Mamet1974].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Agalega Islands [Mamet1974].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Mamet (1974).

STRUCTURE: Female scale circular, pale brown in colour (Mamet, 1974).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 150]; ChuaWo1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 548]; Mamet1974 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 166-168].



Aspidiella dentata Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiella dentata Borchsenius, 1958: 166. Type data: CHINA: Kwangtung Province, near Sinchou, on stem of undetermined grass (Gramineae). Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust.

Aspidiclla dentata; Chou, 1985: 255. Misspelling of genus name.



HOST: Poaceae [Borchs1958].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: China (Guangdong (=Kwangtung) [Borchs1958]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Borchsenius (1958) and by Chou (1985, 1986).

STRUCTURE: Female scale oval, about 2 mm long, 1.5 mm wide; pale greyish-brown; dorsal scale thick and heavy and the ventral scale is also thick (Borchsenius, 1958).

KEYS: Chou 1985: 254 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 150]; Borchs1958 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 166-167]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 243]; Chou1985 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 255-256]; Chou1986 [taxonomy, illustration: 656]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 186]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 72].



Aspidiella hartii (Cockerell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus hartii Cockerell, 1895w: 7. Type data: TRINIDAD: in great numbers on tubers of yam. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Aspidiotus hartii luntii Hart, 1896: 156. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus hartii luntii Cockerell, 1896k: v. Type data: TRINIDAD: on "stems of some plant"; collected by Mr. Lunt, August 1895. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Borchsenius, 1966: 301.

Aspidiotus luntii Cockerell, 1896k: v. Type data: TRINIDAD: on an undetermined plant. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Ferris, 1942: 445-11.

Aspidiotus (Aspidiotus) hartii; Cockerell, 1897i: 24. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Aspidiella) hartii; Leonardi, 1898a: 67. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus curcumae Kasargode, 1914: 134. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiella hartii; MacGillivray, 1921: 404. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus curcumae Ferris, 1941e: 42. Nomen nudum. Notes: Authorship credited to "Fletcher".

Aspidiotus luntii; Ferris, 1941e: 45. Change of status.

Aspidiotus luntii Ferris, 1941e: 45. Synonymy by Ferris, 1941e: 45.

Gonaspidiotus hartii; Borchsenius, 1966: 300. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus curcumae Borchsenius, 1966: 376. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiella hartii; Williams & Butcher, 1987: 94. Revived combination.

Aspidiotus curcumae Kotikal & Kulkarni, 2000: 52. Nomen nudum. Notes: Authorship credited to "Gr."

COMMON NAMES: cochenille de l'Ingame [PanisFo2006]; ubi scale [VelasqRi1969]; Yam scale [Borchs1966]; yam scale [Borchs1966].



FOE: HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Adelencyrtus moderatus (Howard) [Panis2007, PanisFo2006].

HOSTS: Araceae: Colocasia sculenta [GomezM1941]. Convolvulaceae: Ipomoea batatas [WilliaWa1988]. Cyperaceae: Cyperus odoratus [GomezM1941]. Dioscoreaceae: Dioscorea [Green1915c, Mamet1943a, Mamet1949, Balach1958b, Borchs1966, WilliaWa1988, Beards1966], Dioscorea alata [Balach1958b, Cohic1958, WilliaBu1987, WilliaWa1988]. Melastomataceae: Miconia robinsoniana [LincanHoCa2010]. Poaceae: Tripsacum laxum [GomezM1941]. Portulacaceae: Portulaca oleracea [MatileEt2006]. Zingiberaceae: Curcuma [Green1919c, Ramakr1921a], Curcuma longa [KotikaKu2000], Zingiber officinale [WilliaWa1988].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Côte d'Ivoire (=Ivory Coast) [CouturMaRi1985]; Mauritius [Mamet1943a, Mamet1949, Balach1958b, Borchs1966]; Sierra Leone [Hargre1937]. Australasian: Federated States of Micronesia [Beards1966]; Fiji [Green1915c, WilliaWa1988]; New Caledonia [Cohic1958]; Papua New Guinea [WilliaWa1988]; Solomon Islands [WilliaWa1988]; Tonga [WilliaWa1988]; Vanuatu (=New Hebrides) [WilliaBu1987, WilliaWa1988]. Neotropical: Dominican Republic [GomezM1941, Panis2007]; Galapagos Islands [LincanHoCa2010]; Guadeloupe [MatileEt2006]; Haiti [PerezG2008]; Martinique [MatileEt2006]; Puerto Rico & Vieques Island (Puerto Rico [Martor1976, ColonFMe1998]); Saint Croix [Beatty1944]; Trinidad and Tobago (Trinidad [Ferris1938a]); U.S. Virgin Islands [Nakaha1983]. Oriental: India [Ramakr1921a] (Maharashtra [Green1919c], Tamil Nadu [Ramakr1921]); Philippines [VelasqRi1969].

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the tubers (Ferris, 1938a).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ferris (1938a), Balachowsky (1958b), Williams & Watson (1988) and by Colon-Ferrer & Medina-Gaud (1998).

STRUCTURE: Scale of the female brownish with pale center, circular, quite flat; that of the male similar in color, oval (Ferris, 1938a).

SYSTEMATICS: The binomen Aspidiotus curcumae is a nomen nudum that is placed as a 'synonym' of Aspidiella hartii. The nomen nudum has been published by Kasargode (1914: 134), Fletcher (1919: 232), Ramakrishna Ayyar (1920a: 326), Ramakrishna Ayyar (1930), Ferris (1941e: 42), Borchsenius (1966: 376) and Kotikal & Kulkarmi (2000: 52).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: The yam scale is a tropicopolitan species (see CABI, 1966, and Distribution) is a pest of yams of the genus Dioscorea, in the field and particularly of yams in storage (Schmutterer et al., 1957; Williams & Watson, 1988; Chua & Wood, 1990; Morse et al., 2000).

KEYS: Williams & Watson 1988: 44 (female) [Tropical South Pacific]; Beardsley 1966: 512 (female) [Federated States of Micronesia]; Balachowsky 1958b: 283 (female) [Africa]; Ferris 1942: 30 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: AkinloKo1988 [host, distribution, chemical control: 21-23]; Balach1958b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 283-285]; Ballou1915 [host, distribution: 121]; Beards1966 [host, distribution: 512]; Beatty1944 [host, distribution: 114-172]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 150-153]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 300-301]; BurgerUl1990 [economic importance: 313-327]; CABI1966 [host, distribution: 1-2]; ChuaWo1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 551]; Cocker1895w [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 7]; Cocker1895y [host, distribution, economic importance: 85]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 334]; Cocker1896k [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: v]; Cocker1897i [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 10,24]; Cocker1897l [taxonomy: 151]; Cohic1958 [host, distribution: 12]; ColonFMe1998 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 41-42]; CouturMaRi1985 [host, distribution: 278]; DevasaKoVe1998 [host, distribution: 157-164]; Ehrhor1925g [host, distribution: 101]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 260]; Ferris1938a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 188]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 44,45]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy: 445:11;446:30]; Fletch1919 [host, distribution: 232]; FouaBi1982 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history: 265-273]; Frogga1914 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 314]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 17-18]; GomezM1941 [taxonomy, illustration, host, distribution: 126-128]; Gowdey1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 29]; Green1915c [host, distribution: 44]; Green1919c [host, distribution: 439]; Hargre1937 [host, distribution, economic importance: 505-520]; Hart1896 [taxonomy: 156]; Hinckl1963 [host, distribution, biological control]; HodgsoLa2011 [host, distribution: 22]; KotikaKu2000 [host, distribution: 51-52]; Leonar1898a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 67-69]; LincanHoCa2010 [host, distribution: 5]; Lindin1907a [taxonomy: 19]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 404]; Malump2012b [distribution: 213]; Mamet1943a [catalogue: 156]; Mamet1949 [catalogue: 53,54]; Martor1976 [host, distribution: 101]; Maskew1914a [host, distribution: 446-447]; MatileEt2006 [host, distribution: 168]; Maxwel1903 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 40]; MillerDa1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 300]; MorseAcMc2000 [economic importance, chemical control]; MoutiaMa1947 [distribution]; Nakaha1983 [host, distribution: 8]; Panis2007 [host, distribution, biological control: 288]; PanisFo2006 [biological control, host, distribution: 455-456]; PatilThMo1988 [host, distribution: 8-9]; PerezG2008 [distribution: 214]; Ramakr1921 [host, distribution: 38]; Sassce1923 [host, distribution: 152-158]; SchmutKlLu1957 [host, distribution, economic importance: 494]; Varshn2002 [host, distribution: 22]; Varshn2002 [host, distribution: 23]; VelasqRi1969 [host, distribution: 195-208]; VelayuLi2003 [host, distribution, economic importance: 72-76]; Waterh1997 [host, distribution, economic importance: 156-171]; Willia1985a [taxonomy: 235]; WilliaBu1987 [host, distribution: 94]; WilliaWa1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, economic importance: 8,44-47]; Wilson1921 [host, distribution: 20-34].



Aspidiella panici (Rutherford)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus panici Rutherford, 1915: 113. Type data: SRI LANKA: Paradeniya, on Panicum incinatum; collected July 1914. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Aspidiella panici; Borchsenius, 1966: 243. Change of combination.



HOST: Poaceae: Panicum uncinatum [Ruther1915, Green1922].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Sri Lanka [Ruther1915, Green1922].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description of adult female given by Rutherford (1915).

STRUCTURE: Female scale pinkish-grey and slightly elongated, narrower at one end than at the other; exuviae golden-yellow, situated towards the broader end and partly covered by secretion; ventral scale complete (Rutherford, 1915).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 153]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 243]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 46]; Green1922 [host, distribution: 462]; Ruther1915 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 113]; Varshn2002 [host, distribution: 22].



Aspidiella phragmitis (Takahashi)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus phragmitis Takahashi, 1931: 4. Type data: TAIWAN: Suo, Daichikko near Daibu, on Phragmites sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Taichung: Entomology Collection, Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, Wu-feng, Taichung, Taiwan. Described: female. Illust.

Aspidiotus miscanthii Kuwana, 1931b: 169. Type data: RYUKU ISLANDS: Amami-Oshima, Nase, on Miscanthus sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Ibaraki-ken: Insect Taxonomy Laboratory, National Institute of Agricultural Environmental Sciences, Kannon-dai, Yatabe, Tsukuba-shi, (Kuwana), Japan. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Takahashi, 1933: 54.

Aspidiotus mithcanthii; Kuwana, 1933: 2,14. Misspelling of species name.

Aspidiella phragmitis; Ferris, 1941e: 47. Change of combination.

Chortinaspis phragmitis; Borchsenius, 1966: 280. Change of combination.

Aspidiella phragmitis; Danzig & Pellizzari, 1998: 186. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Miscanthus [Kuwana1931b, Kuwana1933, Takagi1958, Takagi1970], Phragmites [Takaha1931, Takaha1932a, Takaha1933, Takagi1970], Thysanolaena maxima [Takaha1933, Takagi1970].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Ryukyu Islands (=Nansei Shoto) [Kuwana1931b]; Taiwan [Takaha1931, Takaha1932a, Takaha1933, Takagi1970]. Palaearctic: Japan [Kuwana1933, Takagi1958, Kawai1980].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Takahashi (1931b), Kuwana (1933) and by Takagi (1958).

STRUCTURE: Scale of the adult female white, somewhat grayish, not transparent, scarcely convex, about 1.5 mm. in diameter. Larval skins yellowish brown, shining, covered with white secretion (Takahashi, 1931).

KEYS: Chou 1985: 279 (female) [Species of China]; Kuwana 1933: 2 (female) [Japan]; Kuwana 1933b: 49 (female) [Japan].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 153-154]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 280]; Chou1985 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 280-281]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 186]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 46-47]; Ferris1955c [taxonomy: 32]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 230]; Komemo1982 [host, distribution: 26-30]; Kuwana1931b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 169-170]; Kuwana1933 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 14-15]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 546]; Muraka1970 [host, distribution: 71]; Takagi1958 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 121-122]; Takagi1970 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 132]; Takaha1931 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 4-5]; Takaha1932a [host, distribution: 104]; Takaha1933 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 25-34,54,62]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 80].



Aspidiella rigida Ferris

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiella rigida Ferris, 1941d: 336. Type data: PANAMA: Chiriqui Province, Boquete, on undetermined tree. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Rhizaspidiotus rigidus; Ferris, 1942: 433. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.

Rhizaspidiotus rigida; Ferris, 1943a: 243. Change of combination.

Aspidiella rigida; Borchsenius, 1966: 243. Revived combination.

Aspidiella rigina; Borchsenius, 1966: 416. Misspelling of species name.

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Panama [Ferris1941d].

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the tree trunk, buried under bark flakes (Ferris, 1941d).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ferris (1941d).

STRUCTURE: Scale of the female quite flat, roughly circular or somewhat elongate, varying with its position, whitish in color, usually partially covered by or mingled with the soft bark tissues of the host, exuvia subcentral; with a white and slightly cottony ventral scale. Scale of the male tending to be more exposed than that of the female, white, elongate, with exuvia at one end (Ferris, 1941d).

KEYS: Ferris 1942: 40 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 154]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 243-244]; Ferris1941d [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 336]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy: 433;446:40]; Ferris1943a [taxonomy: 99].



Aspidiella sacchari (Cockerell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus sacchari Cockerell, 1893j: 255. Type data: JAMAICA: Kingston, on sugar-cane. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Aspidiotus (Aspidiotus) sacchari; Cockerell, 1897i: 25. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Aspidiella) sacchari; Leonardi, 1898a: 72. Change of combination.

Aspidiella sacchari; MacGillivray, 1921: 405. Change of combination.

Targionia sacchari; Merrill & Chaffin, 1923: 253-254. Change of combination.

Targionia (Aspidiella) sacchari; Merrill, 1953: 81. Change of combination.

Aspidiella sacchari; Borchsenius, 1966: 244. Revived combination.

COMMON NAMES: sugar cane root scale [SchmutKlLu1957]; sugarcane scale [MillerDa2005]; sugarcane scale [Dekle1965c].



FOE: THYSANOPTERA Phlaeothripidae: Podothrips semiflavus Hood [PalmerMo1990].

HOSTS: Araceae: Alocasia macrorhiza [WilliaWa1988]. Poaceae [GomezM1941, BesheaTiHo1973, WilliaWa1988], Andropogon citratus [Martor1976], Brachiaria mutica [WilliaWa1988], Brachiaria purpurescens [MatileEt2006], Coix lacryma [Houser1918], Cymbopogon martini [Matile1978], Cynodon dactylon [Takaha1941b, Mamet1943a, Mamet1949, Dekle1965c, Borchs1966], Eremochloa ophiuroides [Dekle1965c, BesheaTiHo1973], Gynerium sagittatum [Balach1959a], Ischaemum [WilliaWa1988], Panicum [Laing1929a], Panicum maximum [MatileEt2006], Panicum molle [Houser1918], Paspalum fimbriatum [MatileEt2006], Paspalum millegrana [Martor1976], Paspalum vaginatum [Mamet1941a], Pennisetum purpureum [Balach1959a], Saccharum [Dekle1965c], Saccharum officinarum [Cocker1893j, GomezM1941, Ferris1955c, WilliaWa1988], Sporobolus [Beards1966], Stenotaphrum [Mamet1957], Stenotaphrum dimidiatum [Mamet1943a, Mamet1949, Borchs1966], Stenotaphrum secundatum [Dekle1965c], Stenotaphrum subulatum [Mamet1941a, Borchs1966]. Salicaceae: Casearia aculeata [MestreHaEv2011].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Comoros [Matile1978]; Liberia [Nakaha1982]; Madagascar [Nakaha1982]; Mauritius [Mamet1941a, Mamet1949]; Nigeria [Nakaha1982]; Reunion [Mamet1957, GermaiMiPa2014]; Rodriques Island [Nakaha1982]; Sierra Leone [Hargre1937]. Australasian: Cook Islands [WilliaWa1988]; Federated States of Micronesia [Takaha1936c, Takaha1941b]; Fiji [Nakaha1982, HodgsoLa2011]; Guam [Nakaha1982]; Marshall Islands [Beards1966]; Palau [Beards1966]; Papua New Guinea [WilliaWa1988]; Solomon Islands [WilliaWa1988]; Western Samoa [WilliaWa1988]. Nearctic: Mexico [Nakaha1982]; United States of America (Florida [MerrilCh1923, Ferris1938a, Dekle1965c, BesheaTiHo1973], Texas [McDani1968]). Neotropical: Bahamas [Nakaha1982]; Colombia [Balach1959a, Kondo2001]; Cuba [Houser1918, MestreHaEv2011]; Guadeloupe [Balach1957c, MatileEt2006]; Guyana [Nakaha1982]; Haiti [PerezG2008]; Jamaica [Cocker1893j, Laing1929a, Ferris1938a]; Martinique [Balach1957c, MatileEt2006]; Panama [Ferris1942, Ferris1955c]; Puerto Rico & Vieques Island (Puerto Rico [VanDin1913, Martor1976]); Saint Croix [Beatty1944]; U.S. Virgin Islands [Nakaha1983]. Oriental: China (Yunnan [Ferris1955c]). Oriental: Indonesia [Nakaha1982]. Oriental: Malaysia [Nakaha1982]; Pakistan [Nakaha1982]; Sri Lanka [Ferris1938a, Green1922].

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the stems and beneath the sheathing bases of the leaves (Ferris, 1938a).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Laing (1929a), Ferris (1938a), Balachowsky (1958b), Chou (1985, 1986), Williams & Watson (1988) and by Colon-Ferrer & Medina-Gaud (1998).

STRUCTURE: Scale of the female pale brown, circular, thin, flat, exuviae central; that of the male elongate, exuvia apical (Ferris, 1938a).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: This species is distributed in many sugarcane-growing areas of the world (see Distribution), and considered a pest of sugarcane (Schmutterer et al., 1957; Williams & Watson, 1988; Williams & Greathead, 1990).

KEYS: Williams & Watson 1988: 44 (female) [Tropical South Pacific]; Chou 1985: 254 (female) [China]; Beardsley 1966: 512 (female) [Federated States of Micronesia]; Ferris 1942: 30 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: AndersWuGr2010 [molecular data: 992-1003]; Balach1957c [host, distribution: 200]; Balach1958b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 284,286-287]; Balach1959a [host, distribution: 362]; Ballou1912 [host, distribution, economic importance, control]; Beards1966 [host, distribution: 512]; BeardsDaHo1976 [economic importance: 106]; Beatty1944 [host, distribution: 114-172]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 154-156]; Bodkin1913 [host, distribution: 29-32]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 244]; Bourne1921 [host, distribution, economic importance]; Box1953 [host, distribution, biological control: 51]; Chou1985 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 254-255]; Chou1986 [taxonomy, illustration: 655]; Cocker1893j [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 255-256]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 334]; Cocker1897i [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 25]; Cocker1897l [host, distribution: 150]; ColonFMe1998 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 42-43]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 186]; Dekle1965c [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 26]; Dekle1976 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, economic importance: 38]; FDACSB1982 [host, distribution: 5-11]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 278]; Ferris1937c [taxonomy, illustration: 50,61]; Ferris1938a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 189]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 48]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 446:9;446:30]; Ferris1943a [taxonomy: 86]; Ferris1955c [taxonomy, host, distribution: 33]; GermaiMiPa2014 [distribution: 22]; GomezM1941 [host, distribution: 128]; Gowdey1921 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 30]; Green1922 [host, distribution: 463]; GruwelMoNo2007 [taxonomy, endosymbionts: 267-280]; Hargre1937 [host, distribution, economic importance: 505-520]; HodgsoLa2011 [host, distribution: 22]; Houser1918 [host, distribution: 167]; Hutson1916 [host, distribution: 426]; Jayant1999 [host, distribution: 76]; Kondo2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 43]; Laing1929a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 490-491]; Leonar1897 [taxonomy: 285]; Leonar1898a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 72-73]; Lepesm1947 [host, distribution: 214]; Lindin1909c [taxonomy, host, distribution: 449]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 405]; Mamet1941a [host, distribution: 40]; Mamet1943a [catalogue: 156]; Mamet1949 [catalogue: 54]; Mamet1957 [host, distribution: 369,375]; Martor1976 [host, distribution: 13,192]; Matile1978 [host, distribution: 61]; MatileEt2006 [host, distribution: 168]; Maxwel1903 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 41]; McDani1968 [taxonomy, illustration, host, distribution: 216-217]; Merril1953 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 81]; Merril1953 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution]; MerrilCh1923 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, economic importance: 253-254]; MestreHaEv2011 [catalogue, distribution, host: 10]; MillerDa1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 300]; MillerDa2005 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, economic importance: 65-67]; Moore1915 [host, distribution: 305-310]; MorseNo2006 [molecular biology, phylogeny: 338-349]; MoutiaMa1947 [distribution]; Nakaha1982 [host, distribution: 12]; Nakaha1983 [host, distribution: 9]; PalmerMo1990 [biological control: 67-76]; PerezG2008 [distribution: 214]; RiherdCh1952 [host, distribution, economic importance, control: 1-5]; RossHaOk2012 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 199]; RugmanAnMo2010 [taxonomy, phylogenetics, molecular data: 30-38]; Sassce1923 [host, distribution: 152-158]; SchmutKlLu1957 [host, distribution, economic importance: 494]; Takaha1931 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 5]; Takaha1936c [host, distribution: 118]; Takaha1939b [taxonomy: 272]; Takaha1940a [taxonomy: 332]; Takaha1941b [host, distribution: 220]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 72]; VanDin1913 [host, distribution: 251-257]; Varshn2002 [host, distribution: 22]; WilliaGr1990 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 563-578]; WilliaWa1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 46-47]; Wilson1921 [host, distribution: 20-34]; WoodruBeSk1998 [distribution].



Aspidiella zingiberi Mamet

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus subterraneus Mamet, 1939b: 580. Type data: MAURITIUS: Rose Hill, on Zingiber officinale. Holotype. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust. Homonym of Aspidiotus subterraneus Lindinger, 1935.

Aspidiella zingiberi Mamet, 1942: 36. Replacement name for Aspidiotus subterraneus Mamet, 1939.

Aspidiella subterranea; Takahashi, 1942: 47. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.

COMMON NAME: luya scale [VelasqRi1969].



FOE: HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Aphytis acrenulatus DeBach & Rosen [RosenDe1979].

HOSTS: Zingiberaceae: Curcuma longa [Mamet1949, Borchs1966], Zingiber officinale [Mamet1939b, Mamet1943a, Mamet1949, Borchs1966].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Mauritius [Mamet1939b, Mamet1943a, Mamet1949, Borchs1966]. Oriental: Philippines [VelasqRi1969].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Mamet (1939).

STRUCTURE: Female scale brownish-buff in colour; slightly conical, irregularly circular; diameter 1.9-2.3 mm; exuviae subcentral; larval exuvium yellow and shiny; nymphal exuvium darker, obscured by layer of pale buff secretion; ventral scale represented as a whitish scar on surface of rhizomes of host plant(Mamet, 1939b).

CITATIONS: Balach1958b [taxonomy, host, distribution: 283,284]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 157]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 244]; DeBachRo1976a [host, distribution, biological control: 541-545]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 48]; Mamet1939b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 580]; Mamet1942 [taxonomy: 36]; Mamet1943a [catalogue: 156]; Mamet1949 [catalogue: 54]; MoutiaMa1947 [distribution]; RosenDe1979 [host, distribution, biological control: 419-421]; Takaha1942 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 47]; VelasqRi1969 [host, distribution: 195-208].



Aspidioides MacGillivray

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidioides MacGillivray, 1921: 387. Type species: Aspidiotus corokiae Maskell, by original designation.

Aspidoides; MacGillivray, 1921: 407, 477. Misspelling of genus name.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by Borchsenius & Williams (1963).

SYSTEMATICS: The distinctive features of this genus are the presence of three pairs of lobes, median lobes with well developed basal scleroses, plates fringed, dorsal pygidial ducts small and very slender, ventral surface with a few microducts only, and presence of only anterolateral groups of perivulvar pores. This genus appears to resemble Monaonidiella MacGillivray, but differs from it in possessing three pairs of lobes (Borchsenius & Williams, 1963).

KEYS: Henderson 2011: 44-45 (female) [Key to Genera of Diaspididae in New Zealand].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 157]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 276]; BorchsWi1963 [taxonomy, description: 384]; ClapsDo2003 [taxonomy: 14]; Ferris1937c [taxonomy: 50]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 42]; Hender2011 [taxonomy: 8,10,44,75]; Kozar1990f [distribution: 142]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 179]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description: 387,407,477]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 16-17].



Aspidioides corokiae (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus corokiae Maskell, 1891: 2. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: South Island, Reefton, on Corokia cotoneaster. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust. Notes: LECTOTYPE female, designated in Henderson, 2011 to preserve nomenclatural stability: NEW ZEALAND, Butler, on an original slide labelled "Aspidiotus corokiae, male puparium and adult female, Apr. 1890, W.M.M.", [1]: 1 F, male scale cover. Barcode NZAC02000399.

Aspidiotus (Selenaspis) corokiae; Leonardi, 1898a: 53. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Selenaspis) corokiae; Leonardi, 1898a: 53. Misspelling of genus name.

Selenaspis corockiae; Leonardi, 1898a: 54. Misspelling of genus and species names.

Aspidioides corokiae; MacGillivray, 1921: 406. Change of combination.

Aspidoides corokiae; MacGillivray, 1921: 406. Misspelling of genus name.



HOSTS: Cornaceae: Corokia [Maskel1891], Corokia cotoneaster [Hender2011]. Rubiaceae: Coprosma cheesemanii [Hender2011]. Scrophulariaceae: Hebe sp. [Hender2011]. Thymelaeaceae: Pimelea prostrata [Hender2011], Pimelea sp. [Hender2011]

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (South Island [Maskel1891, Hender2011]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Maskell (1891) and by Borchsenius & Williams (1963). Redescription and illustrations in Henderson, 2011.

STRUCTURE: Female scale circular, rather solid, slightly convex, with the exuviae in the centre; colour varying from yellow to (less frequently) white; exuviae yellow; diameter about 1/24 inch (Maskell, 1891). Male puparium rather more elongated than that of the female, not carinated; texture thinner; colour whitish; pellicle yellow, near the middle. (Maskell, 1891). Compared to the type series specimens observed in Henderson, 2011, the number and distribution of perivulvar pores varied widely in different collection localities. Perivulvar pores were totally absent in all of the females from Lake Sylvester on Coprosma cheesemanii, but in a second collection from Lake Sylvester where no host was recorded, 1 female has a total of 18 pores in 4 groups whereas the other 3 females each had 16-21 pores in 5 groups; the 15 females from Cass each had a total of 21-36 pores in 5 normal groups, likewise the female from Springfield and the female from between Lakes Pukaki and Tekapo had 25 and 32 pores respectively in 5 groups. In all other respects the female morphology from these various collections agreed with the type material.

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 158]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 276-277]; BorchsWi1963 [taxonomy, description, illustration: 384-385]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 335]; Cocker1897i [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 25]; DeitzTo1980 [taxonomy: 35]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 255]; Ferris1937c [taxonomy: 50]; Hender2011 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 8-9,13,77-78,222]; Leonar1898a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 53-55]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 387,406]; Maskel1891 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 2].



Aspidiotus Bouché

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus Bouché, 1833: 52. Type species: Aspidiotus nerii Bouché. Subsequently designated by Leonardi, 1897: 285. Notes: Aspidiotus was also described as new by Bouche (1834) page 9.

Aspidiotes; Bouché, 1844: 294. Misspelling of genus name.

Aspidatus; Kirchner, 1856: 218. Misspelling of genus name.

Aspidiatus; Breyer, 1862: 89-129. Misspelling of genus name.

Aspidiotus (Evaspidiotus) Leonardi, 1898a: 74. Type species: Aspidiotus hederae (= Aspidiotus nerii Bouche), by original designation. Synonymy by Fernald, 1903b: 251.

Brainaspis MacGillivray, 1921: 390. Type species: Aspidiotus kellyi Brain, by monotypy and original designation. Synonymy by Lindinger, 1937: 181.

Temnaspidiotus MacGillivray, 1921: 387. Type species: Aspidiotus excisus Green, by original designation. Synonymy by Takagi, 1969a: 62.

Aspidicotus; Green, 1930c: 281. Misspelling of genus name.

Genaspidiotus; Bodenheimer, 1949: 33. Misspelling of genus name.

Evaspidiotus Morrison & Morrison, 1966: 75. by present designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by Froggatt (1914), Dietz & Morrison (1916a), Brain (1919), Green (1928), Fullaway (1932), Ferris (1938a), Balachowsky (1948b, 1956), Borchsenius (1950b), Ferris (1952a), Gomez-Menor Guerrero (1962), Takagi (1957, 1969a), Bazarov & Shmelev (1971), Velasquez (1971), Danzig (1980b), Williams & Watson (1988) and by Danzig (1993).

SYSTEMATICS: The modern concept of the diagnostic characters of Aspidiotus was defined by Ferris (1938a), Balachowsky (1948b, 1956), Ferris (1952a), Takagi (1957, 1969a), Williams & Watson (1988) and by Danzig (1993). The genus Brainaspis (type species: Aspidiotus kelleyi Brain) was synonymized with Aspidiotus by Lindinger, 1937. Dr. Sadao Takagi (in personal communication, 8 January 2003, to Yair Ben-Dov) suggested that Aspidiotus kelleyi Brain and Aspidiotus sinensis (Ferris) may belong to a separate genus, for which the name Brainaspis MacGillivray, 1921, is available.

KEYS: Henderson 2011: 44-45 (female) [Key to Genera of Diaspididae in New Zealand]; Claps & Wolff 2003: 14 (female) [Genera of South America]; Colon-Ferrer & Medina-Gaud 1998: 28-32 (female) [Genera of Puerto Rico]; Gill 1997: 24-26 (female) [Genera of California]; Gill 1997: 64 (female) [Species of California]; Kosztarab 1996: 406-407 (female) [Northeastern North America]; Danzig 1993: 140-141 (female) [species Europe]; Wolff & Corseuil 1993: 29 (female) [Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul]; Zahradnik 1990b: 74 (female) [Czech Republic]; Williams & Watson 1988: 20 (female) [Tropical South Pacific]; Tereznikova 1986: 83 (female) [Ukraine]; Chou 1985: 260 (female) [Genera of China]; Danzig 1980b: 296 (female) [Far East of USSR]; Paik 1978: 297 (female) [species South Korea]; Bazarov & Shmelev 1971: 186 (female) [Central Asia]; Velasquez 1971: 100 (female) [Philippines]; Beardsley 1966: 502-504 (female) [Federated States of Micronesia]; Ezzat & Afifi 1966: 371-372 (female) [Egypt]; Danzig 1964: 645 (female) [Europe]; Gomez-Menor Guerrero 1962: 157 (female) [Canary Islands]; Zahradnik 1959a: 547 (female) [Czech Republic]; Balachowsky 1958b: 228 (female) [Aspidiotina of Africa]; Ezzat 1958: 237-239 (female) [Egypt]; Takagi 1957: 31-32 (female) [species Japan]; Gómez-Menor Ortega 1956: 7-8 (female) [Spain]; McKenzie 1956: 23 (female) [U.S.A.: California]; Balachowsky 1951: 599 (female) [Mediterranean]; Borchsenius 1950b: 167 (female) [USSR]; Bodenheimer 1949: 45-46 (female) [Turkey]; Balachowsky 1948b: 274-275 (female) [species Mediterranean]; Zimmerman 1948: 351 (female) [Hawaii]; Gomez-Menor Ortega 1946: 59-61 (female) [Spain]; McKenzie 1946: 11 (female) [Canary Islands]; Ruiz Castro 1944: 56-57 (female) [Spain]; Ferris 1942: 28 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1942: 30 (female) [species North America]; Ferris 1941e: 60-61 (female) [species World]; Archangelskaya 1937: 94 (female) [Middle Asia]; Borchsenius 1937: 99 (female) [USSR]; Borchsenius 1937a: 32-33 (female) [Palaearctic Region]; Fullaway 1932: 97-98 (female) [Hawaii]; Archangelskaya 1929: 89 (female) [Palaearctic Region]; Balachowsky 1928b: 157 (female) [Africa]; Hollinger 1923: 6-7 (female) [U.S.A.: Missouri]; Leonardi 1920: 29-30 (female) [Species of Italy]; Leonardi 1920: 26 (female) [Italy]; Brain 1918: 115 (female) [South Africa]; Lawson 1917: 206 (female) [U.S.A.: Kansas]; Lawson 1917: 217 (female) [species U.S.A.: Kansas]; Robinson 1917: 16-17 (female) [Philippines]; Cockerell 1905b: 201 (female) [U.S.A.: Colorado]; Hempel 1904a: 496-497 (female) [Brazil]; Green 1896e: 37 (female) [Sri Lanka]; Comstock 1883: 55-57 (female) [species U.S.A.]; Comstock 1883: 54 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: Archan1929 [taxonomy: 189]; Archan1937 [taxonomy, description: 94,98]; Ashmea1891 [taxonomy, description: 101]; Atkins1886 [taxonomy, description: 272]; Baeren1849 [taxonomy, description: 165]; Balach1928a [taxonomy: 157]; Balach1928b [taxonomy: 157]; Balach1942 [taxonomy: 47]; Balach1948b [taxonomy, description: 273-274]; Balach1950b [taxonomy, description: 545]; Balach1951 [taxonomy, description: 599]; Balach1956 [taxonomy, description: 49-51,132]; Balach1958b [taxonomy, description: 228]; BazaroSh1971 [taxonomy, description: 186-187]; Beards1966 [taxonomy: 513]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 158-161]; Berles1896 [taxonomy, description: 78]; Berles1896b [taxonomy: 207]; BerlesLe1896 [taxonomy, description: 345-352]; BerlesLe1898a [taxonomy: 131]; Blanch1840 [taxonomy: 214]; BlayGo1993 [taxonomy, description: 427-428,467]; Bodenh1924 [taxonomy: 21]; Bodenh1927c [taxonomy: 25-44]; Bodenh1949 [taxonomy, description: 32-33,45-46]; Bodenh1952 [taxonomy, description: 330]; Borchs1937 [taxonomy, description: 32,33]; Borchs1937a [taxonomy, description: 99]; Borchs1938 [taxonomy, description: 138]; Borchs1949d [taxonomy, description: 194,235]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description: 167,214]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 258,269,300]; Bouche1833 [taxonomy, description: 52]; Bouche1834 [taxonomy, description: 9]; Bouche1844 [taxonomy, description: 294]; Brain1918 [taxonomy, description: 115,117]; Brain1919 [taxonomy, description: 214]; Brimbl1968 [taxonomy: 39-42]; Britto1923 [taxonomy, description: 360,371]; Burmei1835 [taxonomy: 66]; Bustsh1958 [taxonomy, description: 234]; Chou1985 [taxonomy, description: 260-263]; Chou1985 [taxonomy, description: 273]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 333]; Cocker1897i [taxonomy, description: 3-31]; Cocker1897l [taxonomy: 150]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 395]; Cocker1905b [taxonomy: 200,201]; ColonFMe1998 [taxonomy, description: 43]; Comsto1881a [taxonomy, description: 292]; Comsto1883 [taxonomy, description: 54,55]; Danzig1964 [taxonomy: 650]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description: 336]; Danzig1993 [taxonomy, description: 140]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 187,238,362]; DietzMo1916a [taxonomy, description: 263,288]; Dougla1886 [taxonomy: 245]; Ezzat1958 [taxonomy: 238]; Fernal1903b [taxonomy: 251]; Ferris1921b [taxonomy: 94]; Ferris1937c [taxonomy: 50-53,62,106]; Ferris1938 [taxonomy: 43,56,65,67]; Ferris1938a [taxonomy, description: 190]; Ferris1938b [taxonomy, description: 65,67]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy, description: 33,37]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy, description: 446]; Ferris1943 [taxonomy, description: 82]; Ferris1952a [taxonomy, description: 8-9]; FrankKr1900 [taxonomy, description: 40]; Frogga1914 [taxonomy, description: 131]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, description: 7]; Fullaw1932 [taxonomy, description: 98,106-107]; Fuller1897c [taxonomy: 3]; Ghauri1962 [taxonomy, description: 210]; Gill1997 [taxonomy: 64]; Goethe1884 [taxonomy: 113]; GomezM1937 [taxonomy, description: 44-46]; GomezM1946 [taxonomy: 60]; GomezM1956 [taxonomy, description: 8]; GomezM1959 [taxonomy, description: 157-158]; GomezM1962 [taxonomy, description: 158]; Gowdey1921 [taxonomy, description: 28]; GrandpCh1899 [taxonomy, description: 1]; Green1896e [taxonomy, description: 39]; Green1927 [taxonomy: 3]; Green1928 [taxonomy, description: 8]; Green1928c [taxonomy: 374-376]; Green1928c [taxonomy: 376]; Green1930c [taxonomy: 281]; GullanMiCo2005 [taxonomy, structure: 164,182-189]; Hadzib1983 [taxonomy: 217-218]; Hempel1900a [taxonomy, description: 496]; Hempel1904 [taxonomy, description: 319]; Hempel1920 [taxonomy: 140]; Hender2011 [taxonomy: 8,44,75]; Hollin1923 [taxonomy, description: 7,67,68]; Jorgen1934 [taxonomy, description: 278]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, description: 226]; Kozar1990f [distribution: 143]; Kuwana1933 [taxonomy, description: 2]; Lawson1917 [taxonomy, description: 206,216-217]; Leonar1897 [taxonomy: 283-286]; Leonar1897a [taxonomy: 375]; Leonar1897b [taxonomy: 102-134]; Leonar1898a [taxonomy: 48-78]; Leonar1903a [taxonomy: 3]; Leonar1920 [taxonomy, description: 26,28-29]; Lepage1938 [catalogue: 393]; Lepesm1947 [taxonomy, description: 185]; Lidget1898a [taxonomy: 13]; Lindin1908b [taxonomy: 98]; Lindin1913 [taxonomy: 64]; Lindin1924 [taxonomy: 171]; Lindin1932f [taxonomy: 182]; Lindin1934e [taxonomy: 160]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 181,197]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 543]; Low1882c [taxonomy: 521]; Lupo1948 [taxonomy, description: 137]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description: 387,390,396,403,431]; Mamet1949 [taxonomy: 54-55]; Maskel1879 [taxonomy, description: 192,197]; Maskel1887a [taxonomy: 39,40]; Maskel1889 [taxonomy: 102]; Maskel1891a [taxonomy: 59]; Maskel1898 [taxonomy: 221]; McKenz1938 [taxonomy: 2,5]; McKenz1956 [taxonomy, description: 23]; Miller1990 [taxonomy: 169-178]; Morgan1888a [taxonomy: 47]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 17,65,75,85,194]; Muntin1971a [taxonomy: 305]; Myers1925 [taxonomy, description: 166]; Nel1933 [taxonomy: 417-419]; Newell1899 [taxonomy, description: 1]; Newste1901b [taxonomy, description: 78,80]; Ramakr1930 [taxonomy: 12]; Robins1917 [taxonomy, description: 17,29]; RuizCa1944 [taxonomy: 56-57]; Sachtl1944 [taxonomy: 69]; Sander1904 [taxonomy: 30,55]; Savesc1982 [taxonomy, description: 302]; Schmut1959 [taxonomy, description: 48]; Signor1869b [taxonomy, description: 98,113]; Silves1902 [taxonomy, description: 98]; Takagi1957 [taxonomy, description: 31,38]; Takagi1969a [taxonomy, description: 62-64]; Takagi2003 [taxonomy: 99,100]; TakagiGe2008 [host: 128]; Tao1999 [taxonomy: 73,119]; Targio1881 [taxonomy: 149]; Targio1888 [taxonomy: 419,420]; ThiemGe1934 [taxonomy, description: 529]; ThiemGe1934a [taxonomy, description: 130]; Varshn2002 [taxonomy: 22,25,39]; Velasq1971 [taxonomy, description: 99-100]; Westwo1840 [taxonomy, description: 118]; Willia1969a [taxonomy: 320]; WilliaWa1988 [taxonomy, description: 49]; Wolff1911 [taxonomy: 80]; WolffCo1993 [taxonomy: 29]; Yasar1995a [taxonomy, description: 49-50]; Zimmer1948 [taxonomy: 352].



Aspidiotus abietoides Cockerell nomen nudum

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus abietoides Cockerell, 1894: 32. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus abietoides Ferris, 1941e: 40. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus abietoides Borchsenius, 1966: 376. Nomen nudum.



Aspidiotus aldabricus Dupont nomen nudum

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus aldabricus Dupont, 1917: 1. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus aldabricus Ferris, 1941e: 40. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus aldabricus Borchsenius, 1966: 376. Nomen nudum.



Aspidiotus anningensis Tang & Chu

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus cryptomeriae; Ferris, 1953: 65. Misidentification; discovered by Tang & Chu, 1983: 302.

Aspidiotus anningensis Tang & Chu, 1983: 302. Type data: CHINA: Yunnan, Kunming, Anning, on Keteleeria evelyniana. Holotype female. Type depository: Shanxi: Entomological Institute, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, China. Described: female. Illust.

COMMON NAME: Cryptomeria scale [MillerDa2005].



HOST: Pinaceae: Keteleeria evelyniana [TangCh1983].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China [TangCh1983, Tang1984]; Japan [Kawai1980].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Tang & Chu (1983) and by Tang (1984).

STRUCTURE: Female scale circular, about 2 mm in diameter, thin, yellow-white in colour; exuviae pale yellow (Tang & Chu, 1983).

SYSTEMATICS: Tang & Chu (1983: 302, 305) regarded the record of Aspidiotus cyptomeriae Kuwana, by Ferris (1953: 65) (off needles of Keteleeria evelyniana in Yunnan, China) as a misidentification of the new species Aspidiotus anningensis Tang & Chu, 1983.

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 161-162]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 187]; Ferris1953 [host, distribution, taxonomy: 65]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 227-228]; Tang1984 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 18-19]; TangCh1983 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 302-303]; Tao1999 [taxonomy: 73].



Aspidiotus artus Munting

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus artus Munting, 1971a: 305. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Cape Province, Witzenberg, on Protea laurifolia; collected 1.ix.1965, by D.J. Rust. Holotype female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa; type no. 1927/3. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Proteaceae: Protea barbigera [Muntin1971a], Protea laurifolia [Muntin1971a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [Muntin1971a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Munting (1971a).

STRUCTURE: Scale of adult female subcircular, white with golden yellow subcentral exuviae, about 3 mm in diameter. Male scale similar but about 1.3 mm in diameter (Munting, 1971a).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 162]; BenDovGi2014 [catalogue: 230]; Muntin1971a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 305-307].



Aspidiotus atomarius (Hall)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aonidiella atomaria Hall, 1946: 55. Type data: ZAIRE: Dilolo, on undersurface of leaves of unidentified plant. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Aonidiella atomariae; Borchsenius, 1966: 292. Misspelling of species name.

Aspidiotus atomarius; Munting, 1971a: 307. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.



FOE: HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Habrolepis [Prinsl1983].

HOST: Theaceae: Thea [Muntin1971a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Kenya [Muntin1971a]; Zaire [Hall1946, Balach1956].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Hall (1946), Balachowsky (1956) and by Munting (1971a).

STRUCTURE: Scale of adult female circular, diameter 1.50-1.75 mm; low convex, white but, although thin, sufficiently opaque to mask the outline of the body; thinner at the extreme margin and semi translucent; exuviae central, very dark brown in fully developed scales but paler in early stages; ventral scale very thin and transparent, remaining adherent to the host plant. Male scale smaller than that of the female, oval and opaque white with pale yellow exuvia (Hall, 1946).

KEYS: Balachowsky 1956: 26 (female) [Africa].

CITATIONS: Balach1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 27-30]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 162-163]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 292]; Hall1946 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 55-56]; Muntin1971a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 307-309]; NagarkSa1990 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 553-542]; Prinsl1983 [distribution, biological control: 26]; Sudoi1995 [host, distribution, chemical control: 119-123].



Aspidiotus atripileus Munting

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus atripileus Munting, 1971a: 309. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Cape Province, near Kuruman, on Euclea crispa; collected 10.iii.1967. Holotype female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa; type no. 2721/5. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Ebenaceae: Euclea crispa [Muntin1971a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [Muntin1971a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Munting (1971a).

STRUCTURE: Female scale subcircular, about 2 mm in diameter, with dark brown almost black exuviae surrounded by white secreted matter. Male scale similar but about 1 mm in diameter (Munting, 1971a).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 163]; BenDovGi2014 [catalogue: 230]; Muntin1971a [host, distribution, taxonomy, illustration, description: 309-311].



Aspidiotus beilschmiediae Takagi

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus beilschmiediae Takagi, 1969a: 67. Type data: TAIWAN: Fen-chi-hu, on Beilschmiedia erythrophloia. Holotype female. Type depository: Sapporo: Entomological Institute, Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Japan. Described: female. Illust.

Temnaspidiotus beilschmiediae; Chou, 1985: 399. Change of combination.



HOST: Lauraceae: Beilschmiedia erythrophloia [Takagi1969a].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Taiwan [Takagi1969a]. Palaearctic: Japan [Tachik1973, Kawai1980].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Takagi (1969a) and by Chou (1985, 1986).

STRUCTURE: Takagi (1969a) did not describe the scale cover.

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 163]; Chou1985 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 399-400]; Chou1986 [taxonomy, illustration: 665]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 228]; Tachik1973 [host, distribution, biological control: 137]; Takagi1969a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 66-67,99]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 119].

Aspidiotus bicarinatus

No valid record found for this species



Aspidiotus brachystegiae Hall

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus brachystegiae Hall, 1928: 271. Type data: ZIMBABWE: Mazoe, on smaller branches of Brachystegia flagristipulata. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Fabaceae: Brachystegia flagristipulata [Hall1928, Balach1956].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Zimbabwe [Hall1928, Balach1956].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Hall (1928) and by Balachowsky (1956).

STRUCTURE: Scale of adult female more or less circular and semi-transparent; colour dull brown, paler at the margin, with a reddish brown tinge in some examples; diameter 1.0-1.75 mm. Male scale pale brown in colour and of the usual form; exuviae yellow, with conspicuous broad median longitudinal reddish brown stripe (Hall, 1928).

KEYS: Balachowsky 1956: 51 (female) [Africa].

CITATIONS: Balach1932f [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 231]; Balach1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 53-56]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 164]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 260]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 41]; Hall1928 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 272-273].



Aspidiotus capensis Newstead

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus (Evaspidiotus) fimbriatus capensis Newstead, 1917: 373. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Port Elizabeth, on cycads; collected by de Charmoy, 1914. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Aspidiotus fimbriatus capensis; Brain, 1918: 121. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus capensis; Balachowsky, 1955: 391. Change of status.



FOES: HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Aphytis taylori Quednau [RosenDe1979]. Encyrtidae: Habrolepis algoensis Annecke & Mynhardt [Prinsl1983].

HOSTS: Cycadaceae [Newste1917, Balach1956]. Zamiaceae: Cycas [RosenDe1979], Encephalartos [Brain1918, Balach1956].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [BrainKe1917, Newste1917, Brain1918, Balach1956, RosenDe1979].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Balachowsky (1956).

STRUCTURE: Scale of adult female circular, about 2.5 - 3 mm. in diameter, moderately convex, pure opaque white. The exuviae are central and normally covered with a thin layer of secretion, through which they appear slightly brownish. Male scale similar in shape, but small, semi-transparent, with yellow exuviae (Brain, 1918).

KEYS: Balachowsky 1956: 52 (female) [Africa]; Brain 1918: 117 (female) [South Africa].

CITATIONS: Balach1932f [taxonomy, host, distribution: 230]; Balach1955 [taxonomy: 391]; Balach1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 55-58]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 164-165]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 260]; Brain1918 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 121]; BrainKe1917 [distribution: 183]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 402]; Muntin1971a [taxonomy: 307]; Newste1917 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 373]; Prinsl1983 [distribution, biological control: 26]; Quedna1964b [biological control: 86-116]; RosenDe1979 [host, distribution, biological control: 494-496]; Sander1906 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 13].



Aspidiotus capsulatus Green nomen nudum

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus capsulatus Green, 1905a: 343. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus capsulatus Ferris, 1941e: 41. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus capsulatus Borchsenius, 1966: 376. Nomen nudum.



Aspidiotus cerasi Fitch

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus cerasi Fitch, 1857a: 368. Type data: U.S.A.: New York State, on bark of choke cherry; No. 15. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA, and Albany: New York State Museum Insect Collection, New York, USA. Described: female.

Aspidiotus cerasi; Fernald, 1903b: 217. Incorrect synonymy. Notes: Fernald (1903b: 217) incorrectly synonymized Aspidiotus cerasi Fitch with Chionaspis furfura (Fitch), whereas Borchsenius (1966: 368) regarded the former a valid species.



HOST: Rosaceae: Cerasus [Fitch1857a].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (New York [Fitch1857a]).

STRUCTURE: Fitch (1857a) described this species as follows:" In winter, on the bark of the choke cherry, little roundish white wax-like blisters, scarcely perceptible to the naked eye, containing beneath them in an open cavity a cluster of minute dull red or resin-like eggs."

SYSTEMATICS: Aspidiotus cerasi Fitch was synonymized with Chionaspis furfura (Fitch) by Fernald (1903b: 217), whereas Borchsenius (1966: 368) regarded it as a valid species.

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 165]; Borchs1966 [taxonomy: 368]; Fernal1903b [taxonomy: 217]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 41]; Fitch1857a [taxonomy: 368]; McCabeJo1980 [taxonomy: 7]; Signor1870 [taxonomy: 107].



Aspidiotus chamaeropsis Signoret

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus chamaeropsis Signoret, 1869: 848. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus chamaeropsis Signoret, 1869b: 118. Type data: FRANCE: apparently Paris, on Chamaerops australis; collected by Mr. Boisduval. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Vienna: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria. Described: female. Illust.

Aspidiotus (Aspidiotus) chamaeropsis; Cockerell, 1897i: 29. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus chamaeropis Lindinger, 1907a: 20. Unjustified emendation; discovered by Borchsenius, 1966: 368.



HOST: Arecaceae: Chamaerops australis [Signor1869b].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: France [Signor1869b].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Signoret (1869b).

STRUCTURE: Female scale elongate, transparent; exuviae bright yellow, placed near margin (Signoret, 1869b).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 165-166]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 368]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 334]; Cocker1897i [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 29]; Comsto1883 [taxonomy: 74-75]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 254]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 42]; Lepesm1947 [host, distribution: 195]; Lindin1907a [taxonomy: 20]; Lindin1935 [taxonomy: 368]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 543]; SchmutKlLu1959 [taxonomy: 374]; Signor1869 [taxonomy: 848]; Signor1869b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 118]; Targio1892 [taxonomy: 81].



Aspidiotus chinensis Kuwana & Muramatsu

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus chinensis Kuwana & Muramatsu, 1931: 335. Type data: CHINA: Shanghai, intercepted at Japan, Nagasaki and Yokohama, on Cymbidium faberi [= Kyuka-ran]. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Ibaraki-ken: Insect Taxonomy Laboratory, National Institute of Agricultural Environmental Sciences, Kannon-dai, Yatabe, Tsukuba-shi, (Kuwana), Japan. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Orchidaceae: Cymbidium faberi [KuwanaMu1931].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: China (Shanghai [KuwanaMu1931]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Kuwana & Muramatsu (1931).

STRUCTURE: Female scale nearly oblong, flat, more or less delicate in texture, grayish dark in colour; exuviae nearly central, pale yellow; length 2 mm, width 1 mm (Kuwana & Muramatsu, 1931).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 166]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 260]; Chou1985 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 398]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 187]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 42]; KuwanaMu1931 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 335-339]; Lindin1936b [taxonomy: 286]; Takagi1957 [taxonomy: 35]; TangQiWa1990 [host, distribution, life history, chemical control: 187-194]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 73].



Aspidiotus circularis Fitch

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus circularis Fitch, 1857b: 426. Type data: USA: New York, gardens of the city of Albany, on currant [=Ribes] stalks. Syntypes, female. Type depository: New York: American Museum of Natural History, Department of Entomology Collection, New York, USA. Described: female.



HOST: Grossulariaceae: Ribes [Fitch1857b].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (New York [Fitch1857b]).

STRUCTURE: Fitch (1857b) described this species as follows: "On the bark of currant stalks in gardens of the city of Albany early in the spring, I have observed a minute circular flat scale only 0.03 inch diameter, similar to a species named Aspidiotus nerii but differently colored, being of the same blackish brown hue with the surrounding bark and having in the centre a smooth round wart-like elevation of a pale yellow color".

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 166]; Borchs1966 [taxonomy: 368]; Fernal1903b [taxonomy: 252]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 41]; Fitch1857b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 426]; Marlat1900a [taxonomy: 590]; Marlat1908b [taxonomy: 309]; Sander1910 [taxonomy: 61]; Signor1877 [taxonomy: 601].



Aspidiotus cochereaui Matile-Ferrero & Balachowsky

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus cochereaui Matile-Ferrero & Balachowsky, 1973: 241. Type data: NEW CALEDONIA: Mont Koghi, on undetermined plant; collected 2.XI.1966. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Epacridaceae: Dracophyllum [WilliaWa1988], Dracophyllum ramosum [WilliaWa1988]. Fagaceae: Nothofagus codonandra [WilliaWa1988].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Caledonia [MatileBa1973, WilliaWa1988].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Matile-Ferrero & Balachowsky (1973) and by Williams & Watson (1988).

STRUCTURE: Female scale circular, slightly convex; colour dark brown; scale partly or completely covered with white powdery secretion; diameter 1.8-2 mm (Matile-Ferrero & Balachowsky, 1973).

KEYS: Williams & Watson 1988: 49 (female) [Tropical South Pacific].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 167]; MatileBa1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 241-243]; WilliaWa1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 48,51-53].



Aspidiotus combreti Hall

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus combreti Hall, 1928: 273. Type data: ZIMBABWE: Mazoe, on Combretum apiculatum and Combretum sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Combretaceae: Combretum [Hall1928, Balach1956], Combretum apiculatum [Hall1928, Balach1956].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Mauritania [BalachMa1970]; Zimbabwe [Hall1928, Balach1956].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Hall (1928) and by Balachowsky (1956).

STRUCTURE: Female scale highly convex, usually circular, but crowded examples oval in outline; exuviae more or less central; diameter 1.25-1.75 mm. Male scale not seen (Hall, 1928).

KEYS: Balachowsky 1956: 52 (female) [Africa].

CITATIONS: Balach1932f [taxonomy, host, distribution: 230-231]; Balach1955 [taxonomy, distribution: 391]; Balach1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 57-60]; BalachMa1970 [host, distribution: 1080]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 167]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 260]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 42]; Hall1928 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 273-274].



Aspidiotus commelinae Lindinger nomen nudum

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus commelinae Lindinger, 1957: 545. Nomen nudum. Notes: This name was listed by Lindinger (1957: 545) as follows: "A. cammelinae Seabra (1920) = A. obliquus". No publication by Seabra (1920) was found (Y. Ben-Dov, December, 2002).

Aspidiotus commelinae Borchsenius, 1966: 368. Nomen nudum.



Aspidiotus comorensis Mamet

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus comorensis Mamet, 1960: 159. Type data: COMOROS ISLANDS: Moheli Island, on "Coeur de Boeuf" [=Annona reticulata]. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Annonaceae: Annona reticulata [Matile1978].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Comoros [Mamet1960, Matile1978].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Mamet (1960) and by Matile-Ferrero (1978).

STRUCTURE: Female scale straw-coloured, low convex, circular; exuviae subcentral. Male scale not observed (Mamet, 1960).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 168]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 260]; Mamet1960 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 159-160]; Matile1978 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 61-62].



Aspidiotus comperei Marlatt

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus comperei Marlatt, 1908c: 12. Type data: AUSTRALIA: West Australia, Raventhorpe, on Hakea sp.; collected by George Compere, 1902. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA; type no. 14129. Described: female. Illust.

Aspidoides comperei; MacGillivray, 1921: 406. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus comperei; Borchsenius, 1966: 268. Revived combination.



HOST: Proteaceae: Hakea [Marlat1908c, Frogga1914].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Western Australia [Frogga1914]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Marlatt (1908c).

STRUCTURE: Female scale about 1 mm in diameter, strongly convex, nearly circular; exuviae covered, but covering secretion easily rubbed off, exposing the lemon-yellow to brown exuviae; secretion covering the larval exuviae sometimes more dense and adherent, thus sometimes giving the scale an annulated appearance due to the second exuvia showing through the section surrounding the larval skin; secretionary supplement normally white, sometimes slightly yellowed; ventral scale inconsiderable. Scale of male about half the size of the female scale, and of the normal oval shape (Marlatt, 1908c).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 168]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 268-269]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 42]; Frogga1914 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 136]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 13]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 406]; Marlat1908c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 12-13].



Aspidiotus congolensis Balachowsky

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus destructor congolensis Balachowsky, 1956: 64. Type data: ZAIRE: Bambesa, on Musa sp. Holotype female. Type depository: Tervuren: Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Section d'Entomologie, Belgium. Described: female. Illust.

Temnaspidiotus congolensis; Borchsenius, 1966: 270. Change of combination and rank.

Aspidiotus congolensis; Williams & Watson, 1988: 49. Revived combination.



HOST: Musaceae: Musa [Balach1956].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Zaire [Balach1956].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Balachowsky (1956).

STRUCTURE: The general appearance of this species is identical to that of the typical African form (Balachowsky, 1956).

SYSTEMATICS: Balachowsky (1956) described the subspecies Aspidiotus destructor congolensis noting that it differed from the typical African form in constantly possessing a continuous row of short microducts along the submargin from abdominal segment III to the head.

KEYS: Balachowsky 1956: 51 (female) [Africa].

CITATIONS: Balach1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 63-64]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 168-169]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 270]; GermaiMiPa2014 [distribution: 22].



Aspidiotus corticalis Cockerell nomen nudum

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus corticalis Cockerell, 1894: 376. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus corticalis Ferris, 1941e: 42. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus corticalis Borchsenius, 1966: 376. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus corticalis Gordh, 1979: 94. Nomen nudum.



Aspidiotus coryphae Cockerell & Robinson

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus coryphae Cockerell & Robinson, 1915a: 425. Type data: PHILIPPINES: Los Banos, on Corypha elata. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust. Notes:

COMMON NAME: corypha scale [Velasq1971].



HOSTS: Arecaceae: Coccus nucifera [Velasq1971], Corypha elata [CockerRo1915a, Muntin1971a], Roystonea elata [Velasq1971]. Cycadaceae: Cycas revoluta [Velasq1971].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Philippines [CockerRo1915a, VelasqRi1969, Velasq1971] (Luzon [Muntin1971a, Velasq1971]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Cockerell & Robinson (1915a), Munting (1971a) and by Velasquez (1971). Description of adult female by Ferris (1941e).

STRUCTURE: Female scale subcircular, flat, thin, dull white or creamish and about 2 mm diameter; exuviae oval, subcentral, darker than the rest of the scale. Male Unknown (Velasquez, 1971).

KEYS: Velasquez 1971: 100 (female) [Philippines]; Robinson 1917: 29 (female) [Philippines].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 169]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 260]; CockerRo1915a [taxonomy, description, illustration: 425]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 42,51]; Lepesm1947 [host, distribution: 195]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 401]; Muntin1971a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 315-316]; Robins1917 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 31]; Sugimo1994 [host, distribution: 115-121]; Velasq1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 103-104]; VelasqRi1969 [host, distribution: 195-208].



Aspidiotus crenulatus (Pampaloni)

NOMENCLATURE:

Diaspis crenulata Pampaloni, 1902: 130. Type data: ITALY: Sicily, Syracuse Province, half an hour walk to northeast of Melilli, along Fiuminello torrent, in a form of 'brown coal' (lignite), from the Miocene age. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Illust. Notes: The type of this fossil was not traced by Jan Koteja (Koteja & Ben-Dov, 2003).

Aspidiotus proteus; Koteja, 2000c: 208. Misspelling of species name. Notes: Aspidiotus proteus Koteja is lapsus calami for Aspidiotus crenulatus Pampaloni.

Aspidiotus crenulatus; Koteja & Ben-Dov, 2003: xxx. Change of combination.

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Sicily [Pampal1902, Pampal1903].

GENERAL REMARKS: A fossil scale insect found in 'brown coal' (lignite) from the Miocene period (Pampaloni, 1902).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 170]; Koteja2000c [taxonomy, distribution: 208]; KotejaBe2003 [taxonomy: 165-166]; Pampal1902 [taxonomy, illustration, distribution: 130]; Pampal1903 [taxonomy: 253].



Aspidiotus cryptomeriae Kuwana

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus cryptomeriae Kuwana, 1902: 69. Type data: JAPAN: Honshu, Gifu-Ken, on Cryptomeria japonica. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Ibaraki-ken: Insect Taxonomy Laboratory, National Institute of Agricultural Environmental Sciences, Kannon-dai, Yatabe, Tsukuba-shi, (Kuwana), Japan. Described: female. Illust.

COMMON NAME: Cryptomeria Scale [Koszta1996].



FOES: COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Chilocorus kuwanae [Muraka1970], Pseudoscymnus hareja [Muraka1970]. HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Aspidiotiphagus citrinus (Craw) [Muraka1970], Encarsia citrina Crawford [JaposhAbNo2013]. Encyrtidae: Comperiella bifasciata Howard [Trjapi1989, JaposhAbNo2013], Comperiella indica Ramakrishna Ayyar [Tachik1982, Trjapi1989, JaposhAbNo2013].

HOSTS: Cephalotaxaceae: Cephalotaxus [Koszta1996], Cephalotaxus harringtonia [Takagi1969a]. Cupressaceae: Chamaecyparis [Takagi1957, Danzig1978, Danzig1980b, Koszta1996], Chamaecyparis obtusa [Kuwana1933, Takagi1969a], Chamaecyparis obtusa breviramea [Kuwana1933], Chamaecyparis pisifera [Kuwana1933, Takagi1969a], Juniperus [Danzig1980b], Juniperus chinensis [Takagi1969a, Tang1984]. Pinaceae: Abies [Takagi1957, Danzig1978, Koszta1996], Abies firma [Kuwana1933, TakahaTa1956, Takagi1969a, Kawai1977, Tang1984], Abies halophylla [Danzig1980b], Abies nephrolepis [Danzig1980b], Abies sachalinensis [Takagi1969a, Danzig1980b], Cedrus [Koszta1996], Keteleeria [Danzig1978, Danzig1980b], Keteleeria evelyniana [Takagi1969a, Tang1984], Picea [Danzig1978], Picea ajanensis [Danzig1980b], Picea excelsa [Takagi1969a], Picea glehnii [Danzig1980b], Pinus [Takagi1957], Pinus koraiensis [Danzig1978, Danzig1980b], Pinus thunbergii [Kuwana1933], Pseudotsuga [Koszta1996], Pseudotsuga japonica [Takagi1969a], Tsuga canadensis [StoetzDa1974a], Tsuga sieboldii [Takagi1969a]. Taxaceae: Taxus [Koszta1996], Taxus cuspidata [Takagi1957, Takagi1969a, Danzig1978, Danzig1980b, Tang1984], Torreya [Danzig1978, Danzig1980b], Torreya nucifera [Takagi1957, Takagi1969a, Kawai1977]. Taxodiaceae: Cryptomeria [Takagi1957, Danzig1978, Danzig1980b], Cryptomeria japonica [Kuwana1902, Kuwana1933, TakahaTa1956, Takagi1969a, Tang1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Connecticut [Nakaha1982], Delaware [Nakaha1982], Indiana [Nakaha1982], Maryland [StoetzDa1974a], New York [Nakaha1982], Pennsylvania [Stimme1986]). Oriental: China (Yunnan [Takagi1969a]); Taiwan [Takagi1969a]. Palaearctic: China [Tang1984] (Shandong (=Shantung) [Danzig1980b]); Japan [Kuwana1917a, Takagi1969a] (Hokkaido [TakahaTa1956, Takagi1957], Honshu [Kuwana1902, TakahaTa1956, Takagi1957], Kyushu [TakahaTa1956], Shikoku [TakahaTa1956]); Russia (Khabarovsk Kray [Danzig1980b, Danzig1988], Primor'ye Kray [Danzig1980b, Danzig1988], Sakhalin Oblast [TakahaTa1956, Danzig1980b, Danzig1988]); South Korea [TakahaTa1956, Takagi1969a].

BIOLOGY: This species infests leaves of the hosts.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Kuwana (1902), Kuwana (1933), Ferris (1953), Takagi (1957, 1969a), Danzig (1980b), Tang (1984) and by Kosztarab (1996). Description and illustration of female and male nymphs, and male pupa and prepupa by Stoetzel & Davidson (1974a). This species exhibits in Japan a remarkable host-induced variation in these parameters: variation in Esterase isozymes (Miyanoshita et al., 1991); adult male and female morphology (Miyanoshita et al., 1993; Miyanoshita & Tatsuki, 1995); role of sex pheromone (Miyanoshita & Tatsuki, 2001). Morphological differences and host preference in two forms of Aspidiotus cryptomeriae Kuwana associated with Cryptomeria japonica D. Don and Torreya nucifera Sieb. et Zucc. were examined in the Kanto district, Japan. Adult males and females showed statistically significant differences in some characters. However, it was impossible to divide specimens perfectly by using any one of these characters. Linear discriminant analysis using combinations of several characteristics (>99%) discriminated them. Two sympatric populations of adult females collected at the same stand were correctly classified by linear discriminant functions. Test of forced host preference to five conifers indicated that each population was monophagous. The present study suggests strongly that these two forms are distinct host races. If the same holds true in other parts of Japan, these races might be considered to have differentiated into distinct species (Miyanoshita et al., 1993).

STRUCTURE: The scale of the female is usually elliptical, flatly convex. Length 1.1 to 2.0 mm., width about 1 mm.; usual color grayish sub transparent. The exuviae are usually a little to one side of the center; straw color. The first skin usually shows the segmentation distinctly, length about 0.4 mm.; the second skin is more or less covered with secretion, length about 0.65 mm. Ventral scale a mere film applied to bark of plant. The scale of the male is elongated, with the larval skin nearly central; color grayish, same as female in texture; larval skin straw color. Length about 1.0 mm., width 0.6 mm. (Kuwana, 1902).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: The Cryptomeria scale is a pest of conifers in Maryland and Pennsylvania, USA (Stimmel, 1986; Davidson & Raupp, 1999; Gardosik, 2001), Japan (Kawai, 1977) and China (Schmutterer et al., 1957).

KEYS: Kosztarab 1996: 427 (female) [Northeastern North America]; Danzig 1993: 40-41 (female) [Europe]; Chou 1985: 262-263 (female) [Species of China]; Takagi 1957: 32 (female) [Japan]; Kuwana 1933: 3 (female) [Japan]; Kuwana 1933b: 49 (female) [Japan].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 170-172]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 260]; Brick1912 [host, distribution: 1-22]; Brown1960a [taxonomy, structure, chromosomes: 135-160]; Bustsh1958 [taxonomy: 219,239]; Chou1985 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 267-268]; Cowles2010 [host, distribution, chemical control: 1735-1743]; Danzig1977b [taxonomy: 57]; Danzig1978 [host, distribution: 18]; Danzig1980b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 336-338]; Danzig1988 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 725]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 187-188]; DavidsRa1999 [economic importance, chemical control, biological control: 1]; DonMiTa1995 [host, distribution, taxonomy: 159-162]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 255]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 42]; Ferris1953 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 65]; Gardos2001 [host, distribution, economic importance, control, taxonomy: 23-25]; HolmesDa1984 [biological control: 65-70]; JohnsoLy1991 [host, distribution, economic importance: 5]; Kawai1977 [host, distribution, economic importance: 157]; Koszta1996 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, biological control, economic importance: 427-429]; Kuwana1902 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 69]; Kuwana1907 [host, distribution: 196]; Kuwana1917a [taxonomy, distribution: 174]; Kuwana1933 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 4-5]; Lindin1909c [taxonomy, host, distribution: 449]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 400]; MillerDa1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 300]; MillerDa2005 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, economic importance: 68-70]; MiyanoKaFu1993 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 71-80]; MiyanoTa1995 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 159-162]; MiyanoTa2001 [taxonomy, chemistry, life history, host, distribution: 199-201]; MiyanoTaKu1991 [taxonomy, chemistry, host, distribution: 317-321]; Muraka1970 [host, distribution, biological control: 71-72]; Nakaha1982 [host, distribution: 13]; RossHaOk2012 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 199]; SchmutKlLu1957 [host, distribution, economic importance: 475]; Stimme1986 [host, distribution, description, life history, economic importance, control: 21-22]; StoetzDa1974 [taxonomy, life history: 138-140]; StoetzDa1974a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 491-494]; Tachik1982 [host, distribution, biological control: 103-106]; Takagi1957 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 32-33]; Takagi1969a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 64-65,99]; Takagi1990 [taxonomy, structure: 100]; TakahaTa1956 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 14]; Tang1984 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 16-17]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 73]; Trjapi1989 [biological control: 296,297]; Zahrad1990 [host, distribution, description: 641].



Aspidiotus cymbidii Bouche

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus cymbidii Bouche, 1844: 296. Type data: GERMANY: Berlin, in greenhouse, on Cymbidium chinense introduced from China. Syntypes, both sexes. Described: both sexes. Notes: Type material lost (Sachtleben, 1944).

Diaspis cymbidii; Signoret, 1869d: 436. Change of combination.

Aulacaspis cymbidii; Cockerell, 1893k: 548. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus cymbidii; Borchsenius, 1966: 369. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Orchidaceae: Cymbidium [Kuwana1927], Cymbidium chinense [Bouche1844].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China [Kuwana1927]; Germany [Bouche1844].

GENERAL REMARKS: Bouche (1844) noted that this species is similar to Aspidiotus nerii Bouche, but the scale is different.

STRUCTURE: Scale oval, flat, with eccentric "absatzen"; brown at top (Bouche, 1844).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 172-173]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 369]; Bouche1844 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 296]; Cocker1893k [taxonomy, host, distribution: 548]; Cocker1899n [taxonomy: 30]; Comsto1883 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 369]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 324]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 42]; Kuwana1927 [host, distribution: 71]; Lindin1934e [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 160]; Sachtl1944 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 71]; Signor1869 [taxonomy: 851]; Signor1869d [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 436-437]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 101].



Aspidiotus dallonii Balachowsky

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus (Evaspidiotus) dallonii Balachowsky, 1932f: 228. Type data: CHAD: Massif du Tibesti, oasis de Goumeur, altitude 1000-1200m., on Ficus salicifolia var. teloucat. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

Octaspidiotus dallonii; Balachowsky, 1948b: 271. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus dallonii; Borchsenius, 1966: 260. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Apocynaceae: Arduina edulis [Balach1956]. Fabaceae: Bauhinia [Balach1956], Tamarindus indicus [Balach1956]. Moraceae: Ficus salicifolia var. teloukat [Balach1932f, Balach1948b], Ficus thonningii [Balach1956]. Ochnaceae: Lophira alata [Balach1956, Balach1958a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Central African Republic [Balach1958a]; Chad [Balach1932f, Balach1948b]; Eritrea [Balach1956]; Guinea [Balach1956, Balach1958a]; Sudan [Balach1956]; Zaire [Balach1956].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Balachowsky (1932f, 1948b, 1956).

STRUCTURE: Female scale circular, white; exuviae central, yellow, sometimes covered with white secretion of the adult; slightly convex; without ventral vellum; margin of scale thin; diameter 1.8-2 mm. Male scale subcircular, slightly oval, white; exuviae yellow, subcentral; posterior margin thin and slightly cottony; 1.2-1.3 mm long (Balachowsky, 1948b).

KEYS: Balachowsky 1956: 52 (female) [Africa].

CITATIONS: Balach1932f [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 228-231]; Balach1948b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 271-273]; Balach1954f [host, distribution: 99]; Balach1955 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 391]; Balach1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 59-61]; Balach1958 [host, distribution: 23]; Balach1958a [host, distribution: 34]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 173]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 260-261]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 42]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 550].



Aspidiotus destructor Signoret

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus destructor Signoret, 1869: 851. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus destructor Signoret, 1869a: 120. Type data: REUNION ISLAND: on coconut palm and other palms; collected by Dr. Vinson. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Vienna: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria. Described: female. Illust.

Aspidiotus transparens Green, 1890: 20. Type data: SRI LANKA: on tea plant, [Thea sp.]. Lectotype, by subsequent designation Williams & Watson, 1988: 53. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Green, 1910a: 201.

Aspidiotus cocotis Newstead, 1893d: 186. Type data: GUYANA: Demerara, Botanic Garden, on Cocos nucifera. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Williams & Watson, 1988: 53. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Synonymy by Leonardi, 1898c: 62.

Aspidiotus fallax Cockerell, 1893j: 252. Type data: ANTIGUA: on mango and Terminalia catappa. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Ferris, 1941e: 43.

Aspidiotus vastatrix Leroy, 1896: xx. Type data: Unknown. Syntypes, female and first instar. Described: female. Synonymy by Ferris, 1941e: 49. Notes: The publication by Leroy, as cited by Ferris (1941e: 45), in which this name was listed, could not be traced (Yair Ben-Dov, December 2002).

Aspidiotus destructor fallax; Cockerell, 1896b: 334. Change of status.

Aspidiotus lataniae; Green, 1896e: 40. Misidentification; discovered by Borchsenius, 1966: 270.

Aspidiotus (Aspidiotus) transparens; Cockerell, 1897i: 28. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Aspidiotus) destructor; Cockerell, 1897i: 29. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Evaspidiotus) destructor; Leonardi, 1898a: 76. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Evaspidiotus) lataniae; Leonardi, 1898a: 76. Misidentification; discovered by Borchsenius, 1966: 270.

Aspidiotus transparens simillimus Cockerell, 1898m: 27. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Sydney, on a palm; collected by Mr. Alex Craw, December 1897. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Cockerell & Robinson, 1915: 106.

Aspidiotus simillimus translucens; Cockerell in Fernald, 1903b: 278. Change of combination and replacement name for Aspidiotus (Evaspidiotus) transparens Cockerell, 1899q.

Aspidiotus translucens; Cockerell & Robinson, 1915: 106. Change of status.

Aspidiotus destructor transparens; Green, 1915c: 44. Change of status.

Aspidiotus translucens; Ferris, 1941e: 49. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus destructor; Williams & Watson, 1988: 53. Revived combination.

Aspidiotus coccotis; Danzig, 1993: 141. Misspelling of species name.

Aspidiotus transparens simillimus; Danzig, 1993: 145. Incorrect synonymy. Notes: Incorrect synonymy with Aspidiotus nerii.

Aspidiotus vastatrex; Tao, 1999: 73. Misspelling of species name.

COMMON NAMES: bourbon scale [MillerDa2005]; coconut scale [MoutiaMa1946, Merril1953, McKenz1956, RosenDe1978, MillerDa2005]; razrushaushaya shitovka [Borchs1936]; transparent scale [MillerDa2005].



FOES: ACARI Hemisarcoptidae: Hemisarcoptes malus (Shimer) [GersonOcHo1990]. COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Azya trinitatis Marshall [RosenDe1978], Chilocorus cacti (L.) [RosenDe1978], Chilocorus nigritus Mulsant [RosenDe1978, Kinawy1991, BaskarSu2006], Chilocorus nigritus F. [Kalsho1981], Chilocorus politus Mulsant [Beards1970, RosenDe1978, Kalsho1981], Chilocorus wahlbergi [Almeid1973b], Chnoodes nr. cinctipennis Gorham [RosenDe1978], Cleothera [RosenDe1978], Coccidophilus citricola Brethes [BennetSi1964], Cryptognatha nodiceps Marshall [Castel1959, Beards1970, RosenDe1978, Fernan1987a], Cryptognatha simillima Sicard [RosenDe1978], Delphastus [RosenDe1978], Exoplectra dubia Crotch [RosenDe1978], Hyperaspis connectens Thunb. [BennetSi1964], Lindorus lophanthae (Blaisdell) [Cocher1965, Beards1970], Pentilia castanea Mulsant [RosenDe1978], Pentilia insidiosa Mulsant [RosenDe1978], Prodilis [RosenDe1978], Pseudoscymnus anomalus Chapin [Beards1970], Rhizobius pulchellus Montrouzier [Cocher1969], Scymnus [RosenDe1978, Kalsho1981], Scymnus floralis Fabr. [BennetSi1964], Scymnus luteus Sic. [Kalsho1981], Scymnus (Nephus) aeneipennis Sicard [RosenDe1978], Telsimia nitida Chapin [Beards1970, RosenDe1978, Kalsho1981], Zilus viridimicans Sic. [BennetSi1964]. FUNGI : Paecilomyces aleurocanthu. Ascomycotina: Myriangium duriaei [EvansPr1990], Nectria diploa [EvansPr1990], Nectria flammea [EvansPr1990], Torrubiella luteorostrata [EvansPr1990], Torrubiella tenuis [EvansPr1990]. Deuteromycotina: Fusarium [EvansPr1990], Verticillium lecanii [EvansPr1990]. HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Aphytis chrysomphali (Mercet) [Beards1970, RosenDe1978, RosenDe1979], Aphytis equatorialis Rosen & DeBach [RosenDe1979], Aphytis margaretae DeBach & Rosen [RosenDe1979, MyartsRu2000], Aphytis melinus DeBach [RosenDe1979], Aphytis proclia (Walker) [Gordh1979], Aspidiotiphagus citrinus (Craw) [RosenDe1978], Aspidiotophagus sp. [Kalsho1981], Encarsia aurantii (Howard) [Kobakh1965, PolaszAbHu1999], Encarsia citrina Craw [LiLoCa1997], Encarsia lounsburyi {Berlese & Paoli) [CeballBaCh2011], Marietta Motschulski [CeballBaCh2011], Pteroptrix parvipennis (Gahan) [RosenDe1978]. Encyrtidae: Apterencyrtus microphagus (Mayr) [RosenDe1978], Comperiella [Ramakr1930, ErlerTu2001], Comperiella bifasciata Howard [Flande1944a], Comperiella unifasciata Ishii [RosenDe1978], Pseudhomalopoda prima [CeballBaCh2011], Spaniopterus crucifer Gahan [RosenDe1978, Noyes1990a], Thomsonisca amathus (Walker) [Noyes1990a]. Signiphoridae: Signiphora borinquensis Quezada [Gordh1979], Signiphora fax Girault [Woolle1990]. NEUROPTERA Chrysopidae: Chrysopa [Drea1990]. THYSANOPTERA Phlaeothripidae: Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin) [Beards1970, RosenDe1978, PalmerMo1990].

HOSTS: Anacardiaceae: Anacardium occidentale [Lepage1938, Balach1956, Beards1966], Mangifera indica [Cocker1893j, Takaha1933, Lepage1938, RahmanAn1941, McKenz1956, Takagi1969a, Velasq1971, Matile1984c]. Annonaceae: Annona [Green1904a, Takaha1932a, Takaha1933, Merril1953], Annona cherimolia [Balach1956, Matile1984c], Annona muricata [GomezM1941, Almeid1973b, Malump2012b], Annona reticulata [Mamet1956, Borchs1966, Velasq1971, WilliaWa1988], Annona senegalensis [Balach1956], Annona squamosa [Lepage1938, WilliaWa1988], Anomianthus heterocarpus [Green1904a]. Apocynaceae: Allemanda hendersoni [WilliaWa1988], Carissa [Ramakr1921a], Plumeria acuminata [Takaha1939b], Plumeria acutifolia [Mamet1943a, Mamet1949, Borchs1966, WilliaWa1988], Plumeria rubra [WilliaWa1988], Trachelospermum asiaticum [TakahaTa1956]. Aquifoliaceae: Ilex colchicum [Hadzib1983]. Araceae: Alocasia [Green1900a], Colocasia esculenta [WilliaWa1988], Xanthosoma sagittifolium [WilliaWa1988]. Arecaceae [Cocker1898m, Takagi1969a], [WilliaWa1988], Areca catechu [Takaha1939b, Mamet1943a, Mamet1949, Beards1966, Borchs1966], Chrysalidocarpus lutescens [Takaha1935, Mamet1943a, Mamet1949, Borchs1966, Velasq1971], Cocos [Lepage1938], Cocos nucifera [Signor1869b, Mamet1949, Mamet1959a, Castel1963, Dekle1965c, Borchs1966, WilliaBu1987, WilliaWa1988], Dictyosperma alba [Mamet1949, Borchs1966], Elaeis guineensis [Castel1963, Almeid1973b, WilliaWa1988], Nannorrhops ritchiana [Moghad2013a], Neodypsis [Mamet1951, Borchs1966], Nypa fruticans [Beards1966], Oenocarpus mapora [NormarMoKr2014], Phoenix [WilliaWa1988], Phoenix canariensis [Beards1966], Phoenix roubellini [KozarKoFe2013], Raphia ruffia [Mamet1949, Borchs1966], Trachycarpus excelsus [Takaha1929]. Aristolochiaceae: Asarum hongkongense [MartinLa2011]. Asclepiadaceae: Calotropis [Ramakr1921a]. Bixaceae: Bixa orellana [Green1904a]. Bombacaceae: Ceiba pentandra [Beards1966, WilliaWa1988]. Calophyllaceae: Mammea americana L. [DonesEv2011]. Cannaceae: Canna indica [Almeid1973b, WilliaWa1988]. Caprifoliaceae: Lonicera japonica [Takaha1934]. Caricaceae: Carica papaya [Takaha1929, Takaha1941b, DeLott1967a, Brimbl1968, Almeid1973b, WilliaWa1988]. Celastraceae: Euonymus radicans [Lindin1911]. Chrysobalanaceae: Chrysobalanus [Leonar1914]. Clusiaceae: Calophyllum calaba [MestreHaEv2011], Calophyllum inophyllum [Newste1906a, Merril1953, WilliaWa1988]. Combretaceae: Combretum erythrophyllum [Merril1953], Terminalia [Lepage1938, Takaha1942d, MatileNo1984], Terminalia catappa [Cocker1893j, MerrilCh1923, GomezM1941, Almeid1973b]. Cruciferae: Brassica asiatica [WilliaWa1988], Brassica chinensis [WilliaWa1988], Brassica napus [WilliaWa1988], Brassica oleracea [WilliaWa1988], Raphanus sativus [WilliaWa1988]. Cucurbitaceae [WilliaWa1988], Cucumis sativus [WilliaWa1988]. Cycadaceae: Cycas [Green1930b, WilliaWa1988], Cycas revoluta [Lindin1911]. Dilleniaceae: Dillenia biflora [WilliaWa1988]. Dioscoreaceae: Dioscorea nummularia [WilliaWa1988]. Dipterocarpaceae: Dipterocarpus [Takaha1942b]. Euphorbiaceae: Aleurites moluccana [WilliaWa1988], Aleurites triloba [WilliaWa1988], Breynia disticha [WilliaBu1987, WilliaWa1988], Euphorbia [WilliaWa1988], Euphorbia pulcherima [Mamet1949, Beards1966, Borchs1966, WilliaWa1988], Hevea brasiliensis [Green1904a, Newste1917b, WilliaWa1988], Macaranga seemannii [WilliaWa1988], Manihot [Green1900a], Manihot glazioui [Lindin1910b], Poinsettia [Mamet1943a, Borchs1966], Sapium sebiferum [Takaha1934]. Fabaceae: Albizia lebbek [WilliaWa1988], Bauhinia [Mamet1943a, Mamet1949, Borchs1966], Cassia [Ramakr1921a, WilliaWa1988], Cassia nodosa [WilliaWa1988], Cassia occidentalis [WilliaWa1988], Cassia tora [WilliaWa1988], Crotalaria mucronata [WilliaWa1988], Crotalaria saltiana [WilliaWa1988], Dalbergia [Ramakr1921a], Dalbergia championi [Green1900a], Inocarpus fagifer [WilliaWa1988], Parkinsonia aculeata [LincanHoCa2010], Vigna unguiculata [WilliaWa1988]. Fagaceae: Lithocarpus [Takaha1942b]. Flacourtiaceae: Scolopia oldhami [Takaha1935]. Geraniaceae: Pelargonium [Mamet1943a, Mamet1949, Borchs1966]. Gnetaceae: Gnetum pirifolium [Lindin1911]. Heliconiaceae: Heliconia bahai [WilliaWa1988]. Hernandiaceae: Hernandia [Beards1966]. Lardizabalaceae: Stauntonia obovatitolia [Takaha1934]. Lauraceae: Cinnamomum camphora [Takaha1932a, Takaha1933], Cinnamomum zeylanicum [WilliaWa1988], Laurus nobilis [Borchs1934, Borchs1936], Litsea vitiensis [WilliaWa1988], Persea americana [Takaha1941b, Mamet1943a, Mamet1949, Borchs1966, WilliaWa1988], Persea gratissima [Brain1918, Lepage1938, GomezM1941]. Lecythidaceae: Barringtonia [Beards1966, WilliaWa1988], Barringtonia asiatica [WilliaWa1988]. Liliaceae: Asparagus sprengeri [Merril1953], Ophiopogon japonicus [Hadzib1983]. Loranthaceae: Loranthus [Balach1956]. Lythraceae: Lagerstroemia indica [GomezM1941, Mamet1943a, Mamet1949, Borchs1966]. Magnoliaceae: Michelia alba [Takaha1932a, Takaha1933], Michelia champaca [Velasq1971]. Malvaceae: Hibiscus [WilliaWa1988]. Meliaceae: Swietenia mahagoni [GomezM1941]. Moraceae: Artocarpus altilis [Beards1966, WilliaBu1987, WilliaWa1988], Artocarpus communis [Beards1966], Artocarpus incisa [WilliaWa1988], Ficus [Takaha1929, Balach1956, MatileNo1984, WilliaWa1988], Ficus foveolata [Takaha1935], Ficus retusa [Takaha1932a, Takaha1933]. Musaceae: Musa [Lepage1938, Takaha1939b, Almeid1971, Matile1984c, WilliaWa1988, BenDovCa2006], Musa acuminata [Brimbl1968], Musa paradisiaca sapientum [McKenz1956], Musa paradisiaca [GomezM1941, WilliaWa1988], Musa sapientum [GomezM1941, Mamet1943a, Mamet1949, Borchs1966, Velasq1971]. Myrsinaceae: Maesa [Takaha1935], Maesa indica [Green1900a], Parathesis cubana [MestreHaEv2011]. Myrtaceae: Caryophyllus [Leonar1914, Balach1956], Decaspermum fruticosum [Takaha1934], Eucalyptus deglupta [WilliaBu1987, WilliaWa1988], Eugenia [Merril1953, WilliaWa1988], Eugenia eucalyptoides [Merril1953], Eugenia jambolana [Merril1953], Eugenia malaccensis [WilliaWa1988], Psidium [McKenz1956, WilliaWa1988], Psidium guajava [GomezM1941, RahmanAn1941, Mamet1943a, Beards1966, Borchs1966, Velasq1971, WilliaWa1988]. Ochnaceae: Lophira [Balach1956]. Oleaceae: Jasminum [RahmanAn1941, WilliaWa1988], Jasminum officinale [WilliaWa1988], Jasminum sambac [WilliaWa1988], Ligustrum japonicum [Takaha1932a, Takaha1933], Osmanthus asiaticus [Takagi1969a]. Orchidaceae [WilliaWa1988]. Oxalidaceae: Averrhoa carambola [WilliaWa1988]. Pandanaceae: Pandanus [McKenz1956, Dekle1965c], Pandanus boninensis [Takaha1929], Pandanus odoratissimus [Green1916e], Pandanus tectorius [Takaha1933, Beards1966], Pandanus utilis [GomezM1941, Mamet1943a, Mamet1949, Borchs1966]. Passifloraceae: Passiflora quadrangularis [WilliaWa1988]. Piperaceae: Piper [Green1937, WilliaBu1987, WilliaWa1988], Piper macgillivrayi [WilliaWa1988], Piper methysticum [WilliaBu1987, WilliaWa1988], Piper puberulum [WilliaWa1988], Piper subpeltatum [Newste1911a]. Poaceae: Saccharum officinarum [McKenz1956, WilliaWa1988]. Proteaceae: Grevillea robusta [MerrilCh1923]. Rhamnaceae: Ziziphus jujuba [GomezM1941]. Rhizophoraceae: Rhizophora [Balach1956]. Rosaceae: Prunus persica [Mamet1949, Borchs1966]. Rubiaceae: Catesbaea parviflora [Merril1953], Platanocephalus morindaefolius [WilliaWa1988], Psychotria [Green1900a], Psychotria elliptica [Takaha1932a, Takaha1933], Uncaria gambir [Green1904a]. Rutaceae: Citrus [Takaha1932a, Matile1984c], Citrus grandis [WilliaWa1988], Citrus maxima [WilliaWa1988], Citrus sinensis [Takagi1969a]. Solanaceae [WilliaWa1988], Capsicum [WilliaWa1988], Capsicum annuum [WilliaWa1988], Capsicum frutescens [Velasq1971, WilliaWa1988], Capsicum minimum [WilliaWa1988], Lycopersicon esculentum [WilliaWa1988], Physalis lanceolata [WilliaWa1988], Physalis peruviana [WilliaWa1988], Solanum melongena [WilliaWa1988]. Sonneratiaceae: Sonneratia caseolaris [Beards1966]. Sterculiaceae: Theobroma cacao [Green1904a, Lepage1938, WilliaWa1988]. Strelitziaceae: Ravenala madagascariensis [Mamet1943a, Mamet1949, Borchs1966], Strelitzia reginae [Brimbl1968]. Theaceae: Camellia japonica [TakahaTa1956, Hadzib1983], Camellia sasanqua [Hadzib1983], Eurya [Takaha1935], Eurya japonica [Hadzib1983], Thea [Borchs1934], Thea sinensis [Takaha1933, Borchs1936, TakahaTa1956, Takagi1957, Hadzib1983]. Thymelaeaceae: Daphne odora [TakahaTa1956]. Ulmaceae: Celtis occidentalis [MerrilCh1923, Lepage1938], Chaetacme aristata [Brain1918]. Urticaceae: Lapotrea photiniphylla [WilliaWa1988]. Verbenaceae: Avicennia [Balach1956], Lantana camara [WilliaWa1988]. Viscaceae: Viscum taenioides [Lindin1910b]. Vitaceae: Vitis [Green1904a, Takaha1933, Takaha1934, Takaha1935], Vitis vinifera [Mamet1943a, Mamet1949, Borchs1966, Matile1984c]. Zingiberaceae: Alpinia nutans [WilliaWa1988], Zingiber officinale [Mamet1949, Borchs1966].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Angola [Balach1956, Almeid1973b]; Benin [Leonar1914]; Cameroon [Balach1956, MatileNo1984]; Cape Verde [Fernan1972, VanHarCoWi1990]; Côte d'Ivoire (=Ivory Coast) [RosenDe1979]; Eritrea [Lindin1910b, Balach1956]; Ethiopia [Balach1956]; Ghana [Newste1917b]; Guinea-Bissau [Fernan1987a, BenDovCa2006]; Kenya [Newste1911a, Newste1917b, DeLott1967a]; Madagascar [Mamet1951, Mamet1954, Borchs1966]; Mauritius [Mamet1943a, Mamet1949, Borchs1966]; Mozambique [Almeid1971]; Niger [Vayssi1913]; Nigeria [AisagbNwAg1985]; Reunion [Mamet1943a, Mamet1954a, Mamet1957, Borchs1966, GermaiMiPa2014]; Sao Tome and Principe [Castel1963]; Senegal [Leonar1914]; Sierra Leone [Hargre1927]; Somalia [Balach1956]; South Africa [BrainKe1917, Newste1917b]; Tanzania [Newste1911a]; Togo [Newste1906a, Newste1908b]; Uganda [Newste1914, Gowdey1917, Newste1917b, Green1937]; Zaire [Balach1956]; Zanzibar [Green1916, Newste1917b, Mamet1956, Borchs1966]; Zimbabwe [Balach1956]. Australasian: American Samoa [WilliaWa1988]; Australia [Frogga1914] (New South Wales [Cocker1898m], Northern Territory [Green1914c, Green1916e], Queensland [Brimbl1968]); Bonin Islands (=Ogasawara-Gunto) [Kawai1987]; Federated States of Micronesia [Muniap2002] [Takaha1936c, Takaha1942d, RosenDe1978] (Caroline Islands [Takaha1939b, Takaha1941b], Ponape Island [Beards1966], Truk Islands [Beards1966], Yap [Beards1966]); Fiji [Green1937, RosenDe1978, WilliaWa1988, HodgsoLa2011]; French Polynesia [DoaneHa1909, Ferris1935, WilliaWa1988] (Tahiti [RosenDe1979]); Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii [RosenDe1979]); Indonesia (Irian Jaya [WilliaWa1988], Java [Green1904a]); New Caledonia [Cohic1958]; Palau [Takaha1939b, Beards1966]; Papua New Guinea [RosenDe1978, WilliaWa1988]; Solomon Islands [WilliaWa1988]; Vanuatu (=New Hebrides) [WilliaBu1987, WilliaWa1988]; Western Samoa [Laing1927]. Nearctic: Mexico [MyartsRu2000] (Baja California Sur [RosenDe1979]); United States of America (California [McKenz1956], Florida [MerrilCh1923, Merril1953, Dekle1965c, RosenDe1978], Georgia [Nakaha1982]). Neotropical: Antigua and Barbuda (Antigua [Cocker1893j]); Brazil [RosenDe1979, WolffCo1993a] (Bahia [Lepage1938], Distrito Federal (=Brasilia) [Lepage1938], Espirito Santo [CulikMaVe2008], Rio de Janeiro [Hempel1904, Lepage1938], Sao Paulo [Green1930b, Lepage1938], Sergipe [Lepage1938]); Colombia [Balach1959a, Kondo2001, Kondo2008a]; Costa Rica [RosenDe1979]; Cuba [MestreHaEv2011]; Dominican Republic [Russo1929, GomezM1941, RosenDe1978, RosenDe1979]; Ecuador [YustCe1956]; French Guiana [Remill1988]; Galapagos Islands [PeckHeLa1998, CaustoPeSi2006, LincanHoCa2010]; Guadeloupe [Balach1957c, MatileEt2006]; Guyana [Newste1893d, Newste1914]; Haiti [PerezG2008]; Martinique [Balach1957c, MatileEt2006]; Panama [RosenDe1979, NormarMoKr2014]; Peru [Wolcot1958]; Puerto Rico & Vieques Island [RosenDe1978, RosenDe1979, Martor1976, ColonFMe1998]; Saint Croix [Beatty1944]; Saint Lucia [Malump2012b]; Trinidad and Tobago (Trinidad [RosenDe1979]); U.S. Virgin Islands [Nakaha1983]. Oriental: Brit. Indian Ocean Terr. (=Chagos Arch.) [Mamet1943a]; Hong Kong [MartinLa2011]; India [Green1908a, Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1921a] (Andhra Pradesh [MaheswPu1999], Bihar [Ali1968], Karnataka [UsmanPu1955], Punjab [Ansari1942]). Oriental: Indonesia [RosenDe1978]. Oriental: Kampuchea (=Cambodia) [Takaha1942b]; Pakistan [RosenDe1979]; Philippines [Cocker1905f, VelasqRi1969]; Ryukyu Islands (=Nansei Shoto) [KinjoNaHi1996]; Sri Lanka [Green1900a, Ramakr1921a, Green1922]; Taiwan [Takaha1929, Takaha1932a, TakahaTa1956, Takagi1969a, WongChCh1999]; Thailand [Takaha1942b]; Vietnam [DanzigKo1990]. Palaearctic: Azerbaijan (Azerbaijan [Borchs1936]); China [Kuwana1927] (Henan (=Honan) [Shen1993]); Egypt [Hall1922, Ezzat1958]; Georgia [Dzhash1988] (Abkhaz ASSR [Borchs1934, Hadzib1983], Adzhar ASSR [Borchs1934, Borchs1936, Hadzib1983]); Hungary [KozarKoFe2013]; Iran [Kaussa1955, Moghad2004]; Japan [Lindin1911, Kuwana1933, Kawai1980] (Honshu [TakahaTa1956, Takagi1957], Kyushu [TakahaTa1956, Takagi1957], Shikoku [TakahaTa1956, Takagi1957]); Madeira Islands [FrancoRuMa2011]. Palaearctic: Mongolia [DanzigKo1990]. Palaearctic: Russia (Caucasus [Borchs1936]); Saudi Arabia [Matile1984c]; Slovenia [Seljak2010].

BIOLOGY: Occurring usually on the underside of leaves, but in heavy infestation also on upper side (Taylor, 1935; Ferris, 1938a).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Brain (1918), Kuwana (1933), Ferris (1938a, 1941e), Balachowsky (1948b, 1956), McKenzie (1956), Takagi (1969a), Beardsley (1970), Williams & Watson (1988), Danzig (1993), Gill (1997) and by Colon-Ferrer & Medina-Gaud (1998).

STRUCTURE: Female scale somewhat straw-colored, flat circular very thin and delicate, exuviae central and quite pale, that of the male slightly elongate, similar to that of the female in colour and texture (Ferris, 1938a). See colour photograph in Wong et al. (1999).

SYSTEMATICS: Ferris (1938a, 1941e) and Balachowsky (1956) discussed the variation in the relative size of median and second lobes on the pygidium of the adult female. Balachowsky (1957c: 199) named two forms in populations of Aspidiotus destructor, namely, A. destructor forma africane (with second lobes more developed than the media, occurring on coconut) and A. destructor forma americane (in which the second lobes are less developed than the median, occurring on avocado). Williams & Watson (1988) elucidated this variation in four illustrations from different regions and host plants, but all were named Aspidiotus destructor. Takagi (1969a) noted that Aspidiotus watanabei is close to A. destructor. Williams & Watson (1988) stated that "... the range of variation of A. destructor from the South Pacific area encompasses that of A. watanabei...", but did not synonymize the latter. Danzig (1993) listed A. watanabei as a synonym of A. destructor. Reyne (1947, 1948) described the subspecies Aspidiotus destructor rigidus from Indonesia, which was distinguished from typical destructor mainly by biological features, as well as difference in scale structure.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: The coconut scale is a polyphagous insects, distributed mainly in tropical countries (CABI, 1966a). It is mainly a pest of coconut and banana (Taylor, 1935; Ebeling, 1959; Rosen & De Bach, 1978; Williams & Watson, 1988). Recorded as mango pest in Kashmir (Fotida & Kapur, 1941).

KEYS: Evans, Watson & Miller 2009: 63-67 (female) [Diaspididae species found on avocado]; Gill 1997: 64 (female) [Species of California]; Danzig 1993: 140-141 (female) [Europe]; Williams & Watson 1988: 49 (female) [Tropical South Pacific]; Chou 1985: 262-263 (female) [Species of China]; Beardsley 1970: 508 (female) [Hawaii]; Beardsley 1966: 513 (female) [Federated States of Micronesia]; Ezzat 1958: 240 (female) [Egypt]; De Lotto 1957: 228 (female) [Africa]; Takagi 1957: 32 (female) [Japan]; Balachowsky 1956: 51 (female) [Africa]; McKenzie 1956: 24 (female) [U.S.A.: California]; Balachowsky 1948b: 275 (female) [Mediterranean]; Ferris 1942: 30 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1941e: 61 (female) [World]; Kuwana 1933: 3 (female) [Japan]; Kuwana 1933b: 49 (female) [Japan]; Brain 1918: 118 (female) [South Africa]; Robinson 1917: 29 (female) [Philippines].

CITATIONS: AhmadGh1972a [host, distribution, biological control, life history: 51-57]; AisagbNwAg1985 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history, ecology: 24-32]; Alenca2000 [host, distribution: 1-12]; Ali1968 [host, distribution: 133]; Almeid1971 [host, distribution: 8]; Almeid1973b [host, distribution: 8]; AltierNi1999 [biological control: 975-991]; Alvara1939 [host, distribution: 3]; AndersWuGr2010 [molecular data: 992-1003]; Ansari1942 [host, distribution, economic importance: 233]; Apstei1915 [taxonomy: 119]; Archan1929 [taxonomy: 190]; AutarSi1997 [host, distribution, economic importance: 26-27]; Azeved1929 [host, distribution: 113-115]; Azeved1929a [host, distribution: 126-128]; Balach1948b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 275-280]; Balach1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 61-64]; Balach1957c [host, distribution: 199]; Balach1959a [host, distribution: 362]; Ballou1915 [host, distribution: 121]; Ballou1922a [host, distribution: 239]; Banks1906b [host, distribution, taxonomy: 211-228]; Banks1990 [chemistry: 272]; BaskarSu2006 [biological control: 159-164]; Beards1966 [host, distribution: 513]; Beards1970 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history, biological control, economic importance: 505-508]; BeardsDaHo1976 [economic importance: 103]; BeardsGo1975 [economic importance: 49]; Beatty1944 [host, distribution: 114-172]; Beccar1971 [host, distribution: 193]; Benass1961b [host, distribution, ecology: 1-157]; BenDovCa2006 [host, distribution: 325-326]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 174-185]; Bennet1974b [biological control: 213-227]; BennetRoCo1976 [biological control, economic importance: 359-395]; BennetSi1964 [biological control: 81-94]; BilogOMo2000 [host, distribution, biological control: 137-147]; Borchs1934 [host, distribution: 27]; Borchs1936 [host, distribution, life history, biological control, economic importance: 128-130]; Borchs1937 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 124]; Borchs1949d [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 236]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 215,219]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 270-271]; Bordag1914 [distribution]; Bourne1923 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1]; Box1953 [host, distribution, biological control: 51]; Brain1918 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 120]; BrainKe1917 [distribution: 183,184]; Brick1912 [host, distribution: 1-22]; Brimbl1968 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 43]; Brugir1928 [host, distribution: 400]; BurgerUl1990 [economic importance: 313-327]; Butani1974 [host, distribution, biological control: 689-691]; CABI1966a [host, distribution: 1-2]; CarpenEl1978 [host, distribution, economic importance, taxonomy, life history, control: 1-42]; Castel1951a [biological control: 95-98]; Castel1956a [host, distribution, economic importance, control: 225-238]; Castel1959 [host, distribution, biological control: 235-239]; Castel1963 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 131-139]; CaustoPeSi2006 [distribution: 137]; CeballBaCh2011 [biological control, distribution: 62-65]; CharleHe2002 [Taxonomy: 608]; CharlePo1997 [host, distribution, economic importance: 59-64]; ChatteBo1934 [biological control: 1-10]; Chazea1981 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 11-22]; Chou1938 [host, distribution, taxonomy, description: 240-249]; Chou1947a [chemical control: 34]; Chou1985 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 269-272]; Chou1986 [taxonomy, illustration: 439,440,444,445]; ChuaWo1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 543-552]; ClapsWoGo2001a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 27]; Clause1940 [biological control]; Clause1956 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control]; Clause1958 [economic importance, biological control: 291-310]; Cocher1965 [host, distribution, biological control: 318-321]; Cocher1965a [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 507-512]; Cocher1969 [host, distribution, biological control: 57-100]; Cocher1972 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 89-104]; Cock1985a [biological control: 3]; Cocker1893j [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 255]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy, distribution: 334]; Cocker1897i [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 9,21,28,29]; Cocker1897q [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 703]; Cocker1898m [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 27]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 395]; Cocker1899q [host, distribution: 93]; Cocker1905f [taxonomy, host, distribution: 133]; CockerRo1915 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 106]; Cohic1958 [host, distribution: 13]; ColonFMe1998 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 44-45]; Comsto1883 [taxonomy: 75-76]; Corbet1932 [host, distribution]; CoronaRuMo1997 [host, distribution: 38-41]; CulikMaVe2008 [host, distribution: 1-6]; Danzig1972 [taxonomy, host, distribution, economic importance: 207]; Danzig1993 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 141-143]; DanzigKo1990 [host, distribution: 46]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 188]; DavidsMi1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 603-632]; Davis1972 [economic importance, biological control: 187-190]; DeBach1964 [biological control]; DeBach1964b [biological control: 673-713]; DeBach1969a [biological control: 11-28]; DeBach1971 [biological control: 303]; DeBach1974 [biological control]; DeBachRo1976a [host, distribution, biological control: 541-545]; DeBachRo1991 [biological control]; DEDAC1923 [host, distribution]; Dekle1965c [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 27]; Dekle1976 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, economic importance: 39]; DeLott1957 [taxonomy: 228]; DeLott1967a [host, distribution: 113]; DeSant1940 [biological control: 29-44]; DeSant1979 [biological control]; Devasa1992 [host, distribution, life history: 153]; DevasaKo1993 [host, distribution: 101-102]; DevasaKoVe1998 [host, distribution: 157-164]; deVill2001f [host, distribution, economic importance, life history, chemical control, biological control: 223-224]; Dhilee1996 [host, distribution, biological control: 64-74]; DicksoFl1955 [host, distribution: 614-615]; Dinthe1958 [host, distribution, economic importance: 421]; Dixon1997 [biological control: 205]; DoaneHa1909 [host, distribution: 297]; Dohani1937 [biological control, host, distribution: 243-247]; DonesEv2011 [distribution, host: 2]; Dozier1926 [host, distribution, biological control: 267-277]; Dozier1933 [host, distribution, biological control: 85-100]; Dozier1937 [host, distribution, biological control: 121-135]; Drea1990 [biological control: 51-59]; Dupont1931 [host, distribution: 1-18]; Dzhash1971 [host, distribution: 325-326]; Dzhash1988 [economic importance, life history, host, distribution: 134-143]; Ebelin1949 [host, distribution, life history, control]; Esaki1940a [host, distribution: 274-280]; EtzelLe1999 [biological control: 125-197]; EvansPr1990 [biological control: 3-17]; EvansWaMi2009 [taxonomy: 63-67]; Ezzat1958 [distribution: 240]; EzzatNa1987 [distribution: 88]; FDACSB1982 [host, distribution: 5-11]; FDACSB1987 [host, distribution: 4-7]; FergusFl1991 [host, distribution, biological control: 260-261]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 257,278]; Fernan1972 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 11-12]; Fernan1987a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 32]; Ferris1935 [host, distribution: 131]; Ferris1938a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 191]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 42,43,48-53,61]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy: 446:30]; Ferris1946 [taxonomy: 44]; Ferris1953 [taxonomy: 65]; Figuer1946 [host, distribution: 209]; Figuer1952 [host, distribution: 208]; Fisher1964 [biological control: 305-325]; Flande1936b [biological control: 251-255]; Flande1937 [biological control: 401-422]; Flande1944a [biological control: 365-371]; Flande1966 [biological control: 79-82]; Flande1969 [biological control: 29-33]; Flande1971 [biological control, life history: 857-872]; Foldi1990 [structure: 43-54]; Follet2006 [chemical control, radiation: 1138-1142]; Fonsec1963 [host, distribution: 32-35]; Fonsec1964 [host, distribution: 515]; FotidaKa1941 [host, distribution, economic importance: 142]; FrancoRuMa2011 [distribution: 8,23]; Frogga1914 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 311,318]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 14]; FrohliRo1970 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-10]; Gahan1925 [host, distribution, biological control: 1-23]; Gahan1927a [host, distribution, biological control: 149-153]; Gaprin1954 [biological control: 587-597]; Gaprin1956 [host, distribution: 103-137]; Gaprin1975 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 29-33]; Garcia1930 [host, distribution, biological control]; Gavalo1936 [host, distribution: 79-80]; Gentry1965 [host, distribution, economic importance ]; GermaiMa2005 [host, distribution: 32]; GersonOcHo1990 [biological control: 77-97]; Gill1997 [host, distribution, taxonomy, description, illustration, economic importance: 64,66]; GiraldRu1962 [life history, behaviour, host, economic importance: 121-144]; Goberd1962 [host, distribution, economic importance: 49-70]; GomezM1937a [biological control, distribution: 372-374]; GomezM1941 [host, distribution: 128]; Goot1928 [host, distribution: 1]; Gordh1979 [biological control: 896,900,910]; Gordon1978 [biological control: 205-218]; Gordon1980 [biological control: 149]; Gowdey1913 [host, distribution: 247-249]; Gowdey1917 [host, distribution: 189]; Greath1971 [host, distribution, biological control ]; Greath1973 [biological control: 29-33]; Greath1986 [biological control: 289-318]; Greath1989 [biological control: 28-37]; GreathGr1992 [host, distribution, biological control: 61-68]; Green1890 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 20]; Green1900a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 69-70]; Green1904a [host, distribution: 208]; Green1907 [host, distribution: 203]; Green1908a [host, distribution: 33]; Green1910a [taxonomy: 201-202]; Green1914c [host, distribution: 232]; Green1915c [host, distribution: 44]; Green1915e [host, distribution: 608-636]; Green1916 [host, distribution: 376]; Green1922 [host, distribution: 462]; Green1930b [host, distribution: 214]; Green1937 [host, distribution: 329]; GreenMa1907 [taxonomy, distribution: 343-344]; Gressi1958 [host, distribution, economic importance: 395-398]; GroveDeDa2013 [distribution, host: 378]; GuptaSi1988 [host, distribution: 357-361]; GutierCaMe1999 [biological control: 243-252]; Hadzib1983 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 219-221]; Hagen1974 [biological control: 25-44]; HagenBoMc1976 [biological control: 93]; HakkonPi1984 [biological control: 1109-1121]; Halber1996a [host, distribution: 4-8]; Halber2000 [host, distribution: 4-8]; Hall1922 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 26]; HandaDa1999 [host, distribution, chemical control: 112-114]; HanksDe1998 [life history, ecology: 239-262]; Hargre1927 [host, distribution, economic importance: 113-128]; Hargre1937 [host, distribution, economic importance: 505-520]; Hargre1948 [host, distribution]; Harris1937a [host, distribution: 88-94]; Hempel1904 [host, distribution: 319]; Hill1975 [host, distribution, economic importance, control]; Hinckl1963 [host, distribution, biological control]; HodgsoLa2011 [host, distribution: 22]; Houck1999 [life history, biological control: 97-118]; Houser1918 [host, distribution: 165]; Howard1991 [host, distribution, life history, ecology, control: 217-225]; Howard2001a [host, economic importance: 315-321]; HuffakCa1986 [biological control, economic importance : 95-107]; HuffakMeDe1971 [biological control: 16-67]; HuffakSiLa1976 [biological control: 93]; HuffakSt1971 [biological control: 333-350]; Hunt1939 [host, distribution: 548-566]; Hutson1933 [host, distribution, economic importance, taxonomy, life history: 254-256]; Ishii1932a [host, distribution, biological control: 161]; JalaluMo1989 [chemical control: 203-206]; JalaluMo1989a [biological control, chemical control: 199-202]; JalaluMoSu1992 [host, distribution, life history: 5-7]; JalaluSaMa2001 [host, distribution: 347-348]; JalaluThMo1991 [host, distribution: 17]; Jannon1940 [host, distribution: 241-253]; JannonCaBi1962 [life history, behaviour, host, economic importance, taxonomy, distribution: 5-126]; JiYa1990 [biological control: 134-136]; Joseph1997 [host, distribution, economic importance: 35]; Jourdh1979 [biological control: 75-79]; KairoIr2004 [biological control: 475-485]; Kalsho1981 [description, distribution, economic importance, host, illustration, life history: 166-168]; Kamath1979 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 55-72]; Kathir1993 [host, distribution, economic importance, chemical control: 1026]; Kaussa1955 [host, distribution: 15]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 228]; Kawai1987 [host, distribution: 78]; Kinawy1991 [host, distribution, biological control: 387-389]; KinjoNaHi1996 [host, distribution: 125-127]; Kobakh1965 [biological control: 323-330]; Kondo2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 43]; Kondo2008a [host, distribution: 25-29]; Kondo2010 [host, distribution: 41-44]; KondoKa1995 [host, distribution: 57-58]; KondoKa1995a [host, distribution: 97-98]; KoyaDeSe1996 [host, distribution: 129-136]; KozarKoFe2013 [distribution, taxonomy: 54]; Kuwana1917a [taxonomy, distribution: 174]; Kuwana1927 [host, distribution: 71]; Kuwana1933 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 9-10,18-19]; Laing1927 [host, distribution: 40]; Leefma1929 [host, distribution: 1]; Leonar1897 [taxonomy: 285]; Leonar1898a [taxonomy: 76]; Leonar1898c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 62-64]; Leonar1914 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 196,197]; Leonar1920 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 29,40-41]; Lepage1938 [catalogue: 394,397]; Lepesm1947 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history, biological control: 189-193]; Lever1969 [host, distribution]; LiLoCa1997 [host, distribution, biological control: 225-226]; Lima1996 [host, distribution, biological control: 657]; LincanHoCa2010 [host, distribution: 5]; Lindin1908b [taxonomy: 106]; Lindin1909b [host, distribution: 150]; Lindin1909c [taxonomy, host, distribution: 449]; Lindin1910b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 34-35,38]; Lindin1911 [host, distribution: 88]; Lindin1924 [taxonomy: 174]; Lindin1932g [taxonomy: 223]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 545,546]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 125]; LynchHoBa2001 [biological control: 99-125]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 396,401]; MaChZh1995 [host, distribution: 117-119]; MaheswPu1999 [host, distribution, economic importance: 17]; MahmooMo1986 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-11]; Makino1938 [host, structure: 69-73]; Maleno1916a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 321-326]; Mallam1954 [distribution: 24-60]; Malump2012b [distribution, host, illustration: 208,210,211]; Mamet1943a [catalogue: 157]; Mamet1949 [catalogue: 55]; Mamet1951 [host, distribution: 226]; Mamet1954 [host, distribution: 15]; Mamet1954a [distribution: 264]; Mamet1956 [host, distribution: 136]; Mamet1957 [distribution: 369]; Mamet1959a [host, distribution: 386]; Mansfi1920 [host, distribution: 145-155]; Mariau1998 [host, distribution, economic importance: 269-277]; MariauJu1977 [life history, economic importance, chemical control, biological control: 217-224]; MartinLa2011 [distribution,, host: 37]; Martor1976 [host, distribution: 13,21,101,176,195]; Maskel1892 [host, distribution: 12]; Matile1984c [host, distribution: 221]; MatileEt2006 [host, desctructor: 168-169]; MatileNo1984 [host, distribution: 64]; MayneGh1934 [host, distribution: 3-38]; McClai1988 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 1-173]; McClur1990g [taxonomy, host, distribution, ecology: 319-330]; McKenz1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 47-48]; Merril1953 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 19-20]; MerrilCh1923 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, economic importance: 200]; MestreHaEv2011 [catalogue, distribution, host: 10-11]; MillerDa1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 300]; MillerDa2005 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, economic importance: 71-74]; Moghad2004 [host, distributionn: 11]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 16]; MohammGh2008 [distribution: 150]; MohyudMa1993 [host, distribution, biological control: 467-483]; MorseNo2006 [molecular biology, phylogeny: 338-349]; MoutiaMa1946 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history, biological control: 457-462]; MoutiaMa1947 [distribution]; Muniap2002 [host, distribution: 110-115]; MunozG1937 [host, distribution: 3-9]; Muntin1971a [taxonomy: 313]; Muraka1970 [host, distribution: 72]; MyartsRu2000 [distribution, biological control: 7-33]; Nafus1996 [host, distribution: 1]; NagarkSa1990 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 553-542]; Nair1964 [host, distribution, economic importance: 72]; NairMe1963 [host, distribution: 139-147]; Nakaha1982 [host, destructor: 13]; Nakaha1983 [host, distribution: 9]; NauniI1997 [host, distribution, economic importance: 109]; NeumanFoHo2010 [biological control: 107-113]; Newell1923 [host, distribution: 263-266]; Newste1893d [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 186]; Newste1906a [host, distribution: 73]; Newste1908b [host, distribution: 33-34]; Newste1910a [taxonomy: 68]; Newste1911a [host, distribution: 167-168]; Newste1914 [host, distribution: 307]; Newste1917b [host, distribution: 131]; NormarMoKr2014 [distribution, host: 39]; NotzP1974 [host, distribution, biological control: 127-143]; Noyes1990a [biological control: 155,156]; ObraRe2000 [life history, biological control: 137-147]; OilPaCo1981 [host, distribution, taxonomy, description, life history, economic importance, control: 168-228]; Ordish1967 [economic importance, biological control]; PalmerMo1990 [biological control: 67-76]; Panapa1997 [host, distribution, economic importance: 44]; PeckHeLa1998 [host, distribution: 219-237]; PerezG2008 [distribution: 214]; PolaszAbHu1999 [host, distribution, biological control: 131-163]; PruthiBa1960 [host, distribution, economic importance,: 1-113]; PruthiMa1945 [host, distribution, life history, control: 1-42]; Putua1997 [host, distribution, economic importance: 28-29]; Quelch1890 [host, distribution: 369-370]; RahmanAn1941 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 824]; Ramakr1919 [host, distribution, economic importance: 623]; Ramakr1919a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 16-17]; Ramakr1921a [host, distribution: 356,359]; Ramakr1930 [taxonomy, host, distribution, biological control: 24]; Ramakr1938a [host, distribution: 341-351]; Ramos1946 [host, distribution: 1]; RaoGhSa1971 [host, distribution, biological control]; Reboul1976 [host, distribution, economic importance ]; Remill1988 [host, distribution: 63]; Robert1958 [host, distribution, economic importance: 411-415]; Robins1917 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 29,31-32]; Rose1990c [distribution, economic importance: 535-542]; Rosen1973 [biological control: 47-54]; Rosen1990 [biological control: 413-415]; Rosen1990a [biological control: 499]; RosenDe1978 [economic importance, biological control, host, distribution, life history, distribution: 93-98]; RosenDe1979 [host, distribution, biological control: 533-539,545-548,]; RossHaOk2012 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 199]; Rubtso1952a [biological control: 96-106]; RugmanAnMo2010 [taxonomy, phylogenetics, molecular data: 30-38]; Russo1929 [host, distribution, economic importance: 2-3]; Sadaka1993 [host, distribution, biological control: 12-13]; Schmut1964 [host, distribution, economic importance: 102-106]; Schmut2001 [host, distribution: 339-345]; SchmutKlLu1957 [host, distribution, economic importance: 475]; Schrea1970 [host, distribution, control]; Schrei1989 [biological control: 57-69]; Sefer1961 [host, distribution: 23]; Seljak2010 [host, distribution: 107]; SelvakKaDe1996 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 79-83]; ShahJhPa1988 [chemical control: 19-22]; Shen1993 [host, distribution: 60]; Shirom1969 [host, distribution: 283]; Signor1869 [taxonomy: 851]; Signor1869b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 120-121]; Silva1944 [host, distribution: 8-14]; Simmon1958b [host, distribution, biological control: 475-478]; Simmon1959a [host, distribution, biological control: 1099-1102]; Simmon1960 [host, distribution, biological control, economic importance: 223-237]; SinhaDi1984 [host, distribution, biological control: 7-13]; Sinnat1980 [host, distribution, control: 81-88]; Smirno1952 [host, distribution, biological control: 63-69]; SugimoKaTa1996 [host, distribution: 99-101]; SureshMo1995 [host, distribution: 429-430]; SureshMo1995 [host, distribution: 429-430]; Sweetm1958 [biological control, economic importance: 449-458]; SzentI1963 [host, distribution: 67-71]; TabibuGa1973 [host, distribution, life history: 409-426]; Tachik1956b [host, distribution, economic importance: 335-337]; Takagi1957 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 32-34,40]; Takagi1969a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 65-66,69,99]; TakagiRo1981 [host, distribution, biological control: 314-321]; Takaha1929 [host, distribution: 79]; Takaha1932a [host, distribution: 103-105]; Takaha1933 [host, distribution: 25-34]; Takaha1934 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 33-37]; Takaha1935 [host, distribution: 3,4]; Takaha1936c [host, distribution: 109,118]; Takaha1939b [host, distribution: 269]; Takaha1941b [host, distribution: 219]; Takaha1942b [host, distribution: 47]; Takaha1942d [host, distribution: 357]; Takaha1953a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 10-13]; TakahaTa1956 [host, distribution: 13-14]; TandonSr1980 [host, distribution, biological control: 243-244]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 73,120]; TauiliVa1933 [biological control: 57-60]; Taylor1935 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 1-102]; ThistlVa1997 [host, distribution, economic importance: 3-15]; Thomps1958 [host, distribution, biological control, economic importance: 479-482]; TianCh1991 [biological control: 64-66]; Tourne1970 [host, distribution, biological control: 97-107]; Trjapi1989 [biological control: 296]; Tuncyu1970 [host, distribution, economic importance: 30-52]; UsmanPu1955 [host, distribution: 48]; Valles1965 [biological control: 259-279]; VanHarCoWi1990 [host, distribution: 136]; Vargo1986 [biological control: 60-67]; Varshn2002 [host, distribution: 23]; Vayssi1913 [host, distribution: 430]; Vayssi1932a [economic importance, biological control: 629-648]; Velasq1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 107-109]; VelasqRi1969 [host, destructor: 195-208]; VeseyF1953 [host, distribution, biological control: 405-413]; WadhiBa1964 [host, distribution, economic importance: 227]; WadhiBa1964 [host, distribution: 227-260]; Wall2004 [host, distribution: 1349-1353]; WaltonKrSa2009 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-6]; Waterh1997 [host, distribution, economic importance: 156-171]; Wester1918 [host, distribution, economic importance: 5-57]; Wester1920 [host, distribution]; Whitne1933 [host, distribution: 59-70]; Willia1985a [taxonomy: 234,238]; WilliaBu1987 [host, distribution: 94]; WilliaGr1990 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 563-578]; WilliaMi2010 [host, distribution: 45]; WilliaWa1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, economic importance: 8,50-56]; Wilson1921 [host, distribution: 20-34]; Wolcot1955 [host, distribution]; Wolcot1958 [host, distribution, biological control, economic importance: 511-513]; WolffCo1993a [host, distribution: 153]; WongChCh1999 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 19,58-59]; WoodruBeSk1998 [distribution]; Woolle1990 [biological control: 167-176]; WrightDi2005 [host, distribution, life history: 80-85]; YangSu2004 [life history, biological control: 327-338]; YustCe1956 [host, distribution: 425-442]; Zagain1956 [distribution: 85-90]; ZchoriBePo2005 [endosymbionts, Cardinium: 211-221]; ZhouZoPe1993 [host, distribution, life history: 18-20].



Aspidiotus elaeidis Marchal

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus elaeidis Marchal, 1909c: 69. Type data: BENIN [=DAHOMEY]: Porto-Novo, on leaves of Elaeis guineensis. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female.

Aspidiotus oppugnatus Silvestri, 1915: 258. Type data: ERITREA: Nefasit, on Olea chrysophilla. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Portici: Dipartimento de Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria di Portici, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Italy. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Borchsenius, 1966: 261.

Aspidiotus transparens; Brain, 1918: 120. Misidentification; discovered by Borchsenius, 1966: 261.



FOES: HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Aphytis erythraeus (Silvestri) [Balach1956, RosenDe1979]. Encyrtidae: Habrolepis oppugnati Silvestri [Balach1956].

HOSTS: Apocynaceae: Arduina edulis [Balach1956], Funtumia africana [Balach1956]. Arecaceae: Cocos nucifera [Balach1956], Elaeis guineensis [Marcha1909c, Sander1909a, Leonar1914, Balach1956]. Chrysobalanaceae: Chrysobalanus [Balach1956]. Ebenaceae: Diospyros batocana [Balach1956, Almeid1973b], Diospyros mespiliformis [Almeid1973b]. Euphorbiaceae: Bridelia [Balach1956], Manihot glaziovii [Balach1956]. Fabaceae: Carissa edulis [Almeid1973b]. Meliaceae: Trichilia emetica [Almeid1971], Xylocarpus obovatus [Balach1956]. Ochnaceae: Lophira alata [Balach1956]. Oleaceae: Olea chrysophylla [Silves1915, Balach1956]. Rosaceae: Prunus domestica [Almeid1971]. Sterculiaceae: Theobroma cacao [Campbe1983]. Viscaceae: Viscum taenioides [Balach1956].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Angola [Almeid1973b]; Benin [Marcha1909c, Leonar1914]; Cameroon [Balach1956]; Côte d'Ivoire (=Ivory Coast) [Balach1956]; Eritrea [Silves1915, Balach1956, RosenDe1979]; Ghana [Campbe1983]; Guinea [Balach1956]; Mozambique [Almeid1971]; Niger [Vayssi1913]; Senegal [Balach1956]; Sierra Leone [Balach1956]; Somalia [Balach1956]; Tanzania [Balach1956]; Zaire [Balach1956].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Marchal (1909c), Silvestri (1915) and by Balachowsky (1956).

STRUCTURE: Female scale large, diameter 2.8-3.1 mm, constantly circular, moderately convex, white in typical form, may be brown in several specimens or populations; exuviae central, pale yellow. Male scale white, oval, 1.2-1.3 mm long (Balachowsky, 1956).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: This species has been recorded as a pest of oil palm, Elaeis guineensis in Congo (Chua & Wood, 1990) and Sierra Leone (Hargreaves, 1927, 1937; Lepesme, 1947).

KEYS: Evans, Watson & Miller 2009: 63-67 (female) [Diaspididae species found on avocado]; Balachowsky 1956: 52 (female) [Africa].

CITATIONS: Almeid1971 [host, distribution: 8]; Almeid1973b [host, distribution: 8-9]; Balach1932f [taxonomy, host, distribution: 231]; Balach1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, biological control: 64-66]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 186-187]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 261]; Brain1918 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 120]; Campbe1983 [host, distribution: 137-151]; ChuaWo1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 543-552]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 188-189]; deVill2001g [host, distribution, economic importance, life history, chemical control, biological control: 224-225]; EvansWaMi2009 [taxonomy: 63-67]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 43]; Hargre1927 [host, distribution, economic importance: 113-128]; Hargre1937 [host, distribution, economic importance: 505-520]; Leonar1914 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 196]; Lepesm1947 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history, biological control: 193-194]; Lindin1914 [taxonomy: 244]; Lindin1928 [taxonomy: 106]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 397]; Marcha1909c [taxonomy, description, host, distribution : 69]; Muntin1971a [taxonomy, host, distribution, description, illustration: 311-313]; Prinsl1983 [distribution, biological control: 26]; RosenDe1979 [host, distribution, biological control: 674-678]; Sander1909a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 52]; Silves1915 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 258-260]; Vayssi1913 [host, distribution: 430]; Viggia1978 [taxonomy: 351].



Aspidiotus excisus Green

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus excisus Green, 1896e: 53. Type data: SRI LANKA: Punduloya, on Cyanotis pilosa. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Williams & Watson, 1988: 56. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Aspidiotus (Aspidiotus) excisus; Cockerell, 1897i: 27. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Evaspidiotus) excisus; Leonardi, 1898c: 46. Change of combination.

Temnaspidiotus excisus; MacGillivray, 1921: 403. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus excisus; Williams & Watson, 1988: 56. Revived combination.

COMMON NAMES: Aglaonema scale [MillerDa2005]; cyanotis scale [VelasqRi1969].



HOSTS: Anacardiaceae: Rhus semialata [Takaha1932a, Takaha1933, Takagi1969a]. Araceae: Aglaonema commutatum [Velasq1971], Aglaonema srispum [Malump2012b]. Arecaceae: Cocos nucifera [Takaha1941b, Takagi1969a]. Asclepiadaceae: Hoya carnosa [Takaha1932a, Takaha1933, Takagi1969a]. Asteraceae: Elephantopus mollis [Takaha1929, Takagi1969a, Tang1984]. Boraginaceae: Tournefortia [Beards1966, Takagi1969a, Tang1984], Tournefortia augentea [Takaha1942d]. Caprifoliaceae: Viburnum [Takaha1932a, Takaha1933, Takagi1969a]. Caricaceae: Carica papaya [Takagi1969a, WilliaWa1988]. Commelinaceae: Cyanotis [Green1937], Cyanotis pilosa [Green1896, Green1896e, Ramakr1921a, Takagi1969a, Tang1984]. Convolvulaceae: Ipomoea [Green1900a, Green1937, Takagi1969a, Tang1984]. Ericaceae: Rhododendron [Takaha1935, Takagi1969a]. Euphorbiaceae: Euphorbia [WilliaWa1988], Glochidion hongkongense [Takagi1969a]. Malvaceae: Thespesia [Beards1966, Takagi1969a], Thespesia populnea [Beards1966], Urena lobata [Takaha1932a, Takaha1933, Takagi1969a]. Musaceae: Musa [Takagi1969a]. Orchidaceae [Velasq1971]. Piperaceae: Piper [Green1937, Takagi1969a, Tang1984]. Rubiaceae: Tocoyena pittieri [NormarMoKr2014]. Rutaceae: Citrus [Takagi1969a, WilliaWa1988], Citrus aurantifolia [WilliaWa1988], Citrus reticulata [MatileEt2006], Murraya paniculata [MartinLa2011]. Simaroubaceae: Castela galapageia [LincanHoCa2010]. Verbenaceae: Clerodendron inerme [Takaha1929, Takaha1936b, Green1937, Ferris1941e], Clerodendrum neriifolium [Takagi1969a], Duranta erecta [MartinLa2011].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Federated States of Micronesia (Caroline Islands [Takaha1941b, Beards1966]); Fiji [Green1937]; Indonesia (Java [Kalsho1981]); Palau [Takaha1942d, Beards1966]; Papua New Guinea [WilliaWa1988]. Nearctic: Mexico [Nakaha1982]; United States of America (Florida [Dekle1976]). Neotropical: Antigua and Barbuda (Antigua [Nakaha1982]); Colombia [Kondo2001]; Costa Rica [Nakaha1982]; Dominican Republic [Nakaha1982]; Ecuador [Nakaha1982]; El Salvador [Nakaha1982]; Galapagos Islands [CaustoPeSi2006, LincanHoCa2010]; Grenada [Nakaha1982]; Guadeloupe [MatileEt2006]; Guatemala [Nakaha1982]; Guyana [Nakaha1982]; Haiti [PerezG2008]; Honduras [Nakaha1982]; Jamaica [Nakaha1982]; Martinique [Nakaha1982]; Panama [Nakaha1982, NormarMoKr2014]; Puerto Rico & Vieques Island (Puerto Rico [ColonFMe1998]); Saint Croix [Nakaha1982]; Saint Lucia [Malump2012b]; Suriname [Nakaha1982]; Trinidad and Tobago (Trinidad [Nakaha1982]); U.S. Virgin Islands [Nakaha1983]; Venezuela [Nakaha1982]. Oriental: Hong Kong [MartinLa2011]; India [Nakaha1982] (Tripura [Varshn2002]). Oriental: Indonesia [Nakaha1982] (Sumatra [Kalsho1981]). Oriental: Pakistan [Nakaha1982]; Philippines (Luzon [VelasqRi1969, Velasq1971], Samar [Velasq1971]); Singapore [Nakaha1982]; Sri Lanka [Green1896e, Green1900a, Ramakr1921a, Green1937, Takagi1969a]; Taiwan [Takaha1929, Takaha1932a, Takaha1936b, Green1937, Takagi1969a, WongChCh1999]; Thailand [Takaha1942b, Takagi1969a]; Vietnam [DanzigKo1990]. Palaearctic: China [Tang1984]; Japan [Kawai1980]. Palaearctic: Mongolia [DanzigKo1990].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ferris (1941e), Velasquez (1971), Tang (1984), Chou (1985, 1986), Williams & Watson (1988) and by Colon-Ferrer & Medina-Gaud (1998).

STRUCTURE: Female scale convex, of irregular outline, margin often lobed, thin, and semi-transparent, whitish or very pale ochreous.... Exuviae yellow, approximately central. Male scale smaller and more oblong (Ferris, 1941e). Colour photograph in Wong et al. (1999).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: The distribution records of this species (see Distribution) are disjunctive from North and South America, Far East, Asia, and Pacific Islands. It is considered a pest of ornamental plants (Dekle, 1976; Davidson & Miller, 1990).

KEYS: Chou 1985: 274 (female) [Species of China]; Velasquez 1971: 100 (female) [Philippines]; Beardsley 1966: 513 (female) [Federated States of Micronesia]; Ferris 1946: 43 (female) [World]; Ferris 1941e: 61 (female) [World]; Green 1896e: 40 (female) [Sri Lanka].

CITATIONS: Beards1966 [host, distribution: 514-515]; BeardsDaHo1976 [economic importance: 103]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 187-189]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 271-272]; CaustoPeSi2006 [distribution: 137]; Chou1985 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 274-275]; Chou1986 [taxonomy, illustration: 664]; ChuaWo1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 548]; Cocker1897i [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 27]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 395]; ColonFMe1998 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 45-46]; CoronaRuMo1997 [host, distribution: 38-41]; DanzigKo1990 [host, distribution: 46]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 362]; DavidsMi1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 603-632]; Dekle1966 [taxonomy, host, distribution, biological control: 1-2]; Dekle1976 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, economic importance: 40]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 258]; Ferris1937c [taxonomy: 52]; Ferris1938 [illustration, taxonomy: 43,56]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 43,53-54,63]; Ferris1946 [taxonomy: 43]; Flande1971 [biological control, life history: 857-872]; FoxWil1939 [host, distribution, economic importance: 2296]; Green1896e [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 53]; Green1900a [host, distribution: 71]; Green1937 [host, distribution: 330]; Kalsho1981 [distribution, host: 170]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 229]; Kondo2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 43]; Leonar1898c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 46-48]; LincanHoCa2010 [host, distribution: 5]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 403]; Malump2012b [distribution, host: 210,212]; MartinLa2011 [distribution, host: 37]; MatileEt2006 [host, distribution: 169]; MillerDa1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 300]; MillerDa2005 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, economic importance: 75-77]; Nakaha1982 [host, distribution: 13]; Nakaha1983 [host, distribution: 9]; NormarMoKr2014 [distribution, host: 39]; PerezG2008 [distribution: 214]; Ramakr1921a [host, distribution: 357]; Sugimo1994 [host, distribution: 115-121]; Takagi1969a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 70-72,100]; Takaha1929 [host, distribution: 79]; Takaha1932a [host, distribution: 104-105]; Takaha1933 [host, distribution: 25-34]; Takaha1935 [host, distribution: 4]; Takaha1936b [taxonomy, host, distribution: 426]; Takaha1941b [host, distribution: 220]; Takaha1942b [host, distribution: 47]; Takaha1942d [host, distribution: 358]; Tang1984 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 20-21]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 119]; Varshn2002 [host, distribution: 40]; Velasq1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 100-103]; VelasqRi1969 [host, distribution: 195-208]; WilliaWa1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 58-60]; WongChCh1999 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 35,79]; WoodruBeSk1998 [distribution].



Aspidiotus flavus Ferris nomen nudum

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus flavus Ferris, 1941e: 43. Nomen nudum. Notes: Ferris (1941e: 43) credited this binomen to Green (1899). However, no Aspidiotus flavus was listed by Green (1889).

Aspidiotus flavus Borchsenius, 1966: 369. Nomen nudum. Notes: Green (1889) did not mention the name Aspidiotus flavus.



Aspidiotus fularum Balachowsky

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus fularum Balachowsky, 1956: 68. Type data: GUINEA: Dalaba (Fouta-Djalon), altitude 1300 meters, on undetermined plant. Holotype female. Type depository: Tervuren: Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Section d'Entomologie, Belgium. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Arecaceae: Cocos [Balach1956]. Ebenaceae: Diospyros mespiliformis [Balach1956].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Guinea [Balach1956]; Sierra Leone [Balach1956]; Tanzania [Balach1956].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Balachowsky (1956).

STRUCTURE: Female scale subcircular, flat, bright brown, translucent at margin; exuviae central, very transparent; diameter 1.8-2 mm. Male scale dark brown, oval, 1 mm long (Balachowsky, 1956).

KEYS: De Lotto 1957: 228 (female) [Africa]; Balachowsky 1956: 52 (female) [Africa].

CITATIONS: Balach1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 67-70]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 189]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 261]; DeLott1957 [taxonomy: 228].



Aspidiotus furcillae Brain

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus furcillae Brain, 1918: 119. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Transvaal, Pretoria, on Acacia horrida; collected by C.P. Lounsbury, September 20, 1914. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Munting, 1970a: 38. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa; type no. 209/1. Described: female. Illust.

Octaspidiotus furcillae; MacGillivray, 1921: 396. Change of combination.

Abgrallaspis furcillae; Balachowsky, 1956: 16. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus furcillae; Normark et al., 2014: 44. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Fabaceae: Acacia horrida [Brain1918], Berlinia grobiflora [Hall1929, Balach1958b].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [Brain1918]; Zimbabwe [Hall1929, Balach1958b].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Brain (1918) and by Balachowsky (1958b).

STRUCTURE: Female scale small, about 1mm diameter, circular, roundly arched, sordid white in fresh material, but when older appearing dark brown to blackish brown with rich red brown exuviae. The true colour of the scale is rarely seen, as nearly all specimens are partly or wholly covered with the outer layers of bark of the host plant. The exuviae are central or nearly so (Brain, 1918).

KEYS: Balachowsky 1956: 16 (female) [as Abgrallaspis furcillae; Africa]; Brain 1918: 118 (female) [South Africa].

CITATIONS: Balach1948b [taxonomy: 272]; Balach1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 16-18]; Balach1958b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 223,225]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 28-29]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 315]; Brain1918 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 119-120]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 43]; Hall1929 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 347]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 396]; Muntin1970a [taxonomy: 38].



Aspidiotus furcraeicola Lindinger

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus furcraeicola Lindinger, 1910b: 36. Type data: TANZANIA[=Deutsch-Ostafrica]: Tanga, on Furcraea gigantea. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Hamburg: Zoologisches Institut und Zoologisches Museum, Universitat von Hamburg, Germany. Described: female. Illust.

Spinaspidiotus furcraeicolus; MacGillivray, 1921: 429. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.

Aspidiotus furcraeicola; Ferris, 1941e: 43. Revived combination.



HOST: Agavaceae: Furcraea gigantea [Lindin1910b].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Tanzania [Lindin1910b].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Lindinger (1910b).

STRUCTURE: Female scale circular, 1.5-2 mm in diameter, brown. Male scale elongate, 1.5 mm long, 1 mm wide, white, exuviae brown yellow, situated towards cephalic end (Lindinger, 1910b).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 189-190]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 269]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 43]; Lindin1910b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 36]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 429]; Sassce1912 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 93].



Aspidiotus gymnosporiae Lindinger

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus gymnosporiae Lindinger, 1911a: 13. Type data: CANARY ISLANDS: Tenerife, Puerto de la Cruz, Botanical Garden, on Gymnosporia cassinoides; Palma: Barranco del Rio, on Gymnosporia cassinoides. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Hamburg: Zoologisches Institut und Zoologisches Museum, Universitat von Hamburg, Germany. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Celastraceae: Gymnosporia cassinoides [Lindin1911a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Canary Islands [Lindin1911a, MatileOr2001].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Lindinger (1911a).

STRUCTURE: Female scale white, with yellow, central exuviae; flat, circular, 2 mm in diameter. Male scale elongate, 1.3 mm long, 1 mm wide, exuviae situated slightly towards cephalic end (Lindinger, 1911a).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 190]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 269]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 189]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 44]; Lindin1911a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 13-14]; Lindin1912b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 174]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 403]; MatileOr2001 [host, distribution: 189]; Sassce1912 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 93]; WeidneWa1968 [taxonomy: 172].



Aspidiotus hedericola Leonardi

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus hedericola Leonardi, 1918: 188. Nomen nudum. Notes: Leonardi (1918: 188) credited the authorship to "Lindinger".

Aspidiotus hedericola Leonardi, 1920: 36. Type data: ITALY: Liguria, Bordighera, on Hedera, and YUGOSLAVIA: Dalmatia, Ragusa, on Hedera. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Portici: Dipartimento de Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria di Portici, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Italy. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Leonardi (1920: 36) incorrectly credited the authorship to "Lindinger".

Aspidiotus hedericola; Koroneos, 1934: 7. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Lindinger" as author.

Aspidiotus hedericola; Balachowsky, 1948b: 45. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Lindinger" as author. The citation (p.45) "O. Jaap Cocc. Saml., no. 209, 1912" does not refer to a publication but to specimens in Jaap collection.

Aspidiotus hedericola; Bodenheimer, 1949: 55. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Lindinger" as author.



FOES: HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Aphytis chilensis Howard [RosenDe1979], Aphytis mytilaspidis (Le Baron) [RosenDe1979].

HOSTS: Araliaceae: Hedera [Leonar1918], Hedera helix [Leonar1920, Ferris1941e, Lupo1948, Balach1948b, Bodenh1949, Bachma1953, Bodenh1952].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Croatia [Ferris1941e, Balach1948b, Bachma1953] [Masten2007]; Cyprus [SismanUl2010]; Greece [Korone1934, Ferris1941e, ArgyriStMo1976]; Israel [BenDov2012]; Italy [Leonar1918, Leonar1920, Ferris1941e, LongoMaPe1995]; Lebanon [AbdulNMo2006]; Sicily [Balach1948b, LongoMaPe1995]; Spain [RosenDe1979]; Turkey [Bodenh1949, Bodenh1952, UlgentCa2004, KaydanUlEr2007].

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the leaves (Ferris, 1946).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ferris (1946) and by Balachowsky (1948b).

STRUCTURE: Scale of the female flat, white, circular, exuvia central, and yellowish. Scale of the male slightly elongate, exuvium toward one end (Ferris, 1946).

KEYS: Danzig 1993: 141 (female) [Europe]; Balachowsky 1948b: 275 (female) [Mediterranean]; Lupo 1948: 138 (female) [Italy]; Ferris 1946: 43 (female) [World]; Leonardi 1920: 29-30 (female) [Italy].

CITATIONS: AbdulNMo2006 [host, distribution: 517-520]; ArgyriStMo1976 [host, distribution, biological control: 25]; Bachma1953 [host, distribution: 177]; Balach1948b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 285-288]; BenDov2012 [catalogue, distribution, host: 28, 43]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 190-191]; Bodenh1949 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 55]; Bodenh1952 [host, distribution, structure: 338]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 261]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 189]; DeBach1964d [biological control: 5-18]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy, host, distribution: 44,56]; Ferris1946 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 42-43,49]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 94]; Korone1934 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 7]; Leonar1918 [host, distribution: 188]; Leonar1920 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 36-37]; Lepesm1947 [host, distribution: 189]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 125]; Lupo1948 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 150-154]; Lupo1953 [taxonomy: 39]; Mamet1954 [taxonomy: 52]; Masten2007 [host, distribution, taxonomy: 1-242]; RosenDe1979 [host, distribution, biological control: 349-354,464-473]; Ulgent1996 [host, distribution: 541-548]; UlgentCa2004 [host, distribution: 79-84]; Viggia1987 [host, distribution, biological control: 121-123]; WeidneWa1968 [taxonomy: 172].



Aspidiotus hoyae Takagi

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus hoyae Takagi, 1969a: 70. Type data: TAIWAN: Southeastern Tai-pei Hsien, on Hoya carnosa. Holotype female. Type depository: Sapporo: Entomological Institute, Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Japan. Described: female. Illust.

Temnaspidiotus hoyae; Chou, 1985: 400. Change of combination.



HOST: Asclepiadaceae: Hoya carnosa [Takagi1969a].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Taiwan [Takagi1969a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Takagi (1969a) and by Chou (1985, 1986).

STRUCTURE: Takagi (1969a) did not describe the scale cover.

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 191-192]; Chou1985 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 400]; Chou1986 [taxonomy, illustration: 665]; Takagi1969a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 70-71,100]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 119-120].



Aspidiotus hybridum Jarvis nomen nudum

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus hybridum Jarvis, 1911: 72. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus hybridum Ferris, 1941e: 44. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus hybridum Borchsenius, 1966: 376. Nomen nudum.



Aspidiotus japonicus (Takagi)

NOMENCLATURE:

Temnaspidiotus japonicus Takagi, 1957: 38. Type data: JAPAN: Honsyu, Sizuoka-ken, Amagi-san, on Camellia sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Sapporo: Entomological Institute, Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Japan. Described: female. Illust.

Aspidiotus japonica Danzig, 1993: 141. Unjustified emendation.



HOST: Theaceae: Camellia [Takagi1957].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China (Henan (=Honan) [Wu1999b]); Japan [Kawai1980] (Honshu [Takagi1957]).

BIOLOGY: This species is found on the under side of leaves of the host.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Takagi (1957).

STRUCTURE: Scale of the female irregularly circular, flat or slightly convex, pale brown; in male slightly elongate (Takagi, 1957).

KEYS: Danzig 1993: 140-141 (female) [Europe].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 192]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 272]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 362]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 229]; Muraka1970 [host, distribution: 78]; Takagi1957 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 38-40]; Wu1999b [host, distribution: 234].



Aspidiotus juglandis Colvee

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus juglandis Colvee, 1881d: clxv. Type data: SPAIN: Catalonia, near Tarragone, on "noyer" [=Juglans sp.]. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Notes: Depository of type material unknown.

Aspidiotus (Diaspidiotus) juglandis; Cockerell, 1897i: 18. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus iuglandis; Leonardi, 1898c: 40. Misspelling of species name.

Aspidiella juglandis; MacGillivray, 1921: 405. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus juglandis; Lindinger, 1935: 128. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Juglandaceae: Juglans regia [Colvee1881d, BlayGo1993]. Salicaceae: Populus tremula [Martin1983].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Spain [Colvee1881d, GomezM1937, Martin1983, BlayGo1993].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description of adult female by Colvee (1881d).

STRUCTURE: Female scale very small, reddish; exuviae central; scale always placed singly (Colvee, 1881d).

SYSTEMATICS: Leonardi (1898c: 39) regarded Aspidiotus tiliae Bouche, 1851, a synonym of Aspidiotus juglans-regiae Comstock, whereas Borchsenius (1966) retained it as a valid species.

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 192-193]; BlayGo1993 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 429-431]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 369]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 333,334]; Cocker1897i [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 18]; Colvee1881d [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: clxv-clxvi]; Colvee1882 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 5-7]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 189]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 265]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 44]; GomezM1937 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 57-59]; Lindin1912b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 187]; Lindin1935 [taxonomy: 128]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 545]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 405]; Martin1983 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 61].



Aspidiotus kellyi Brain

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus kellyi Brain, 1918: 122. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Transavaal, Pretoria, on Andropogon amplectens; collected by A. Kelly, 13.x.1913. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Munting, 1970a: 39. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa; type no. 188/1. Described: female. Illust.

Brainaspis kellyi; MacGillivray, 1921: 427. Change of combination.

Temnaspidiotus kelleyi; Balachowsky, 1956: 132. Change of combination.

Temnaspidiotus kelleyi; Balachowsky, 1956: 132. Misspelling of species name.

Aspidiotus kellyi; Williams & Watson, 1988: 49. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Andropogon amplectens [Brain1918, Balach1956], Saccharum officinalis [PruthiRa1942, Box1953].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [Brain1918, Balach1956]. Oriental: India [PruthiRa1942].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Brain (1918) and by Balachowsky (1956).

STRUCTURE: Female scale about 2 mm. in diameter, circular or slightly elongate, flat to slightly convex, rather robust, faintly buff or brownish in colour, with almost central exuviae, which are covered; but in rubbed specimens they appear metallic yellow to bronze in colour. Seen from below the second exuviae are yellow. Male scale flat, about 1 mm. long, somewhat elongate, often with the ends slightly pointed, dull light brown in colour with paler margins. Exuviae covered yellowish (Brain, 1918).

SYSTEMATICS: Aspidiotus kelleyi Brain is the type species of the genus Brainaspis. The genus has been synonymized with Aspidiotus by Lindinger, 1937. Dr. Sadao Takagi (in personal communication to Yair Ben-Dov, 8 January 2003) suggested that Aspidiotus kelleyi Brain and Aspidiotus sinensis (Ferris) may belong to a separate genus.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Pruthi & Rao (1942) recorded this species from sugarcane in India.

KEYS: Brain 1918: 118 (female) [South Africa].

CITATIONS: AgarwaSi1964 [host, distribution, economic importance: 149]; Balach1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 134-135]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 193-194]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 272]; Brain1918 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 122-123]; Ferris1937c [taxonomy: 50]; Ferris1938b [illustration: 67]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 44]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 427]; Muntin1970a [taxonomy: 39]; PruthiRa1942 [host, distribution: 87-88]; Varshn2002 [host, distribution: 25]; WilliaGr1990 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 563-578].



Aspidiotus kennedyae (Boisduval)

NOMENCLATURE:

Chermes kennedyae Boisduval, 1867: 326. Type data: FRANCE: on "glycine" [=Kennedya], imported from Nouvelle-Hollande [=AUSTRALIA]. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Notes: Type material probably lost; Daniele Matile-Ferrero, 1998, personal communication to Yair Ben-Dov.

Aspidiotus kennedyae; Signoret, 1869b: 124. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Aspidiotus) kennedyae; Cockerell, 1897i: 29. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus kennedyae; Borchsenius, 1966: 369. Revived combination.



HOST: Fabaceae: Kennedya [Boisdu1867, Frogga1914].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia [Frogga1914].

STRUCTURE: Boisduval (1867) described this species as follows: "This insect is a pest of certain climbing ornamentals from New Holland [=New York] currently placed under the name Kennedya [=Kennedia]. It resembles very much that of oleander, but it is slightly orange brown. It could be simply a variety of this. It infests, like that insect of the date palm, on the lower surface of leaves, and later both surfaces. This is the reason that certain gardners, abandoned Kennedya culture, because it is very susceptible to plant sucking insects. It would be necessary, according to the example of Bouche, to start to study especially on the biology of scale insects and study the male, in order to establish that this [Chermes kennedyae] constitutes a distinct species."

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 194]; Boisdu1867 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 326-327]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 369]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 334]; Cocker1897i [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 29]; Comsto1883 [taxonomy: 78]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 266]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 44]; Frogga1914 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 315]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 19]; Signor1869 [taxonomy: 858]; Signor1869b [taxonomy, host, distribution: 124].



Aspidiotus lectularis French nomen nudum

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus lectularis French, 1907: 184. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus lectularius Sanders, 1909a: 53. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus lectularis Ferris, 1941e: 45. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus lectularis Borchsenius, 1966: 376. Nomen nudum.



Aspidiotus ligusticus Leonardi

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus ligusticus Leonardi, 1918: 189. Type data: ITALY: Ventimiglia, on vine. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Portici: Dipartimento de Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria di Portici, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Italy. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Apocynaceae: Nerium oleander [Goux1945]. Chenopodiaceae: Atriplex [Lupo1948]. Fabaceae: Mimosa [Lupo1948]. Vitaceae: Vitis vinifera [Leonar1918, Leonar1920, Ferris1941e].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Eritrea [Lupo1948]. Palaearctic: France [Goux1945]; Italy [Leonar1918, Leonar1920, Lupo1948]; Sicily [Costan1938].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Leonardi (1918, 1920).

STRUCTURE: Female scale circular or almost circular; diameter about 1 mm; slightly convex, formed of whitish fine texture; covered by epidermis of bark of the host plant; exuviae light yellow, subcentral (Leonardi, 1920).

KEYS: Lupo 1948: 138 [Italy]; Leonardi 1920: 29 [Italy].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 194-195]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 261]; Costan1938 [host, distribution: 25-44]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 189]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 45]; Goux1945 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 36]; KozarWa1985 [taxonomy: 82]; Leonar1918 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 189-192]; Leonar1920 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 29,41-43]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 546]; Lupo1948 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 138,145-150].



Aspidiotus macfarlanei Williams & Watson

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus macfarlanei Williams & Watson, 1988: 58. Type data: SOLOMON ISLANDS: Guadalcanal, Kukum, on Cocos nucifera; collected 1.ii.1956. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Arecaceae: Cocos nucifera [WilliaWa1988]. Caricaceae: Carica papaya [WilliaWa1988].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Solomon Islands [WilliaWa1988].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Williams & Watson (1988).

STRUCTURE: Female scale circular, fawn, with slightly yellow subcentral exuviae. Male scale oval with subcentral exuviae, same colour as female scale (Williams & Watson, 1988).

KEYS: Williams & Watson 1988: 51 (female) [Tropical South Pacific].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 195]; WilliaWa1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 58-60].



Aspidiotus maddisoni Williams & Watson

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus maddisoni Williams & Watson, 1988: 60. Type data: WESTERN SAMOA: Upolu, Utumapu, on Asplenium nidus; collected 7.i.1977. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Aspleniaceae: Asplenium nidus [WilliaWa1988].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Western Samoa [WilliaWa1988].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Williams & Watson (1988).

STRUCTURE: Female scale dirty white with brown exuviae. Male scale not seen (Williams & Watson, 1988).

KEYS: Williams & Watson 1988: 51 (female) [Tropical South Pacific].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 195]; WilliaWa1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 60-62].



Aspidiotus madecassus Mamet

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus madecassus Mamet, 1954: 50. Type data: MADAGASCAR: Périnet, on "Vahim davenona", and Tsinjoarivo, on undetermined plant. Syntypes. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Illust.

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Madagascar [Mamet1954, Borchs1966].

BIOLOGY: Occurring on under surface of leaves (Mamet, 1954).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Mamet (1954).

STRUCTURE: Female scale flat, pale-straw coloured, transparent, more or less circular, with adult female occupying the centre of scale; exuviae more opaque, yellowish, subcentral. Male scale similar to that of female, but a little more elongate (Mamet, 1954).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 196]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 261]; Mamet1954 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 15,50].



Aspidiotus maderensis Lindinger

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus maderensis Lindinger, 1912b: 189. Type data: MADEIRA ISLANDS: on Juniperus cedrus. Holotype female. Type depository: Hamburg: Zoologisches Institut und Zoologisches Museum, Universitat von Hamburg, Germany. Described: female.



HOST: Cupressaceae: Juniperus cedrus [Lindin1912b, Green1923b].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Madeira Islands [Lindin1912b, FrancoRuMa2011].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description of adult female by Lindinger (1912b).

STRUCTURE: Female scale more or less circular, diameter 1.5 mm, flat to slightly convex; yellow-white and yellow-brown in center (Lindinger, 1912b).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 196]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 269]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 189-190]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 45]; FrancoRuMa2011 [distribution: 2,8,23]; Green1923b [host, distribution: 89]; Lindin1912b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 189]; WeidneWa1968 [taxonomy: 173].



Aspidiotus marisci Tippins & Beshear

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus marisci Tippins & Beshear, 1971: 85. Type data: U.S.A.: Georgia, Camden County, Cumberland Island, on Mariscus jamaicensis. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Cyperaceae: Mariscus jamaicensis [TippinBe1971, BesheaTiHo1973].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Alabama [Nakaha1982], Florida [BesheaTiHo1973], Georgia [TippinBe1971, BesheaTiHo1973]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Tippins & Beshear (1971).

STRUCTURE: Female scale circular, ca. 2 mm in diameter, flat, papery, brownish, with exuviae central. Male scale similar but elongate oval (Tippins & Beshear, 1971).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 196]; BesheaTiHo1973 [host, distribution: 5]; Dekle1976 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, economic importance: 41]; Nakaha1982 [host, distribution: 14]; TippinBe1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 85-86].



Aspidiotus mespili Del Guercio nomen nudum

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus mespili Del Guercio, 1894: 152. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus mespili Lindinger, 1936: 153. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus mespili Ferris, 1941e: 45. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus mespili Borchsenius, 1966: 376. Nomen nudum.



Aspidiotus minutus Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus minutus Cockerell, 1892b: 333. Type data: JAMAICA: Montego Bay, on Cocoanut Palm; collected by Dr. Sinclair. Syntypes, female and first instar. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female and first instar.



HOST: Arecaceae: Cocos nucifera [Cocker1892b].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Jamaica [Cocker1892b].

SYSTEMATICS: Cockerell (1892b: 33) briefly described this species, as follows: "Aspidiotus minutus Ckll. MS. On coconut palm, near Montego Bay. Collected by Dr. Sinclair. Not yet studied sufficiently; seems to be mature. Occurs with A. rapax var., but the young of that species, when of the size of minutus, are black with slight, pale rim". Ferris (1941e: 45) regarded this species a nomen nudum, whereas Borchsenius (1966) listed it among the incertae sedis species. We interpret that the original description, although very meager, provides enough characters to validate this species.

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 197]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 369]; Cocker1892b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 333]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 45].



Aspidiotus moreirai Hempel

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus moreirai Hempel, 1904: 320. Type data: BRAZIL: Rio de Janeiro, Itatiya, on leaves of Drimys sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Curitiba: Departamento de Zoologia, Setor de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Parana, Brazil; type no. 81-106. Described: female.



HOSTS: Winteraceae: Drimys [Sander1906], Drimys winterii [Hempel1904, Lepage1938, ClapsWoGo2001].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Rio de Janeiro [Hempel1904, Sander1906, Lepage1938, ClapsWoGo2001]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description of adult female by Hempel (1904).

STRUCTURE: Female scale more or less circular, flat, colour white, or sometimes transparent; 2 mm in diameter; exuviae light yellow, placed more or less centrally (Hempel, 1904).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 197]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 269]; Claps1993 [taxonomy: 9]; ClapsWoGo2001 [host, distribution: 241]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 46]; Hempel1904 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 320-321]; Lepage1938 [catalogue: 395-396]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 546]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 400]; Sander1906 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 14].



Aspidiotus msolonus Hall

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus msolonus Hall, 1929: 348. Type data: ZIMBABWE: Mazoe, on Pseudolachnostylis maprounaefolia; Lomagundi, Sipolilo, on Pseudolachnostylis sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Euphorbiaceae: Pseudolachnostylis [Hall1929], Pseudolachnostylis maprounaefolia [Balach1956].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Zimbabwe [Hall1929, Balach1956].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Hall (1929) and by Balachowsky (1956).

STRUCTURE: Female scale pure white, more or less circular, diameter 1.25-1.75 mm; highly convex; exuviae shiny brown green, pale at the margin; nymphal exuviae brown, also paler at the margin; exuviae are usually a little to one side; colour of the exuviae is masked by a semi-opaque thin white secretionary film; that part covering the larval exuviae is occasionally wanting, having presumably been knocked off; secretionary film is thinner in the vicinity of the margin of the nymphal exuviae, since the pale brown belt round the margin can often be seen through the film as a pale brown ring; ventral scale extremely thin and delicate, remaining attached to the host plant. Male scale of normal form, white with brown exuviae (Hall, 1929).

KEYS: Balachowsky 1956: 51 (female) [Africa].

CITATIONS: Balach1955 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 391]; Balach1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 70-72]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 198]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 261]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 46]; Hall1929 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 348-350].



Aspidiotus musae Williams & Watson

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus musae Williams & Watson, 1988: 62. Type data: PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Morobe P., Lasagna Is., on Musa sp.; collected 18.ix.1979. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Musaceae: Musa [WilliaWa1988].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Papua New Guinea [WilliaWa1988].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Williams & Watson (1988).

STRUCTURE: Williams & Watson (1988) did not describe the scale cover.

KEYS: Williams & Watson 1988: 51 (female) [Tropical South Pacific].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 198]; SugimoKaTa1996 [host, distribution: 99-101]; WilliaWa1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 62-64].



Aspidiotus myoporii Lidgett

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus myoporii Lidgett, 1898a: 13. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Victoria, Myrniong, on Myoporum deserti; collected by H. Lidgett. Syntypes, both sexes. Described: both sexes.

Aspidiotus yoporii; Lidgett, 1898a: 14. Misspelling of species name.

Chrysomphalus yoporii; Leonardi, 1900: 343. Change of combination.

Chrysomphalus yoporii; Leonardi, 1900: 343. Misspelling of species name.

Aspidiotus myoporii; Borchsenius, 1966: 369. Revived combination.



HOST: Myoporaceae: Myoporum deserti [Lidget1898a, Frogga1914].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Victoria [Lidget1898a, Frogga1914]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description of adult female by Lidgett (1898a).

STRUCTURE: Female scale circular, average diameter about 1/12 inch; slightly convex, dark brown in colour, of a lighter tinge towards the edge; in some cases the colour is almost black, and forms quite conspicuous objects on the green leaves of the food plant; exuviae yellowish, forming a slight depression. Male scale somewhat elongated, light brown in colour; exuviae at one end; average length 1/16 inch (Lidgett, 1898a).

SYSTEMATICS: In the original description the species name was mis-spelled Aspidiotusm yoporii.

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 198-199]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 369]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 267]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 46]; Frogga1914 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 315-316]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 20]; Leonar1900 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 343]; Lidget1898 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 13-14]; Lindin1907a [taxonomy: 20].



Aspidiotus myrthi Bouche

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus myrthi Bouche, 1851: 112. Type data: GERMANY: Berlin, on Myrthus communis [=Myrtus communis]. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Notes: Type material lost (Sachtleben, 1944).

Chionaspis? myrthi; Signoret, 1869d: 445. Change of combination.

Mytilaspis myrthi; Cockerell, 1901c: 93. Change of combination.

Lepidosaphes myrthi; Fernald, 1903b: 311. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus myrti; Lindinger, 1935: 128. Misspelling of species name.

Aspidiotus myrthii; Borchsenius, 1966: 369. Revived combination.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Myrtus communis [Bouche1851].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Germany [Bouche1851].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description of adult female by Bouche (1851).

STRUCTURE: Female scale elongate, brown (Bouche, 1851).

SYSTEMATICS: Borchsenius (1966) listed this species among the species incertae sedis.

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 199]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 369]; Bouche1851 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 112]; Cocker1901c [taxonomy: 93]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 220]; Ferris1937a [taxonomy: 5]; Ferris1938a [taxonomy: 229]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 46]; Lindin1912b [taxonomy: 372]; Lindin1928 [taxonomy: 106]; Lindin1934e [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 166]; Lindin1935 [taxonomy: 128]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 545]; Signor1869d [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 445].



Aspidiotus mytiliformis Amerling nomen nudum

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus mytiliformis Amerling, 1858a: 103. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus mytiliformis Borchsenius, 1966: 376. Nomen nudum.



Aspidiotus nerii Bouche

NOMENCLATURE:

Diaspis obliquum Costa, 1829: 2. Type data: ITALY:. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Synonymy by Ben-Dov & Marotta, 2001a: 191. Notes: This species was proven to be a nomen oblitum by Ben-Dov & Marotta (2001a, 2001b). Type material lost; Giuseppina Pellizzari, personal communication to Yair Ben-Dov, 1999).

Aspidiotus nerii Bouche, 1833: 52. Type data: GERMANY: Berlin, in greenhouse, on Nerium, Arbutus, Magnolia and Acacia. Syntypes, both sexes. Type depository: Eberswalde: Institut fur Pflanzenschutzforschung, Germany. Described: both sexes. Illust.

Aspidiotus genistae Westwood, 1840: 118. Nomen nudum; discovered by Fernald, 1903b: 261.

Diaspis bouchei Targioni Tozzetti, 1867: 13. Nomen nudum; discovered by Fernald, 1903b: 261.

Chermes aloes Boisduval, 1867: 327. Type data: FRANCE: apparently Paris, in greenhouse, on Aloe umbellata. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Fernald, 1903b: 261. Notes: Type material probably lost; Daniele Matile-Ferrero, 1998, personal communication to Yair Ben-Dov.

Chermes ericae Boisduval, 1867: 330. Type data: FRANCE: Vincennes and Montreuil, on Erica. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Synonymy by Fernald, 1903b: 261. Notes: Type material probably lost; Daniele Matile-Ferrero, 1998; personal communication to Yair Ben-Dov.

Chermes cycadicola Boisduval, 1867: 345. Type data: FRANCE: apparently Paris, on Cycas revoluta. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Fernald, 1903b: 261. Notes: Type material probably lost; Daniele Matile-Ferrero, 1998; personal communication to Yair Ben-Dov.

Chermes nerii; Boisduval, 1868: 281. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus affinis Targioni Tozzetti, 1868: 736. Type data: ITALY: on leaves of Rusci aculeati [=Ruscus aculeatus]. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Synonymy by Fernald, 1903b: 261. Notes: Type material probably lost; Giuseppina Pellizzari, 1990, personal communication to Yair Ben-Dov.

Aspidiotus bouchei Targioni Tozzetti, 1868: 736. Unjustified replacement name for Aspidiotus nerii Bouche, 1833; discovered by Fernald, 1903b: 261.

Aspidiotus caldesii Targioni Tozzetti, 1868: 736. Type data: ITALY: on leaves of Daphne collinae. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Synonymy by Borchsenius, 1966: 262. Notes: Type material probably lost; Giuseppina Pellizzari, 1990, personal communication to Yair Ben-Dov.

Aspidiotus denticulatus Targioni Tozzetti, 1868: 736. Type data: ITALY: on leaves of Rubia peregrinae. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Synonymy by Fernald, 1903b: 261. Notes: Type material probably lost; Giuseppina Pellizzari, 1990, personal communication to Yair Ben-Dov.

Aspidiotus villosus Targioni Tozzetti, 1868: 736. Type data: ITALY: on leaves of Olea europaea. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Synonymy by Fernald, 1903b: 261. Notes: Type material probably lost; Giuseppina Pellizzari, 1990, personal communication to Yair Ben-Dov.

Aspidiotus aloes; Signoret, 1869: 843. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus budleiae Signoret, 1869: 845. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus limonii Signoret, 1869: 860. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus vrieseiae Signoret, 1869: 876. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus budleiae Signoret, 1869b: 115. Type data: FRANCE: Paris, Luxembourg Garden, on Budleia salicina. Holotype female. Type depository: Vienna: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Fernald, 1903b: 261.

Aspidiotus ceratoniae Signoret, 1869b: 118. Type data: FRANCE: Nice, on carob [=Ceratonia siliqua]. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Vienna: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Fernald, 1903b: 261.

Aspidiotus cycadicola; Signoret, 1869b: 119. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus ericae; Signoret, 1869b: 121. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus gnidii Signoret, 1869b: 122. Type data: FRANCE: Le Midi [=South-East France], on Daphne gnidium. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Vienna: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria. Described: female. Synonymy by Fernald, 1903b: 261.

Aspidiotus ilicis Signoret, 1869b: 123. Type data: FRANCE: Le Midi [=South-East France], on Quercus ilicis. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Vienna: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Fernald, 1903b: 261.

Aspidiotus limonii Signoret, 1869b: 125. Type data: FRANCE: Provence, on "citron" [=Citrus limon]. Syntypes, both sexes. Type depository: Vienna: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria. Described: both sexes. Synonymy by Fernald, 1903b: 261.

Aspidiotus myricinae Signoret, 1869b: 125. Type data: FRANCE: Paris, Luxembourg Garden, in greenhouse, on Myricinia retusa [= probably Myristica retusa]. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Vienna: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Fernald, 1903b: 125.

Aspidiotus capparis Signoret, 1869b: 129. Type data: FRANCE: probably Dijon, on caprier [=Capparis sp.]. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Vienna: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Signoret, 1877: 663. Notes: Authorship incorrectly credited to "Vallot, 1829".

Aspidiotus ulicis Signoret, 1869b: 132. Type data: FRANCE: Le Midi [=South East France], on "genet epineux" [=Ulex sp.]. Syntypes, female and first instar. Type depository: Vienna: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria. Described: female and first instar. Synonymy by Signoret, 1877: 675.

Aspidiotus vriesciae Signoret, 1869b: 134. Type data: FRANCE: apparently Paris, in greenhouse, on Vriescia [= Vriesea] splendens imported from Cayenne. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Vienna: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria. Described: female. Synonymy by Fernald, 1903b: 262.

Aspidiotus genistae Signoret, 1869c: 122. Type data: FRANCE: Cannes, on "genets" [=Genista sp.]. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Vienna: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Fernald, 1903b: 261. Notes: Species incorrectly credited to Westwood.

Aspidiotus hederae Signoret, 1869c: 122. Unavailable name.

Aspidiotus palmarum; Signoret, 1869c: 131. Misidentification; discovered by Danzig, 1993: 145.

Aspidiotus epidendri Signoret, 1869c: 145. Type data: FRANCE: Paris, Luxembourg garden, on Epidendrum sp. Syntypes, both sexes. Type depository: Vienna: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria. Described: both sexes. Illust. Synonymy by Borchsenius, 1966: 263. Notes: Authorship incorrectly credited to Bouche.

Coccus limonii Murray, 1871: 342. Type data: Italy: Sicily, on lemon fruit imported to England. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Lindinger, 1935: 127.

Aspidiotus lentisci Signoret, 1877: 601. Type data: FRANCE: Le Midi [=South-East France], on "lentisque" [=Pistacia lentiscus]; also from ALGERIA, on same host; collected by Bigot. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Vienna: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria. Described: female. Synonymy by Fernald, 1903b: 262.

Aspidiotus ? osmanthi Signoret, 1877: 621. Type data: FRANCE: Locality not indicated, on Olea fragrans [=Osmanthus fragrans]. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Vienna: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria. Described: female. Synonymy by Borchsenius, 1966: 264. Notes: Authorship incorrectly credited to "Vallot, 1829".

Aspidiotus atherospermae Maskell, 1879: 198. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: on Atherosperma novae-zealandiae. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Synonymy by Borchsenius, 1966: 264.

Aspidiotus budlaei; Maskell, 1879: 198. Misspelling of species name. Notes: Mis-spelling of Aspidiotus budleiae Signoret, 1869b.

Aspidiotus dysoxyli Maskell, 1879: 198. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: on Dysoxylum sp. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Henderson, 2001a: 89. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Henderson, 2001a: 89.

Coccus (Aspidiotus) palmarum Taschenberg, 1880. Synonymy by Lindinger, 1932: 201. Notes: palmarum Taschenberg, 1880, Coccus (Aspidiotus) Lindinger (1932: 201) regarded the species as identical to Aspidiotus hederae [=Aspidiotus nerii Bouché] (Family Diaspididae) (Williams & Ben-Dov, 2009: 35).

Aspidiotus oleae Colvée, 1880: 39. Type data: SPAIN: on olive. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Fernald, 1903b: 261. Notes: Depository of type material unknown. The original description by Colvée (1880) included material of both Diaspis oleae (=Parlatoria oleae (Colvée)) and Aspidiotus oleae (=Aspidiotus nerii (Bouché)).

Aspidiotus corynocarpi Colvee, 1881: 39. Type data: SPAIN: on Corynocarpus sp. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Synonymy by Borchsenius, 1966: 264. Notes: Depository unknown.

Aspidiotus oleastri Colvee, 1882: 12. Type data: SPAIN: Cambrils, on olive, Olea europaea. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Synonymy by Borchsenius, 1966: 264. Notes: Depository of type material unknown.

Aspidiotus offinis; Comstock, 1883: 72. Misspelling of species name. Notes: Mis-spelling of Aspidiotus affinis Targioni Tozzetti, 1868

Aspidiotus hederae; Comstock, 1883: 77. Misidentification; discovered by Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero, 1999: 5.

Aspidiotus myrsinae; Comstock, 1883: 79. Misspelling of species name. Notes: Mis-spelling of Aspidiotus myrcinae Signoret.

Aspidiotus sophorae Maskell, 1884: 121. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: on Sophora tetraptera. Syntypes, female and first instar. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Ferris, 1941e: 48.

Aspidiotus carpodeti Maskell, 1885a: 21. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: on Carpodetus serratus and Vitex littoralis. Syntypes, female and first instar. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Borchsenius, 1966: 264.

Aspidiotus budlaeiae; Maskell, 1887a: 40. Misspelling of species name. Notes: Mis-spelling of Aspidiotus budleiae Signoret, 1869b.

Aspidiotus epidendri; Cockerell, 1896b: 334. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Bouche" as author.

Aspidiotus myrsinae; Cockerell, 1896b: 334. Misspelling of species name. Notes: Mis-spelling of Aspidiotus myrcinae Signoret.

Aspidiotus nerii limonii; Cockerell, 1896b: 334. Change of combination and rank.

Aspidiotus (Aspidiotus) affinis; Cockerell, 1897i: 18. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Aspidiotus) caldesii; Cockerell, 1897i: 18. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Aspidiotus) ceratoniae; Cockerell, 1897i: 18. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Aspidiotus) denticulatus; Cockerell, 1897i: 18. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Aspidiotus) ericae; Cockerell, 1897i: 18. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Aspidiotus) genistae; Cockerell, 1897i: 18. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Aspidiotus) gnidii; Cockerell, 1897i: 18. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Aspidiotus) hederae; Cockerell, 1897i: 18. Misidentification; discovered by Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero, 1999: 5.

Aspidiotus (Aspidiotus) ilicis; Cockerell, 1897i: 18. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Aspidiotus) lentisci; Cockerell, 1897i: 18. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Diaspidiotus) villosus; Cockerell, 1897i: 19. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Aspidiotus) carpodeti; Cockerell, 1897i: 25. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Aspidiotus) aloes; Cockerell, 1897i: 29. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Aspidiotus) buddleiae; Cockerell, 1897i: 29. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Aspidiotus) cycadicola; Cockerell, 1897i: 29. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Aspidiotus) epidendri; Cockerell, 1897i: 29. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Aspidiotus) myrsinae; Cockerell, 1897i: 30. Misspelling of species name. Notes: Mis-spelling of Aspidiotus myrcinae Signoret.

Aspidiotus (Aspidiotus) nerii; Cockerell, 1897i: 30. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Aspidiotus) nerii limonii; Cockerell, 1897i: 30. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus osmanthi; Cockerell, 1897i: 30. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Vallot" as author.

Aspidiotus (Aspidiotus) vriesciae; Cockerell, 1897i: 30. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Evaspidiotus) hederae; Leonardi, 1898a: 76. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Evaspidiotus) hederae; Leonardi, 1898c: 71. Misidentification; discovered by Morrison & Morrison, 1966: 17. Notes: Cited as Aspidiotus hederae (Vallot, 1829).

Aspidiotus (Evaspidiotus)) nerii; Leonardi, 1898c: 71. Incorrect synonymy; discovered by Morrison & Morrison, 1966: 17. Notes: Incorrect synonymy of Aspidiotus nerii Bouche, 1833 with Aspidiotus hederae (Vallot, 1829); see Morrison & Morrison, 1966: 17.

Aspidiotus hederae nerii; Hunter, 1899: 11. Change of status.

Aspidiotus hederae carpodeti; Cockerell & Parrott, 1899: 276. Change of combination and rank.

Aspidiotus capparis; Cockerell, 1899a: 395. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Vallot" as author.

Aspidiotus corinocarpi; Cockerell, 1899a: 395. Misspelling of species name. Notes: Mis-spelling of "Aspidiotus corynocarpi".

Aspidiotus epidendri; Cockerell, 1899a: 395. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Bouche" as author.

Aspidiotus hederae; Cockerell, 1899a: 395. Misidentification; discovered by Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero, 1999: 5.

Aspidiotus myrsinae; Cockerell, 1899a: 395. Misspelling of species name. Notes: Mis-spelling of "Aspidiotus myrciniae" Signoret.

Aspidiotus nerii; Cockerell, 1899a: 395. Incorrect synonymy; discovered by Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero, 1999: 5. Notes: Incorrect synonymy of Aspidiotus nerii Bouche, 1833 with Aspidiotus hederae (Vallot, 1829).

Aspidiotus vagabundus Cockerell, 1899n: 20. Type data: MEXICO: Mexico City, on bark of ash. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Ferris, 1941e: 49.

Aspidiotus hederae limonii; Cockerell, 1900: 350. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus epidendri; Newstead, 1901: 120. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Bouche" as author.

Aspidiotus hederae; Newstead, 1901b: 120. Misidentification; discovered by Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero, 1999: 5.

Aspidiotus epidendri; Fernald, 1903b: 261. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Bouche" as author.

Aspidiotus osmanthi; Fernald, 1903b: 268. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Vallot" as author.

Aspidiotus nerii; Fernald, 1903b: 269. Incorrect synonymy; discovered by Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero, 1999: 5. Notes: Incorrect synonymy of Aspidiotus nerii Bouche, 1833, with Aspidiotus hederae (Vallot, 1829).

Aspidiotus simillimus; Fernald, 1903b: 278. Change of status.

Aspidiotus transparens rectangulatus Lindinger, 1913: 97. Type data: KENYA: Mombassa, on Sansevieria sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Hamburg: Zoologisches Institut und Zoologisches Museum, Universitat von Hamburg, Germany. Described: female. Synonymy by Ferris, 1941e: 47.

Aspidiotus confusus Froggatt, 1914: 136. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, at Narara, on Eucalyptus sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia. Described: female. Synonymy by Borchsenius, 1966: 265.

Aspidiotus transvaalensis Leonardi, 1914: 198. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Pretoria, on Nerium oleander. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Portici: Dipartimento de Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria di Portici, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Italy. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Ferris, 1941e: 49.

Aspidiotus confusus; Froggatt, 1915: 13. Notes: Described in this 1915 publication again as "n. sp.".

Aspidiotus tasmaniae Green, 1915d: 50. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Tasmania, Launceston, on Ribes sp. and Ampelopsis sp.; Victoria, on Eucalyptus sp., Acacia sp., and Cytisus sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Ferris, 1941e: 48.

Aspidiotus hederae; Dietz & Morrison, 1916a: 296. Misidentification; discovered by Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero, 1999: 5.

Aspidiotus epidendri; Leonardi, 1920: 31. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Bouche" as author.

Aspidiotus guidii; Leonardi, 1920: 31. Misspelling of species name. Notes: Mis-spelling of Aspidiotus gnidii Signoret, 1869b.

Aspidiotus hederae; Leonardi, 1920: 31. Misidentification. Notes: Cited as Aspidiotus hederae (Vallot, 1829).

Aspidiotus myrsinae; Leonardi, 1920: 31. Misspelling of species name. Notes: Mis-spelling of Aspidiotus myrcinae Signoret.

Aspidiotus viresciae; Leonardi, 1920: 31. Misspelling of species name. Notes: Mis-spelling of Aspidiotus vriesciae Signoret, 1869b.

Octaspidiotus atherospermae; MacGillivray, 1921: 395. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus hederae; MacGillivray, 1921: 400. Misidentification; discovered by Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero, 1999: 5. Notes: Cited as Aspidiotus hederae (Vallot, 1829).

Aspidiotus hederae urenae Hall, 1923: 19. Type data: EGYPT: Giza, garden of the Horticultural Section of the Ministry of Agriculture, on Urena lobata. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Ferris, 1941e: 49.

Aspidiotus hederae unipectinata Carimini, 1930: 121. Type data: ITALY: Livorno, in several gardens of Castiglioncello, on Acacia dealbata. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Ferris, 1941e: 49. Notes: Depository of type series unknown.

Aspidiotus nederae; Archangelskaya, 1930: 85. Misspelling of species name.

Aspidiotus (Dynaspidiotus) hederae; Thiem & Gerneck, 1934: 131. Change of combination.

Chermes hederae; Ferris, 1937c: 62. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus hederae; Ferris, 1938a: 192. Misidentification; discovered by Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero, 1999: 5.

Aspidiotus hederae; Ferris, 1938a: 192. Incorrect synonymy; discovered by Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero, 1999: 5. Notes: Incorrect synonymy of Aspidiotus nerii Bouche, 1833, with Aspidiotus hederae (Vallot, 1829).

Aspidiotus hederale; Tscorbadjiew, 1939: 89. Misspelling of species name.

Chermes genistae; Ferris, 1941e: 43. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus osmanthi; Ferris, 1941e: 46. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Vallot" as author.

Chermes osmanthi; Ferris, 1941e: 46. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus rectangulatus; Ferris, 1941e: 47. Change of combination and rank.

Aspidiotus unipectinatus; Ferris, 1941e: 49. Change of combination and rank.

Aspidiotus urenae; Ferris, 1941e: 49. Change of combination and rank.

Aspidiotus fonsecai Giannotti, 1942: 214. Type data: BRAZIL: Sao Paulo, on undetermined host; collected by J.P. da Fonseca, December 1930. Holotype female. Type depositories: Sao Paulo: Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo, Brazil, and Curitiba: Departamento de Zoologia, Setor de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Parana, Brazil. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Munting, 1971a: 313.

Octaspidiotus anthospermae; Balachowsky, 1948b: 272. Misspelling of species name.

Octaspidiotus athospermae; Balachowsky, 1948b: 272. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus hederae hederae; Schmutterer, 1952: 566. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus hederae unisexualis Schmutterer, 1952: 566. Type data: GERMANY: in greenhouse, on Phoenix canariensis, Chamaerops humilis, Asparagus sprengeri, Aloe sp. and Nerium oleander. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Wetlenberg: The Schmutterer Collection, Germany. Described: female. Synonymy by Borchsenius, 1966: 265.

Aspidiotus hederae; Balachowsky, 1956: 70. Misidentification; discovered by Morrison & Morrison, 1966: 17. Notes: Cited as Aspidiotus hederae (Vallot, 1829).

Aspidiotus heredae; Balachowsky, 1956: 70. Misspelling of species name.

Aspidiotus nerii; Morrison & Morrison, 1966: 17. Revived status.

Aspidiotus nerii; Borchsenius, 1966: 261. Revived status.

Aspidiotus nerii; Gerson & Zor, 1973: 516. Notes: Author incorrectly cited as "Vallot, 1829".

Aspidiotus paranerii Gerson in Gerson & Hazan, 1979: 281. Type data: ISRAEL: Rehovot, laboratory culture on potato [Solanum tuberosum] tubers; laboratory culture initiated from population collected on Pittosporum undulatum in Rehovot. Holotype female. Type depository: Bet Dagan: Department of Entomology, The Volcani Center, Israel. Described: female. Synonymy by Danzig, 1993: 145.

Aspidiotus atherospirmae; Chou, 1985: 264. Misspelling of species name.

Aspidiotus nereii; Foldi, 1990c: 199. Misspelling of species name.

Aspidiotus anthospermae; Tao, 1999: 73. Misspelling of species name.

Aspidiotus atherospinmae; Tao, 1999: 73. Misspelling of species name.

Aspidiotus budlaei; Tao, 1999: 73. Misspelling of species name.

Aspidiotus budlei; Tao, 1999: 73. Misspelling of species name.

Aspidiotus transvalensis; Tao, 1999: 73. Misspelling of species name.

Aspidiotus vagobundus; Tao, 1999: 73. Misspelling of species name.

Aspidiotus nerri; Moghaddam, 2004: 11. Misspelling of species name.

COMMON NAMES: escama blanca de la hiedra [Gonzal1989]; escama hiedra [CoronaRuMo1997]; ivy scale [MerrilCh1923, McKenz1956, Dekle1965c, MillerDa2005]; lemon peel scale [MillerDa2005]; Oleander scale [Merril1953, Borchs1966, MillerDa2005]; oleander scale [Borchs1966]; pinta-branca [CarvalAg1997]; piojo blanco [Lloren1990]; plushevaya shitovka [Borchs1936].



FOES: ACARI Hemisarcoptidae: Hemisarcoptes malus (Shimer) [GersonOcHo1990]. COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Chilocorus bipustulatus L. [Balach1948b, Inserr1970a, Zahrad1972, KaracaSeCo2001], Chilocorus circumdatus Gyllenhal [Housto1991], Chilocorus undecimpunctata L. [Housto1991], Coccidophilus citricola [AguileMeVa1984, SantosGr2005], Exochomus quadrimaculatus [Balach1948b], Exochomus quadripustulatus L. [Inserr1970a, ErlerTu2001], Lindorus lophantae (Blaisdell) [Smirno1950a], Nephus caneparii Fursch & Uygun [ErlerTu2001], Pharoscymnus setulosus Mulsant [Balach1948b], Rhyzobius lophanthae (Blaisdell) [ErlerTu2001, KaracaSeCo2001]. Nitidulidae: Cybocephalus rufifrons Reitter [Balach1948b]. FUNGI Ascomycotina: Nectria flammea [EvansPr1990]. Deuteromycotina: Verticillium lecanii [EvansPr1990]. HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Aphytis aonidiae (Mercet) [RosenDe1979], Aphytis capillatus (Howard) [RosenDe1979], Aphytis chilensis Howard [RosenDe1979, Hadzib1983, MyartsRu2000], Aphytis chrysomphali (Mercet) [RosenDe1979], Aphytis coheni DeBach [RosenDe1979], Aphytis diaspidis Howard [Balach1948b, RosenDe1979], Aphytis fisheri DeBach [RosenDe1979], Aphytis fuscipennis Howard [Balach1948b], Aphytis hispanicus (Mercet) [RosenDe1979], Aphytis holoxanthus DeBach [AnneckIn1971, RosenDe1979], Aphytis lingnanensis Compere [Inserr1970a, RosenDe1979], Aphytis longiclavae Mercet [Balach1948b, Zahrad1972], Aphytis maculicornis (Masi) [Balach1948b, RosenDe1979, MyartsRu2000], Aphytis melinus DeBach [Inserr1970a, RosenDe1979, SengonUyKa1998, KaracaSeCo2001], Aphytis mytilaspidis (Le Baron) [RosenDe1979], Aphytis notialis De Santis [RosenDe1979], Aphytis proclia (Walker) [RosenDe1979], Aspidiotiphagus citrinus Craw [Balach1948b, Zahrad1972, Liotta1974a, Hadzib1983], Aspidiotiphagus latipennis Compere [AnneckIn1971], Azotus capensis Howard [AnneckIn1970], Coccophagus scutellaris Dalman [Balach1948b], Encarsia aurantii (Howard) [PolaszAbHu1999], Encarsia citrina (Craw) [SengonUyKa1998, AbdRab2001a], Encarsia lounsburyi (Berlese & Paoli) [AbdRab2001a], Prospaltella aurantii (Howard) [Gordh1979]. Encyrtidae: Adelencyrtus inglisiae Compere & Annecke [Prinsl1983], Aphycus punctipes Dalman [Balach1948b], Euaphycus flavus [Zahrad1972], Euaphycus hederaceus (Westwood) [Balach1948b, Zahrad1972], Habrolepis rouxi Compere [BlumbeDe1979], Metaphycus eurhinus Annecke & Mynhardt [Prinsl1983], Metaphycus nigripectus Annecke & Mynhardt [Prinsl1983], Zelaphycus aspidioti (Tachikawa & Valentine) [TachikVa1969]. Signiphoridae: Chartocerus mexicanus (Ashmead) [Gordh1979], Signiphora aspidioti Ashmead [Woolle1990], Signiphora merceti Malenotti [Woolle1990], Signiphora prepauca Girault [Woolle1990], Signiphora thoeauini Girault [Gordh1979]. NEUROPTERA Chrysopidae: Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) [Drea1990]. THYSANOPTERA Phlaeothripidae: Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin) [Beshea1975, PalmerMo1990], Karnyothrips flavipes (Jones) [PalmerMo1990].

HOSTS: Actinidiaceae: Actinidia chinensis [Gonzal1986, Gonzal1989a, GonzalCu1994], Actinidia deliciosa [Hender2011]. Agavaceae: Agave [McKenz1956, Hadzib1983, Martin1983], Agave americana [Balach1927, Balach1932d, GomezM1962, Martin1983], Agave palmeri [MerrilCh1923], Agave sisal [Bodenh1924], Cordyline australis [Hender2011], Cordyline banksii [Hender2011], Furcraea gigantea [Balach1932d, GomezM1962], Yucca [Brain1918, Borchs1934, Borchs1936, Bodenh1952, McDani1968], Yucca gloriosa [Borchs1934, Martin1983]. Aizoaceae: Mesembryanthemum acinaciforme [Balach1932d], Mesembryanthemum edule [Balach1932d]. Alseuosmiaceae: Alseuosmia macrophylla [Hender2011]. Amaranthaceae: Amaranthus sp. [BenDov2012]. Anacardiaceae: Pistacia mutica [Bodenh1924], Pistacia atlantica [BenDov2012], Pistacia lentiscus [Signor1877, Balach1932d, Balach1935b, Martin1983], Pleiogynium cerasiferum [Brimbl1968], Rhodosphaera rhodanthema [Brimbl1968], Schinus [Hall1923], Schinus terebinthifolius [Balach1932d]. Annonaceae: Annona squamosa [DeLott1967a]. Apocynaceae: Acokanthera schimperi [DeLott1967a], Carissa ovata [Brimbl1968], Nerium [Bodenh1937, Bachma1953, Balach1956], Nerium [Bodenh1928], Nerium oleander [UygunSeEr1998, ErlerTu2001, Moghad2013], Nerium oleandrum [Leonar1914, Bodenh1926, Balach1932d, Borchs1934, Bodenh1944b, Bodenh1952, GomezM1962, Muntin1969], Parsonia sp. [Hender2011], Plumeria alba [Cohic1958], Plumeria rubra [Brimbl1968], Vinca [DietzMo1916, Bodenh1952], Vinca major [Bodenh1952, Merril1953, GomezM1962, Martin1983], Vinca rosea [Martin1983]. Aquifoliaceae: Ilex aquifolium [McKenz1956]. Araceae: Acorus gramineus [Martin1983]. Araliaceae: Aralia [Brain1918], Aralia sieboldi [Martin1983], Fatsia japonica [Hender2011], Hedera [Signor1869b, Borchs1936, Martin1983], Hedera helix [DietzMo1916, Balach1932d, Bodenh1952, McKenz1956, Hadzib1983, Martin1983, UygunSeEr1998, Foldi2000], Hedera pastuchovii [Hadzib1983], Hedra canariensis [Moghad2013], Meryta [Green1929], Meryta sinclairii [Hender2011], Pseudopanax arboreus [Hender2011], Pseudopanax ferox [Hender2011], Pseudopanax laetus [Hender2011], Schefflera digitata [Hender2011]. Arecaceae [Green1896, DietzMo1916, Green1929, BesheaTiHo1973], Areca [Wilson1917], Chamaerops excelsa [Balach1932d], Chamaerops humilis [Newste1897a, Balach1927, Balach1932d, Martin1983], Cocos nucifera [Cohic1958, WilliaWa1988], Cocos plumosa [Wilson1917], Cocos romanzoffiana [Balach1932d], Hedyscepe canterburyana [Hender2011], Howeia belmoreana [StoetzDa1974a], Howeia forsteriana [Balach1932d], Kentia balmoreana [Martin1983], Livistona sinensis [Balach1932d], Phoenix [McKenz1956], Phoenix canariensis [Wilson1917, Bodenh1924, Balach1927, Bodenh1928, Balach1932d, Balach1937c, Bodenh1952], Phoenix dactylifera [Bodenh1924, Martin1983], Phoenix reclinata [Balach1927, Balach1932d], Pritchardia filifera [Balach1932d], Rhopalostylis baueri [PicartMa2000], Rhopalostylis sapida [Hender2011], Seaforthea sp. [Hender2011], Trachycarpus excelsa [Borchs1934, GomezM1962]. Aristolochiaceae: Aristolochia [Hall1923, Balach1932d], Aristolochia baetica [GomezM1946, Martin1983], Aristolochia elegans [BesheaTiHo1973]. Asclepiadaceae: Stapelia variegata [Martin1983]. Asparagaceae: Asparagus officinalis [Moghad2013]. Aspleniaceae: Asplenium lucidum [TachikVa1969], Asplenium nidus [WilliaWa1988]. Asteraceae: Brachyglottis repanda [Hender2011], Carduus [Balach1932d], Chrysanthemum coronarium [Hall1923], Chrysanthemum sp. [BenDov2012], Gazania sp. [BenDov2012], Inula viscosa [Balach1932d, Balach1933e, Foldi2000], Olearia furfuracea [Hender2011], Senecio [Martin1983]. Aucubaceae: Aucuba [Brain1918, Green1928, Merril1953, McKenz1956], Aucuba japonica [Bodenh1952, Bachma1953, BesheaTiHo1973, RosenDe1979, Martin1983]. Berberidaceae: Berberis glaucocarpa [Hender2011], Nandina domestica [Brimbl1968]. Betulaceae: Alnus rhombifolia [Ferris1920b]. Bignoniaceae: Bignonia [Balach1932d], Tecoma [Balach1932d]. Bromeliaceae: Ananas comosus [Cohic1958], Billbergia rutas [Hadzib1983], Vriesea splendens [Signor1869b, MerrilCh1923]. Buddlejaceae: Buddleja [McKenz1956], Buddleja madagascariensis [Balach1932d], Buddleja salicina [Signor1869b]. Buxaceae: Buxus [Signor1869b], Buxus sempervirens [Balach1932d], Simmondsia chinensis [BenDov2012]. Cactaceae: Phyllocactus [GomezM1962], Rhipsalis [GomezM1962]. Cannaceae: Canna [Bodenh1924]. Capparidaceae: Capparis lucida [Brimbl1968], Capparis nobilis [Brimbl1968], Capparis sp. [BenDov2012], Capparis spinosa [Bodenh1928, GomezM1948, Martin1983]. Caprifoliaceae: Lonicera [GomezM1946, Bodenh1952, Martin1983], Lonicera caprifolium [Lepage1938], Lonicera implexa [Balach1932d], Lonicera japonica [Brimbl1968], Lonicera meisneri [Martin1983], Lonicera pentademia [Martin1983], Sambucus nigra [ErlerTu2001], Viburnum tinus [Martin1983]. Caryophyllaceae: Dianthus [Balach1932d], Dianthus cariofilus [Martin1983], Petrocoptis lagascae [Martin1983]. Casuarinaceae: Casuarina glauca [Brimbl1968]. Celastraceae: Celastrus [Brimbl1968], Euonymus japonica [Bachma1953], Euonymus japonicum [Balach1927, Balach1932d], Gymnosporia baetica [Martin1983]. Cistaceae: Cistus [Martin1983], Cistus heterophyllus [Balach1932d], Cistus salviaefolius [Balach1927, Balach1932d], Halimium lasianthum [Martin1983], Helianthemum [Martin1983]. Cneoraceae: Cneorum [Martin1983]. Convolvulaceae: Calistegia sepium [Martin1983], Convolvulus sp. [PellizPoSe2011], Ipomoea mexicana [Balach1932d]. Corynocarpaceae: Corynocarpus laevigatus [Martin1983]. Crassulaceae: Sedum [Martin1983]. Cruciferae: Iberis pruitis [Martin1983], Iberis sempervirens [Martin1983]. Cucurbitaceae: Curcurbita sp. [Hender2011]. Cupressaceae: Callitris [Brain1918], Callitris glauca [Brimbl1968], Cupressus sempervirens [Brain1918], Thuja [Brain1918]. Cycadaceae: Cycas [Merril1953, McKenz1956, Hadzib1983], Cycas media [Brimbl1968], Cycas revoluta [Boisdu1867, Signor1869b, DietzMo1916, Balach1932d, Borchs1934, Dekle1965c, Martin1983]. Cyperaceae: Cyperus [Bodenh1924, Borchs1934], Cyperus alternifolius [Balach1932d, Martin1983], Cyperus flabelliformis [BenDov2012]. Dioscoreaceae: Dioscorea [Brimbl1968], Tamus communis [Balach1932d]. Ebenaceae: Diospyros ferrea [Zimmer1948], Diospyros kaki [Borchs1934, Brimbl1968, WilliaWa1988, TomkinWiTh2000], Diospyros lotus [Borchs1934], Royena lucida [Martin1983]. Elaeagnaceae: Elaeagnus [Brain1918, Borchs1934, BachmaGe1950], Elaeagnus angustifolia [BenDov2012], Elaeagnus ombellata [Balach1932d], Elaeagnus pungens [Merril1953], Elaeagnus reflexa [Balach1932d]. Elaeocarpaceae: Aristotelia serrata [Hender2011]. Ephedraceae: Ephedra [Bodenh1949, Bodenh1952]. Ericaceae [BesheaTiHo1973], Arbutus [Brain1918], Arbutus menziesii [Ferris1920b], Arbutus unedo [Balach1932d, Balach1933e, Martin1983, Foldi2000], Arctostaphylos [Ferris1920b, McKenz1956], Erica [Boisdu1867, MerrilCh1923], Erica arborea [Bodenh1949, Bodenh1952], Erica lusitanica [Hender2011], Erica verticiallata [UygunSeEr1998], Rhododendron ponticum [Hadzib1983], Vaccinium [BesheaTiHo1973]. Escalloniaceae: Carpodetus serratus [Maskel1885a, MerrilCh1923]. Euphorbiaceae: Aleurites fordii [Hadzib1983], Aleurites moluccana [DeLott1967a], Baloghia lucida [Brimbl1968], Cluytia pulchella [GomezM1946, Martin1983], Codiaeum variegatum [Brimbl1968], Colmeiroa buxifolia [Martin1983], Croton tiglium [Brimbl1968], Euphorbia [Green1896e, Green1923b, Balach1932d, GomezM1954, GomezM1956b], Euphorbia aphylla [Martin1983], Euphorbia characias [Balach1933e, Foldi2000], Euphorbia pithyusa [Balach1930, Foldi2000], Euphorbia terracina [Balach1932d], Euphorbia wulpheni [GomezM1946, Martin1983], Jatropha multifida [Wilson1917, MerrilCh1923, Merril1953], Mallotus claoxyloides [Brimbl1968], Mercurialis annua [BenDov2012], Poinsettia [Hall1923], Ricinus communis [Bodenh1924, Balach1927, Balach1932d]. Fabaceae: Acacia [Green1915d, MerrilCh1923, Bodenh1937, BachmaGe1950, McKenz1956, Martin1983, SengonUyKa1998], Acacia aulacocarpa [Brimbl1968], Acacia cunninghamii [Brimbl1968], Acacia cyanophylla [Balach1927, Balach1932d, Matile1984c, UygunSeEr1998, KaracaSeCo2001], Acacia dealbata [Carimi1930, Balach1932d, Borchs1934], Acacia decurrens [Hall1922], Acacia dodonefolia [Martin1983], Acacia floribunda [Balach1932d, Martin1983], Acacia harpophylla [Brimbl1968], Acacia longifolia [Bodenh1924, Bodenh1949, Bodenh1952], Acacia melanoxylon [Borchs1934], Acacia mollissima [DeLott1967a], Acacia myrtifolia [Laing1929], Acacia nematophila [Martin1983], Acacia provissima [Borchs1934], Acacia xilocarpa [Martin1983], Adenocarpus foliosus gomerae [GomezM1962], Albizia neumaniana [Martin1983], Amorpha nana [Martin1983], Anthyllis cytisoides [Martin1983], Bauhinia [Brain1918], Caesalpinia bonduc [DeLott1967a], Cajanus cajan [DeLott1967a], Cajanus indica [Hadzib1983], Calycotome spinosa [Newste1897a, Balach1927, Balach1932d, Bodenh1952], Calycotome villosa [Bodenh1926, Martin1983], Cassia didymobotrya [DeLott1967a], Centrosema brasilianum [Martin1983], Ceratonia siliqua [Signor1869b, MerrilCh1923, Bodenh1926, Balach1932d, Bodenh1952, Bachma1953, McKenz1956, Martin1983], Cerceris [MerrilCh1923], Cercis siliquastrum [Balach1932d, GomezM1946, ErlerTu2001], Cercis sp. [PellizPoSe2011], Chamaecytisus palmensis [Hender2011], Coronilla glauca [GomezM1946, Martin1983], Coronilla juncea [Martin1983], Cytisus [Green1915d, Balach1932d], Cytisus prolifer palmensis [GomezM1962], Dalbergia [Green1896], Genista [MerrilCh1923, Balach1931a, Balach1932d], Genista linifolia [Balach1932d], Gleditsia [Borchs1934, Bodenh1952], Mimosa [Martin1983], Platylobium [Frogga1914], Robinia pseudacacia [Newste1897a, Balach1932d, Borchs1934, Martin1983], Sarothamnus scoparius [Green1923b], Sophora tetrapora [Maskel1884], Spartium junceum [Newste1897a, Balach1927, Balach1932d], Tipuana speciosa [Balach1932d], Ulex [Signor1869b, GomezM1946, Martin1983], Ulex boeticus [Martin1983], Ulex europaeus [Martin1983], Ulex spectabilis [Balach1932d]. Fagaceae: Quercus [Borchs1934, McKenz1956], Quercus coccifera [Balach1932d], Quercus ilex [Signor1869b, MerrilCh1923, Balach1932d], Quercus suber [Balach1927, Balach1932d]. Flacourtiaceae: Casearia multinervosa [Brimbl1968]. Flindersiaceae: Flindersia australis [Brimbl1968], Flindersia bennettiana [Brimbl1968], Flindersia xanthoxyla [Brimbl1968]. Garryaceae: Garrya elliptica [TachikVa1969], Garrya macrophyla [Balach1932d]. Griseliniaceae: Griselinia lucida [Hender2011]. Grossulariaceae: Ribes [Green1915d], Ribes nigrum [Hender2008], Ribes rubrum [Hender2011]. Guttiferae: Hypericum [McKenz1956], Hypericum ritchteri [Martin1983], Mammea africana [MerrilCh1923], Ochrocarpos africanus [MerrilCh1923, Merril1953]. Haemodoraceae: Anigozanthos sp. [BenDov2012]. Hemerocallidaceae: Phormium tenax [BenDov2012]. Hippocastanaceae: Aesculus hippocastani [Bachma1953, Zahrad1972]. Icacinaceae: Pennantia cunninghamii [Brimbl1968]. Iridaceae: Gladiolus [Brimbl1968], Iris craetensis [PellizPoSe2011], Iris germanica [Balach1932d, Martin1983], Rochea [Martin1983]. Juglandaceae: Carya [Borchs1934]. Lamiaceae: Rosmarinus officinalis [Balach1932d, Martin1983], Salvia [Hall1922, Bodenh1949], Sideritis subatlantica [Balach1932d], Stachys circinnata [Newste1897a, Balach1927, Balach1932d], Teucrium polium [GomezM1958c], Teucrium scorodonia [Martin1983]. Lauraceae: Cinnamomum camphorae [Brimbl1968], Endiandra pubens [Brimbl1968], Laurus [McKenz1956], Laurus nobilis [Balach1932d, GomezM1962, Martin1983], Persea [Wilson1917], Persea americana [McKenz1956, Brimbl1968, GersonZo1973], Umbellularia californica [Ferris1920b]. Liliaceae: Aloe umbellata [Signor1869b, MerrilCh1923], Asparagus [Green1930b, Balach1935b, Bodenh1952, Savesc1982, Hadzib1983, Martin1983], Asparagus albus [Balach1932d], Asparagus aphyllus [Balach1932d], Asparagus horridus [Martin1983], Asparagus plumosus [Balach1932d, Bodenh1944b, Martin1983], Asparagus racemosus [Brimbl1968], Asparagus sprengieri [Green1923b, Balach1932d, Merril1953, McDani1968], Asparagus variegates [BenDov2012], Asphodelus [Balach1932d], Aspidistra [Laing1929], Aspidistra elatior [Martin1983], Astelia grandis [Hender2011], Chlorophytum sapense [Brimbl1968], Dracaena [Brain1918], Haworthia retusa [Martin1983], Haworthia tesselata [GomezM1946, Martin1983], Ophiopogon japonicus [Hender2011], Sansevieria [Lindin1913, Ferris1941e]. Loganiaceae: Gelsemium semperviren [GomezM1962], Geniostoma rupestre [Hender2011], Plagianthus divaricatus [Hender2011]. Loranthaceae: Amyema congener [Brimbl1968], Amyema ferruginiflora [Brimbl1968], Amyema pendula [Brimbl1968], Loranthus [Green1896], Phrygilanthus bidwillii [Brimbl1968]. Lythraceae: Bergenia crassifolia [McKenz1956]. Magnoliaceae: Magnolia [Hall1922], Magnolia fuscata [GomezM1962], Magnolia grandiflora [Balach1932d, Martin1983]. Malpighiaceae: Stigmatophyllon ciliatum [Zimmer1948]. Malvaceae: Asterotrichion discolor [Hender2011], Hoheria [TachikVa1969], Hoheria sexstylosa [Hender2011], Lavatera cretica [PellizPoSe2011], Malope malachoides stipulacea [Balach1932d], Malva silvestris [PellizPoSe2011], Urena lobata [Hall1923]. Meliaceae: Cedrela toona [Brimbl1968], Cedrella fissilis [Lepage1938], Dysoxylum [Comsto1916a, Brimbl1968, Hender2001a], Dysoxylum spectabile [Hender2011], Melia [Brain1918, MerrilCh1923], Melia azedarach [Hall1922, Bodenh1924, Hall1928, Balach1932d, Martin1983, UygunSeEr1998], Owenia venosa [Brimbl1968]. Monimiaceae: Hedicarya arborea [TachikVa1969], Laurelia novae-zelandiae [Hender2011], Wilkiea huegeliana [Brimbl1968]. Moraceae: Ficus benjamina [Hender2011], Ficus carica [Balach1932d], Morus [Hall1922], Morus alba [Balach1932d, Bodenh1952], Morus nigra [Martin1983], Streblus heterophyllus [Hender2011], Streblus smithii [Hender2011]. Musaceae: Musa [GomezM1962], Musa sapientum [Cohic1958]. Myoporaceae: Eremophila mitchelli [Frogga1914, Brimbl1968], Myoporum [Balach1932d], Myoporum acuminatum [Muntin1969], Myoporum deserti [Brimbl1968], Myoporum laetum [Hender2011], Myoporum pictum [Martin1983]. Myrsinaceae: Aegiceras corniculatum [Brimbl1968], Myrsine africana [Martin1983], Myrsine retusa [Signor1869b, MerrilCh1923]. Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus [Frogga1914, Green1915d], Eugenia smithii [Frogga1914], Melaleuca viridiflora [Brimbl1968], Myrtus communis [Martin1983], Psidium guajava [Brimbl1968], Tristania conferta [Brimbl1968], Tristania suaveolens [Brimbl1968]. Oleaceae: Fraxinus [Balach1932d, Borchs1934, Borchs1936], Fraxinus berlandieri [Balach1932d], Fraxinus oxyphylla [Balach1932d], Jasminum [Hall1922, Bodenh1952], Jasminum officinalis [Martin1983], Jasminum primulinum [Merril1953], Ligustrum [McKenz1956], Ligustrum caricana [GomezM1946, Martin1983], Ligustrum coriaceum [Martin1983], Ligustrum sinensis [Balach1932d], Nestegis sp. [Hender2011], Olea [Bodenh1937], Olea europaea [Targio1868, Bodenh1927b, Lepage1938, Bodenh1949, Bodenh1952, McKenz1956, Almeid1973b, Martin1983], Olea fragrans [Wilson1917], Osmanthus [Brain1918], Osmanthus aquifolium [Balach1932d], Osmanthus fortunei [Hender2011], Phyllirea media [Newste1897a, Balach1927, Balach1932d], Picconia excelsa [GomezM1962], Syringa [Borchs1934, Bodenh1952], Syringa vulgaris [Borchs1934, Martin1983]. Orchidaceae: Cymbidium [McKenz1956], Dendrobium sp. [Hender2011], Maxillaria longipetala [Moghad2013]. Paeoniaceae: Paeonia officinalis [GomezM1946, Martin1983]. Pandanaceae: Pandanus [DietzMo1916, Cohic1958]. Passifloraceae: Passiflora [Balach1932d], Passiflora coerulea [Balach1932d], Tacsonia manicata [Green1923b]. Phytolaccaceae: Phytolacca dioica [Balach1932d]. Pinaceae: Picea [Martin1983], Pinus halepensis [Balach1932d]. Pittosporaceae: Pittosporum [Fernan1992], Pittosporum eugenioidea [Hender2011], Pittosporum tobira [Martin1983], Pittosporum undulatum [GersonHa1979, Martin1983]. Platanaceae: Platanus [Martin1983], Platanus orientalis [Balach1932d, Borchs1934]. Podocarpaceae: Halocarpus kirkii [Hender2011], Podocarpus elatus [Brimbl1968]. Polygonaceae: Coccoloba [Wilson1917], Muehlenbeckia platyclados [Martin1983]. Proteaceae: Grevillea [GomezM1946, Martin1983], Grevillea alpina [Hender2011], Grevillea banksii [BenDov2012], Grevillea preissei [Balach1932d], Grevillea robusta [Newste1914, Balach1932d, Brimbl1968], Hakea [Brain1918], Knightia excelsa [Hender2011], Leucodendron sp. [BenDov2012], Macadamia integrifolia [Brimbl1968], Macadamia sp. [BenDov2012], Persoonia cornifolia [Brimbl1968], Protea sp. [BenDov2012], Stenocarpus sinuatus [Brimbl1968]. Punicaceae: Punica granatum [Hall1923, Balach1932d]. Ranunculaceae: Clematis cirhosa [Balach1932d], Clematis flammula [Newste1897a, Balach1927, Balach1932d]. Rhamnaceae: Ceanothus [Ferris1920b, McKenz1956], Colletia spinosa [Balach1932d], Pomaderris apetala [Hender2011], Rhamnus alaternus [Balach1932d], Rhamnus californica [McKenz1956], Ziziphus lotus [Martin1983]. Ripogonaceae: Ripogonum scandens [Hender2011]. Rosaceae: Crataegus azarolus [Newste1897a, Balach1927, Balach1932d], Malus sylvestris [Brimbl1968], Prunus avium [Brimbl1968], Prunus japonica [Balach1932d], Prunus laurocerasus [Hender2011], Prunus pissardi [Brain1918], Pyrophorum pictum [Martin1983], Pyrus communis [Brimbl1968], Pyrus cydonia [Balach1932d], Rosa [Lepage1938], Rubus cuesus [UygunSeEr1998], Spiraea [Brain1918]. Rubiaceae: Canthium coprosmoides [Brimbl1968], Coporma robusta [Hender2011], Coprosma [Brain1918], Coprosma foetidissima [Hender2011], Coprosma grandifolia [Hender2011], Coprosma macrocarpa [Hender2011], Coprosma spathulata [Hender2011], Galium [Balach1935b, Martin1983], Gardenia [Lepage1938], Putoria calabrica [Bachma1953], Randia fitzalani [Brimbl1968], Rubia peregrina [Targio1868, MerrilCh1923]. Ruscaceae: Ruscus [Bodenh1952, Martin1983], Ruscus aculeatus [Targio1868, MerrilCh1923, Bodenh1926, Martin1983]. Rutaceae: Acronychia baueri [Brimbl1968], Citrus [Howard1908, Balach1932d, McKenz1956, WilliaWa1988, CarvalAg1997], Citrus [MerrilCh1923, YasnosTaCh2005], Citrus aurantium [Balach1932d, Bodenh1926], Citrus limon [Signor1869b, Balach1932d, Bodenh1926, Brimbl1968, Hadzib1983], Citrus sinensis [Brimbl1968], Coleonema pulchellum [Hender2011], Eriostemon queenslandicus [Brimbl1968], Evodia microcarpa [Brimbl1968], Geijera salicifolia [Brimbl1968], Melicope simplex [Hender2011], Microcitrus australasica [Brimbl1968], Platydesma [Zimmer1948], Ruta angustifolia [Balach1932d, Balach1933e, Foldi2000], Ruta graveolens [Green1923b, Balach1927, Balach1932d, Martin1983], Xanthoxylum americanum [Balach1932d]. Salicaceae: Populus alba [Balach1932d], Populus nigra [Balach1932d]. Santalaceae: Osyris alba [Newste1897a, Balach1927, Balach1932d, Bodenh1952], Santalum haleakalae [Zimmer1948], Santalum lanceolatum [Brimbl1968]. Sapindaceae: Alectryon coriaceus [Brimbl1968], Alectryon excelsus [Hender2011], Atalaya hemiglauca [Brimbl1968], Diploglottis australe [Brimbl1968], Dodonaea triquerta [Brimbl1968], Dodonaea viscosa [GomezM1946, Martin1983, Matile1984c], Guioa semiglauca [Brimbl1968], Harpullia pendula [Brimbl1968], Heterodendrum oleaefolium [Frogga1914, Laing1929]. Sapotaceae: Argania spinosa [Balach1932d, Rungs1952], Bumelia tenax [Martin1983], Pouteria costata [Hender2011]. Saxifragaceae: Saxifraga [Hadzib1983]. Scrophulariaceae: Antirrhinum [Bodenh1924], Antirrhinum majus [Newste1897a, Balach1927, Balach1932d, Martin1983], Digitalis obscura [Martin1983], Hebe sp. [Hender2011], Paulownia [Balach1932d], Penstemon [Brain1918], Silvia [Bodenh1952], Veronica [Brain1918]. Siphonodontaceae: Siphonodon australe [Brimbl1968]. Smilacaceae: Smilax [McDani1968], Smilax aspera [Newste1897a, Balach1927, Balach1932d], Smilax australe [Brimbl1968]. Solanaceae: Datura alba [Hall1922], Datura arborea [Martin1983], Lycopersiscon esculentum [BenDov2012], Nicotiana glauca [Bodenh1924, Martin1983], Solanum coagulans [Bodenh1924], Solanum jasminoides [Balach1932d], Solanum lycopersicum [Hall1923], Solanum macrocarpum [DeLott1967a], Solanum sodomaeum [Balach1932d, Martin1983], Solanum tuberosum [GersonHa1979], Withania frutescens [Martin1983]. Strelitziaceae: Strelitzia augusta [Balach1932d], Strelitzia ovata [Martin1983], Strelitzia reginae [Balach1932d, Martin1983]. Tamaricaceae: Tamarix sp. [Moghad2013]. Taxaceae: Taxus [McKenz1956], Taxus baccata [Hender2011], Taxus iberica [Martin1983], Taxus polium [Martin1983]. Taxodiaceae: Sequoia sempervirens [Ferris1920b]. Theaceae: Camellia [McKenz1956], Camellia japonica [MerrilCh1923], Thea [Green1896]. Thymelaeaceae: Daphne [GomezM1954, Martin1983], Daphne collina [Targio1868], Daphne gnidium [Signor1869b, MerrilCh1923, Balach1932d, Balach1933e, Martin1983, Foldi2000], Thymelaea hirsuta [Bodenh1924, Balach1927, Balach1932d, Martin1983], Thymelaea lythroides [Balach1932d]. Tmesipteridaceae: Tmesipteris tannensis [WilliaWa1988]. Ulmaceae: Celtis australis [Balach1932d], Ulmus [Balach1932d]. Umbelliferae: Foeniculum vulgaris [Martin1983], Washingtonia [Bodenh1924, Bodenh1944b], Washingtonia sonorae [Martin1983]. Urticaceae: Urtica ferox [Hender2011]. Verbenaceae: Lantana camara [Brimbl1968], Vitex littoralis [Maskel1885a, MerrilCh1923], Vitex lucens [Hender2011]. Violaceae: Melicystus ramiflorus [Hender2011]. Viscaceae: Korthalsella clavata [HenderSuRo2010], Korthalsella lindsayi [HenderSuRo2010], Korthalsella salicornioides [HenderSuRo2010]. Vitaceae: Ampelopsis [Green1915d], Cayratia acris [Brimbl1968], Vitis [Green1923b, McKenz1956], Vitis vinifera [Leonar1918, Leonar1920, Balach1932d, Bodenh1924, Ferris1941e, Bodenh1949, Bodenh1952, Cohic1958]. Xanthorrhoeaceae: Phormium tenax [Hender2011]. Zamiaceae: Bowenia serrulata [Brimbl1968], Macrozamia [Frogga1914], Macrozamia moorei [Brimbl1968], Zamia floridana [Dekle1965c].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Angola [Almeid1973b]; Cape Verde [VanHarCoWi1990]; Eritrea [DeLottNa1955, DeLott1967a]; Kenya [Lindin1913, Ferris1941e, DeLott1967a]; Malawi [Newste1914]; Namibia (=South West Africa) [Muntin1969]; South Africa [Leonar1914, BrainKe1917, Brain1918, Balach1956]; Tanzania [Newste1911a, Balach1956]; Uganda [Newste1911, Balach1956]; Zaire [Balach1956]; Zimbabwe [Hall1928, Balach1956]. Australasian: Australia [Frogga1914] (Queensland [Brimbl1968], Tasmania [Green1915d], Victoria [Green1915d, Laing1929]); Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii [Zimmer1948]); Lord Howe Island [WilliaWa1988]; New Caledonia [Laing1933, WilliaWa1988]; New Zealand [Maskel1884, Maskel1885a, Green1929, Hender2011]; Norfolk Island [WilliaWa1988]. Nearctic: Mexico [RosenDe1979, MyartsRu2000]; United States of America (Alabama [BesheaTiHo1973], California [Comsto1881a, McKenz1956], Florida [Wilson1917, MerrilCh1923, Merril1953, Dekle1965c], Georgia [TippinBe1970, BesheaTiHo1973], Indiana [DietzMo1916], Kansas [Hunter1899], Maryland [StoetzDa1974a], Mississippi [Herric1911], Missouri [Hollin1923], Texas [McDani1968]). Neotropical: Argentina [ClapsTe2001] (Buenos Aires [RosenDe1979], Catamarca [GranarCl2003], Cordoba [GranarCl2003], La Rioja [GranarCl2003], Mendoza [GranarCl2003], San Juan [GranarCl2003], Santa Fe [GranarCl2003], Tucuman [GranarCl2003]); Brazil (Espirito Santo [CulikMaVe2008], Minas Gerais [Lepage1938, WolffCo1993], Rio Grande do Sul [Lepage1938, WolffCo1993], Rio de Janeiro [WolffCo1993], Sao Paulo [Green1930b, Gianno1942, Muntin1971a, WolffCo1993, ClapsWoGo2001]); Chile [GonzalCh1968, RosenDe1979, Gonzal1986, Gonzal1989, Gonzal1989a, VargasRiRo2008]; Colombia [Balach1959a, Kondo2001]; Cuba [Houser1918]; Guadeloupe [MatileEt2006]; Haiti [PerezG2008]; Puerto Rico & Vieques Island (Puerto Rico [Martor1976, ColonFMe1998]). Oriental: Sri Lanka [Green1896]; Vietnam [DanzigKo1990]. Palaearctic: Algeria [Signor1877, Newste1897a, Balach1932d, SaighiDoBi2005]; Austria [Malump2011a] (Established on indoor plantings.); Azores [FrancoRuMa2011]; Bulgaria [TrenchTrTo2010]; Canary Islands [GomezM1962, GomezM1967O, MatileOr2001]; China (Henan (=Honan) [Shen1993]); Corsica [Balach1931a, Balach1932d]; Crete [Ayouta1940, PellizPoSe2011]; Croatia [Bachma1953, RosenDe1979] [Masten2007]; Cyprus [SismanUl2010]; Czech Republic [Zahrad1977, Zahrad1990b]; Egypt [Hall1922, Hall1923, Ezzat1958]; France [Boisdu1867, Signor1869b, Balach1930, Balach1932d, Balach1933e, Foldi2000]; Georgia (Abkhaz ASSR [Borchs1934, Borchs1936, Hadzib1983], Adzhar ASSR [Borchs1934, Borchs1936, Hadzib1983], Georgia [Borchs1936, Hadzib1983, YasnosTaCh2005]); Germany [Bouche1844, Lindin1909b]; Greece [Bodenh1928, Korone1934, ArgyriStMo1976, RosenDe1979]; Hungary [KozarKoFe2013]; Iran [Bodenh1944b, Kaussa1955, Moghad2004]; Israel [Bodenh1924, Bodenh1927b, Bodenh1937, GersonZo1973, GersonHa1979, RosenDe1979]; Italy [Targio1868, Leonar1920, Carimi1930, Ferris1941e, Viggia1970a]; Japan [Kuwana1917a, Kuwana1933, Kawai1980]; Jordan [BenDov2006a]; Lebanon [Bodenh1926, AbdulNMo2006]; Madeira Islands [Green1923b, Balach1938a, CarvalAg1997]; Malta [Borg1919, HaberMi2007]. Palaearctic: Mongolia [DanzigKo1990]. Palaearctic: Morocco [Vayssi1920, Balach1927, Balach1932d, Rungs1970]; Poland [Dziedz1989]; Portugal [Seabra1930, Seabra1941, Fernan1992]; Romania [Savesc1982]; Russia (Caucasus [Borchs1934]); Sardinia [Pelliz2011]; Saudi Arabia [Beccar1971, Matile1984c]; Sicily [Nucifo1984, LiottaBiLo1985, LiottaBuMo1985, Longo1985a, LongoRu1986]; Slovenia [Janezi1954, Seljak2010]; Spain [Balach1935b, GomezM1946, GomezM1956b, GomezM1958c, Martin1983, BlayGo1993]; Syria [Hariri1971]; Tunisia [MansouMkGr2011]; Turkey [Bodenh1949, Bodenh1952, UygunSeEr1998, ErlerTu2001, KaracaSeCo2001, KaydanUlEr2007]; United Kingdom (Channel Islands [Green1925b], England [Newste1901b, Green1916, Green1928]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on bark or leaves (Ferris, 1938a). Comstock (1883: 63) reported on rearing this species in the USA, from specimens taken on lemons imported from the Mediterranean. The sex pheromone emitted by the female oleander scale, Aspidiotus nerii (Homoptera, Diaspididae), has been isolated and characterized as (1R, 2S)-cis-2isopropenyl-1-(4'-methyl-4'-penten-1'-yl) cyclobutaneethanol acetate by using advanced MS and NMR spectroscopic methods, as well as a variety of microderivatization sequences. The structure has been confirmed by stereo- and enetioselective synthesis of the four possible stereoisomers. The absolute configuration has been determined by comparison of the activity of the cis (1S,2R) and (1R,2S) enantiomers with that exhibited by the natural material in greenhouse bioassays and field tests. The structure of this sesquitrpenoid pheromone is new in the Coccoidea and in the pheromone field in general. Magsig-Castillo et al. (2010) have demonstrated the occurrence of phoretic dispersal of crawlers of Aspidiotus nerii Bouche. The crawlers use the tarsal and claw digitules of each leg to attach themselves to three different insect species Musca domestica L., Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant and Linepithema humile (Mayr) and can effectively be moved phoretically by these insects.

GENERAL REMARKS: DeBach & Fisher (1956) studied unisexual and bisexual populations, which have both been identified as Aspidiotus hederae and concluded that these "races" were biologically distinct. Description and illustration of adult female by Green (1915d) [as A. tasmaniae], Leonardi (1918), Dietz & Morrison (1916) [as A. hederae (Vallot)], Kuwana (1933), Ferris (1938a, 1941e) [as A. hederae (Vallot)], Balachowsky (1948b, 1956) [as A. hederae (Vallot)], Zimmerman (1948), McKenzie (1956), Gomez-Menor Guerrero (1962), Bazarov & Shmelev (1971), Chou (1985, 1986), Tereznikova (1986), Williams & Watson (1988), Dziedzicka (1989), Danzig (1993), Kosztarab (1996), Gill (1997) and by Colon-Ferrer & Medina-Gaud (1998). Description and illustration of female nymph, male nymph, male pupa and prepupa by Stoetzel & Davidson (1974a).

STRUCTURE: Scale of the female white or pale gray, circular, flat, exuviae subcentral. Male scale similar in color, slightly oval, exuvia subcentral (Ferris, 1938a). Colour photograph of the scale cover and general appearance see Carvalho & Aguiar (1997). Colour photograph given by Gonzalez (1986, 1989) and by Gill (1997).

SYSTEMATICS: Aspidiotus nerii Bouche, 1833 is senior synonym of oleander scale. Taxonomic interpretation of this species has gradually evolved through studies of Signoret (1869b), Comstock (1883), Newstead (1901) and Dietz & Morrison (1916). Currently, its taxonomy is widely recognized and established in accordance with taxonomic facies elucidated by Ferris (1938), Balachowsky (1956) and Borchsenius (1966), see detailed discussion in Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero (1999). Diaspis obliquum was described by O.G. Costa from Italy, in his Fauna del Regno di Napoli, famiglia de' coccinigliferi, o de'gallinsetti. For more than a century, publication date of Costa's book accepted as 1835 and therefore synonymy of Diaspis obliquum with Aspidiotus nerii was nomenclaturally acceptable. In 1983, The ICZN ruled (ICZN, 1983) date of publication of Costa's book was 1829. Consequently, Diaspis obliquum Costa, 1829, predated Aspidiotus nerii Bouche, 1833. Ben-Dov & Marotta (2001), in order to stabilize senior synonym status of Aspidiotus nerii Bouche, 1833, regarded Diaspis obliquum Costa, 1829 as a nomen oblitum and placed it as a junior synonym of Aspidiotus nerii. Signoret (1869b, p. 122, and Plate IV, Figs. c,e,f) redescribed a species which he named Aspidiotus hederae and incorrectly credited the authorship to Vallot. Signoret illustrated (Plate IV, Fig. c) a tubular duct which is more than 5 times as long as wide, and therefore Aspidiotus hederae Signoret, 1869b, is clearly different from Aspidiotus nerii Bouche, see discussion in Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero (1999). Synonym Aspidiotus epidendri first described by Signoret (1869c: 121) who erroneously credited it to Bouche (1844: 293). However, Bouche did not describe this species and therefore, the author is Signoret. Signoret's error was perpetuated by Newstead (1901: 120), Fernald (1903b: 261) and Leonardi (1920: 31). Borchsenius (1966: 261) regarded Aspidiotus ligusticus Leonardi, 1918, as a distinct species. Aspidiotus urenae Hall, 1923 was regarded as a valid species, but Borchsenius (1966: 265) placed it as a synonym of Aspidiotus nerii. Danzig (1993: 143) regarded Aspidiotus urenae a synonym of Aspidiotus nerii. Aspidiotus nerii was reported to have uniparental as well as biparental populations (Brown, 1965). Andersen et al. (2010) recognized three species within Australian samples of A. nerii. One of these corresponds to the cosmopolitan pest species and the other two are found only in Australia. The two putative Australian species have overlapping ranges and both are found on multiple hosts. Contrary to previous suggestions, the cosmopolitan sexual and parthenogenetic lineages of A. nerii are not recognized as distinct species by both of our methods of phylogenetic reconstruction. Cryptic diversity within what seem to be single cosmopolitan armored scale insect species is a potential serious problem for plant quarantine.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: The oleander scale ranks among the most highly polyphagous scale insects (see Host Plants) and widely distributed in almost all zoogeographical regions (CABI, 1970, and see Distribution). Unisexual and bisexual populations of this species have been reported (e.g. Schmutterer, 1952; DeBach & Fisher (1956). Has been recorded as a pest of citrus in several Mediterranean countries (Bodenheimer, 1951), a serious pest of olive in the Mediterranean basin (Argyriou, 1990), damaging kiwifruit in Chile (Gonzalez, 1989a). A pest of avocado in Israel (Gerson & Zor (1973) and Chile (Vargas et al. (2008). A troublesome pest of many ornamental plants (e.g. Gill, 1997).

KEYS: Evans, Watson & Miller 2009: 63-67 (female) [Diaspididae species found on avocado]; Claps & Teran 2001: 392 (female) [South America]; Gill 1997: 64 (female) [Species of California]; Kosztarab 1996: 427 (female) [Northeastern North America]; Danzig 1993: 140-141 (female) [Europe]; Williams & Watson 1988: 51 (female) [Tropical South Pacific]; Chou 1985: 262-263 (female) [Species of China]; Gerson & Zor 1973: 516 (female) [Israel]; Beardsley 1970: 508 (female) [Hawaii]; Ezzat 1958: 241 (female) [Egypt]; Balachowsky 1956: 51 (female) [Africa]; McKenzie 1956: 24 (female) [U.S.A.: California]; Mamet 1954: 52 (female) [Madagascar]; Balachowsky 1948b: 275 (female) [Mediterranean]; Lupo 1948: 138 (female) [Italy]; Zimmerman 1948: 355 (female) [Hawaii]; Ferris 1946: 43 (female) [World]; Ferris 1942: 30 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1941e: 61 (female) [World]; Archangelskaya 1937: 99 (female) [Middle Asia]; Borchsenius 1935: 127-128 (female) [Former USSR]; Kuwana 1933: 3 (female) [Japan]; Kuwana 1933b: 49 (female) [Japan]; Fullaway 1932: 95-97, 107 (female) [Hawaii]; Archangelskaya 1929: 190 (female) [Palaearctic Region]; Britton 1923: 371 (female) [U.S.A.: Connecticut]; Hollinger 1923: 7-8 (female) [U.S.A.: Missouri]; Leonardi 1920: 29-30 (female) [Italy]; Brain 1918: 117 (female) [South Africa]; Lawson 1917: 217 (female) [U.S.A.: Kansas]; Dietz & Morrison 1916a: 289-290 (female) [U.S.A.: Indiana]; Cockerell 1905: 45-46 (female) [Mexico]; Cockerell 1905b: 201 (female) [U.S.A.: Colorado]; Comstock 1883: 55-57 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: AbdElKDaKo1988 [chemical control, biological control: 270-275]; AbdElKKo1988a [life history, host: 55-60]; AbdelR1995 [life history, economic importance: 1553-1564]; AbdRab2001a [host, distribution, biological control: 175,176]; AbdulNMo2006 [host, distribution: 517-520]; AbouEl2001 [host, distribution, biological control: 185-195]; AguileDiGr1981 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 175-178]; AguileMeVa1984 [life history, biological control: 47-54]; Alam1957 [biological control: 421-466]; Alexan1990 [host, distribution, life history, ecology, biological control: 339-342]; AlexanBe1979 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history: 49-56]; AlexanBe1981 [host, distribution, biological control: 13-25]; AlexanBe1982 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 843-850]; AlexanNe1979 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control,: 171-184]; AlexanNe1980 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 61-71]; AlexanNeMi1977 [host, distribution, economic importance: 412-417]; Alfier1929 [host, distribution: 7-9]; Almeid1973b [host, distribution: 9]; AndersGrMo2010 [taxonomy, molecular data: 844-854]; AndersWuGr2010 [molecular data: 992-1003]; AnneckIn1970 [host, distribution, biological control: 240]; AnneckIn1971 [host, distribution, biological control: 28,29]; Archan1929 [taxonomy: 190]; Archan1930 [host, distribution: 85]; Archan1937 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 106-107]; Argyri1969 [biological control: 817-822]; Argyri1970 [host, distribution, biological control: 57-65]; Argyri1976 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 209-218]; Argyri1979a [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 517-520]; Argyri1981 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance, chemical control: 65-72]; Argyri1990 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 579-583]; Argyri1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 579-583]; ArgyriKo1980 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance, biological control: 633-638]; ArgyriMo1983 [host, distribution, economic importance: 623-627]; ArgyriStMo1976 [host, distribution, biological control: 25]; Autran1907 [catalogue: 165]; Ayouta1940 [host, distribution: 2-4]; Bachma1953 [host, distribution: 177]; Badr2014 [distribution, host: 51]; BaetaN1947 [host, distribution: 128]; Baker1976 [biological control, life history: 1-25]; Balach1927 [host, distribution: 176-177]; Balach1928d [biological control: 284,289,293,295]; Balach1930 [host, distribution: 312]; Balach1931a [host, distribution: 97]; Balach1932d [taxonomy, host, distribution: I-III; XLV]; Balach1933e [host, distribution: 3]; Balach1935b [host, distribution: 256]; Balach1937c [host, distribution: 2]; Balach1938a [host, distribution: 148]; Balach1948b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, biological control: 272,280-285]; Balach1951 [taxonomy: 697-698]; Balach1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 69-70]; Balach1959a [host, distribution: 362]; BaldanGaVi1999 [biological control: 209-215]; Banti1893 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 12]; BartleDe1952 [biological control: 16-17]; Bartra1977 [host, distribution, life history: 43-48]; BazaroSh1970 [host, distribution, taxonomy: 109-111]; BazaroSh1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 187-188]; BeardsDaHo1976 [economic importance: 105]; BeardsGo1975 [economic importance: 49]; Beccar1971 [host, distribution: 193]; Bedfor1978 [host, distribution, economic importance: 129-133]; Beffa1937 [host, distribution, economic importance: 63-70]; BeglyaSm1977 [host, distribution, biological control : 283-328]; BellowVa1999 [ecology, biological control: 199-223]; Benass1958d [biological control: 179-181]; Benass1965a [host, distribution, chemical control, biological control, economic importance, life history: 112-125]; BenDov1990a [taxonomy: 85]; BenDov1990c [taxonomy: 111]; BenDov2006a [host, distribution: 206]; BenDov2012 [catalogue, distribution, host: 28, 44]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 200-225]; BenDovMa1999 [taxonomy: 5-8]; BenDovMa2001Sa [taxonomy: 191-192]; BenDovMa2001Sb [taxonomy: 426-427]; BentleBa1931 [host, distribution, economic importance, control: 1-61]; Berles1895c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 229-232]; Berles1911 [biological control: 436-461]; BerlesLe1898 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 97]; BerlesLe1899 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 262-264]; BerlinSePo1999 [host, distribution, life history: 1113-1119]; Berro1927 [host, distribution: 55-59]; Berry1991 [taxonomy: 323-341]; BerryMoHi1989 [host, distribution, economic importance: 182-186]; Beshea1975 [host, distribution, biological control: 223-224]; BesheaTiHo1973 [host, distribution: 5]; BiezanFr1939 [host, distribution: 1-18]; BiezanSe1940 [host, distribution: 67-68]; BindraVa1972 [host, distribution, economic importance: 14-24]; Blanch1922 [host, distribution: 387-398]; BlankGiDo1997 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history: 293-297]; BlankGiDo1999 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history: 1-12]; BlankOl1990a [chemical control: 243-246]; BlayGo1993 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 432-444]; BlumbeDe1979 [life history, biological control: 299-306]; BlumbeSw1974 [biological control: 437-443]; BlumbeSw1974a [biological control: 3-11]; Bodenh1924 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 25-30]; Bodenh1926 [host, distribution: 42]; Bodenh1927b [host, distribution: 79]; Bodenh1928 [host, distribution: 191]; Bodenh1935 [host, distribution: 246]; Bodenh1937 [host, distribution: 216]; Bodenh1944b [host, distribution: 93]; Bodenh1949 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 52-55]; Bodenh1951 [structure: 133]; Bodenh1951a [taxonomy, host, distribution, economic importance: 199-201]; Bodenh1952 [host, distribution: 337-338]; Bohm1976 [host, distribution: 41-42]; Boisdu1867 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 330,339,345]; Boisdu1868 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 281]; Borchs1934 [host, distribution: 27]; Borchs1935a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 3,27]; Borchs1936 [host, distribution: 130]; Borchs1937 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 124-125]; Borchs1949d [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 236]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 214,219]; Borchs1965 [taxonomy: 212]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 261-266,269]; Borg1919 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 24-27]; Borg1922 [host, distribution]; BorianNi1995 [chemical control: 43]; Bouche1833 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 52]; Bouche1834 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 12-14]; Bouche1844 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 293]; BouhelDeDe1932 [host, distribution, control: 1-60]; Boyce1948 [host, distribution, economic importance, control]; BoyerDu1999 [chemistry, chemical ecology: 29-33]; BoyerDu1999a [chemistry, chemical ecology: 1201-1211]; Brain1918 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 118-119]; BrainKe1917 [distribution: 183]; BrandtBo1948 [taxonomy: 3]; Brick1912 [host, distribution: 1-22]; Brimbl1962 [host, distribution, economic importance: 220]; Brimbl1968 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 43-47]; Britto1923 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 371,373-374]; Buchne1953 [taxonomy, structure: 217-218]; BurgerUl1990 [economic importance: 313-327]; Burmei1835 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 67]; Bustsh1958 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 219,234]; Buxton1920 [host, distribution: 287-303]; CABI1970 [host, distribution: 1-2]; Caltag1985 [taxonomy, biological control: 189-200]; CanaleVa1999 [biological control]; Carimi1930 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 121-123]; Carnes1907 [host, distribution: 206]; CarvalAg1997 [life history, description, economic importance, biological control, host, distribution: 258-261]; Castel1951a [biological control: 95-98]; Chambe1925EL [host, distribution, control: 149-165]; Charle1998 [distribution, economic importance, biological control: 51N]; CharleHe2002 [host, distribution, economic importance: 587-615]; CharleHiAl1995 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 319-324]; CheahIr1997 [host, distribution]; Chiesa1938a [host, distribution: 1-21]; Chiesa1948 [host, distribution, economic importance]; Chiesa1948a [host, distribution, economic importance]; Chou1947a [chemical control: 33]; Chou1985 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 263-267]; Chou1986 [taxonomy, illustration: 659]; ChuaWo1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 543-552]; Cirio1979 [host, distribution, biological control : 297-303]; CividaGu1996 [biological control, life history: 257-266]; Claps1993 [taxonomy: 6,9]; ClapsDo2003 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 17-18]; ClapsTe2001 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, economic importance: 392,394]; ClapsWoGo2001 [host, distribution: 241]; ClapsWoGo2001a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 12-13]; Claus1864 [life history, structure: 42-54]; Cocker1893j [taxonomy, host, distribution: 255]; Cocker1893k [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 548]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy, distribution: 333-335]; Cocker1897i [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 18,19,25,29,30]; Cocker1898m [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 27]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 395]; Cocker1899n [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 20-21]; Cocker1900k [taxonomy: 350]; Cocker1905 [taxonomy: 46]; Cocker1905b [taxonomy: 201]; CockerPa1899 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 276]; Cohen1969 [biological control, economic importance: 769-772]; ColonFMe1998 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 46-47]; Colvee1880 [taxonomy: 39]; Colvee1881 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 16,39]; Colvee1882 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 12-14]; Compto1924 [chemical control: 222-225]; Comsto1881a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 301-303]; Comsto1883 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 63,72-79,83,89]; Comsto1916a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 537]; CoronaRuMo1997 [host, distribution: 38-41]; CostaL1949 [host, distribution, biological control: 65-87]; Costan1938 [host, distribution: 25-44]; Costan1956a [host, distribution, economic importance: 74-79]; Cotte1912 [host, distribution: 81]; Coutin1997 [host, distribution: 1-4]; Crouze1971 [biological control: 200]; Crouze1973 [host, distribution, biological control: 15-39]; CuiHa1987 [host, distribution, life history: 332-335]; CulikMaVe2008 [host, distribution: 1-6]; Curtis1843d [taxonomy, host, distribution: 588]; DahmsSm1994 [host, distribution, biological control: 245-255]; Danzig1964 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 651]; Danzig1972 [taxonomy, host, distribution, economic importance: 208]; Danzig1977 [taxonomy: 101]; Danzig1993 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 144-147]; Danzig1995 [taxonomy, life history, structure: 19-24]; DanzigKo1990 [host, distribution: 46]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 190-193]; DarvasFaKo1985 [chemical control: 347-350]; DarvasVi1983 [chemical control: 455-463]; DavidsDiFl1991 [chemical control: 1-47]; DavidsMi1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 603-632]; DeBach1958 [host, distribution, biological control, ecology: 187-194]; DeBach1958b [host, distribution, ecology: 187-194]; DeBach1964 [biological control]; DeBach1964d [biological control: 5-18]; DeBach1969 [biological control: 801-815]; DeBach1971 [biological control: 293-307]; DeBach1974 [biological control]; DeBachAr1967 [host, distribution, biological control: 325-342]; DeBachFi1956 [taxonomy, life history: 235-239]; DeBachRo1976a [host, distribution, biological control: 541-545]; DeBachRo1991 [biological control]; DeBachRoRo1978 [host, distribution, biological control, life history: 102-112]; DeBachWh1960 [life history, biological control: 4-58]; DEDAC1923 [host, distribution]; DeitzTo1980 [taxonomy: 33,34,36,42]; Dekle1965c [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 28]; Dekle1976 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, economic importance: 42]; DelGue1906 [host, distribution : 257-263]; DeLott1967a [host, distribution: 113]; DeLottNa1955 [host, distribution: 53-60]; DeSant1941a [host, distribution, biological control: 21-24]; DeSant1979 [biological control]; DeStef1910 [host, distribution: 189-196]; DietzMo1916 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 296-297]; DietzMo1916a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 296-297]; Doane1931 [host, distribution, control]; Dougla1912 [taxonomy: 203]; Dowson1935 [host, distribution: 225]; Drea1990 [biological control: 51-59]; DreistClFl1994 [taxonomy, life history, economic importance, control]; Dunkel1999 [chemistry, life history, chemical ecology: 251-276]; DymockHo1996 [host, distribution: 249-257]; Dziedz1989 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 98-99]; Ebelin1949 [host, distribution, life history, control]; Ebelin1975 [host, distribution, economic importance]; EbelinPe1953 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-35]; EdwardCaPo2008 [molecular biology, molecular data: 1944-1949]; EHG1897 [host, distribution: 67-85]; Ehrhor1913 [host, distribution: 101]; EinhorGuDu1998 [chemistry, life history, physiology, chemical ecology: 9867-9871]; ElirazRo1978 [biological control: 96-101]; ElirazRo1978 [host, distribution, biological control, life history: 77-95]; ElMinsElHa1974 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 223-232]; ErichsSaHa1991 [biological control: 493-498]; ErlerTu2001 [host, distribution, biological control: 299-305]; EtzelLe1999 [biological control: 125-197]; Evans1943 [host, distribution, taxonomy, chemical control]; EvansPr1990 [biological control: 3-17]; EvansWaMi2009 [taxonomy: 63-67]; Ezzat1958 [distribution: 241]; EzzatAf1966 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 374-377]; EzzatNa1987 [distribution: 86]; Fawcet1948 [biological control: 627]; Fawcet1948 [biological control: 627-664]; Felt1901 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, biological control, chemical control : 333-334]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 253,254,258,260-268,]; Ferrie1927 [biological control: 55-67]; Ferris1920b [host, distribution: 51]; Ferris1937c [taxonomy, illustration: 50,62]; Ferris1938a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 192]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 40-49,54-57]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 445:5;446:30]; Ferris1946 [taxonomy: 43]; Figuer1946 [host, distribution: 209]; Figuer1952 [host, distribution: 208]; FinneyFi1964 [biological control: 328-355]; FisherDe1976 [biological control: 43-50]; Fjeldd1996 [host, distribution: 4-24]; Flande1971 [biological control, life history: 857-872]; Flesch1960 [biological control: 183-208]; Foldi1990 [structure: 43-54]; Foldi2000 [host, distribution: 82]; Foldi2001 [distribution: 303-308]; Foldi2002 [host, distribution: 246]; Foldi2003 [host, distribution: 151]; FoldiSo1989 [host, distribution: 411]; FoxWil1939 [host, distribution, economic importance: 2296]; FrancoRuMa2011 [distribution: 8,23]; Frogga1914 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 133,136,314,315]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 10,13,18,22]; FrohliRo1970 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-10]; Fullaw1932 [taxonomy: 97,107]; Fuller1897c [host, distribution: 3]; Fuller1897c [host, distribution: 4]; Fuller1907 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, economic importance, control: 1031-1055]; Gabrit1923 [life history, structure, physiology: 295-332]; Gahan1925 [host, distribution, biological control: 1-23]; Gaprin1954 [biological control: 587-597]; Gaprin1956 [host, distribution: 103-137]; Garcia1916 [host: 776-788]; Garcia1922 [host, distribution, biological control: 196-200]; Garcia1930 [host, distribution, biological control]; Gavalo1931 [host, distribution: 7]; Gavalo1936 [host, distribution: 78-79]; Gentry1965 [host, distribution, economic importance ]; Germai2011 [distribution, economic importance: 31-34]; Germai2011a [distribution, economic importance: 8]; GermaiMa2005 [host, distribution: 32]; GermaiMaPi2002 [host, distribution: 255]; Gerson1990 [taxonomy, structure, life history: 130-132]; GersonHa1979 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 281-283]; GersonOcHo1990 [biological control: 77-97]; GersonZo1973 [taxonomy, life history, host, distribution, economic importance: 513-533]; Ghauri1962 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 65,211]; Gianno1942 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 214-216]; GibsonRo1922 [host, distribution: 1]; Gill1997 [host, distribution, taxonomy, description, illustration, economic importance: 65,67,68]; GomesCRe1947 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 66]; Gomez1936 [host, distribution: 42-43]; GomezC1950 [host, distribution, biological control, economic importance: 1-18]; GomezM1937 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 47-53]; GomezM1946 [host, distribution: 61]; GomezM1948 [host, distribution: 74]; GomezM1954 [host, distribution: 119]; GomezM1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, biological control: 8-12]; GomezM1956b [host, distribution: 482]; GomezM1957 [host, distribution: 39-40]; GomezM1958c [host, distribution: 406]; GomezM1960O [host, distribution: 158]; GomezM1962 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 158-162]; GomezM1965 [host, distribution: 88]; GomezM1967O [host, distribution: 131]; GomezM1968 [host, distribution: 541]; Gonzal1986 [host, distribution, economic importance: 23]; Gonzal1989 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, economic importance: 94]; Gonzal1989a [life history, economic importance, chemical control, host, distribution: 35-43]; GonzalCh1968 [distribution: 110]; GonzalCu1994 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance, chemical control: 5-20]; GonzalRo1967 [biological control, distribution: 138]; GonzalVo2004 [host, distribution: 41-62]; Gordh1979 [biological control: 893-896,900,907,911,]; Gowdey1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 29]; GranarCl2003 [host, distribution: 625-637]; Greath1976 [biological control, economic importance]; GreaveToWi1992 [host, distribution, chemical control: 79-83]; Green1896 [host, distribution: 4]; Green1915d [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 50]; Green1916 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 29]; Green1923b [host, distribution: 89]; Green1925b [host, distribution: 518]; Green1928 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 8]; Green1929 [host, distribution: 377]; Green1930b [host, distribution: 214]; GreenMa1907 [taxonomy, distribution: 344]; GroveDeDa2013 [distribution, host: 378]; GruwelMoNo2007 [taxonomy, endosymbionts: 267-280]; GruwelVoPa2005 [taxonomy, endosymbionts: 79-114]; GutierPi2007 [biological control, ecology, life history, host, distribution: 70-83]; HaberMi2007 [host, distribution: 148-149]; Hadzib1957a [host, distribution: 102]; Hadzib1983 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history, biological control, economic importance: 218-219]; Hall1922 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 26-27]; Hall1923 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 19,43]; Hall1924a [host, distribution, economic importance: 11]; Hall1928 [host, distribution: 274]; HallFo1933 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-55]; HardieMi1999 [chemistry, life history]; HareMo1997 [host, distribution, biological control: 207-214]; Hariri1971 [distribution: 48]; HaseyOlVa1999 [host, distribution, control]; HaseyOlVa2002 [control: 3449]; HattinSa1992 [life history, biological control: 327-334]; HattinSa1993 [life history, biological control: 13-20]; Haywar1939 [host, distribution, control: 1]; Haywar1944 [host, distribution: 1-32]; HeimpeRo1995 [host, life history, biological control: 153-167]; Hellen1921 [host, distribution: 120-128]; Hender2001a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 89-90]; Hender2011 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 10-14,24,28,222-224]; HenderSuRo2010 [host, distribution: 14-15]; Herric1911 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 10,16-17,50]; Herric1925 [host, distribution, description, life history, economic importance]; Hill1989a [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 177-182]; Hofer1903 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 479]; Hollin1923 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 7,12,68]; Holzap1932 [host, distribution: 325]; HondaLu1995 [life history, biological control: 441-450]; Hosny1939 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 14-15]; HouckOc1996 [life history, ecology, biological control: 667-682]; Houser1918 [host, distribution: 166-167]; Housto1991 [host, distribution, biological control: 341-342]; Howard1898b [biological control: 133-139]; Howard1907 [host, distribution, biological control: 69-88]; Howard1908 [host, distribution: 265-277]; HowellTi1990 [taxonomy, structure, description, illustration: 30]; HoyHe1985 [biological control]; HoyHe1985 [biological control]; Hsu1935 [host, distribution: 578-590]; Huffak1990 [biological control: 205-220]; Hunter1899 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 11-12]; Inserr1966 [biological control: 176-186]; Inserr1970a [host, distribution, biological control: 39-45]; Iperti1961 [economic importance: 14-30]; IzraylGe1993 [host, distribution, biological control: 861-875]; IzraylGe1993a [host, distribution, biological control: 877-888]; IzraylGe1995 [host, distribution, biological control: 439-446]; IzraylGe1995b [host, distribution, biological control: 235-240]; IzraylGeHa1996 [life history, ecology, biological control: 390-395]; IzraylHaGe1995 [life history, ecology, biological control: 138-145]; JamiesDoCa2002 [host, distribution: 354-360]; Jancke1955 [taxonomy: 304]; Janezi1954 [host, distribution: 123]; Jannon1940 [host, distribution: 241-253]; JaszaiDa1983 [chemical control: 198-202]; JiYa1990 [biological control: 134-136]; John1930 [host, distribution: 3-7]; Jorgen1934 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 279]; Jourdh1979 [biological control: 75-79]; KaracaSeCo1998 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 23]; KaracaSeCo2001 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history, biological control: 407-412]; KaracaUy1993 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 217-224]; Katsoy1992 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control]; Kaussa1955 [host, distribution: 15]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 227]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 94]; King1899d [taxonomy: 255]; King1899h [host, distribution: 350]; KingLe1984 [biological control: 1]; KingMo1984 [biological control: 206-222]; Kiritc1932a [taxonomy: 245]; Koebel1893 [host, distribution, biological control: 1-39]; Koehle1964 [host, distribution, control]; Komosi1964 [host, distribution, taxonomy, description, illustration: 212-214]; Kondo2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 43]; KondoKa1995a [host, distribution: 97-98]; Konsta1976 [host, distribution, economic importance: 49-50]; Korone1934 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 3-6]; Koszta1996 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 429-431]; Koteja1990b [life history, structure, anatomy: 233-242]; Koteja1990c [life history: 243-254]; Kozar1990a [life history, economic importance: 341-347]; KozarHi1996 [host, distribution: 91-96]; KozarKi1979 [host, distribution: 246-250]; KozarKoFe2013 [distribution, taxonomy: 54]; Krassi1893 [life history: 69-76]; KreiteAuGe2006 [distribution, economic importance, host: 143]; Ksiazk1980 [structure, anatomy: 149-157]; Ksiazk1984 [structure, anatomy: 1-6]; Kuwana1917a [taxonomy, distribution: 174]; Kuwana1933 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 10-11]; Lagows1995 [biological control: 5-10]; LagowsFi1995 [host, distribution: 375-378]; Laing1929 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 23]; Laing1933 [host, distribution: 676]; Laport1948 [host, distribution, biological control: 35-37]; Larew1990 [ecology, life history, structure: 293-300]; Lawson1917 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 217,223-224]; LenterDe1981 [life history, biological control: 504-532]; Leonar1897 [taxonomy: 285]; Leonar1898c [taxonomy, description, illustration: 71-77]; Leonar1914 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 198-199]; Leonar1920 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 31-35]; Lepage1938 [catalogue: 395]; Lepesm1947 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history, biological control: 185-189]; Lidget1902 [host, distribution: 43-45]; Lindbl1938 [host, distribution: 1]; Lindin1909a [taxonomy: 324]; Lindin1909b [host, distribution: 150-151]; Lindin1909c [taxonomy, host, distribution: 449]; Lindin1912b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 50,55,58,63,68,]; Lindin1913a [host, distribution: 346]; Lindin1913b [taxonomy: 97]; Lindin1924 [taxonomy: 174]; Lindin1931 [taxonomy: 114]; Lindin1935 [taxonomy: 128]; Lindin1939 [host, distribution: 37]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 545,546]; Lintne1895 [host, distribution: 263-305]; Liotta1970 [host, distribution, economic importance: 33]; Liotta1974 [host, distribution, biological control: 175-186]; Liotta1974a [biological control, chemical control: 187-194]; Liotta1974b [biological control: 83-88]; Liotta1980 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 695-699]; LiottaBiLo1985 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 591-598]; LiottaBuMo1985 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 833-840]; LiottaMa1974 [chemical control: 207-213]; LiottaMiRa1977 [host, economic importance: 29-67]; Lloren1990 [taxonomy, illustration, life history, host, distribution, biological control, life history: 51-60]; LoBl1989 [host, distribution: 1-4]; LoganTh2002 [life history, ecology, biological control: 361-367]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 125]; LongoMaRu1995a [host, distribution: 126-129]; LoPintLoPe2002 [life history, biological control, chemical ecology: 1-6]; Lounsb1898 [host, distribution: 35-58]; Lounsb1906 [host, distribution: 80-91]; Lounsb1914 [host, distribution: 1]; Lozzia1985 [host, distribution: 122-124]; LuckUy1986 [life history, chemistry, biological control: 129-136]; Lugger1900 [host, distribution: 208-245]; Lupo1948 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 139-145]; Lyne1921 [distribution: 146-148]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description: 395,398,400,402]; MagsigMoWa2010 [life history, physiology, ecology: 1172-1179]; MalleaMaGa1972 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 101-108]; MalleaMaGa1974 [host, distribution, life history: 145-147]; Malump2011a [distribution, host, illustration: 56-58]; MalumpKa2011a [distribution, host, illustration: 57,58]; Mamet1954 [taxonomy: 52]; MansouMkGr2011 [distribution, economic importance: 315-322]; Mark1877 [structure, anatomy,: 31-81]; Marlat1903 [host, distribution, taxonomy, economic importance, control: 25]; Martel1913 [chemical control: 1-28]; Martin1958 [host, distribution, economic importance: 120-123]; Martin1983 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 61]; Martor1976 [host, distribution: 63]; Maskel1879 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 197-199]; Maskel1882 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 217]; Maskel1884 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 121]; Maskel1885a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 21]; Maskel1887 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 43]; Maskel1887a [taxonomy: 40,44]; Masten2007 [host, distribution, taxonomy: 1-242]; Matile1984c [host, distribution: 221]; MatileEt2006 [host, distribution: 169]; MatileOr2001 [host, distribution: 189]; MatilePe2002 [host, distribution: 356]; Matta1979 [host, distribution, biological control: 231-242]; MayneGh1934 [host, distribution: 3-38]; MazzeoSuRu2008 [host, distribution: 149-152]; McClur1990a [taxonomy, host, distribution, ecology: 165-168]; McClur1990c [taxonomy, host, distribution, ecology: 289-291]; McClur1990d [host: 301-303]; McClur1990f [taxonomy, host, distribution, ecology: 315-318]; McClur1990g [taxonomy, host, distribution, ecology: 319-330]; McDani1968 [taxonomy, illustration, host, distribution: 218-219]; McKenz1935 [host, distribution, life history, control: 1-48]; McKenz1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 24,47-49]; Melis1930 [distribution: 81]; Melis1949 [host, distribution: 17-25]; Merkel1938 [host, distribution: 88-99]; Merril1953 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 20-21]; MerrilCh1923 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, economic importance: 201-202]; MessenVa1971 [biological control: 68-92]; MessenWiWh1976 [biological control: 209]; MetcalMe1993 [economic importance, host, distribution, control]; Metsch1866 [life history, structure: 389-500]; Michel1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 38-40]; MillerDa1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 300]; MillerDa1998 [taxonomy: 197]; MillerDa2005 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, economic importance: 78-81]; Moghad2004 [taxonomy, host, distributionn: 11]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 17]; MohammGh2008 [distribution: 150]; MonastZa1960 [host, distribution: 169-236]; Monte1930 [host, distribution: 3-36]; Morgan1888b [taxonomy, description: 118-120]; Morgan1889a [taxonomy: 350]; MorrisKi1977 [host, biological control: 183-217]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy: 17]; MorseGrCl2005 [taxonomy, phylogeny, molecular data: 79-94]; MorseNo2006 [molecular biology, phylogeny: 338-349]; MouradMeFa2001 [host, distribution: 571-580]; Muntin1969 [host, distribution: 121]; Muntin1971a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 313]; Murray1871 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 342]; MyartsRu2000 [distribution, biological control: 7-33]; Myers1925 [taxonomy, description: 164-167]; NagarkSa1990 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 553-542]; Nakaha1982 [host, distribution: 14]; Nel1933 [taxonomy: 418]; NeuensMiAl1977 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 418-427]; Newste1897a [host, distribution: 93-94]; Newste1901b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 120-124]; Newste1911 [distribution: 85]; Newste1911a [host, distribution: 168]; Nonell1932 [host, distribution: 183-190]; Nonell1935 [host, distribution: 281-287]; NourElRi1970 [host, distribution: 123-127]; NSWDAE1963 [host, distribution, taxonomy, economic importance]; Nur1990b [taxonomy, life history: 191-197]; OrdoghTa1983 [chemical control: 417-419]; Paglia1929 [host, distribution, economic importance: 274-307]; Paglia1929 [host, distribution: 274]; Paik1972 [host, distribution: 1-4]; PalmerMo1990 [biological control: 67-76]; Paoli1915 [host, distribution: 259]; Peleka1962 [host, distribution: 62]; Peleka1974 [host, distribution, biological control: 14-20]; Pelliz2011 [distribution: 311]; PellizPoSe2011 [distribution, host: 295,297]; Penzig1887 [host, distribution: 3]; PeralL1968 [biological control: 22-29]; PeralL1968 [host, biological control: 22-29]; PerezG2008 [distribution: 214]; PeriCoSa2002 [chemistry, chemical ecology, physiology: 1-5]; PeriLoRa2004 [chemical ecology: 317-321]; PetschBoGu2000 [chemistry: 1691-1695]; PetschPaBo1999 [chemistry: 3299-3309]; PicartMa2000 [host, distribution: 44-46]; PietriBiCo1969 [chemical control: 909-915]; PietriBiCo1969 [chemical control: 909-915]; Pizzam1977 [host, distribution, life history, ecology, biological control: 1-96]; PolaszAbHu1999 [host, distribution, biological control: 131-163]; Porcel1995 [structure: 25-45]; Poutie1928 [biological control: 267-270]; PriesnHo1940 [biological control: 58-70]; Prinsl1983 [distribution, biological control: 26]; Priore1964 [host, distribution: 131-178]; Priore1965 [host, distribution: 101-145]; Proven2002 [taxonomy: 512]; ProvenMoWe2005 [taxonomy, phylogeny, molecular data: 629-635]; Pulsel1927 [biological control: 300-327]; Quayle1911d [host, distribution, description, economic importance, life history, biological control: 443-512]; Quedna1964b [biological control: 86-116]; Quilis1935 [life history, ecology: 621-633]; QuirogArAr1991 [host, distribution: 469-472]; RagusaRu1989 [host, distribution: 71-74]; Reh1903 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 466]; RobbCoBe2001 [host, distribution, taxonomy, control]; RochaSiMi2006 [life history: 363-368]; Rose1990b [biological control: 437]; Rose1990c [distribution, economic importance: 535-542]; Rose1990d [host, biological control, economic importance: 357-365]; RosenDe1979 [host, distribution, biological control: 262-268,349-354,]; RosenhRo1991 [life history, biological control: 873-893]; RosenhRo1992 [life history, biological control: 263-272]; RossHaOk2012 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 199]; RothscEuRe1973 [chemistry, biological control: 89-90]; RSEA1915 [host, distribution, description, life history, economic importance, control: 1]; Rubtso1949 [biological control: 74-75]; Rubtso1952a [biological control: 96-106]; RugmanAnMo2010 [taxonomy, phylogenetics, molecular data: 30-38]; Ruhl1913 [host, distribution: 79-80]; Rungs1952 [host, distribution: 71]; Rungs1970 [host, distribution, economic importance: 92]; Russo1956 [host, distribution: 181-190]; Russo1959 [economic importance, chemical control: 8-9]; Ruther1915a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 111]; Saakya1954 [host, distribution, economic importance]; Saba1978 [chemical control: 443-446]; SaighiDoBi2005 [host, distribution: 429-433]; SalamaHa1974a [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 138-139]; Salaza1989 [host, distribution]; SalazaSo1990 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 135-137]; SamwayMa1983 [biological control: 4-6]; Sander1904a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 55,62]; SandsVa2003 [host, biological control: 41-53]; SantosGr2005 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 6-9]; Sassce1915 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 33]; Savesc1982 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, biological control: 303-304]; ScheurRu1974 [chemical control: 218-222]; Schind1922 [host, distribution, economic importance: 138-139]; SchlinDo1964 [taxonomy, biological control: 247-280]; Schmid1883 [life history, anatomy, structure: 169-200]; Schmut1952 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 567]; Schmut1957a [host, distribution: 134,135]; Schmut1957b [taxonomy: 148]; Schmut1959 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 49]; SchmutKlLu1957 [host, distribution, economic importance: 476]; Schrad1929a [taxonomy, life history: 232-236]; SchuhMo1948 [host, distribution, control]; Scott1984a [host, distribution: 11-31]; Seabra1930 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 134-135]; Seabra1930a [host, distribution: 143-148]; Seabra1941 [distribution: 8]; Seljak2010 [host, distribution: 107]; SengonUyKa1998 [host, distribution, biological control: 128-131]; Shalab1961 [host, distribution: 23]; Shen1993 [host, distribution: 58]; ShiLi1991 [host, distribution: 165]; Shoema1980 [host, distribution, biological control, chemical control: 26-49]; ShoemaHuKe1978 [biological control: 16-17]; SibbetVaFe2000 [host, distribution, control]; Siddiq1981 [economic importance, host, distribution: 172-180]; Signor1869 [taxonomy: 842-846,851-862,872,]; Signor1869b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 114-129,132-134]; Signor1877 [taxonomy: 601,621-622,663]; SilvaBuCh2004 [life history, biological control: 667-672]; SilvaMiBu2004 [biological control: 1321-1325]; Silves1902 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 98]; Silves1921 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-11]; Smirno1950a [biological control: 190-194]; Smirno1952 [host, distribution, biological control: 63-69]; SmithFrPa1996 [biological control]; SmithSmSm1998 [biological control, chemical control: 136-139]; SouissPa1999 [host, distribution, life history: 87-92]; Staffo1915 [taxonomy, structure: 72]; Statha2000 [life history, biological control: 203-211]; Statha2000a [life history, biological control: 439-451]; Statha2001b [life history, biological control: 113-116]; StathaEl2001 [host, distribution, biological control: 125-133]; StathaKoBo2005 [biological control: 147-155]; StavraArYa1979 [host, distribution, biological control: 574-577]; Steine1987 [host, distribution, description, economic importance, control: 1-6]; Steini1938 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 160-163]; Steinw1948 [host, distribution, taxonomy, chemical control: 105-111]; StevenMcBl1997 [chemical control: 288-292]; StevenRe1999 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control, chemical control: 345-354]; StevenVaGo1997 [host, distribution: 773-777]; StoetzDa1974 [taxonomy, life history: 138-140]; StoetzDa1974a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 494-495]; Swirsk1976b [host, distribution, economic importance: 555-559]; Swirsk1989 [biological control: 11-44]; SwirskAr1971 [host, distribution: 12-15]; SwirskWyIz2002 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history, economic importance, biological control: 102-103]; SzklarBi1995 [anatomy, structure: 23-29]; Szulcz1926 [host, distribution: 137-143]; TachikVa1969 [host, distribution, biological control: 535-540]; Talhou1950 [host, distribution, economic importance: 133-141]; Talhou1969 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 106-107]; Talhou1975 [economic importance: 25]; Talhou2002 [host, distribution, economic importance: 90-91]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 73-74]; Targio1867 [taxonomy: 13]; Targio1868 [taxonomy: 736]; Targio1881 [taxonomy: 150]; Targio1884 [taxonomy: 389-390]; Terezn1986 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 89-90]; ThiemGe1934a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 130-158,208-238]; Timber1924 [host, distribution, biological control]; Tomkin1992 [chemical control: 151-155]; TomkinAlTh1997 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 791-795]; TomkinGrWi1992 [chemical control: 146-150]; TomkinGrWi1996 [chemical control: 12-16]; TomkinThWi1992 [host, distribution, life history: 58-63]; TomkinWiTh2000 [host, distribution, economic importance: 211-215]; TranfaVi1987a [economic importance: 215-221]; TrenchTrTo2010 [host, distribution: 114-123]; Trimbl1929 [host, distribution, economic importance, description, control: 1-21]; Trujil1942 [host, distribution, economic importance]; Tschor1939 [host, distribution: 89]; Tullgr1906 [taxonomy: 83]; TumminPeRa2006 [economic importance, life history, host, distribution: 251-254]; Tuncyu1970 [host, distribution, economic importance: 30-52]; Tuncyu1976 [host, distribution, biological control: 32-45]; UlgentCa2004 [host, distribution: 79-84]; UlgentCaKa2004 [host, distribution: 100]; UygunEl1998 [host, life history, biological control: 153-162]; UygunKaUl1995 [host, distribution, biological control: 171-183]; UygunSeEr1998 [host, distribution: 183-191]; Vacant1985a [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 749-758]; VacantGe1987 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 385-401]; Valent1963 [biological control: 6-13]; Valent1967 [biological control: 1100]; vanden1995 [host, distribution: 1-4]; VandenTe1964 [ecology, biological control: 459-488]; VanHarCoWi1990 [host, distribution: 136]; VargasRiRo2008 [description, host, distribution, life history, economic importance, biological control: 171-172]; Varshn2002 [host, distribution: 23-24]; Vayssi1913 [host, distribution: 430]; Vayssi1920 [host, distribution: 257]; Viggia1970a [host, distribution, economic importance: 50]; Viggia1978 [host, distribution, biological control: 30-38]; Viggia1981 [biological control: 37-43]; Viggia1984 [biological control: 257-276]; Viggia1987 [host, distribution, biological control: 121-123]; WaltonKrSa2009 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-6]; WeidneWa1968 [taxonomy: 173]; Wester1920 [host, distribution]; Westwo1840 [taxonomy, description, host: 118]; WhitinHoCo1998 [host, distribution, control, economic importance: 211-215]; WilliaBe2007 [taxonomy: 27-28]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 25,29,33,35]; WilliaWa1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 64-66]; Wilson1917 [host, distribution: 43-44]; WilsonGo1962 [host, distribution, economic importance, control: 41-61]; Wolff1911 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 75]; WolffCo1993 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 33-36]; WoodruBeSk1998 [distribution]; WoodwaEvEa1970 [distribution]; Woolle1990 [biological control: 167-176]; WuGrGw2008 [life history, Cardinium: 232-233]; Wysoki1977 [host, distribution: 187-188]; Yasar1995a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 53-57]; Yasnos1987 [economic importance: 228-234]; Yasnos1994 [host, distribution, biological control: 317-333]; YasnosTaCh2005 [host, distribution, biological control: 295-302]; Zagain1956 [distribution: 85-90]; Zahrad1959b [host, distribution: 60]; Zahrad1972 [host, distribution, biological control: 432]; Zahrad1977 [taxonomy, distribution: 119]; Zahrad1990 [host, distribution, description: 640-641]; Zahrad1990a [host, distribution, description: 649]; Zahrad1990b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 80-83]; ZchoriBePo2005 [endosymbionts, Cardinium: 211-221]; Zimmer1948 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 355-356].



Aspidiotus niger Signoret

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus niger Signoret, 1869: 862. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus niger Signoret, 1869c: 130. Type data: FRANCE: Paris, on banks of the Seine, on "saule" [=Salix]. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Vienna: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria. Described: female. Illust.

Aspidiotus (Diaspidiotus) niger; Cockerell, 1897i: 19. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus niger; Borchsenius, 1966: 369. Revived combination.



HOST: Salicaceae: Salix [Signor1869b].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: France [Signor1869b].

STRUCTURE: Female scale circular, brownish, with a yellow central point; male scale elongate (Signoret, 1869c: 130).

SYSTEMATICS: Ferris (1941e: 46) regarded this species as "indeterminate, but not Aspidiotus". Borchsenius (1966) listed this species among the species incertae sedis, whereas Leonardi (1900: 305), regarded Aspidiotus niger Signoret, 1869c, a synonym of Diaspidiotus distinctus Leonardi, 1900. The original description of Aspidiotus niger Signoret definitely validated the species, and here it is retained in Aspidiotus.

KEYS: Balachowsky 1958b: 258 (female) [Africa].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 225-226]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 369-370]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 333]; Cocker1897i [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 19]; Comsto1883 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 79-80]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 46]; Ferris1943a [taxonomy: 86]; Signor1869 [taxonomy: 862]; Signor1869b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 130].



Aspidiotus ophiopogonus Kuwana in Kuwana & Muramatsu

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus ophiopogonus Kuwana in Kuwana & Muramatsu, 1932a: 96. Type data: JAPAN: Oita, on Ophiopogon japonica. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Ibaraki-ken: Insect Taxonomy Laboratory, National Institute of Agricultural Environmental Sciences, Kannon-dai, Yatabe, Tsukuba-shi, (Kuwana), Japan. Described: female. Illust.

Aspidiotus pavlovskii Borchsenius, 1955b: 247. Type data: NORTH KOREA: South Hamgen, at Sea of Japan coast, near Tezo, between Hamhin and Pukchen, on Festuca sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Borchsenius, 1966: 266.



HOSTS: Cyperaceae: Carex [Takagi1957, Takagi1958]. Liliaceae: Ophiopogon [Takagi1958], Ophiopogon japonicus [KuwanaMu1932a, Takagi1957]. Poaceae: Festuca [Borchs1955b, Takagi1957, Takagi1958]. Polypodiaceae [Takagi1958].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Japan [KuwanaMu1932a, Takagi1958, Kawai1980] (Hokkaido [Takagi1957], Honshu [Takagi1957]); North Korea [Borchs1955b, Takagi1957].

BIOLOGY: This is a grass-infesting species, found on the leaves of the hosts.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Kuwana & Muramatsu (1932a), Borchsenius (1955b) and by Takagi (1957).

STRUCTURE: Female scale subcircular, grayish dark brown, exuviae nearly central, yellow (Kuwana & Muramatsu, 1932a). Female scale, of the junior synonym Aspidiotus pavlovskii Borchsenius, 1955, elliptical, 1.6 mm long, 0.9 mm wide; flat; light brown; exuviae brown and shiny, placed centrally (Borchsenius, 1955b).

KEYS: Danzig 1993: 140-141 (female) [Europe]; Takagi 1957: 31 (female) [Japan].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 226]; Borchs1955b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 247-249]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 266]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 193]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 46]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 227]; KuwanaMu1932a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 95-100]; Muraka1970 [host, distribution: 72]; Takagi1957 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 34-35]; Takagi1958 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 122].



Aspidiotus pacificus Williams & Watson

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus pacificus Williams & Watson, 1988: 66. Type data: SOLOMON ISLANDS: Guadalcanal, Lungga, on Cocos nucifera; collected 18.VII.1956. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Arecaceae: Cocos nucifera [WilliaWa1988].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: American Samoa [WilliaWa1988]; Solomon Islands [WilliaWa1988].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Williams & Watson (1988).

STRUCTURE: Appearance of the scale cover was unknown (Williams & Watson, 1988).

KEYS: Williams & Watson 1988: 49, 51 (female) [Tropical South Pacific].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 227]; WilliaWa1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 66-69].



Aspidiotus palmarum Bouche

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus palmarum Bouche, 1834: 17. Type data: GERMANY: Berlin, in greenhouse of Botanical Garden, on tropical palms. Syntypes, both sexes. Described: both sexes. Illust. Notes: Type material lost (Sachtleben, 1944).

Chermes palmarum; Boisduval, 1868: 281. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Aspidiotus) palmarum; Cockerell, 1897i: 30. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus palmarum; Fernald, 1903b: 260. Incorrect synonymy; discovered by Borchsenius, 1966: 370. Notes: Incorrect synonymy with Aspidiotus nerii Bouche.

Aspidiotus palmarum; Leonardi, 1920: 31. Incorrect synonymy; discovered by Borchsenius, 1966: 370. Notes: Incorrect synonymy with Aspidiotus nerii Bouche.

Diaspis palmarum; Lindinger, 1934e: 159. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus palmarum; Borchsenius, 1966: 370. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Arecaceae [Bouche1834], Chamaerops [Signor1869b].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: France [Signor1869b]; Germany [Bouche1834].

STRUCTURE: Female scale circular, about 1/2 line; flat, white. Male scale elongate, length 1/2 line; white (Bouche, 1834).

SYSTEMATICS: Aspidiotus palmarum Bouche, 1834 was synonymized with Aspidiotus nerii Bouche, by Fernald (1903b) and by Lindinger (1957), but the synonymy was rejected by Borchsenius (1966).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 227]; Blanch1840 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 215]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 370]; Bouche1834 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 17-18]; Burmei1835 [taxonomy: 69]; Cocker1893j [taxonomy: 255]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 334]; Cocker1897i [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 30]; Comsto1883 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 81]; Fernal1903b [taxonomy: 260]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 46,54]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 546]; Signor1869 [taxonomy: 863]; Signor1869b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 131-132]; Targio1892 [taxonomy: 81].



Aspidiotus pandani (Boisduval)

NOMENCLATURE:

Chermes pandani Boisduval, 1868a: 301. Type data: FRANCE: Paris, in greenhouse, on Pandanus utilis; collected by Mr. Burel. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Notes: Type material probably lost; Daniele Matile-Ferrero (1999) personal communication to Yair Ben-Dov.

Aspidiotus pandani Signoret, 1869: 863. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus pandani; Signoret, 1869b: 131. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus pandani; Cockerell, 1869b: 334. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Signoret" as author.



HOST: Pandanaceae: Pandanus utilis [Boisdu1868a, Signor1869b].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: France [Boisdu1868a, Signor1869b].

STRUCTURE: Female scale resembling a "chapeau chinois"; brown, circular or slightly oval; sharply terminating at the top in a rust-colour prominence (Boisduval, 1868a).

SYSTEMATICS: Signoret (1869: 863) referred to this species as "Signoret nov. spec.", but later (Signoret, 1869b: 131) he correctly credited the species to Boisduval (1868).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 228]; Boisdu1868a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 301]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 370]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy, distribution: 334]; Cocker1897i [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 30]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 270]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 46]; Leonar1897 [taxonomy: 285]; Signor1869 [taxonomy: 863]; Signor1869b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 131]; Varshn2002 [host, distribution: 24].



Aspidiotus paolii Balachowsky

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus paolii Balachowsky, 1956: 72. Type data: ERITREA: Asmara, on Dodonaea viscosa. Holotype female. Type depository: Tervuren: Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Section d'Entomologie, Belgium. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Sapindaceae: Dodonaea viscosa [Balach1956].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Eritrea [Balach1956].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Balachowsky (1956).

STRUCTURE: Female scale circular, convex; exuviae red orange, central, covered with white secretion; diameter 1.5-1.6 mm. Male scale oval, of similar colour (Balachowsky, 1956).

KEYS: Balachowsky 1956: 51 (female) [Africa].

CITATIONS: Balach1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 72-74]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 228]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 267].



Aspidiotus philippinensis Velasquez

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus philippinensis Velasquez, 1971: 104. Type data: PHILIPPINES: Luzon, Laguna, Luisiana, on Pandanus tectorius; collected by M.P. Mariano. Holotype. Type depository: Los Banos: Entomological Museum, Museum of Natural History, University of the Philippines at Los Banos, College, Laguna, Luzon, Philippines. Described: female.

COMMON NAMES: Pandan scale [Velasq1971]; pandan scale [Velasq1971].



HOST: Pandanaceae: Pandanus tectorius [Velasq1971].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Philippines (Luzon [Velasq1971, LitRi1993]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Velasquez (1971).

STRUCTURE: Female scale circular, slightly convex, moderately thin, soft, brown; 05-2 mm in diameter; exuviae circular, lighter than the rest of the scale. Male unknown (Velasquez, 1971).

SYSTEMATICS: Lit & Rimando (1993) discussed the status and depository of the type series.

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 228-229]; LitRi1993 [taxonomy: 163-167]; Velasq1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 104-107].



Aspidiotus phormii Signoret

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus phormii Signoret, 1869: 865. Nomen nudum. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Bremi" as author.

Aspidiotus phormii Signoret, 1869b: 130. Type data: FRANCE: Midi, locality not indicated, on leaves of Phormium tenax; collected by Mayr. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Notes: Incorrect citation of "de Breme" as author.

Aspidiotus phormii; Signoret, 1877: 671. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Brem." as author.

Aspidiotus phormii; Comstock, 1883: 80. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Breme." as author.

Aspidiotus phormii; Cockerell, 1896b: 334. Notes: Incorrect citation of "de Breme" as author.

Aspidiotus (Aspidiotus) phormii; Cockerell, 1897i: 30. Change of combination. Notes: Incorrect citation of "de Breme" as author.

Aspidiotus phormii; Fernald, 1903b: 276. Notes: Incorrect citation of " "Breme," Sign." as author.

Aspidiotus phormii; Ferris, 1941e: 47. Notes: Incorrect citation of "de Breme" as author.

Aspidiotus phormii; Ferris, 1941e: 47. Notes: Incorrect citation of "de Breme" as author.

Aspidiotus phormii; Borchsenius, 1966: 370. Notes: Correct citation of "Signoret" as author.



HOST: Agavaceae: Phormium tenax [Signor1869b].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: France [Signor1869b].

GENERAL REMARKS: The history of the nomenclature of Aspidiotus phormii Signoret, 1869, was as follows: 1. Bremy (1847) presented a general discussion on scale insects in Switzerland, using only generic names, but no species names. 2. Signoret (1868: 520) listed the above publication as by Bremi Wolff (1847), Ueber Schildlause, fait l'enumeration des especes qui se trouve en Suise. (Verhandlungen der Schweizer naturforch, Geselschaft, Schafhausen, 1847: 41-45). 3. Signoret (1869: 865) listed phormii Bremi - Aspidiotus ... Suisse. Signoret (1869b: 130) described Aspidiotus phormii (incorrectly credited to de Breme), from Phormium tenax, collected by Mayr in Midi of France. This is the original description of Aspidiotus phormii Signoret. 4. Signoret (1877: 671) listed phormii Brem. - Aspidiotus. Comstock (1883: 80) discussed Aspidiotus phormii Brem. 5. Cockerell (1896b: 334) listed Aspidiotus phormii de Breme. Fernald (1903b: 276) listed Aspidiotus phormii "Breme", Signoret. 6. Ferris (1941e) listed Aspidiotus phormii de Breme. Borchsenius (1966: 370) catalogued Aspidiotus phormii and correctly credited the authorship to Signoret.

STRUCTURE: Female scale white, circular, exuviae central; male scale elongate (Signoret, 1869b).

SYSTEMATICS:

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 229-230]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 370]; Cocker1895w [taxonomy: 8]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 334]; Cocker1897i [taxonomy, description: 30]; Comsto1883 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 80]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 276]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 47]; Lindin1912b [taxonomy: 359]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy: 387]; Signor1869 [taxonomy: 865]; Signor1869b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 130]; Signor1877 [taxonomy: 671].



Aspidiotus populi Baerensprung

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus populi Baerensprung, 1849: 167. Type data: GERMANY: Berlin, on "Pappeln" [=Populus] and "Linden" [=Tilia]. Syntypes, both sexes. Described: both sexes. Notes: Depository unknown



HOSTS: Salicaceae: Populus [Baeren1849]. Tiliaceae: Tilia [Baeren1849].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Germany [Baeren1849].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description of adult female and male by Baerensprung (1849).

STRUCTURE: Female scale circular or slightly elongate, white, with a central or subcentral 'navel'. Male scale white, parallel-sided (Baerensprung, 1849).

CITATIONS: Baeren1849 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 167]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 230]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 370]; Comsto1883 [taxonomy: 109-110]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 370]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 47]; Kaussa1955 [host, distribution: 16]; Signor1869 [taxonomy: 446].



Aspidiotus pothos Takagi

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus pothos Takagi, 1969a: 69. Type data: TAIWAN: Southeastern Tai-pei Hsien, on Pothos seemannii. Holotype female. Type depository: Sapporo: Entomological Institute, Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Japan. Described: female. Illust.

Aspidiotus potos; Danzig, 1993: 141, 143. Misspelling of species name.

Aspidiotus potos; Danzig & Pellizzari, 1998: 193. Misspelling of species name.



HOSTS: Araceae: Pothos seemannii [Takagi1969a]. Liliaceae: Ophiopogon japonicus [Danzig1993]. Theaceae: Thea [Danzig1993].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Taiwan [Takagi1969a]. Palaearctic: Georgia (Adzhar ASSR [Danzig1993]); Russia [Danzig1993].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Takagi (1969a), Chou (1985, 1986), and by Danzig (1993).

STRUCTURE: Takagi (1969) did not describe the scale cover.

KEYS: Danzig 1993: 140-141 (female) [Europe].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 230]; Chou1985 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 398-399]; Chou1986 [taxonomy, illustration: 661]; Danzig1993 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 143-144]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 193]; Takagi1969a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 68-70,100]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 120].



Aspidiotus putearius Green

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus putearius Green, 1896e: 54. Type data: SRI LANKA: Punduloya, on Strobilanthes viscosus. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Hemiberlesia putearia; Leonardi, 1897b: 131. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.

Aspidiotus (Aspidiotus) putearius; Cockerell, 1897i: 28. Change of combination.

Cryptophyllaspis putearia; MacGillivray, 1921: 427. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.

Aspidiotus (Hemiberlesia) putearius; Green, 1937: 333. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus putearius; Borchsenius, 1966: 267. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Acanthaceae: Strobilanthes [Ramakr1921a], Strobilanthes viscosus [Green1896e, Green1937].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Sri Lanka [Green1896e, Ramakr1921a, Green1937].

BIOLOGY: Forming small pits on the undersides of the leaves (Ferris, 1941e).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Green (1896e) and by Ferris (1941e).

STRUCTURE: Female scale round, flat or slightly concave, forming an operculum to the pit-like depression in which the insect rests; colour very pale brownish ochreous, semi-opaque; minutely rugose, with concentric lines of growth; exuviae central, pale yellow; second exuvia slightly concave, the first slightly convex; ventral scale obsolete, a mere powdery film lining the cavity below the insect; diameter 1.5 mm. Male scale broadly oval; similar in texture to that of the female; median area convex where it covers the insect; size 1 x 1.2mm (Green, 1896e). Colour illustration of scale cover by Green (1896e). Scale of the female round, flat or slightly concave, forming an operculum to the pit-like depression in which the insect rests; colour very pale brownish, ochreous, semiopaque.... exuviae central, pale yellow..." (Ferris, 1941e).

KEYS: Ferris 1946: 43 (female) [World]; Ferris 1941e: 61 (female) [World]; Green 1896e: 40 (female) [Sri Lanka].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 231]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 267]; Cocker1897i [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 28]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 395]; DEDAC1923 [host, distribution]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 276]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 47,58,66]; Ferris1946 [taxonomy: 43]; Green1896e [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 54-55]; Green1937 [host, distribution: 333]; Larew1990 [ecology, life history, structure: 283-300]; Leonar1897b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 119,131-132]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 427]; Ramakr1921a [host, distribution: 357]; Varshn2002 [host, distribution: 25].



Aspidiotus queenslandicus Brimblecombe

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus queenslandicus Brimblecombe, 1959: 121. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Queensland, Beenleigh, on Acronychia laevis; collected 29.v.1956. Holotype female. Type depository: Brisbane: Queensland Museum, Queensland, Australia; type no. T5692. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Rutaceae: Acronychia laevis [Brimbl1959, Muntin1971a].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Queensland [Brimbl1959, Muntin1971a]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Brimblecombe (1959) and by Munting (1971a).

STRUCTURE: Female scale circular, 2.5 mm. diameter, dark fawn in colour. Pellicles orange coloured (Brimblecombe, 1959).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 231-232]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 267]; Brimbl1959 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 121-123]; Brimbl1968 [taxonomy, illustration, host, distribution: 47]; Muntin1971a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 313-314].



Aspidiotus remaudierei Balachowsky

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus remaudierei Balachowsky, 1956: 74. Type data: NIGER: Oasis de Myrriah, 25 km from Zinder, on Psidium guajava. Holotype female. Type depository: Tervuren: Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Section d'Entomologie, Belgium. Described: female. Illust.

Aspidiotus semaudierei; Borchsenius, 1966: 417. Misspelling of species name.



HOSTS: Arecaceae: Elaeis guineensis [Balach1956]. Myrtaceae: Psidium guajava [Balach1956].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Niger [Balach1956]; Zaire [Balach1956].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Balachowsky (1956).

STRUCTURE: Female scale white, circular, slightly convex; exuviae brown, central; diameter 2.2-2.3 mm. Male scale white, oval, 1.5 mm long (Balachowsky, 1956).

KEYS: Balachowsky 1956: 52 (female) [Africa].

CITATIONS: Balach1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 74-76]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 232]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 267,417]; Muntin1971a [taxonomy: 309].



Aspidiotus rhododendri Wailes nomen nudum

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus rhododendri Wailes, 1858: 85. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus rhododendri Signoret, 1870: 109. Nomen nudum. Notes: Signoret (1870: 109) credited this Nomen Nudum to G. Wailes (1859).

Aspidiotus rhododendri Fernald, 1903b: 324. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus rhododendri Ferris, 1941e: 47. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus rhododendri Borchsenius, 1966: 376. Nomen nudum.



Aspidiotus rigidus Reyne

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus destructor rigidus Reyne, 1947: 294. Type data: INDONESIA: Sangi Island, half way between Sulawesi [=Celebes] and PHILIPPINES: Mindanao, on coconut palm [=Cocos nucifera]. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Amsterdam: Institut voor Taxonomische Zoologie, The Netherlands. Described: female.

Aspidiotus rigidus; Borchsenius, 1966: 267. Change of status.



FOES: COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Chilocorus nigritus F. [Reyne1948], Nephus luteus Sicard [Reyne1948], Telsimia nitida Chap. [Reyne1948]. HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Aphytis chrysomphali [Kalsho1981], Prospaltella aurantii How [Kalsho1981]. Encyrtidae: Comperiella unifasciata Ishii [Reyne1947], Spaniopterus sp. [Kalsho1981].

HOST: Arecaceae: Cocos nucifera [Reyne1947, Reyne1948].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Indonesia (Java [Kalsho1981], Sulawesi (=Celebes) [Reyne1947, Reyne1948, WatsonMuSh2014]); Palau [Kalsho1981]; Indonesia (Bali [Kalsho1981]). Oriental: Philippines [Kalsho1981].

BIOLOGY: Eggs develop within the female scale cover and are laid in groups of about 12. Nymphs move away and a crescent of while egg shells can be seen around the female. Females develop in 45-55 days. Very dry conditions may result in high mortality of eggs and young nymphs. (Kalshoven, 1981)

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Reyne (1947, 1948).

STRUCTURE: Female scale 1.8-2.1 mm in diameter, height 0.1-0.2 mm, more or less smoke-coloured, fibrous, sometimes with an irregular outline, caused by one or more incisions; exuviae of first and second larval stage measure 0.45 x 030 and 0.7 x 0.6 mm respectively (Reyne, 1948). Reyne (1948) also noted that in typical Aspidiotus destructor the scale is generally more transparent, less fibrous, and sometimes provided with a faint radial striation.

SYSTEMATICS: This species was first described as a subspecies of Aspidiotus destructor by Reyne (1947, 1948), who distinguished it from typical destructor mainly by biological features, as well as difference in scale structure.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: This species, that is morphologically closely related to Aspidiotus destructor is a serious pest of coconut palm in Sangi island, near Sulawesi, Indonesia (Reyne, 1947, 1948). The scale is dull skokey-white, tough and opaque. The female body is pale green or grey-green and the males are pale and bright yellow with a red thoracic band. (Kalshoven, 1981)

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 232-233]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 267]; Kalsho1981 [taxonomy, host, distribution, economic importance: 166-170]; Kalsho1981 [description, distribution, host, illustration: 168-170]; MillerDa1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 300]; Reyne1947 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 294-302]; Reyne1948 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history, economic importance, biological control: 83-123]; SchmutKlLu1957 [host, distribution, economic importance: 475]; WatsonMuSh2014 [distribution, host: 1595]; WilliaWa1988 [taxonomy: 56].



Aspidiotus riverae Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus riverae Cockerell, 1905d: 161. Type data: CHILE: Province of Arauco, on stems of Chusquea sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Comstockiella riverae; MacGillivray, 1921: 423. Change of combination.

Dycryptaspis (?) riverai; Lindinger, 1937: 184. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus riverai Lindinger, 1957: 546. Unjustified emendation.

Aspidiotus riverae; Borchsenius, 1966: 370. Revived combination.



HOST: Poaceae: Chusquea [Cocker1905d, Sander1906, ClapsWoGo2001].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Chile [Cocker1905d, Sander1906, GonzalCh1968, ClapsWoGo2001].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description of adult female by Cockerell (1905d).

STRUCTURE: Female scale about 3 mm long, oval, moderately convex, rough, grayish brown, with the large uncovered ochreous exuviae near one end (Cockerell, 1905d).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 233]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 370]; ClapsWoGo2001 [host, distribution: 241]; Cocker1905d [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 161]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 47]; GonzalCh1968 [distribution: 110]; Lindin1907a [taxonomy: 19]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 180]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 546]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 423].



Aspidiotus robiniae Targioni Tozzetti nomen nudum

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus robiniae Targioni Tozzetti, 1879a: 26. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus robiniae Lindinger, 1949: 210. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus robiniae Borchsenius, 1966: 376. Nomen nudum.



Aspidiotus ruandensis Balachowsky

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus ruandensis Balachowsky, 1955: 391. Type data: RWANDA: Nyanza territory, Gitarama, 1800 meters altitude, on Euphorbia tommingi. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Euphorbiaceae: Euphorbia tommingi [Balach1955]. Fabaceae: Cassia [MatileNo1984]. Myrtaceae: Melaleuca leucodendron [Balach1955, MatileNo1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Cameroon [Balach1956, MatileNo1984]; Guinea [Balach1956]; Rwanda [Balach1955].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Balachowsky (1955, 1956).

STRUCTURE: Female scale circular, slightly convex; colour dark brown; exuviae dark, situated centrally; secretion of second stage brown; diameter 2-2.2 mm. Male scale unknown (Balachowsky, 1956).

KEYS: Balachowsky 1956: 52 (female) [Africa].

CITATIONS: Balach1955 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 391-393]; Balach1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 76-78]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 234]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 267]; MatileNo1984 [host, distribution: 64]; Muntin1971a [taxonomy: 313].



Aspidiotus saliceti Bouche

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus saliceti Bouche, 1851: 111. Type data: GERMANY: Berlin, on twigs of Salix holosericea. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Notes: Type material lost (Sachtleben, 1944).

Mytilaspis saliceti; Targioni-Tozzetti, 1868: 737. Change of combination.

Lepidosaphes saliceti; Lindinger, 1934: 63. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus saliceti; Borchsenius, 1966: 370. Revived combination.



HOST: Salicaceae: Salix holosericea [Bouche1851].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Germany [Bouche1851].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description of male and female by Bouche (1851).

STRUCTURE: Female scale "schinkenmuschelformig", light brown with darker basis (Bouche, 1851).

SYSTEMATICS: Borchsenius (1966) listed this species among the incertae sedis species.

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 234]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 370]; Bouche1851 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 111]; Comsto1883 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 126]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 224]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 48]; Lindin1934 [taxonomy: 164]; Lindin1935 [taxonomy: 139]; Targio1868 [taxonomy: 737].



Aspidiotus selangorensis Hall & Williams

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus selangorensis Hall & Williams, 1962: 35. Type data: MALAYSIA: Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, on Adiantum fergusoni; collected 1. VI. 1926. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Adiantaceae: Adiantum fergusoni [HallWi1962].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii [Beards1965]). Oriental: Malaysia (Malaya [HallWi1962]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Hall & Williams (1962).

STRUCTURE: Characteristics of the scale were unknown to Hall & Williams (1962).

KEYS: Beardsley 1970: 508 (female) [Hawaii].

CITATIONS: Beards1965 [host, distribution: 12]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 234-235]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 267]; HallWi1962 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 35,37-38].



Aspidiotus serratus Froggatt

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus serrata Froggatt, 1914: 318. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Darling River, growing at Pera Bore, on Acacia cambagei. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Brisbane: Queensland Museum, Queensland, Australia. Described: female.

Aspidiotus serratus; Ferris, 1941e: 48. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.



HOST: Fabaceae: Acacia cambagei [Frogga1914].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Frogga1914]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description of adult female by Froggatt (1914).

STRUCTURE: Female scale almost circular, very convex; diameter about 1/35 inch; outer surface greyish brown, inner surface white; exuviae light yellow; centre of exuviae sometimes slightly depressed at apex (Froggatt, 1914).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 235]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 370]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 48]; Sassce1915 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 34].



Aspidiotus simmondsi Green & Laing in Simmonds nomen nudum

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus simmondsi Green & Laing in Simmonds, 1925: 1. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus simmondsi Ferris, 1941e: 48. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus simmondsi Lepesme, 1947: 195. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus simmondsi Borchsenius, 1966: 376. Nomen nudum.



Aspidiotus simulans De Lotto

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus simulans De Lotto, 1957: 228. Type data: KENYA: Nairobi, on leaves of Ficus vallis-choudae. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Apocynaceae: Acokanthera longiflora [DeLott1957], Acokanthera schimperi [DeLott1957], Nerium oleander [DeLott1957]. Bignoniaceae: Markhamia platycalyx [DeLott1957]. Boraginaceae: Ehretia silvatica [DeLott1957]. Canellaceae: Warburgia stuhlmanni [DeLott1957]. Celastraceae: Elaeodendron [DeLott1957, BrownDe1959], Gymnosporia [BrownDe1959]. Fabaceae: Ceratonia siliqua [DeLott1957]. Flacourtiaceae: Aberia caffra [DeLott1957]. Moraceae: Ficus vallis-choudae [DeLott1957]. Musaceae: Musa paradisiaca [DeLott1957]. Rubiaceae: Rytigynia schumannii [DeLott1957].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Kenya [DeLott1957, BrownDe1959].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by De Lotto (1957).

STRUCTURE: Scale of female extremely thin and transparent; dirty white or pale brown in colour; low convex; exuviae golden yellow, central; diameter up to 2 mm. Scale of male elongate, white, up to 1.2 mm. in length (De Lotto, 1957).

KEYS: De Lotto 1957: 228 (female) [Africa].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 235-236]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 267]; BrownDe1959 [taxonomy, host, distribution, structure, chromosome: 369-379]; DeLott1957 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 227-228]; Nur1990a [taxonomy, structure, chromosomes: 186]; Trembl1990a [anatomy, structure: 275-283].



Aspidiotus sinensis (Ferris)

NOMENCLATURE:

Temnaspidiotus sinensis Ferris, 1952a: 9. Type data: CHINA: Yunnan Province, near Kunming, at An-lin-wen-chian, on a small, undetermined grass; collected by G.F. Ferris, April 30, 1949. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Aspidiotus sinensis; Ben-Dov & German, 2003: 236. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Poaceae [Ferris1952a], Apluda [Varshn2002], Saccharum [Varshn2002], Sporobolus [Varshn2002].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: China (Yunnan [Ferris1952a]); Pakistan [Varshn2002].

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the leaves and stems (Ferris, 1952a).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ferris (1952a) and by Chou (1985, 1986).

STRUCTURE: Scale of the female white, oval, the exuvia entirely or nearly covered by secretion. Scale of the male similar to that of the female but smaller (Ferris, 1952a).

SYSTEMATICS: Temnaspidiotus sinensis Ferris, 1952 is transferred here to Aspidiotus. Dr. Sadao Takagi (in personal communication, 8 January 2003, to Yair Ben-Dov) suggested that Aspidiotus kelleyi Brain and Aspidiotus sinensis (Ferris) may belong to a separate genus, for which the name Brainaspis MacGillivray, 1921, is available.

KEYS: Chou 1985: 274 (female) [Species of China].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [taxonomy, catalogue: 236]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 272]; Chou1985 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 275]; Chou1986 [taxonomy, illustration: 666]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 362]; Ferris1952a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 9,15]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 120]; Varshn2002 [host, distribution: 40].



Aspidiotus spurcatus Signoret

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus spurcatus Signoret, 1869b: 138. Type data: FRANCE: locality not indicated, probably Paris, on Populus. Syntypes, both sexes. Type depository: Vienna: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria. Described: both sexes. Illust. Notes:

Aspidiotus (Diaspidiotus) spurcatus; Cockerell, 1897i: 19. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus spurcatus; Leonardi, 1898c: 38. Incorrect synonymy; discovered by Borchsenius, 1966: 371.

Aspidiotus spurcatus; Fernald, 1903b: 269. Incorrect synonymy; discovered by Borchsenius, 1966: 371.

Aspidiotus spurcatus; Borchsenius, 1966: 371. Revived combination.



HOST: Salicaceae: Populus [Signor1869b].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: France [Signor1869b].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female and male by Signoret (1869c).

STRUCTURE: Female scale circular, brown and light yellow in centre. Male scale elongate, brown-red (Signoret, 1869c).

SYSTEMATICS: Aspidiotus spurcatus Signoret, 1869c was synonymized with Quadraspidiotus ostreaeformis (Curtis), by Leonardi (1898c) and by Fernald (1903b), but Borchsenius (1966) regarded the former as a valid species.

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 236-237]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 225,227,231]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 371]; Chumak1961 [host, distribution, biological control: 313-338]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 333]; Cocker1897i [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 19]; Comsto1883 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 82]; Fernal1903b [taxonomy: 269]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 48]; Leonar1897 [taxonomy: 285]; Signor1869c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 138]; Smetni1991 [chemistry: 92-129].



Aspidiotus suvaensis Williams & Watson nomen nudum

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus suvaensis Williams & Watson, 1988: 17. Nomen nudum. Notes: Recorded as "Aspidiotus suvaensis Green & Laing".



Aspidiotus symplocos Ramakrishna Ayyar

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus calophylli symplocos Ramakrishna Ayyar, 1924: 340. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus calophylli symplocos Ramakrishna Ayyar, 1926: 456. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus calophylli symplocos Ramakrishna Ayyar, 1930: 27. Type data: INDIA: Coonnor, altitude 5500 feet, on Symplocos. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Notes: Depository of type material unknown.

Aspidiotus symplocos; Ferris, 1941e: 48. Change of status.

Aspidiotus symlpocos; Borchsenius, 1966: 371. Misspelling of species name.



HOST: Symplocaceae: Symplocos [Ramakr1930].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: India [Ramakr1930].

GENERAL REMARKS: This species was described for the first time, as Aspidiotus calophylli var. symplocos by Ramakrishna Ayyar (1930: 27), who referred to an earlier description ("B.J. xxviii, p. 1008" 1922). It is very likely that the latter is a reference to page 1008 in Green (1922a), in which Aspidiotus calophylli Green has been described, but not the subspecies symplocos.

STRUCTURE: Scale really white, though covered with earthly deposits (Ramakrishna Ayyar, 1930).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 237]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 371]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 48]; Ramakr1924 [taxonomy: 340]; Ramakr1926 [taxonomy: 456]; Ramakr1930 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 27].



Aspidiotus tafiranus Lindinger

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus tafiranus Lindinger, 1912b: 229. Type data: CANARY ISLANDS: Gran Canaria, on Olea europaea. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Hamburg: Zoologisches Institut und Zoologisches Museum, Universitat von Hamburg, Germany. Described: female.

Aspidioides tafiranus; MacGillivray, 1921: 406. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus tafiranus; Borchsenius, 1966: 269. Revived combination.



HOST: Oleaceae: Olea europaea [Lindin1912b].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Canary Islands [Lindin1912b].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description of adult female by Lindinger (1912b).

STRUCTURE: Female scale white or grey white, circular or slightly elongate, convex, diameter 2 mm; exuviae brown yellow, subcentral (Lindinger, 1912b).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 237-238]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 269]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 194]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 48]; Lindin1912b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 229]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 406]; Sassce1915 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 34]; WeidneWa1968 [taxonomy: 173].



Aspidiotus tangfangtehi Ben-Dov in: Ben-Dov & German

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus theae Tang, 1977: 236. Type data: CHINA: Guangxi Province, Guizhou, on bark and leaves of tea plant. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Shanxi: Entomological Institute, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, China. Described: female. Illust. Homonym of Aspidiotus theae Green, 1890; discovered by Ben-Dov & German, 2003: 238.

Aspidiotus tangfangtehi Ben-Dov in: Ben-Dov & German, 2003: 238. Replacement name for Aspidiotus theae Tang, 1977.



HOST: Theaceae: Thea sinensis [Tang1977].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: China (Guangxi (=Kwangsi) [Tang1977]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Tang (1977).

STRUCTURE: Female scale, circular, about 2.5 mm in diameter; thin; semitransparent, light yellow; exuviae subcentral. Male scale oval (Tang, 1977).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [taxonomy, catalogue: 238]; Chou1985 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 399]; Tang1977 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 236-237].



Aspidiotus taraxacus (Tang)

NOMENCLATURE:

Temnaspidiotus taraxacus Tang, 1984: 22. Type data: CHINA: Hainan Islands, on Taraxacum koksagyz. Holotype female. Type depository: Shanxi: Entomological Institute, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, China. Described: female. Illust.

Aspidiotus taraxacus; Ben-Dov & German, 2003. Change of combination.



HOST: Asteraceae: Taraxacum koksagyz [Tang1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: China (Hainan [Tang1984]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Tang (1984).

STRUCTURE: Tang (1984) did not describe the scale cover.

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [taxonomy, catalogue: 238]; Tang1984 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 22,24]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 121].



Aspidiotus targionii Del Guercio

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus targionii Del Guercio, 1894: 148. Type data: ITALY: Sicily, Messina Province, on Mespilus germanica; collected 1892. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Depository of type material unknown.



HOST: Rosaceae: Mespilus germanica [DelGue1894].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Sicily [DelGue1894].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Del Guercio (1894).

STRUCTURE: Female scale oval, white; exuviae yellow, oval, situated between center and margin (Del Guercio, 1894).

SYSTEMATICS: Del Guercio (1894) gave a detailed description with partial illustration of the adult female. Borchsenius (1966) placed this species among the incertae sedis taxa.

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 238]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 371]; DelGue1894 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 148-158]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 320]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 48]; McKenz1945 [taxonomy: 54].



Aspidiotus taverdeti Balachowsky

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus taverdeti Balachowsky, 1956: 78. Type data: CAMEROON: between Tibati and N'Gaoundâre, 100 km south of the latter, on Syzygium guineense. Holotype female. Type depository: Tervuren: Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Section d'Entomologie, Belgium. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Syzygium guineense [Balach1956].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Cameroon [Balach1956].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Balachowsky (1956).

STRUCTURE: Female scale circular, slightly convex; exuviae brown, central or subcentral; secreted part of scale white, slightly pink; diameter 2.2-2.3 mm. Male scale oval, 1.6 mm long (Balachowsky, 1956).

KEYS: Balachowsky 1956: 52 (female) [Africa].

CITATIONS: Balach1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 78-81]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 239]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 268]; Muntin1971a [taxonomy: 309].



Aspidiotus tiliae Bouche

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus tiliae Bouche, 1851: 111. Type data: GERMANY: Berlin, on twigs of Tilia sp. and Aleus sp. Syntypes, both sexes. Described: both sexes. Notes: Type material lost (Sachtleben, 1944).

Chionaspis tiliae Ferris, 1941e: 49. Notes: Although Aspidiotus tiliae has been considered a junior synonym of Chionaspis salicis (Lindinger, 1928, 1931) and as a valid species in Chionaspis (Ferris, 1941e), it remains placed as a valid species in Aspidiotus.



HOSTS: Aleus [Bouche1851]. Tiliaceae: Tilia [Bouche1851].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description of adult female and male by Bouche (1851).

STRUCTURE: Female scale elongate, narrow at base, white yellow (Bouche, 1851).

SYSTEMATICS: Leonardi (1898c: 38) and Fernald (1903b: 268) regarded Aspidiotus tiliae Bouche, 1851, a synonym of Quadraspidiotus ostreaeformis Curtis, whereas Borchsenius (1966) listed it among the species incertae sedis.

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 239]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 371]; Bouche1851 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 111]; Comsto1881a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 83]; Comsto1883 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 83]; Comsto1916a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 544]; Fernal1903b [taxonomy: 268]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 49]; Lindin1932f [taxonomy: 200]; Signor1869c [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 137].



Aspidiotus tridentifer Ferris

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus tridentifer Ferris, 1941d: 337. Type data: MEXICO: State of Oaxaca, at Chivela, on Smilax sp. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Smilacaceae: Smilax [Ferris1941d].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico (Oaxaca [Ferris1941d]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the stems of the host (Ferris, 1941d).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of adult female by Ferris (1941d, 1941e).

STRUCTURE: Scale of the adult female quite convex, roughly circular with the posterior end somewhat produced; texture thick and surface rather rough; exuviae displaced somewhat toward one side, color brown except for a whitish area over the exuvia. Scale of the male oval, white, exuvia close to one end (Ferris, 1941d).

KEYS: Ferris 1946: 43 (female) [World]; Ferris 1941e: 60 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 239-240]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 268]; Ferris1941d [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 337]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 49,60,69]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy: 446:30]; Ferris1946 [taxonomy: 43].



Aspidiotus tripinnatus Ramakrishna Ayyar nomen nudum

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus tripinnatus Ramakrishna Ayyar, 1924: 340. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus tripinnatus Ramakrishna Ayyar, 1930: 27. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus tripinnatus McKenzie, 1939: 55. Nomen nudum. Notes: McKenzie (1939) credited this name to Green.

Aspidiotus tripinnatus Ferris, 1941e: 49. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus tripinnatus Borchsenius, 1966: 377. Nomen nudum.

Aspidiotus tripinnatus Varshney, 2002: 27. Nomen nudum.



Aspidiotus undulatus Lindinger

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus undulatus Lindinger, 1909e: 20. Type data: CAMEROON: Bipinde, Urwaldgebiet, on Acioa pallescens and on Strychnos cinnabarina. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Hamburg: Zoologisches Institut und Zoologisches Museum, Universitat von Hamburg, Germany. Described: female. Illust. Notes:

Gonaspidiotus undulatus; MacGillivray, 1921: 432. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus undulatus; Borchsenius, 1966: 269. Revived combination.

Gonaspidiotus ungulatus; Borchsenius, 1966: 313. Misspelling of species name.



HOSTS: Chrysobalanaceae: Acioa pallescens [Lindin1909e]. Strychnaceae: Strychnos cinnabarina [Lindin1909e].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Cameroon [Lindin1909e].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Lindinger (1909e).

STRUCTURE: Female scale similar to that of Aspidiotus maendrius Lindinger, 1909e, but smaller (Lindinger, 1909e).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 240]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 269]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 49]; Lindin1909e [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 20-22]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 432]; McKenz1938 [taxonomy: 5]; Sassce1911 [taxonomy: 70]; Vayssi1913 [host, distribution: 431]; WeidneWa1968 [taxonomy: 174].



Aspidiotus varians Lindinger

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus varians Lindinger, 1910b: 39. Type data: MADAGASCAR: on Cocos nucifera. Syntypes. Type depository: Hamburg: Zoologisches Institut und Zoologisches Museum, Universitat von Hamburg, Germany. Illust.

Aspidiotus varianus; Borchsenius, 1966: 423. Misspelling of species name.



HOST: Arecaceae: Cocos nucifera [Lindin1910b, Mamet1943a, Borchs1966].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Madagascar [Lindin1910b, Mamet1943a, Borchs1966]; Tanzania [Lindin1910b, Borchs1966].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Lindinger (1910b).

STRUCTURE: Female scale circular, up to 2 mm in diameter, brown grey; exuviae yellow, central (Lindinger, 1910b).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 240-241]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 269]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 49]; Lepesm1947 [host, distribution: 195]; Lindin1910b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 39]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 397]; Mamet1943a [catalogue: 157]; Sassce1912 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 94]; WeidneWa1968 [taxonomy: 174].



Aspidiotus vernoniae Hall

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus vernoniae Hall, 1929: 350. Type data: ZIMBABWE: Embeza, on branches of Vernonia podocoma. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Vernonia lasiopus [Balach1956, DeLott1967a], Vernonia podocoma [Hall1929, Balach1956]. Euphorbiaceae: Cluytia lanceolata [Balach1956].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Guinea [Balach1956]; Kenya [Balach1956, DeLott1967a]; Zimbabwe [Hall1929, Balach1956].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Hall (1929) and by Balachowsky (1956).

STRUCTURE: Female scale more or less circular in outline, low convex, and pale brown in colour. Secretionary covering semi-transparent white and rather thick. Exuviae pale brown; larval exuviae with a median longitudinal carina; nymphal exuviae not apparent owing to the secretionary covering and the uniform colouration of the exuviae and secretionary area. Ventral scale thin and poorly developed, remaining adherent to the host plant. Diameter 2 mm. Male scale of normal shape, pale brown, covered with a somewhat opaque white secretionary film, which masks the pale brown colour of the exuviae and secretionary area (Hall, 1929).

KEYS: Balachowsky 1956: 51 (female) [Africa].

CITATIONS: Balach1955 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 391]; Balach1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 80-83]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 241]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 268]; DeLott1967a [host, distribution: 113]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 49]; Hall1929 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 350-351].



Aspidiotus watanabei Takagi

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus watanabei Takagi, 1969a: 67. Type data: TAIWAN: Fen-chi-hu, on Viburnum arboricolum. Holotype female. Type depository: Sapporo: Entomological Institute, Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Japan. Described: female. Illust.

Temnaspidiotus watanabei; Chou, 1985: 400. Change of combination.



HOST: Caprifoliaceae: Viburnum arboricolum [Takagi1969a].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Taiwan [Takagi1969a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Takagi (1969a) Chou (1985, 1986).

STRUCTURE: Takagi (1969a) did not describe the scale cover.

SYSTEMATICS: Takagi (1969a) noted that Aspidiotus watanabei is close to A. destructor. Williams & Watson (1988) stated that "... the range of variation of A. destructor from the South Pacific area encompasses that of A. watanabei...", but did not synonymize the latter. Danzig (1993) listed A. watanabei as a synonym of A. destructor.

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 241]; Chou1985 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 400-401]; Chou1986 [taxonomy, illustration: 667]; Takagi1969a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 67-69,99].



Aspidiotus zizyphi Hall

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus combreti zizyphi Hall, 1929: 346. Type data: ZIMBABWE: Mazoe, on smaller branches of Ziziphus jujuba; Umvukwes, on smaller branches of Acacia sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Aspidiotus combreti ziziphi; Balachowsky, 1956: 60. Misspelling of species name.

Aspidiotus zizyphi; Borchsenius, 1966: 268. Change of status.



HOSTS: Fabaceae: Acacia [Hall1929, Balach1956]. Rhamnaceae: Ziziphus jujuba [Hall1929, Balach1956].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Zimbabwe [Hall1929, Balach1956].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Hall (1929).

STRUCTURE: Female scale not so white as in Aspidiotus combreti Hall, 1928; usually dull white or dull brown owing to the incorporation of foreign matter (Hall, 1929).

CITATIONS: Balach1932f [taxonomy, host, distribution: 230-231]; Balach1956 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 60]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 242]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 268]; Hall1929 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 346-347].



Aspidonymus Brimblecombe

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidonymus Brimblecombe, 1957: 283. Type species: Aspidonymus woodwardi Brimblecombe, by monotypy and original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by Brimblecombe (1957).

SYSTEMATICS: The genus Aspidonymus resembles Pseudaonidia in having the constricted thorax and similarly shaped pygidial lobes. It differs in more slender lobes and plates, and the body is smaller and more slender in shape, the ducts are more slender and the pygidial chitinization much finer (Brimblecombe, 1957).

KEYS: Dooley & Evans 2012: 2-3 (female) [Key to the genera of armored scales in Australia similar to Protomorgania].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 242]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 240]; Brimbl1957 [taxonomy, description: 283-285]; DooleyEv2012 [taxonomy: 3]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, taxonomy: 18].



Aspidonymus woodwardi Brimblecombe

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidonymus woodwardi Brimblecombe, 1957: 284. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Queensland, Beenleigh, on Dissilaria baloghioides; collected May 1956. Holotype female. Type depository: Brisbane: Queensland Museum, Queensland, Australia; type no. T5650. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Euphorbiaceae: Dissilaria baloghioides [Brimbl1957].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Queensland [Brimbl1957]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Brimblecombe (1957).

STRUCTURE: Insects sparse on the undersurface of leaves; scale circular, 1.5 mm diameter, pale to light brown; exuviae light yellow to orange (Brimblecombe, 1957).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 242]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 240]; Brimbl1957 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 284-285]; DooleyEv2012 [illustration: 9].



Avidovaspis Gerson & Davidson

NOMENCLATURE:

Avidovaspis Gerson & Davidson, 1974: 159. Type species: Avidovaspis phoenicis Gerson & Davidson, by monotypy and original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by Gerson & Davidson (1974).

SYSTEMATICS: Avidovaspis appears to be quite close to Greenoidea, Melanaspis, Crenulaspidiotus and Pseudomelanaspis. It differs from these genera in the series of intermittent marginal ducts and plates on segment V, and the unique median paraphyses (Gerson & Davidson, 1974).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 242-243]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 202]; GersonDa1974 [taxonomy, description: 159]; KosztaBeKo1986 [taxonomy, catalogue: 3].



Avidovaspis phoenicis Gerson & Davidson

NOMENCLATURE:

Avidovaspis phoenicis Gerson & Davidson, 1974: 159. Type data: EGYPT: Sinai Peninsula, Wadi Feiran, on pinnae of date palm; collected July 17, 1968. Holotype female. Type depository: Bet Dagan: Department of Entomology, The Volcani Center, Israel. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Arecaceae: Phoenix dactylifera [GersonDa1974].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Egypt [GersonDa1974].

BIOLOGY: Male and female scales occur in large numbers on both sides of date palm pinnae, where they settle along the veins (Gerson & Davidson, 1974).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Gerson & Davidson (1974).

STRUCTURE: Female scale circular, 0.85-0.95 mm in diameter, convex, subcentral exuviae shiny black, surrounded by a grayish fluffy film. Male scale elongate about 0.9 mm long, 0.75 mm wide, exuviae subterminal, dark-brown, rest of shield brownish (Gerson & Davidson, 1974).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 243]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 202]; GersonDa1974 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 159-162].



Banahaoa Takagi

NOMENCLATURE:

Banahaoa Takagi, 2003: 99. Type species: Banahaoa bayokana Takagi, by monotypy and original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and characters by Takagi (2003).

SYSTEMATICS: Takagi (2003) assigned the genus to Aspidiotinae, while indicating its relation to Hemiberlesia and Abgrallaspis. The genus is especially characterized by the occurrence of lanceolate marginal setae on the dorsal and ventral surfaces of abd VII. Several other aspidiotine genera, namely Octaspidiotus MacGillivray, Acanthaspidiotus Borchsenius and Williams, and Oceanaspidiotus Takagi, are also provided with lanceolate or thickened marginal setae on the pygidium, but these genera are more closely similar to Aspidiotus Bouche than to Banahaoa, especially in having well-developed pectinae on abd V-IX.

CITATIONS: Takagi2003 [taxonomy, description: 99-100].



Banahaoa bayokana Takagi

NOMENCLATURE:

Banahaoa bayokana Takagi, 2003: 100. Type data: PHILIPPINES: Luzon, Quezon, Santa Lucia, at foot of Mt. Banahao, on Pterospermum celebicum; collected December 1992. Holotype female. Type depository: Los Banos: Entomological Museum, Museum of Natural History, University of the Philippines at Los Banos, College, Laguna, Luzon, Philippines; type no. 92PL-91. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Sterculiaceae: Pterospermum celebicum [Takagi2003].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Philippines (Luzon [Takagi2003]).

BIOLOGY: Females and males occurring on the lower surface of the leaves, burrowing under the tomentum; females mainly on the midrib, and males on the blade. Tests thin and white. (Takagi, 2003)

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Takagi (2003).

STRUCTURE: Adult female body obpyriform; pygidium produced, roundish on the margin. Dorsal surface ofthe pygidium sclerotic, striate longitudinally, with a sclerotized patch laterobasally on each side; ventral surface with a sclerotized area apically, and with a pair of longitudinal sclerotized bands associated with the perivulvar disc pores. Antennae situated within the frontal margin, separated from each other by a space as wide as the frame of the mouth-parts, each with a long curved seta. (Takagi, 2003)

CITATIONS: Takagi2003 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 99-100, 161].



Cephalaspidiotus Takagi

NOMENCLATURE:

Cephalaspidiotus Takagi, 2003: 100. Type species: Cephalaspidiotus palaquii Takagi, by monotypy and original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and characters by Takagi (2003).

SYSTEMATICS: The adult female of this Aspidiotine genus is characterized by the deep constriction between metathorax and the abdomen, whereas in Pseudaonidine and Selenaspidine genera, the constriction is between meso- and metathorax (Takagi, 2003).

CITATIONS: Takagi2003 [taxonomy, description: 100].



Cephalaspidiotus palaquii Takagi

NOMENCLATURE:

Cephalaspidiotus palaquii Takagi, 2003: 101. Type data: MALAYSIA: Sarawak (Borneo Is.), Taman Bako [Bako National Park], on Palaquium sp.; collected October 1991. Holotype female. Type depository: Kepong: Forest Research Institute of Malaysia, Selandgor, Malaysia; type no. 92SP-32. Described: female and first instar. Illust.



HOST: Sapotaceae: Palaquium [Takagi2003].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Malaysia (Sarawak [Takagi2003]).

BIOLOGY: Female occurring on the lower surfave of leaves, burrowing under the velevety cover of trichomes; burrow large, about 5 mm in diameter at maximum, and externally recognizable by an obscure slight swelling on the velevety cover; test rudimentary and very thin (Takagi, 2003). Male tests occurring within the maternal burrow, oblong, thin and white (Takagi, 2003). The females of form extraordinarily large burrows, in which males stay, grow, form their tests, and metamorphose into the adult stage. The burrow attains about 3-5mm across, and each may be large enough to accommodate a good number of male tests. However, it seems that the number of male offspring produced by one adult female is generally few. Furthermore, not all the examined burrows harboured male tests. Winged adult males were obtained from a few burrows. (Takagi, 2003).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female and first-instar nymph by Takagi (2003).

STRUCTURE: Adult female body robust, deeply constricted between the metathorax and abd I. Head and thorax fused to form a conspicuous mass, which is transversely oblong, broader than the abdomen, and swollen laterally to form a low tubercle on each side; abd I and II forming together a round lobe laterally; pygidium swollen marginally on its base (abd III), rather rapidly narrowing posteriorly, and rounded along a road apical margin. At maturity, the fused head and thorax become sclerotic, with some more heavily sclerotized patches on the dorsal surface; dorsal surface of the pygidium sclerotic, longitudinally striate, with sci erotized patches laterobasally; ventral surface with a pair of sclerotized bands arising from the bases of the median trullae and extending to the lateral ends of the vulva. Antennae situated between the frontal margin and the mouthparts, separated from each other by a space nearly as wide as the frame of the mouth-parts, each with a single seta. (Takagi, 2003) First-instar female and male differing greatly in the length of the legs. (Takagi, 2003)

CITATIONS: Takagi2003 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 101-102,106-108,162-].



Chentraspis Leonardi

NOMENCLATURE:

Chentraspis Leonardi, 1897: 284. Type species: Aspidiotus unilobis Maskell. Subsequently designated by Fernald, 1903b: 251.

Aspidiotus (Chentraspis); Cockerell, 1899a: 395. Change of status.

Neglectaspis Lindinger, 1937: 190. Type species: Aspidiotus unilobis Maskell, by monotypy and original designation. Synonymy by Ferris, 1937c: 51.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and definition by Leonardi (1897b), Morrison & Morrison (1922), Ferris (1937c) and by Brimblecombe (1955).

SYSTEMATICS: Chentraspis appears to be related to Aspidiotus in the absence of pygidial paraphyses, but differs in the median lobes being fused into one lobe. Morrison & Morrison (1922: 93) erroneously alleged that only Aspidiotus unilobis Maskell was included in Chentraspis at the time it was established. Actually Aspidiotus extensus Maskell was also assigned there. Lindinger (1937: 181) designated A. extensus as type species of Chentraspis, and ignored the prior designation by Leonardi (1897). Ferris (1937e: 528), Morrison & Morrison (1966: 34) and Borchsenius (1966: 303) rejected Lindinger's 1937 type selection, and maintained it as Aspidiotus unilobis Maskell.

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 243-244]; BerlesLe1898a [taxonomy: 131]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 303]; Brimbl1955 [taxonomy: 39-42]; Cocker1897i [taxonomy: 31]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 395]; Ferris1937c [taxonomy: 51,53,55]; Ferris1937e [taxonomy: 528]; Ferris1938 [taxonomy: 46]; Ferris1941f [taxonomy, description: 22-23]; Leonar1897 [taxonomy, description: 284-286]; Leonar1897b [taxonomy: 109-111]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 181,190]; Lindin1943b [taxonomy: 217]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description: 391,434]; MorrisMo1922 [taxonomy, description: 93]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 34,128-129].



Chentraspis unilobis (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus unilobis Maskell, 1895b: 40. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Mount Victoria, on Acacia sp. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Chentraspis uniloba; Leonardi, 1897: 286. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.

Aspidiotus (Chentraspis) unilobis; Cockerell, 1897i: 27. Change of combination.

Neglectaspis unilobis; Lindinger, 1937: 190. Change of combination.

Chentraspis uniloba; Brimblecombe, 1955: 39. Revived combination.

Chentraspis unilobis; Williams, 2011: 68. Justified emendation.



HOSTS: Fabaceae: Acacia [Maskel1895b, Frogga1914]. Myrtaceae: Callistemon salignus [Brimbl1955], Callistemon viminalis [Brimbl1955], Melaleuca leucadendra [Green1916e, Brimbl1955].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Maskel1895b, Frogga1914], Northern Territory [Green1916e, Brimbl1955]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female Maskell (1895b), Morrison & Morrison (1922) and by Brimblecombe (1955).

STRUCTURE: Female scale really whitish, but generally covered by so much dense black fungus that it seems black, and is very difficult to distinguish; form circular, slightly convex; exuviae orange, central, forming a minute boss; diameter about 1/20 inch. Male scale white, elongated, not carinated; length about 1/25 inch (Maskell, 1895b).

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 244]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 303]; Brimbl1955 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 39-42]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 335]; Cocker1897i [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 27]; DeitzTo1980 [taxonomy: 44]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 280]; Ferris1937c [taxonomy: 51]; Ferris1938 [taxonomy: 43]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 49]; Ferris1941f [illustration: 22]; Frogga1914 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 319]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 23]; Green1916e [host, distribution: 53]; Leonar1897 [taxonomy: 286]; Leonar1897b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 111-112]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 190]; Lobdel1937 [taxonomy: 78]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 434]; Maskel1895b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 40]; MorrisMo1922 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 93-96]; Willia2011 [taxonomy: 68].



Chinaspis Gómez-Menor Ortega

NOMENCLATURE:

Chinaspis Gómez-Menor Ortega, 1954: 122. Type species: Chinaspis vellae Gómez-Menor, by monotypy and original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and definition by Gomez-Menor Ortega (1954).

SYSTEMATICS: This genus is very close to Lindingaspis from which it differs in the absence of a thoracic tubercle (Gomez-Menor Ortega, 1954).

KEYS: Blay Goicoechea 1993: 474 (female) [Spain].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 244-245]; BlayGo1993 [taxonomy, description: 626]; Borchs1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 353]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 205]; GomezM1954 [taxonomy, description: 122-125]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 35].



Chinaspis vellae Gómez-Menor Ortega

NOMENCLATURE:

Chinaspis vellae Gómez-Menor Ortega, 1954: 123. Type data: SPAIN: Madrid province, Aranjuez, on Vella pseudocytisus. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Blay Goicoechea, 1993: 627. Type depository: Madrid: Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Spain. Described: female. Illust.

Aspidiotus vellae Gómez-Menor Ortega, 1956b: 482. Synonymy by Borchsenius, 1966: 353. Notes: Type data exactly the same as that of Chinaspis vellae Gomez-Menor Ortega, 1954.



HOST: Cruciferae: Vella pseudocytisus [GomezM1954, Martin1983, BlayGo1993].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Spain [GomezM1954, GomezM1956b, Martin1983, BlayGo1993].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Gómez-Menor Ortega (1954).

STRUCTURE: Female scale elliptical, slightly longer than wide, colour creamy white, sometimes slightly pink; convex; 0.8-0.9 mm; exuviae subcentral, white; ventral vellum fine, white (Gomez-Menor Ortega, 1954).

SYSTEMATICS: The collection data of the type series of Chinaspis vellae Gómez-Menor Ortega, 1954 and of Aspidiotus vellae Gómez-Menor Ortega, 1956b are identical.

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 245]; BlayGo1993 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 627-631]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 353-354]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 205]; GomezM1954 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 123-125]; GomezM1956b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 482-484]; GomezM1958a [host, distribution: 7]; Martin1983 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 62].



Chortinaspis Ferris

NOMENCLATURE:

Chortinaspis Ferris, 1938a: 194. Type species: Aspidiotus chortinus Ferris, by original designation.

Chortunaspis; Zeki et al., 2005: 193. Misspelling of genus name.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by Ferris (1938a), Borchsenius (1950b), Balachowsky (1948b, 1958b) and by Danzig (1993).

STRUCTURE: Female scale elongate circular, grey or black; exuvia central. Male scale: elongate oval, white or straw; exuvia apical. (Wei & Feng, 2011)

SYSTEMATICS: This genus differs from other genera of the Aspidiotina, Aspidiotinae in the lateral plates of the pygidium being long and pointed (Balachowsky, 1958b).

KEYS: Gill 1997: 24-26 (female) [Genera of California]; Danzig 1993: 176 (female) [species Europe]; Tereznikova 1986: 83 (female) [Ukraine]; Chou 1985: 260 (female) [Genera of China]; Chou 1985: 279 (female) [Species of China]; Kosztarab & Kozar 1978: 144-147 (female) [Hungary]; Danzig 1964: 645 (female) [Europe]; Balachowsky 1958b: 230 (female) [Aspidiotina of Africa]; McKenzie 1956: 23 (female) [U.S.A.: California]; Balachowsky 1951: 599 (female) [Mediterranean]; Borchsenius 1950b: 167 (female) [USSR]; Ferris 1942: 28 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1942: 30 (female) [species North America].

CITATIONS: Balach1948b [taxonomy, description: 382-383]; Balach1951 [taxonomy: 599]; Balach1958b [taxonomy, description: 160]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 245-246]; Borchs1949d [taxonomy, description: 194,238]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description: 216]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 279]; Chou1985 [taxonomy, description: 279]; Danzig1964 [taxonomy: 651]; Danzig1993 [taxonomy, description: 175-176]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 212-213]; Ferris1938 [taxonomy: 46]; Ferris1938a [taxonomy, description: 194]; Ferris1938b [taxonomy, description: 65,68]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy: 446:28]; Ferris1946 [taxonomy, description: 37-38]; Gill1997 [taxonomy: 95]; KosztaKo1978 [taxonomy, description: 154]; McKenz1956 [taxonomy: 23]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 35]; Tao1999 [taxonomy: 80]; Varshn2002 [taxonomy: 25]; WeiFe2011 [description, taxonomy: 165-166]; ZekiUlKa2005 [taxonomy: 193].



Chortinaspis bilobis (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus bilobis Maskell, 1898: 225. Type data: HONG KONG: on grass; collected by Koebele, Num. 1518. Syntypes, female and first instar. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female.

Hemiberlesia bilobis; Leonardi, 1900: 338. Change of combination.

Chortinaspis bilobis; Ferris, 1946: 38. Change of combination.

Chortinaspis biloba Borchsenius, 1966: 279. Unjustified emendation.

Chortinaspis bilobis; Williams, 2011: 68. Justified emendation.



HOSTS: Poaceae [Ferris1946], Phragmites australis [WeiFe2011], Setaria viridis [WeiFe2011].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: China (Shanghai [WeiFe2011], Zhejiang (=Chekiang) [WeiFe2011]); Hong Kong [Ferris1955c, Takagi1970]; Taiwan [Ferris1955c, Takagi1970]. Palaearctic: China [Takagi1970].

BIOLOGY: Occurring at the base of the leaves, on the rootstock and even on the roots (Ferris, 1946).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ferris (1946) and by Chou (1985, 1986).

STRUCTURE: Color of the scale very variable, apparently changing with age. In some of the specimens above the surface of the ground the scale is white, in others it is almost straw colored, while in others beneath the surface and subjected to the staining action of the soil and perhaps to fungi, the scale is black. Scale of the female quite thick and with a thick ventral portion; quite convex, irregularly circular or slightly oval. Scale of the male slightly elongate, white or straw colored (Ferris, 1946).

SYSTEMATICS: This speceis is externally similar to C. decorata, but C> biloba can be distinguished from the latter by 1) presence of 5 or 6 plates lateral to L3 (C. decorata without plates lateral to L3); and dorsal ducts irregularly distributed along the margin and submargin, but distributed in C. decorata forming 2 rows, distributed along the submargin. (Wei & Feng, 2011)

KEYS: Wei & Feng 2011: 166-167 (female, adult) [Key to species of the genus Chortinaspis all of the world (adult female)]; Chou 1985: 279 (female) [Species of China]; Ferris 1946: 41 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 246]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 279]; Chou1985 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 279-280]; Chou1986 [taxonomy, illustration: 669]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 395]; DeitzTo1980 [taxonomy: 33]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 253]; Ferris1936 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 9-10]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 41]; Ferris1946 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 38-39,45]; Ferris1955c [taxonomy, host, distribution: 32]; Leonar1900 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 338]; MartinLa2011 [distribution: 38]; Maskel1898 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 225]; PorcelPeMa2012 [structure: 320]; Takagi1958 [taxonomy: 122]; Takagi1970 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 133]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 80]; WeiFe2011 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 168, 171]; Willia2011 [taxonomy: 68].



Chortinaspis chortina (Ferris)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus chortinus Ferris, 1921: 123. Type data: MEXICO: Baja California, San Jose del Cabo, on Chaetochloa caudata. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Epidiaspis chortina; Lindinger, 1932f: 189. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.

Chortinaspis chortina; Ferris, 1938a: 195. Change of combination.

Morganella chortinus; Lindinger, 1957: 545. Change of combination.

Chortinaspis chortina; Borchsenius, 1966: 279. Revived combination.



HOST: Poaceae: Chaetochloa caudata [Ferris1921].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico (Baja California Norte [Ferris1921]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the stems (Ferris, 1938a).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ferris (1921, 1938a).

STRUCTURE: Scale of the female elongate oval, 1.5-2 mm in diameter; tapering posteriorly, brown, thick and heavy, with a thick ventral scale. Male scale similar in color but small and slender with exuvia apical (Ferris, 1921, 1938a).

KEYS: Wei & Feng 2011: 166-167 (female, adult) [Key to species of the genus Chortinaspis all of the world (adult female) ]; Ferris 1946: 41 (female) [World]; Ferris 1942: 31 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 247]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 279]; Ferris1921 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 123-124]; Ferris1938a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 195]; Ferris1938b [taxonomy: 65,68]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy: 446:31]; Ferris1946 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 39,41]; Laing1929a [taxonomy: 487]; Lindin1932f [taxonomy: 189]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 545]; PorcelPeMa2012 [host: 320]; WeiFe2011 [distribution, taxonomy: 165-167].



Chortinaspis consolidata Ferris

NOMENCLATURE:

Chortinaspis consolidata Ferris, 1941d: 338. Type data: U.S.A.: California, San Bernandino County, near Old Woman Springs, on a grass Hilaria rigida. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

COMMON NAME: grass scale [McKenz1956].



HOSTS: Poaceae: Hilaria [Ferris1946, McKenz1956], Hilaria rigida [Ferris1941d, McKenz1956].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Arizona [Ferris1946], California [Ferris1941d, McKenz1956]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the stems, concealed beneath the coating of tomentum (Ferris, 1941d).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ferris (1941d), McKenzie (1956) and by Gill (1997).

STRUCTURE: Scale of the female white, somewhat convex, oval, with the exuviae toward one end, ventral scale thin. Scale of the male white, elongate, with the exuvia apical (Ferris, 1941d).

KEYS: McKenzie 1956: 24 (female) [U.S.A.: California]; Ferris 1946: 41 (female) [World]; Ferris 1942: 30 (female) [North America ].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 247-248]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 279]; Ferris1941d [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 338]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy: 446:30]; Ferris1946 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 39]; Gill1997 [host, distribution, taxonomy, description, illustration, economic importance: 94-95]; McKenz1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 50-51]; Nakaha1982 [host, distribution: 21]; WeiFe2011 [distribution: 165].



Chortinaspis cottami McDaniel

NOMENCLATURE:

Chortinaspis cottami McDaniel, 1968: 221. Type data: U.S.A.: Texas, San Patricio Co., on Stenotaphrum secundatum. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae: Stenotaphrum secundatum [McDani1968].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Texas [McDani1968]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by McDaniel (1968).

STRUCTURE: McDaniel (1968) did not describe the scale cover.

KEYS: Wei & Feng 2011: 166-167 (female, adult) [Key to species of the genus Chortinaspis all of the world (adult female)]; McDaniel 1968: 221 (female) [U.S.A.: Texas].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 248]; McDani1968 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 221-223]; Nakaha1982 [host, distribution: 21]; WeiFe2011 [distribution, taxonomy: 165-167].



Chortinaspis decorata Ferris

NOMENCLATURE:

Chortinaspis decorata Ferris, 1952a: 8. Type data: CHINA: Yunnan Province, near Kunming, at An-lin-wen-chian, on undetermined small, perennial grass; collected by G.F. Ferris, April, 29, 1949. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae [Ferris1952a].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: China (Yunnan [Ferris1952a, Ferris1955c]); Pakistan [Varshn2002].

BIOLOGY: Occurring among the bases of the roots, mostly below the level of the ground (Ferris, 1952a).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ferris (1952a) and by Chou (1985, 1986).

STRUCTURE: Scale of the female black, almost circular, quite convex, rather rough, marked with lines concentric with the exuvia which are at one side; a distinct ventral scale is formed. Scale of male not recognized (Ferris, 1952a).

SYSTEMATICS: This speceis is similar to C. cottami in having 2 pair of pygidial lobes, but it can be distinguished from C. cottami in having plates absent beyond L3 (present of C. cottami and without notches on each side of L1 (present in C. cottami). (Wei & Feng, 2011)

KEYS: Wei & Feng 2011: 166-167 (female, adult) [Key to species of the genus Chortinaspis all of the world (adult female)]; Chou 1985: 279 (female) [Species of China].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 248]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 279]; Chou1985 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 281]; Chou1986 [taxonomy, illustration: 670]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 212]; Ferris1952a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 8,14]; Ferris1955c [taxonomy, host, distribution: 32-33]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 80]; Varshn2002 [host, distribution: 26]; WeiFe2011 [distribution, taxonomy: 166-168].



Chortinaspis divaricata Ferris

NOMENCLATURE:

Chortinaspis divaricata Ferris, 1946: 39. Type data: U.S.A.: Florida, Lake Gem, on Eleusine indica; collected by H.W. Fogg, August, 31, 1923. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.

COMMON NAME: wiregrass scale [Dekle1965c].



HOSTS: Poaceae: Aristida [TippinBe1972, BesheaTiHo1973], Eleusine indica [Ferris1946, Merril1953, Dekle1965c].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Florida [Ferris1946, Merril1953, Dekle1965c, TippinBe1972, BesheaTiHo1973], Georgia [BesheaTiHo1973]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ferris (1946).

STRUCTURE: Ferris (1946) informed that only slide-mounted specimens were available for the description.

KEYS: Wei & Feng 2011: 166-167 (female, adult) [Key to species of the genus Chortinaspis all of the world (adult female)]; Ferris 1946: 41 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 248-249]; BesheaTiHo1973 [host, distribution: 5]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 279]; Dekle1965c [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 40]; Dekle1976 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, economic importance: 57]; Ferris1946 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 39,46]; Merril1953 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 34]; Nakaha1982 [host, distribution: 21]; TippinBe1972 [host, distribution: 287]; WeiFe2011 [distribution, taxonomy: 165-167].



Chortinaspis fissurella Hall & Williams

NOMENCLATURE:

Chortinaspis fissurella Hall & Williams, 1962: 38. Type data: PAKISTAN: Murree, on Imperata cylindrica. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae: Imperata cylindrica [HallWi1962].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Pakistan [HallWi1962].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Hall & Williams (1962).

STRUCTURE: Scale of adult female subcircular, moderately convex and dark brown in colour; exuviae of a similar colour set within the margin but not central; ventral scale thin but well developed; diameter of scale about 1.0 mm. Male scale not observed (Hall & Williams, 1962).

KEYS: Wei & Feng 2011: 166-167 (female, adult) [Key to species of the genus Chortinaspis all of the world (adult female)].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 249]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 279]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 213]; HallWi1962 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 38-39]; Varshn2002 [host, distribution: 26]; WeiFe2011 [distribution, taxonomy: 165-167].



Chortinaspis frankliniana Ferris

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus graminellus; Ferris, 1919a: 65. Misidentification; discovered by Ferris, 1938a: 196.

Chortinaspis frankliniana Ferris, 1938a: 196. Type data: U.S.A.: Texas, near El Paso, on Mt. Franklin, on Hilaria cenchroides. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae: Hilaria cenchroides [Ferris1938a, McDani1968].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (New Mexico [Ferris1938a], Texas [Ferris1938a, McDani1968]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the tomentose stems of the host and almost concealed by the silvery hairs (Ferris, 1938a).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ferris (1938a).

STRUCTURE: Scale of the female white, elongate oval, rather thin, exuviae apical. Scale of the male elongate, slightly darker than that of the female, exuvia apical (Ferris, 1938a).

KEYS: Wei & Feng 2011: 166-167 (female, adult) [Key to species of the genus Chortinaspis all of the world (adult female)]; McDaniel 1968: 221 (female) [U.S.A.: Texas]; Ferris 1946: 41 (female) [World]; Ferris 1942: 31 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 249-250]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 279]; Ferris1919a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 65-66]; Ferris1938a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 196]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 44]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy: 446:31]; Ferris1946 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 39-40]; McDani1968 [taxonomy, illustration, host, distribution: 223-224]; Nakaha1982 [host, distribution: 21]; WeiFe2011 [distribution, taxonomy: 165-167].



Chortinaspis graminella (Cockerell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus graminellus Cockerell, 1901d: 333. Type data: U.S.A.: New Mexico, Las Vegas, on leaves of grass. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Targionia graminella; Fernald, 1903b: 297. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.

Gonaspidiotus graminellus; MacGillivray, 1921: 432. Change of combination.

Chortinaspis graminella; Ferris, 1938a: 197. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Bouteloua [Ferris1919a, Ferris1946], Bouteloua bromoides [Ferris1946], Eragrostis [TippinBe1978], Monanthochloe [Ferris1946, McDani1968].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Arizona [Ferris1946], Colorado [Ferris1919a, Ferris1946], Florida [Dekle1976], Georgia [Nakaha1982], New Mexico [Cocker1901d, Ferris1946], Texas [Ferris1946, McDani1968]).

BIOLOGY: Occurring on the leaves (Ferris, 1938a).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Cockerell (1901d) and by Ferris (1919a, 1938a).

STRUCTURE: Scale of the female elongate oval, white, quite thin; exuviae apical; scale of the male white, elongate, exuvia apical; there is a distinct purple blotching present associated with this species on Bouteloua in Colorado, USA (Ferris, 1938a).

KEYS: Wei & Feng 2011: 166-167 (female, adult) [Key to species of the genus Chortinaspis all of the world (adult female)]; McDaniel 1968: 221 (female) [U.S.A.: Texas]; Ferris 1946: 41 (female) [World]; Ferris 1942: 31 (female) [North America]; Cockerell 1905b: 201 (female) [U.S.A.: Colorado].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 250]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 279-280]; Cocker1901d [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 333]; Cocker1905b [taxonomy: 201]; Dekle1976 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, economic importance: 58]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 297]; Ferris1919a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 68]; Ferris1921b [taxonomy: 94]; Ferris1938a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 197]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 44]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy: 446:30]; Ferris1943a [taxonomy: 86]; Ferris1946 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 40]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 432]; McDani1968 [taxonomy, illustration, host, distribution: 223-224]; Nakaha1982 [host, distribution: 22]; TippinBe1978 [host, distribution: 14]; WeiFe2011 [distribution, taxonomy: 166-167]; Willia1985a [taxonomy: 234].



Chortinaspis inyangae Hall

NOMENCLATURE:

Chortinaspis inyangae Hall, 1941: 222. Type data: ZIMBABWE: Inyanga, Pungwe Falls, on undetermined grass. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae [Balach1958b].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Zimbabwe [Hall1941, Balach1958b].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Hall (1941) and by Balachowsky (1958b).

STRUCTURE: Female scale very dark grey, almost black, coated with a thin semitransparent greyish secretionary film which shows as a narrow pale area marginally and in some cases gives a somewhat frosted appearance to the dorsal scale. Diameter of female scale 1.25-1.50 mm. Male scale resembling that of the female in colour and texture but elongate oval with the exuvium at one hand (Hall, 1941).

KEYS: Wei & Feng 2011: 166-167 (female, adult) [Key to species of the genus Chortinaspis all of the world (adult female)]; Ferris 1946: 41 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: Balach1958b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 159-160]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 250-251]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 280]; Ferris1946 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 40]; Hall1941 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 222-223]; WeiFe2011 [distribution, taxonomy: 165-167].



Chortinaspis iridis Balachowsky

NOMENCLATURE:

Chortinaspis iridis Balachowsky, 1941: 9. Type data: SYRIA: on Iris sp. and ISRAEL: on Iris sp. and Iris nazarina. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

Aspidiotus iridis; Lindinger, 1943b: 217. Change of combination.

Chortinaspis iridis; Borchsenius, 1966: 280. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Iridaceae: Iris [Balach1941, Ferris1946], Iris nazarina [Balach1941, Ferris1946].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Israel [Balach1941, Balach1948b]; Syria [Balach1941, Ferris1946].

BIOLOGY: Infests the subterranean, herbaceous parts but not the rhizomes (Balachowsky, 1941).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Balachowsky (1941, 1948b).

STRUCTURE: Female scale circular, grey; exuviae central, brown; ventral scale not distinct; diameter 1.6 mm. Male scale of similar structure, grey, elongate, 1.3 mm (Balachowsky, 1941, 1948b).

KEYS: Wei & Feng 2011: 166-167 (female, adult) [Key to species of the genus Chortinaspis all of the world (adult female)]; Danzig 1993: 176 (female) [Europe]; Balachowsky 1948b: 383 (female) [Mediterranean]; Ferris 1946: 41 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: Balach1941 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 9-11]; Balach1948b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 386-388]; BenDov2012 [catalogue, distribution, host: 28, 42]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 251]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 280]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 213]; Ferris1946 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 40]; Lindin1943b [taxonomy: 217-218]; WeiFe2011 [distribution, taxonomy: 165-167].



Chortinaspis salavatiani Balachowsky & Kaussari

NOMENCLATURE:

Chortinaspis salavatiani Balachowsky & Kaussari, 1951: 2. Type data: IRAN: on Pennisetum sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae: Pennisetum [BalachKa1951].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Iran [BalachKa1951, Kaussa1955, Moghad2004, TorabiVaHo2010].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Balachowsky & Kaussari (1951).

STRUCTURE: Female scale circular, 1.8-2,1 mm; slightly convex; white, matt; with concentric zones; exuviae central, brown; generally covered with white secretion (Balachowsky & Kaussari, 1951).

KEYS: Wei & Feng 2011: 166-167 (female, adult) [Key to species of the genus Chortinaspis all of the world (adult female)]; Danzig 1993: 176 (female) [Europe].

CITATIONS: BalachKa1951 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 2-3,9]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 251-252]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 280]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 213]; Kaussa1955 [host, distribution: 15]; Moghad2004 [host, distribution: 15]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 20]; TorabiVaHo2010 [host, distribution: 153-162]; WeiFe2011 [distribution, taxonomy: 165-167].



Chortinaspis senapirensis Ben-Dov

NOMENCLATURE:

Chortinaspis senapirensis Ben-Dov, 1976: 205. Type data: EGYPT: Sinai Peninsula, Senapir Island, on Panicum turgidum; collected by Y. Ben-Dov, 31.V.1968. Holotype female. Type depository: Bet Dagan: Department of Entomology, The Volcani Center, Israel. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae: Panicum turgidum [BenDov1976].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Egypt [BenDov1976].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ben-Dov (1976).

STRUCTURE: Female scale circular, 1.0-1.3 mm in diameter; larval exuviae brownish-yellow placed subcentrally; excreted portion of the scale reddish-brown, turning brighter along the margin. Male scale oval in outline (1.2 X 2.0 mm); resembling in colours to the female scale (Ben-Dov, 1976).

KEYS: Wei & Feng 2011: 166-167 (female, adult) [Key to species of the genus Chortinaspis all of the world (adult female)]; Danzig 1993: 176 (female) [Europe].

CITATIONS: BenDov1976 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 205-207]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 252]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 213]; MohammGh2008 [distribution: 150]; WeiFe2011 [distribution, taxonomy: 165-167].



Chortinaspis subchortina (Laing)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus subchortinus Laing, 1929a: 486. Type data: JAMAICA: Hope Laboratory, on water-grass [Panicum] sp. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Chortinaspis subchortina; Ferris, 1941d: 339. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.



HOSTS: Poaceae: Panicum [Laing1929a, Ferris1941d, McDani1968], Setaria [MatileEt2006].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii [Nakaha1982]). Nearctic: Mexico (Morelos [Ferris1942], Veracruz [Ferris1942]); United States of America (Arizona [Nakaha1982], Florida [Dekle1976], Mississippi [Nakaha1982], Texas [McDani1968]). Neotropical: Bahamas [Nakaha1982]; Colombia [Nakaha1982]; Guadeloupe [MatileEt2006]; Jamaica [Laing1929a, Ferris1946, Nakaha1982]; Panama [Ferris1941d, Nakaha1982]; Peru [Nakaha1982].

BIOLOGY: Occurring in the material at hand on the smaller stems of the host (Ferris, 1941d).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Laing (1929a) and by Ferris (1941d).

STRUCTURE: Scale of the female pale brown with the area over the first exuvia white, moderately convex, oval, with the exuviae toward one side; ventral scale present but thin. Scale of the male somewhat elongate, with the exuvia at one end, color as in the female (Ferris, 1941d).

KEYS: Wei & Feng 2011: 166-167 (female, adult) [Key to species of the genus Chortinaspis all of the world (adult female)]; McDaniel 1968: 221 (female) [U.S.A.: Texas]; Ferris 1946: 41 (female) [World]; Ferris 1942: 30 (female) [North America].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 252-253]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 280]; Dekle1976 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, economic importance: 59]; Ferris1941d [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 339]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 48]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 446:11;446:30]; Ferris1946 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 40]; Laing1929a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 486-487]; MatileEt2006 [host, distribution: 169]; McDani1968 [taxonomy, illustration, host, distribution: 223-226]; Nakaha1982 [host, distribution: 22]; RiherdCh1952 [host, distribution, economic importance, control: 1-5]; WeiFe2011 [distribution, taxonomy: 165-167].



Chortinaspis subterranea (Lindinger)

NOMENCLATURE:

Epidiaspis subterranea Lindinger, 1912b: 174. Type data: FRANCE: Montpellier, on grass. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Hamburg: Zoologisches Institut und Zoologisches Museum, Universitat von Hamburg, Germany. Described: female.

Aspidiotus (Hemiberlesia) provincialis Vayssière, 1914a: 207. Type data: FRANCE: Bouches-du-Rhone, Carry-le-Rouet, on a common grass, probably Psamma arenaria. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Synonymy by Ferris, 1943a: 38.

Hemiberlesia provincialis; Sasscer, 1915: 35. Change of combination.

Hemiberlesia subterranea; Leonardi, 1918: 192. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus subterraneus; Lindinger, 1935: 134. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.

Chortinaspis subterraneus; Balachowsky, 1941: 11. Change of combination.

Separaspis subterraneus; Lupo, 1954: 2. Change of combination.

Chortinaspis subterranea; Borchsenius, 1966: 280. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Poaceae [Balach1932e], Agropyrum [Balach1932d, KaydanKiKo2005a], Agropyrum intermedium [Leonar1918, Leonar1920, Ferris1946, Balach1948b, Lupo1954], Agropyrum repens [Leonar1918, Leonar1920, Borchs1936, Ferris1946, Balach1948b, Bachma1953, Lupo1954], Ammophila arenaria [Vayssi1914a, Balach1948b, Lupo1954, Foldi2000], Festuca [Ferris1946]. Zingiberaceae: Curcuma longa [Takaha1942b].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Thailand [Takaha1942b]. Palaearctic: Croatia [Ferris1946, Bachma1953, Lupo1954] [Masten2007]; France [Vayssi1914a, Balach1932d, Balach1932e, Lupo1954, Foldi2000]; Georgia (Georgia [Borchs1936, Ferris1946]); Hungary [KozarKiSa2004]; Italy [Leonar1918, Leonar1920, Ferris1946, LongoMaPe1995]; Turkey [KaydanKiKo2005a, KaydanUlEr2007]; Ukraine [Ferris1946] (Krym (=Crimea) Oblast [Ferris1946]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ferris (1946), Balachowsky (1948b), Lupo (1954), Tereznikova (1986) and by Danzig (1993).

STRUCTURE: Female scale convex, circular or slightly elongate, 1.5 mm in diameter, black brown with darker center; exuviae subcentral, sometimes subcentral, brown yellow; ventral scale grey or yellow brown (Lindinger, 1912b).

KEYS: Wei & Feng 2011: 166-167 (female, adult) [Key to species of the genus Chortinaspis all of the world (adult female)]; Danzig 1993: 176 (female) [Europe]; Kosztarab & Kozar 1978: 155 (female) [Hungary]; Balachowsky 1948b: 383 (female) [Mediterranean]; Ferris 1946: 41 (female) [World]; Leonardi 1920: 90 (female) [Italy].

CITATIONS: Bachma1953 [host, distribution: 177]; Balach1932d [taxonomy, host, distribution: XLVII]; Balach1932e [taxonomy, host, distribution: 236]; Balach1941 [taxonomy: 11]; Balach1948b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 383-386]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 253-254]; Borchs1935a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 35]; Borchs1936 [host, distribution: 135]; Borchs1937 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 123]; Borchs1937a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 61,62]; Borchs1939 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 9,25]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 216-217]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 280]; Danzig1964 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 651]; Danzig1972 [taxonomy, host, distribution, economic importance: 208]; Danzig1993 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 176-177]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 213-214]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 47]; Ferris1946 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 40-41,47]; Foldi1990 [structure: 43-54]; Foldi2000 [host, distribution: 84]; KaydanKiKo2005a [host, distribution: 399]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 94]; KosztaKo1978 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 154]; Kozar1990a [life history, economic importance: 341-347]; KozarKiSa2004 [distribution: 61]; KozarKoFe2013 [distribution, structure: 54]; Leonar1918 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 192]; Leonar1920 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 94-95]; Lindin1912b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 173-174]; Lindin1935 [taxonomy: 134]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 126]; Lupo1954 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 2-7]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 436]; Masten2007 [host, distribution, taxonomy: 1-242]; MillerDa1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 301]; Sassce1915 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 35]; Takaha1942b [host, distribution: 47]; Terezn1986 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 92-93]; Vayssi1914a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 207-208]; Vayssi1915 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 298]; WeidneWa1968 [taxonomy: 175]; WeiFe2011 [distribution, taxonomy: 165-167].



Chortinaspis tianmuensis Wei & Feng

NOMENCLATURE:

Chortinaspis tianmuensis Wei & Feng, 2011: 166-167. Type data: CHINA: Zhejiang, Tianmu Mountain, on (Dracaena angustifolia 7/15/1983, by H. Jiang. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Yangling: Entomological Museum, Northwestern Agricultural University, Shaanxi Province, China.. Described: female. Illust. Notes: 2 paratypes with same data as holotype (EMNA)



HOST: Agavaceae: Dracaena angustifolia Roxb [WeiFe2011].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: China (Zhejiang (=Chekiang) [WeiFe2011]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Wei & Feng, 2011.

STRUCTURE: Female scale circular, slightly convex; brown with black center, exuvia central. Slide mounted female derm remaining membraneous apart from sclerotized margin of pygidium. Pygidial margin with 3 paris of well-developed lobes. Prevulvar pores absent. Antennae with one seta. (Wei & Feng, 2011)

SYSTEMATICS: C. tianmuensis is very close to C. senapirensis in having 1) 3 pairs of pygidial lobes and 2) an absence of notches on the pygidial lobes, but it differs in having 1) 4-6 plates with divided apices lateral to L2, but (C. senapirensis has 3 or 4 plates, each rather pointed; and 2) dorsal ducts arranged irregularly, present along submargin and margin of abdominal segment I-VIII, but present in C. senapirensis along the submargin and margin of segment VI to the metathorax. (Wei & Feng, 2011)

KEYS: Wei & Feng 2011: 166-167 (adult, female) [Key to species of the genus Chortinaspis all of the world (adult female)].

CITATIONS: WeiFe2011 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 166-167].



Chrysomphalus Ashmead

NOMENCLATURE:

Chrysomphalus Ashmead, 1880: 267. Type species: Chrysomphalus ficus Ashmead (= Chrysomphalus aonidum L.), by monotypy. Notes: L

Chrysonphalus; Monastero, 1955: 89. Misspelling of genus name.

Chrysamphalus; Chou, 1985: 283. Misspelling of genus name.

Chrisomphalus; Yasnosh, 1995: 248. Misspelling of genus name.

Chrysophalus; Wu, 1999b: 234. Misspelling of genus name.

BIOLOGY: The genus Chrysomphalus is probably native to the Asia-Australian region.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by Dietz & Morrison (1916a), Robinson (1917), Fullaway (1932), Kuwana (1933), Ferris (1938a), Lupo (1953), Balachowsky (1948b, 1956), Borchsenius (1950b), Gomez-Menor Guerrero (1962), Almeida (1969), Takagi (1969a), Velasquez (1971), Bazarov & Shmelev (1971), Williams & Watson (1988), Danzig (1993) and by Kosztarab (1996).

SYSTEMATICS: Chrysomphalus Ashmead is closely related to Aonidiella, but differs from the latter, in the cephalothorax never being reniform, or the prepygidial lobes curving posteriorly to the pygidium; furthermore, the paraphyses in Chrysomphalus are as long as or longer than the lobes, whereas in Aonidiella they are much shorter (Takagi, 1969a; Williams & Watson, 1988). It is also similar to Acutaspis, but the posterior margin of the pygidium is more or less truncate, not tapering to an acute apex as in Acutaspis. It also comes close to Marginaspis, Lindingaspis and Melanaspis but, in Chrysomphalus, the plates between L3 and L4 are more conspicuous and branched and longer than the lobes, whereas in the other genera the plates are short, not exceeding the length of the lobes. In addition, in Lindingaspis and Melanaspis, there is usually a series of short paraphyses anterior to L4 which are absent in Chrysomphalus. (Smith-Pardo, et al., 2012)

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: The genus contains species that are major, worldwide pests.

KEYS: Smith-Pardo et al. 2012: 3-4 (female) [Key to the Aspidiotinae (Diaspididae) genera similar to the genus Chrysomphalus]; Claps & Wolff 2003: 14 (female) [Genera of South America]; Colon-Ferrer & Medina-Gaud 1998: 28-32 (female) [Genera of Puerto Rico]; Gill 1997: 24-26 (female) [Genera of California]; Gill 1997: 96 (female) [Species of California]; Kosztarab 1996: 406-407 (female) [Northeastern North America]; Blay Goicoechea 1993: 473 (female) [Spain]; Danzig 1993: 164 (female) [species Europe]; Wolff & Corseuil 1993: 29 (female) [Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul]; Zahradnik 1990b: 74 (female) [Czech Republic]; Williams & Watson 1988: 20 (female) [Tropical South Pacific]; Tereznikova 1986: 83 (female) [Ukraine]; Chou 1985: 283 (female) [Genera of China]; Chou 1985: 284 (female) [Species of China]; Paik 1978: 311 (female) [species South Korea]; Bazarov & Shmelev 1971: 186 (female) [Central Asia]; Velasquez 1971: 131 (female) [Philippines]; Beardsley 1966: 502-504 (female) [Federated States of Micronesia]; Danzig 1964: 645 (female) [Europe]; Gomez-Menor Guerrero 1962: 157 (female) [Canary Islands]; Zahradnik 1959a: 548 (female) [Czech Republic]; Balachowsky 1958b: 230 (female) [Aspidiotina of Africa]; Ezzat 1958: 237-239 (female) [Egypt]; Gómez-Menor Ortega 1956: 7-8 (female) [Spain]; McKenzie 1956: 22-23 (female) [U.S.A.: California]; Balachowsky 1951: 600 (female) [Mediterranean]; Borchsenius 1950b: 167 (female) [USSR]; Zimmerman 1948: 351 (female) [Hawaii]; Gomez-Menor Ortega 1946: 59-61 (female) [Spain]; Ruiz Castro 1944: 57 (female) [Spain]; Ferris 1942: 27 (female) [North America]; Ferris 1942: 31 (female) [species North America]; Archangelskaya 1937: 94 (female) [Middle Asia]; Borchsenius 1937: 99 (female) [USSR]; Borchsenius 1937a: 32-33 (female) [Palaearctic Region]; Kuwana 1933a: 43-45 (female) [Japan]; Fullaway 1932: 97-98 (female) [Hawaii]; Archangelskaya 1929: 189 (female) [Palaearctic Region]; Balachowsky 1928b: 157 (female) [Africa]; Britton 1923: 360 (female) [U.S.A.: Connecticut]; Hollinger 1923: 6-7 (female) [U.S.A.: Missouri]; Leonardi 1920: 26 (female) [Italy]; Leonardi 1920: 65 (female) [Species of Italy]; Brain 1919: 198 (female) [World]; Lawson 1917: 206 (female) [U.S.A.: Kansas]; Lawson 1917: 210 (female) [species U.S.A.: Kansas]; Robinson 1917: 16-17 (female) [Philippines]; Robinson 1917: 24 (female) [species Philippines]; Dietz & Morrison 1916a: 263 (female) [U.S.A.: Indiana]; Lindinger 1913: 64 (female) [Africa].

CITATIONS: Almeid1969 [taxonomy: 154-156]; Archan1929 [taxonomy: 189]; Archan1937 [taxonomy, description: 94]; Ashmea1880 [taxonomy, description: 267]; Balach1928b [taxonomy: 157]; Balach1948b [taxonomy, description: 345-346]; Balach1951 [taxonomy: 590,600]; Balach1956 [taxonomy, description: 82-85]; Balach1958b [taxonomy: 230]; BazaroSh1971 [taxonomy, description: 193]; Beards1966 [host, distribution: 515]; BenDov1990h [taxonomy: 81]; BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 254-256]; BerlesLe1896 [taxonomy, description: 347]; BerlesLe1898a [taxonomy: 131]; BlayGo1993 [taxonomy, description: 502]; Bodenh1924 [taxonomy: 21]; Bodenh1949 [taxonomy, description: 26,37]; Bodenh1952 [taxonomy: 329]; Borchs1937 [taxonomy, description: 94]; Borchs1937a [taxonomy, description: 32,48]; Borchs1949d [taxonomy, description: 194,231]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description: 167,217]; Borchs1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 283-284]; Brain1918 [taxonomy: 116]; Brain1919 [taxonomy: 166,198]; Brimbl1962a [taxonomy: 411-412]; Britto1923 [taxonomy, description: 360,376]; Bustsh1958 [taxonomy: 229]; Chou1947 [taxonomy, description: 9-24]; Chou1985 [taxonomy, description: 283-284]; ClapsDo2003 [taxonomy: 14]; Cocker1897i [taxonomy: 9,12,31]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 396]; Cocker1899n [taxonomy: 25]; Cocker1905b [taxonomy: 200]; ColonFMe1998 [taxonomy, description: 48]; Danzig1964 [taxonomy: 651]; Danzig1993 [taxonomy, description: 163-164]; DanzigPe1998 [catalogue: 214]; DietzMo1916a [taxonomy, description: 263,306]; Ezzat1958 [taxonomy: 239]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 285]; Ferris1937c [taxonomy: 50,53,54,64]; Ferris1937d [taxonomy: 105]; Ferris1938a [taxonomy, description: 198]; Ferris1942 [taxonomy: 446:27]; Fullaw1932 [taxonomy, description: 97,107]; Ghauri1962 [taxonomy: 210]; Gill1997 [taxonomy: 95]; GomezM1937 [taxonomy, description: 43,88-89]; GomezM1946 [taxonomy: 60]; GomezM1956 [taxonomy, description: 31-32]; GomezM1962 [taxonomy, description: 179]; Gowdey1921 [taxonomy: 31]; Hadzib1983 [taxonomy: 223-224]; Hempel1920 [taxonomy: 140]; Hollin1923 [taxonomy: 7,67,68]; HosnyEz1957 [taxonomy: 332]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy: 209]; Koszta1996 [taxonomy, description: 477]; Kuwana1933 [taxonomy, description: 26,43]; Lawson1917 [taxonomy, description: 206,209]; Lawson1917 [taxonomy, description: 209]; Leonar1897 [taxonomy: 284]; Leonar1897a [taxonomy: 375]; Leonar1897b [taxonomy: 111]; Leonar1899 [taxonomy: 198]; Leonar1920 [taxonomy, description: 26,64-65]; Lepage1938 [taxonomy: 398]; Lepesm1947 [taxonomy, description: 196]; Lindin1908b [taxonomy: 98]; Lindin1910a [taxonomy: 440]; Lindin1910b [taxonomy: 39]; Lindin1911 [taxonomy: 355]; Lindin1924 [taxonomy: 171]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 182]; LinKoGu2013 [molecular data, phylogeny: 257]; Lupo1953 [taxonomy, description: 23]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy: 388,414-421]; Mamet1949 [taxonomy: 55-56]; McKenz1939 [taxonomy, description: 51-53]; McKenz1943 [taxonomy: 148]; McKenz1956 [taxonomy: 23]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 37]; Nel1933 [taxonomy: 417-419]; Robins1917 [taxonomy, description: 16,23]; RuizCa1944 [taxonomy: 57]; Savesc1982 [taxonomy, description: 304]; Schmut1959 [taxonomy, description: 47,53]; SmithPEvDo2012 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 1-4]; Takagi1969a [taxonomy, description: 85-86]; Tao1999 [taxonomy: 80]; ThiemGe1934a [taxonomy: 232]; Varshn2002 [taxonomy: 26]; Velasq1971 [taxonomy, description: 131]; WilliaWa1988 [taxonomy, description: 90,93]; WolffCo1993 [taxonomy: 29]; Yasar1995a [taxonomy, description: 57-58]; Yasnos1995 [taxonomy: 248]; Zimmer1948 [taxonomy: 351,368].



Chrysomphalus aberrans Mamet

NOMENCLATURE:

Chrysomphalus aberrans Mamet, 1951: 245. Type data: MADAGASCAR: North Tamatave, Tampolo, on lower surface of leaves of tea plant. Holotype. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Theaceae: Thea [Mamet1951, Borchs1966].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Madagascar [Mamet1951].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Mamet (1951).

STRUCTURE: Female scale very small, circular, more or less conical, dark reddish-brown to rust brown in colour, sometimes with a clearer marginal zone. Male scale not observed (Mamet, 1951).

KEYS: Smith-Pardo et al. 2012: 5-6 (female) [Key to the species of the genus Chrysomphalus based on adult females].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 256]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 284]; Mamet1951 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 226,245-246]; SmithPEvDo2012 [distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 5-6,11].



Chrysomphalus ansei (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Aspidiotus (Chrysomphalus) ansei Green, 1916f: 193. Type data: SEYCHELLES: Anse aux Pins, crowded on fronds of Cocos nucifera. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Chrysomphalus ansei; MacGillivray, 1921: 415. Change of combination.

Chrysomphalus anseyi; Lepesme, 1947: 203. Misspelling of species name.



HOSTS: Arecaceae: Cocos nucifera [Green1916f, McKenz1939, Mamet1943a, Borchs1966]. Lauraceae: Litsea glutinosa [Mamet1943a, Borchs1966].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Seychelles [Green1916f, McKenz1939, Mamet1943a, Borchs1966].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Green (1916f) and by McKenzie (1939).

STRUCTURE: Female scale irregularly circular or broadly ovate, diameter averaging 1.45 mm; flattish or moderately convex; very pale brownish ochreous, semitransparent; exuviae darker, central. Male scale smaller and more distinctly ovate; exuviae nearer one extremity; length 1 mm (Green, 1916f). Scale of the female thin and transparent, yellow brown, with exuviae darker brown; that of the male similar in color, somewhat elongate, exuvia toward one end (McKenzie, 1939). The USNM has 2 slides that are marked "Type Material". Contrary to McKenzie’s illustration of the species, which shows a short paraphysis in the L2-L3 interlobular space, the USNM specimens show a long, prominent paraphyses in this space on the right side of each specimen, but weaker and less conspicuous on the left side of the pygidium. (Smith-Pardo, et al., 2012)

KEYS: Smith-Pardo et al. 2012: 5-6 (female) [Key to the species of the genus Chrysomphalus based on adult females]; McKenzie 1943: 150 (female) [World]; McKenzie 1939: 64 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [catalogue: 256-257]; Borchs1966 [catalogue: 284]; Dupont1931 [host, distribution: 1-18]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 40]; Green1916f [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 193]; Lepesm1947 [host, distribution, taxonomy: 203]; Lindin1943b [taxonomy: 207]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 415]; Mamet1943a [catalogue: 157]; McKenz1939 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 53,56-57,68]; McKenz1943 [taxonomy: 150]; MillerDa1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 301]; SchmutKlLu1957 [host, distribution, economic importance: 478]; SmithPEvDo2012 [distribution, host, host, taxonomy: 5-6, 11]; VeseyF1953 [host, distribution, biological control: 405-413].



Chrysomphalus aonidum (Linnaeus)

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus aonidum Linnaeus, 1758: 455. Type data: ASIA: on perennial fruit trees and on Camellia. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Williams, 2007b: 439. Type depository: London: The Linnean Society of London, England. Described: female.

Chrysomphalus ficus Ashmead, 1880: 267. Type data: U.S.A.: Florida, Orange Co., Orlando, on Ficus nitida. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Cockerell, 1899n: 25.

Aspidiotus ficus; Comstock, 1881a: 296. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Riley MSS" as author.

Aspidiotus ficus; Comstock, 1883: 61. Notes: Incorrect citation of Riley as author.

Aspidiotus ficus; Morgan, 1889a: 350. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Riley" as author.

Aspidiotus (Chrysomphalus) ficus; Berlese, 1895a: 83. Change of combination. Notes:

Aspidiotus (Chrysomphalus) ficus; Grandpre & Charmoy, 1899: 25. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Riley" as author.

Chrysomphalus aonidum; Cockerell, 1899n: 25. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus (Chrysomphalus) aonidum; Hempel, 1900a: 502. Change of combination.

Aspidiotus aonidum; Cockerell, 1905: 46. Change of combination.

Chrysomphalus adonidum; Ferris & Kelly, 1923: 318. Misspelling of species name.

Chrysomphalus aonidum; McKenzie, 1939: 53. Revived combination.

COMMON NAMES: black scale [MillerDa2005]; circular black scale [Brimbl1962]; circular purple scale [MillerDa2005]; circular scale [MillerDa2005]; citrus black scale [Bodenh1951a]; cochonilha-purpura [CarvalAg1997]; Egyptian black scale [Bodenh1951a]; escama roja de Florida [CoronaRuMo1997]; fig scale [MillerDa2005]; Florida red scale [Merril1953, McKenz1956, Dekle1965c, GersonZo1973, Koszta1996]; florida red scale [GersonZo1973]; la cochenille de l'oranger [PicartMa2000]; orange brown scale [MillerDa2005]; pou de Floride [SchmutKlLu1957]; Queresa del ficus [Nunez2008]; The Coccus of the Indian-tree [Linnae1758].



FOES: ACARI Eupalopsellidae: Saniosulus nudus Summers [GersonOcHo1990]. Hemisarcoptidae: Hemisarcoptes coccophagus Meyer [GersonOcHo1990], Hemisarcoptes malus (Shimer) [GersonOcHo1990]. Phytoseiidae: Amblyseius gossipi El Badry [YousefEl1982]. COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Chilocorus bipustulatus [Balach1928b], Chilocorus circumdatus Sch. [DasBoGo1988], Chilocorus distigma Klug [RosenDe1978], Coccidophilus citricola [SantosGr2005], Curinus coeruleus (Mulsant) [Zimmer1948], Lindorus lophantae (Blaisdell) [Smirno1950a], Sukunahikana popei Vazirani [Vazira1982], Telsimia nitida gemmosa Chazeau [Chazea1984]. Nitidulidae: Cybocephalus binotatus Grouvelle [BlumbeSw1974], Cybocephalus micans Reitter [BlumbeSw1974], Cybocephalus nigriceps nigriceps (Sahlberg) [BlumbeSw1974]. Tenebrionidae: Epitragus tomentosus Leconte [Drea1990]. FUNGI : Sphaerostilbe aurantiicola [Moore2002]. Ascomycotina: Nectria aurantiicola [EvansPr1990], Nectria diploa [EvansPr1990], Podonectria coccicola [EvansPr1990]. Deuteromycotina: Hirsutella [EvansPr1990]. Mastigomycotina: Myiophagus [EvansPr1990]. HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Ablerus perspeciosus Girault [Gordh1979], Aphytis africanus Quednau [RosenDe1979], Aphytis australiensis DeBach & Rosen [RosenDe1979], Aphytis chrysomphali Mercet [Balach1948b], Aphytis chrysomphali (Mercet) [Zimmer1948, RosenDe1979, MyartsRu2000], Aphytis columbi (Girault) [RosenDe1979], Aphytis comperei DeBach & Rosen [RosenDe1979], Aphytis costalimai (Gomes) [DeBach1963, RosenDe1979], Aphytis diaspidis (Howard) [RosenDe1979, MyartsRu2000], Aphytis holoxanthus DeBach [QuezadCoDi1972, RosenDe1978, RosenDe1979, SteinbPoRo1987, Koszta1996], Aphytis lingnanensis Compere [RosenDe1979], Aphytis mazalae DeBach & Rosen [RosenDe1979], Aphytis merceti Compere [RosenDe1979], Aphytis philippinensis DeBach & Rosen [RosenDe1979], Aphytis proclia (Walker) [MyartsRu2000], Aspidiotiphagus citrinus (Craw) [Balach1948b, Zimmer1948], Aspidiotiphagus latipennis Compere [AnneckIn1971], Aspidiotiphagus lounsburyi Berlese & Paoli [Balach1948b], Azotus separaspidis Annecke & Insley [AnneckIn1970], Encarsia aurantii (Howard) [PolaszAbHu1999, MyartsRu2000], Encarsia lounsburyi (Berlese & Paoli) [AbdRab2001a], Marietta marchali Mercet [AnneckIn1971], Prospaltella elongata [FlandeGrDe1950], Prospaltella elongata Dozier [RosenDe1978], Pteroptrix chinensis (Howard) [ComperSm1927], Pteroptrix smithi (Compere) [RosenDe1978, SteinbPoRo1987]. Encyrtidae: Adelencyrtus ficusae Risbec [AnneckIn1971], Comperiella bifasciata Howard [ComperSm1927], Habrolepis aspidioti Compere & Annecke [Prinsl1983], Habrolepis fanari Delucchi & Traboulsi [DeluccTr1965], Habrolepis pascuorum Mercet [Trjapi1989], Habrolepis rouxi Compere [AnneckIn1971], Pseudhomalopoda prima Girault [Muma1959, RosenDe1978], Zaomma lambinus (walker) [Trjapi1989]. Signiphoridae: Chartocerus niger (Ashmead) [Gordh1979, AbdRabMo2006A], Signiphora aleyrodis Ashmead [Gordh1979], Signiphora fax Girault [Woolle1990], Signiphora merceti [Woolle1990], Signiphora prepauca Girault [Woolle1990]. NEUROPTERA Chrysopidae: Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen) [Drea1990], Ceraeochrysa sanchezi (Navas) [Drea1990], Ceraeochrysa valida (Banks) [Drea1990], Chrysopa [Drea1990], Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) [Drea1990], Chrysoperla plorabunda (Fitch) [Drea1990], Chrysoperla rufilabris (Burmeister) [Drea1990], Nodita pavida (Hagen) [Drea1990]. Coniopterygidae: Semidalis vicina (Hagen) [Drea1990]. THYSANOPTERA Phlaeothripidae: Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin) [Beshea1975, PalmerMo1990, WatsonDuLi2000a], Haplothrips cahirensis (Trybom) [PalmerMo1990].

HOSTS: Agavaceae: Cordyline [McKenz1956], Furcraea gigantea [Mamet1943a, Mamet1949, Borchs1966]. Anacardiaceae: Anacardium occidentale [DeLott1967a], Mangifera indica [Takaha1933, Lepage1938, Mamet1943a, Mamet1949, McKenz1956, Borchs1966, Ali1967a], Protorhus thouarsii [Mamet1954, Borchs1966], Sclerocarya caffra [Mamet1959a], Spondias lutea [Morgan1889a, Lepage1938]. Annonaceae: Annona [Lepage1938, Balach1948b], Annona muricata [Mamet1943a, Mamet1949, Borchs1966, Cohic1958, WilliaWa1988], Annona reticulata [Mamet1956, Borchs1966, Cohic1958, WilliaWa1988], Annona squamosa [Hall1922, Cohic1958, WilliaWa1988], Artabotrys odoratissima [Leonar1920, Takaha1929]. Apocynaceae: Acokanthera [Hall1923], Carissa bispinosa [MerrilCh1923, Balach1932d], Carissa carandas [Takaha1929], Carissa edulis [Hall1923], Nerium [Lepage1938], Nerium oleander [Balach1927, Balach1932d, McKenz1956, GonzalCh1968, WilliaWa1988], Ochrosia elliptica [Merril1953], Plumeria [WilliaWa1988], Plumeria acutifolia [Mamet1943a, Mamet1949, Borchs1966], Plumeria rubra [WilliaWa1988], Rhynchospermum [MerrilCh1923], Tabernaemontana [MerrilCh1923], Thevetia [Takaha1929], Trachelospermum [Merril1953], Vinca major [Merril1953]. Aquifoliaceae: Ilex [Green1937, Lepage1938, Dekle1965c], Ilex cornuta [McKenz1956], Ilex latifolia [Kuwana1902]. Araceae: Anthurium [Zimmer1948], Pothos aureus [Merril1953, McKenz1956]. Araliaceae: Aralia [MerrilCh1923, Balach1948b], Aralia papyrifera [Balach1932d], Hedera [Lepage1938], Hedera helix [McKenz1956, GomezM1962, BesheaTiHo1973], Schefflera [Merril1953, BesheaTiHo1973], Trevesia palmata [Merril1953]. Araucariaceae: Agathis lanceolata [WilliaWa1988], Agathis moorei [WilliaWa1988], Araucaria bidwelli [MerrilCh1923]. Arecaceae [Green1930b, Mamet1959a, Almeid1971], Areca [McKenz1956], Areca catechu [Green1908a, Takaha1929, Ali1967a], Chamaeodorea [MerrilCh1923], Cocos [Lepage1938, Balach1948b], Cocos nucifera [Houser1918, Takaha1929, Mamet1949, Mamet1954, McKenz1956, Takagi1962b, Ali1967a, WilliaWa1988], Dictyosperma album [Cocker1899n, Lepage1938], Dypsis madagascariensis [MerrilCh1923], Howeia selloviana [Balach1932d], Kentia [Balach1948b], Kentia fosteri [McKenz1956], Latania [Hall1922, Balach1932d, Zimmer1948], Latania commersonii [Cohic1958, WilliaWa1988], Martinezia caryotaefolia [Houser1918], Oreodoxa carribea [GomezM1941], Oreodoxa regia [Mamet1959a], Phoenicophorium sechellarum [MerrilCh1923], Phoenix [Green1908a, Ramakr1921a, Balach1948b, Ali1967a], Phoenix canariensis [Balach1927, Balach1932d], Phoenix dactylifera [Hall1922, GomezM1941, McDani1968], Phoenix humilis loureiri [McKenz1956], Pritchardia [Hall1923], Roscheria melanochaetes [MerrilCh1923], Washingtonia [Bodenh1924]. Asteraceae: Calendula officinalis [Hall1923], Calostemma [Hall1923], Gerbera [WilliaWa1988], Gerbera jamesoni [Cohic1958, WilliaWa1988]. Begoniaceae: Begonia [Hall1923, Lepage1938], Begonia magnifica [Balach1948b]. Berberidaceae: Mahonia japonica [Takaha1929]. Brexiaceae: Brexia [Balach1932d]. Buxaceae: Buxus japonica [Takaha1929]. Cactaceae: Opuntia [Balach1932d]. Calycanthaceae: Calycanthus [Merril1953], Chimonanthus praecox [Merril1953]. Caprifoliaceae: Viburnum [Merril1953, McKenz1956]. Caryophyllaceae: Dianthus caryophyllus [Hall1923]. Celastraceae: Elaeodendron [Mamet1949, Borchs1966], Euonymus [McKenz1956, McDani1968], Euonymus japonicum [MerrilCh1923, Balach1927, Balach1932d, Kuwana1933]. Clusiaceae: Garcinia multiflora [MartinLa2011]. Combretaceae: Terminalia [Almeid1971]. Crassulaceae: Cotyledon orbiculata [Mamet1954, Borchs1966]. Cycadaceae: Cycas [MerrilCh1923, Lepage1938, Mamet1959a, Matile1978, WilliaWa1988], Cycas circinalis [GomezM1941], Cycas revoluta [Houser1918, Ferris1921a, Takaha1929, Mamet1943a, Mamet1949, Borchs1966], Cycas thouarsi [Mamet1954, Borchs1966]. Cyclanthaceae: Carludovica palmata [GomezM1941]. Ebenaceae: Diospyros kaki [Hall1922]. Elaeagnaceae: Elaeagnus [MerrilCh1923]. Epacridaceae: Leucopogon [Cohic1958, WilliaWa1988]. Ericaceae: Rhododendron [Ramakr1921a, Ali1967a], Rhododendron arboreum [Green1896e, Green1900a, Ramakr1919a, Green1937, Lepage1938]. Euphorbiaceae: Aleurites moluccana [GomezM1941, Zimmer1948, Cohic1958, WilliaWa1988], Bischofia [Merril1953], Croton [Green1904a], Euphorbia [WilliaWa1988], Phyllanthus [Hall1922], Poinsettia [Hall1923], Ricinus communis [Balach1927, Balach1932d, WilliaWa1988]. Fabaceae: Acacia arabica [Hall1923], Acacia decurrens [Hall1922], Acacia longifolia [Bodenh1924], Acacia melanoxylon [RosenDe1979], Bauhinia [Hall1922], Bauhinia purpurea [McDani1968], Bauhinia speciosa [GomezM1941], Bauhinia variegata [Cohic1958, WilliaWa1988], Cassia auriculata [RahmanAn1941], Cassia occidentalis [RahmanAn1941], Castanospermum australis [Frogga1914], Ceratonia siliqua [Hall1922], Erythrina crista-galli [McKenz1956], Robinia [McKenz1956], Ruppelia grata [Leonar1920], Tamarindus indica [GomezM1941, Cohic1958, WilliaWa1988]. Fagaceae: Nothofagus aequilateralis [WilliaWa1988], Quercus robur [Hall1923]. Flacourtiaceae: Hydnocarpus wightiana [Mamet1943a, Mamet1949, Borchs1966]. Guttiferae: Calophyllum coloba [Houser1918], Calophyllum inophyllum [Takaha1929, WilliaWa1988], Garcinia [Ali1967a], Garcinia spicata [Takaha1929, Takaha1955f], Mammea americana [Houser1918]. Heliconiaceae: Heliconia [WilliaWa1988]. Illiciaceae: Illicium floridanum [Merril1953]. Iridaceae: Belamcanda [Merril1953], Gladiolus [Cohic1958, WilliaWa1988], Gladiolus illyricus [Mamet1943a, Mamet1949, Borchs1966], Moraea iridioides [Merril1953]. Lauraceae: Beilschmiedia elliptica [RosenDe1979], Cinnamomum camphora [Takaha1929], Laurus [Lepage1938], Laurus camphora [Mamet1954, Borchs1966], Laurus nobilis [Balach1932d, Balach1948b, Cohic1958, WilliaWa1988], Machilus thunbergii [Kuwana1902, Takaha1929], Persea americana [McKenz1956, GersonZo1973], Persea gratissima [Hall1922, Balach1932d]. Lecythidaceae: Barringtonia asiatica [Cohic1958, WilliaWa1988], Barringtonia asiatica [Cohic1958, WilliaWa1988]. Liliaceae: Aloe [Hall1922], Asparagus plumosus [Kuwana1902], Aspidistra [McKenz1956, Cohic1958, WilliaWa1988], Aspidistra lurida [Kuwana1902, MerrilCh1923], Danielia? [Mamet1959a], Dracaena draco [Balach1948b], Dracaena marginata [PicartMa2000], Dracaena sp. [BenDov2012], Mondo [McKenz1956], Sansevieria [McKenz1956, Cohic1958, WilliaWa1988]. Loganiaceae: Fagraea [WilliaWa1988]. Lythraceae: Lawsonia alba [Hall1922]. Magnoliaceae: Magnolia grandiflora [Houser1918, Hall1923]. Malvaceae: Gossypium [Hall1922], Hibiscus mutabilis [GomezM1941], Hibiscus rosa [Hall1923], Hibiscus rosa sinensis [GomezM1941]. Meliaceae: Azadirachta indica [Schmut1998], Cedrela odorata [MerrilCh1923]. Moraceae: Artocarpus altilis [WilliaWa1988], Artocarpus communis [Mamet1943a, Mamet1949, Borchs1966, Ali1967a], Ficus [Hall1922, MerrilCh1923, Balach1927, Lepage1938, Cohic1958, Ali1967a, WilliaWa1988], Ficus carica [Hall1923, GomezM1962], Ficus doescherii [McKenz1956], Ficus elastica [Hall1923, Balach1932d, Kuwana1933, McKenz1956], Ficus foveolata [Kuwana1933], Ficus macrophylla [Balach1948b], Ficus morica [FerrisKe1923], Ficus nitida [Ashmea1880, Balach1932d, GomezM1941, Balach1948b], Ficus pumila [WilliaWa1988], Ficus religiosa [Houser1918, Hall1923, GomezM1941], Ficus retusa [Takaha1929, Kuwana1933, HabibEzAt1960], Ficus sycomorus [Hall1922], Morus [Hall1923]. Musaceae: Musa [Lepage1938, Balach1948b, WilliaWa1988], Musa cavendishi [Balach1932d], Musa paradisiaca [GomezM1941], Musa sapientum [Bodenh1924, Takaha1929, Mamet1949, Cohic1958, Borchs1966, WilliaWa1988]. Myristicaceae: Myristica heterophylla [Takaha1929]. Myrtaceae: Decaspermum fruticosum [Takaha1934], Eucalyptus [MerrilCh1923, Balach1948b], Eucalyptus globolus [Bodenh1924], Eugenia [Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1921a, MerrilCh1923, Lepage1938, Ali1967a, WilliaWa1988], Eugenia cumini [WilliaWa1988], Eugenia jambolana [RahmanAn1941, Zimmer1948], Eugenia jambusa [Hall1922], Eugenia vaccinifolia [Mamet1954, Borchs1966], Feijoa [Merril1953], Melaleuca [WilliaWa1988], Melaleuca leucadendron [WilliaWa1988], Melaleuca leucadendron viridiflora [Cohic1958], Melaleuca quinquenervia [WilliaWa1988], Myrtus [Merril1953], Myrtus communis [Hall1922, Martin1983], Myrtus hilli [Frogga1914], Psidium [Lepage1938], Psidium guajava [DoaneHa1909, Balach1932d]. Naucleaceae: Adina cordifolia [Hall1922]. Nyctaginaceae: Bougainvillea [WilliaWa1988]. Oleaceae: Jasminum [Hall1922, Merril1953, McKenz1956, WilliaWa1988], Jasminum humila [MerrilCh1923], Jasminum sambac [Cohic1958, WilliaWa1988], Ligustrum [MerrilCh1923], Ligustrum japonicum [Kuwana1902, Hall1923, Takaha1929], Olea [Hall1922], Olea europaea [Bodenh1924, Takaha1932a, Lepage1938], Osmanthus [Merril1953], Osmanthus fragrans [MerrilCh1923, Takaha1929, Kuwana1933, McKenz1956]. Onagraceae: Ludwigia octovalvis [WilliaWa1988]. Orchidaceae: Broughtonia cubensis [MestreHaEv2011], Coelogyne cristata [Morgan1889a], Cypripedium [McKenz1956], Dendrobium [Zimmer1948], Encyclia fucata [MestreHaEv2011], Odontoglossum [McKenz1956], Oncidium [GomezM1941], Oncidium undulatum [MestreHaEv2011], Vanilla [WilliaWa1988]. Pandanaceae: Pandanus [MerrilCh1923, Laing1933, Mamet1957, Cohic1958, McDani1968, WilliaWa1988], Pandanus odoratissimus [Takaha1929, WilliaWa1988], Pandanus utilis [Mamet1943a, Mamet1949, Borchs1966], Pandanus vetichi [McKenz1956]. Pinaceae: Pinus [Takaha1929], Pinus caribaea [WilliaWa1988]. Poaceae: Bambusa [Green1937]. Podocarpaceae: Podocarpus [Takagi1969a], Podocarpus macrophylla [Takaha1929]. Punicaceae: Punica granatum [Hall1922]. Rhamnaceae: Rhamnus alaternus [Balach1932d]. Rhizophoraceae: Kandelia rheedii [Takaha1932a, Takaha1933, Takaha1936d]. Rosaceae: Cerasus [Zimmer1948], Eriobotrya japonica [Hall1922, Balach1932d, Cohic1958, WilliaWa1988], Photinia serrata [Balach1927, Balach1932d], Photinia serrulata [Merril1953], Prunus domestica [Hall1922], Prunus laurocerasus [Balach1932d], Prunus persica [Hall1923], Pyrus malus [Hall1922], Rosa [Takaha1929, Lepage1938, Mamet1943a, Mamet1949, Cohic1958, Borchs1966, WilliaWa1988]. Rubiaceae: Gardenia [McKenz1956, Cohic1958, WilliaWa1988], Morinda citrifolia [WilliaWa1988]. Rutaceae: Atlantia buxifolia [Frogga1914], Citrus [Houser1918, Takaha1929, Green1930b, Kuwana1933, Lepage1938, RahmanAn1941, Mamet1949, Mamet1951], Citrus [MerrilCh1923, Merril1953], Citrus acida [Green1914c], Citrus aurantifolia [WilliaWa1988], Citrus aurantium [Bodenh1924, Balach1928b, McKenz1939, GomezM1962, WilliaWa1988], Citrus aurantium bigaradia [Matile1978], Citrus bigaradia [Balach1928b], Citrus decumana [Houser1918], Citrus grandis [WilliaWa1988], Citrus japonica [Balach1928b], Citrus limon [Bodenh1924, Balach1928b, WilliaWa1988], Citrus myrthifolia [Balach1928b], Citrus nobilis [Balach1928b], Citrus paradisi [Houser1918, Beards1966, WilliaWa1988], Citrus reticulata [WilliaWa1988], Citrus sinensis [McKenz1956, McDani1968], Citrus trifoliata [Houser1918], Citrus triptera [Balach1928b], Evodia roxburghiana [Takaha1929], Feronia elephantum [RahmanAn1941], Glycosmis pentaphylla [Merril1953], Xanthoxylum americanum [Balach1932d]. Salicaceae: Salix babylonica [Hall1923]. Santalaceae: Santalum austrocaledonicum [Cohic1958, WilliaWa1988]. Sapindaceae: Blighia sapida [GomezM1941], Dodonaea viscosa [Cohic1958, WilliaWa1988]. Sapotaceae: Palaquium formosanum [Takaha1929]. Strelitziaceae: Ravenala madagascariensis [Mamet1959a], Strelitzia augusta [Balach1927, Balach1932d], Strelitzia reginae [Zimmer1948]. Theaceae: Camellia japonica [MerrilCh1923, McKenz1956], Cleyera ochnacea [Takaha1929], Thea [Mamet1951, Borchs1966], Thea chinensis [Takaha1929], Thea japonica [Takaha1929]. Verbenaceae: Duranta plumieri [Hall1923, Mamet1943a, Mamet1949, Borchs1966], Premna [WilliaWa1988]. Vitaceae: Vitis [Balach1948b], Vitis vinifera [Hall1922, GomezM1941, Almeid1971]. Zamiaceae: Zamia [MerrilCh1923, Green1914d, Mamet1943a, Merril1953, Borchs1966], Zamia pumila [Houser1918].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Comoros [Matile1978]; Guinea [Leonar1914, Balach1956]; Kenya [DeLott1967a, Schmut1998]; Madagascar [Mamet1951, Mamet1954, Mamet1959a, Borchs1966]; Mauritius [GrandpCh1899, Mamet1943a, Mamet1949]; Mozambique [Almeid1971]; Reunion [Mamet1957, GermaiMiPa2014]; Rodriques Island [Mamet1954a, Borchs1966]; Seychelles [Green1907, Green1914d, Mamet1943a]; South Africa [BrainKe1917, Brain1919, Balach1956, RosenDe1979, Bedfor1989]; Tanzania [Balach1956, Mamet1956, Borchs1966]; Uganda [DeLott1967a]; Zaire [Balach1956]; Zanzibar [Green1916]; Zimbabwe [Hall1928, Balach1956]. Australasian: Australia (Northern Territory [Green1914c], Queensland [Frogga1914, Brimbl1962a]); Bonin Islands (=Ogasawara-Gunto) [Kuwana1909a]; Federated States of Micronesia (Caroline Islands [Takaha1941b], Ponape Island [Beards1966]); Fiji [WilliaWa1988]; French Polynesia (Tahiti [DoaneHa1909]); Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii [Zimmer1948]); Indonesia (Java [Green1904a]); Kiribati [WilliaWa1988]; New Caledonia [Cohic1958, WilliaWa1988]; Papua New Guinea [WilliaWa1988]; Tuvalu [WilliaWa1988]; Western Samoa [Green1923, Laing1927]. Nearctic: Mexico [Cocker1899n, MyartsRu2000] (Baja California Norte [Ferris1921, FerrisKe1923], Tamaulipas [LunaSaMa1995]); United States of America (Alabama [BesheaTiHo1973], California [McKenz1956, Dekle1965c], Florida