Family Coccidae


Acantholecanium Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Acantholecanium Borchsenius, 1949b: 339. Type species: Ctenochiton haloxyloni Hall, by monotypy and original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition of the genus has been given by Borchsenius (1949b, 1950b, 1957), Ezzat & Hussein (1969), Tang (1991) and by Hodgson (1994a).

SYSTEMATICS: Subfamily: Coccinae. Tribe: Saissetiini.

KEYS: Borchsenius 1957: 203, 285, 291 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 4]; Borchs1949b [taxonomy, description: 339-340]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description: 153]; Borchs1957 [taxonomy, description: 308]; EzzatHu1969 [taxonomy, description: 374]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description: 93-96]; LeeWuSu2012 [description, distribution: 157]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 1]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description: 147-148].



Acantholecanium haloxyloni (Hall)

NOMENCLATURE:

Ctenochiton haloxyloni Hall, 1926a: 17. Type data: EGYPT: Suez Road (between 5th and 6th Towers), on Haloxylon schweinfurthii. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Ctenochiton halyxyloni; Archangelskaya, 1930: 81. Misspelling of species name.

Ctenochiton haloxyli Lindinger, 1932f: 197. Unjustified emendation; discovered by Ben-Dov, 1993: 4.

Acantholecanium haloxyloni; Borchsenius, 1949b: 340. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Chenopodiaceae: Haloxylon articulatum [Bodenh1935], Haloxylon schweinfurthii [Hall1926a, Hall1927b, EzzatHu1969, Hodgso1994a], Hammada salicornia [BenDov1971], Noaea mucronata [Moghad2013a], Salsola richteri [Archan1930, Borchs1957, Potaev1993], Suaeda vermiculata [Balach1930a, Borchs1957].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Egypt [Hall1926a, Hall1927b, Balach1930c, EzzatHu1969, Hodgso1994a]; Iran [Moghad2009, Moghad2013a]; Israel [Bodenh1935]; Jordan; Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan); Turkmenistan (Ashkahabad Oblast [Archan1930, Potaev1993]).

BIOLOGY: Lives on roots of the host plants.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Ezzat & Hussein (1969), Tang (1991) and by Hodgson (1994a). Description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1957).

STRUCTURE: General appearance. "Adult female broadly ovate to circular in outline, highly convex almost hemispherical. Ventral surface flat. Margin with a series of stout rays some of which are often broken off in old adults. Dorsum rugose with a submarginal suture that runs posteriorly into the anal plates. Dorsum with waxy plates each plate being mound shaped and surmounted by a little irregularly shaped glassy mass suggesting granulated sugar. The plates themselves appear to have some sort of arrangement but this is obscure. The granular masses surmounting the plates give a characteristic appearance. Anal plates dark brown. General colouration of dorsum grey with a tinge of yellow green, in some specimens pink. Old adult females turn darker in colour." (Hall, 1926a).

KEYS: Mohammad & Moharum 2013: 146-148 (female) [Key to species and subspecies of family coccidae in Egypt]; Ezzat & Hussein 1969: 372 (female) [Egypt].

CITATIONS: Archan1930 [host, distribution: 81]; Balach1930c [host, distribution: 120]; BenDov1971 [host, distribution: 24]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 4]; BenDov2012 [catalogue, distribution, host: 24,42]; Bodenh1935 [host, distribution: 250]; Bodenh1937 [host, distribution: 219]; Borchs1949b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 308-310]; Borchs1950b [host, distribution: 153]; Borchs1957 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution : 308-310]; EzzatHu1969 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 374-376]; EzzatNa1987 [distribution: 86]; Hall1926a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 17-18]; Hall1927b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 137-138]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 93-96]; Hosny1939 [host, distribution: 12-13]; KozarWa1985 [catalogue: 76]; Lindin1932f [taxonomy: 197]; Moghad2009 [host, distribution: 3]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 7]; MohammGh2008 [distribution: 149]; MohammMo2013 [illustration, taxonomy: 146, 152]; Potaev1993 [host, distribution: 35, 37]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 148].



Acanthopulvinaria Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Acanthopulvinaria Borchsenius, 1952: 301. Type species: Pulvinaria orientalis Nasonov, by original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters given by Borchsenius (1952a; 1957), Ezzat & Hussein (1969), Hadzibejli (1983), Tang (1991) and by Hodgson (1994a).

SYSTEMATICS: Subfamily: Coccinae. Tribe: Pulvinariini.

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 4]; Borchs1952a [taxonomy, description: 301-302]; Borchs1957 [taxonomy, description: 285]; CebeciSe2004 [taxonomy: 212]; EzzatHu1969 [taxonomy, description: 376]; GavrilTr2008a [taxonomy, chromosomes: 131-138]; Hadzib1983 [taxonomy, description: 122-123]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description: 96-99]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 2]; Tang1991 [taxonomy: 271]; Tao1999 [taxonomy: 51].



Acanthopulvinaria orientalis (Nasonov)

NOMENCLATURE:

Pulvinaria orientalis Nasonov, 1908: 493. Type data: USSR: Syr-Darjensi Province, on Haloxylon ammodendri. Syntypes, female and first instar. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female and first instar.

Pulvinaria discoidalis Hall, 1923: 16. Type data: EGYPT: Suez Road, at the 7th Tower, on an undetermined plant. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Synonymy by Gavrilov, 2007b: 863.

Acanthopulvinaria discoidalis; Borchsenius, 1952: 301. Change of combination.

Acanthopulvinaria orientalis; Borchsenius, 1952: 301. Change of combination.

Rhizopulvinaria iljiniae Danzig, 1972b: 341. Type data: MONGOLIA: Bayan-Khongorsk Aymak, Yekhin-Gol Oasis, on Iljinia regelii. Holotype female. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female. Synonymy by Danzig, 1974: 70.



HOSTS: Amaranthaceae: Halocnemum strobilaceum [Moghad2013a]. Asteraceae: Achillea sp. [Moghad2013a], Artemisia [Archan1930, Borchs1957]. Chenopodiaceae: Anabasis aphilla [Borchs1957, Mateso1968], Anabasis articulata [Hall1927b], Haloxylon [Bodenh1929, Danzig1974], Haloxylon articulatum [Hall1927b, Bodenh1935], Haloxylon schweinfurthii [Hall1926a, Hall1927b], Iljinia regelii [Danzig1972a], Kochia [Hadzib1977], Noaea mucronata [Potaev1993, MoghadTa2010, KaydanKo2010], Salsola [Hodgso1994a], Salsola ericoides [Hadzib1977], Salsola glauca [Archan1930, Borchs1957], Salsola oppositifolia [Moghad2013a], Salsola richteri [Borchs1957, Potaev1993]. Euphorbiaceae: Orbicularia [Hodgso1994a]. Rosaceae: Prunus lycioides [Moghad2013a]. Tamaricaceae: Reaumuria [Hadzib1977], Tamarix sp. [Moghad2013a]

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Afghanistan [KozarFoZa1996]; China; Cyprus [SismanUl2010]; Egypt [Hall1923, Hall1926a, Hall1927b, EzzatHu1969]; Georgia; Iran [KozarFoZa1996, Moghad2009, MoghadTa2010]; Israel [Bodenh1935]; Kazakhstan [Hodgso1994a]; Mongolia; Russia (Volgograd Oblast [Gavril2004]); Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan); Turkey [KaydanUlTo2002, CebeciSe2004, KaydanUlEr2007, KaydanKo2010]; Turkmenistan [Bustsh1960, Hodgso1994a] (Ashkahabad Oblast [Archan1930] (Kopet-Dag.)); Uzbekistan.

BIOLOGY: Lives on roots of the host plant.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Ezzat & Hussein (1969), Hadzibejli (1983), Tang (1991), Hodgson (1994a) and by Gavrilov (2007b). Description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1957).

STRUCTURE: "Dried specimens of the adult female approximately circular, discoid with a distinct raised elongate oval area with a flattened surface situated longitudinally. Colour dark brown, dorsum obscurely spotted with a very little white secretionary matter giving a somewhat regular mottled appearance. Ovisac large, approximately circular with matted surface." (Hall, 1923).

SYSTEMATICS: Gavrilov (2011a) suspects that Acanthopulvinaria orientalis may contain 2 different cryptic species, one in Russia and the other in Turkey.

KEYS: Mohammad & Moharum 2013: 146-148 (female) [Key to species and subspecies of family coccidae in Egypt]; Ezzat & Hussein 1969: 373 (female) [Egypt]; Borchsenius 1957: 285 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: Archan1930 [host, distribution: 80-81]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 4-5]; BenDov2012 [catalogue, distribution, host: 24, 43]; Bodenh1929 [host, distribution: 110-111]; Bodenh1935 [host, distribution: 249]; Bodenh1937 [host, distribution: 218]; Borchs1937 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 77-79]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy: 152]; Borchs1952 [taxonomy: 301]; Borchs1957 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 285-287]; Bustsh1960 [host, distribution: 170]; CebeciSe2004 [host, distribution: 213]; Danzig1972b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 340-341, 343]; Danzig1974 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 70]; EzzatHu1969 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 376-378]; EzzatNa1987 [distribution: 86]; Gavril2004 [host, distribution: 527]; Gavril2007b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, cytogenetics: 863-868]; Gavril2011a [cytogenetics: 385]; GavrilTr2008a [taxonomy, chromosomes: 131-138]; Hadzib1977 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 550]; Hadzib1983 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 123-125]; Hall1923 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 16]; Hall1926a [host, distribution: 31]; Hall1927b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 140-141]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 96-99]; KaydanKo2010 [host, distribution: 196]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 91]; KaydanUlTo2002 [host, distribution: 253-257]; Kiritc1935 [host, distribution: 3]; Kiritc1936 [distribution: 70]; KozarFoZa1996 [host, distribution: 65]; KozarWa1985 [catalogue: 76]; Mateso1968 [host, distribution: 122]; Moghad2009 [host, distribution: 4]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 7]; MoghadTa2010 [host, distribution: 31]; MohammGh2008 [distribution: 149]; MohammMo2013 [distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 147, 155]; Nasono1909 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 493]; Potaev1993 [host, distribution: 34, 37]; RzaevaYa1985 [biological control: 55-58]; SismanUl2010 [host, distribution: 219-224]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 271-273]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 51]; Yang1982 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 178, 191].



Akermes Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Akermes Cockerell, 1902i: 89. Type species: Akermes bruneri Cockerell, by monotypy and original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by De Lotto (1965a), Hodgson (1994a), Granara de Willink (1999), Kondo & Williams (2005a) and by Kondo & Williams (2005b).

SYSTEMATICS: Subfamily: Myzolecaniinae. Tribe: Myzolecaniini.

KEYS: Kondo 2013: 40-41 (female) [Key to genera of the Toumeyella-group based on adult females]; Kondo 2011: 3-4 (female) [Key to genera of New World Myzolecaniinae based on adult females]; Kondo & Williams 2009: 13-14 (female) [Genera of New World Myzolecaniinae]; Granara de Willink 1999: 24 (female) [Argentina].

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [taxonomy: 19]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 5]; Cocker1902i [catalogue: 89-90]; Cocker1902p [catalogue: 254]; DeLott1965a [taxonomy: 178]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 178]; Granar1999 [taxonomy, description: 27-28]; GullanSt1996 [taxonomy: 310]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description: 99-102]; Kondo2010b [taxonomy: 4]; Kondo2013 [taxonomy: 41]; KondoWi2005a [taxonomy, description: 71-77]; KondoWi2005b [taxonomy: 78]; KondoWi2009 [taxonomy: 13-14]; Mamet1949 [taxonomy: 21]; Miller1996 [taxonomy: 69]; Morris1922 [taxonomy: 143]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 5].



Akermes bruneri Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Akermes bruneri Cockerell, 1902i: 89. Type data: PARAGUAY: San Bernardino, on a spiny plant, probably leguminous. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA.



HOSTS: Ulmaceae: Celtis [Hodgso1994a], Celtis tala [Lizery1939, Hodgso1994a, Granar1999].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina (Cordoba [Hodgso1994a, Granar1999], Misiones [KondoWi2005a], San Luis [Granar1999], Tucuman [Granar1999]); Paraguay [Fernal1903b, Lizery1939, KondoWi2005a]; Uruguay [DeLott1968a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by De Lotto (1968a), Hodgson (1994a) and by Granara de Willink (1999). Description and illustration of first instar nymph by Kondo & Williams (2005a).

KEYS: Granara de Willink 1999: 28 (female) [Argentina].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 5]; Cocker1902i [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 89-90]; Cocker1902p [distribution: 254]; DeLott1968a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 83-84]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 178]; Granar1999 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 28-30]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 99-102]; KondoWi2005a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 71-77]; Lizery1939 [host, distribution: 186]; Willia1985a [taxonomy: 223].



Akermes colombiensis Kondo & Williams

NOMENCLATURE:

Akermes colombiensis Kondo & Williams, 2004: 138. Type data: COLOMBIA: Valie, El Topacio, on plant of Melastomataceae, inside ant cartons of Myrmelachista sp.; collected T. Kondo, 13.xii.1999. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA; type no. 0932000. Described: female and first instar. Illust.



HOSTS: Lauraceae: Ocotea [KondoWi2004], Persea [KondoWi2004]. Melastomataceae [KondoWi2004]. Myrtaceae: Psidium guajava [KondoWi2004].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Colombia [KondoWi2004].

BIOLOGY: This species was found in Colombia in ant cartons of ants belonging to the genera Myrmelachista, Azteca and Crematogaster (Kondo & Williams, 2004).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female and first instar by Kondo & Williams (2004).

CITATIONS: KondoWi2004 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 137-141]; TanakaKo2015 [distribution: 112].



Akermes cordiae Morrison

NOMENCLATURE:

Akermes cordiae Morrison, 1929: 45. Type data: PANAMA: Canal Zone, Ancon; collected on Cordia alliodora. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA.



HOST: Boraginaceae: Cordia alliodora [Morris1929].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Panama.

BIOLOGY: Develops in hollow swellings of the host and attended by the ant Cryptocerus sp. (Morrison, 1929).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Morrison (1929).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 6]; Morris1929 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 45-48]; Willia2001 [distribution: 225-227].



Akermes levis (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium scrobiculatum leve Maskell, 1896b: 392. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Sydney, on Acacia longifolia. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female.

Akermes levis; Cockerell, 1902k: 453. Change of combination and rank.

Lecanium levis; Froggatt, 1915: 608. Change of combination.

Akermes levis; Ben-Dov, 1993: 6. Revived combination.



HOST: Fabaceae: Acacia longifolia [Frogga1915].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Frogga1915]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Froggatt (1915).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 6]; Cocker1902k [taxonomy: 453]; DeitzTo1980 [taxonomy: 29]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 178]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 608]; Maskel1896b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 391-392].



Akermes monilis (Cockerell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium monile Cockerell, 1895s: 203. Type data: BRAZIL: Sao Paulo, on undetermined tree. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Akermes monilis; Cockerell, 1902k: 453. Change of combination.

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Sao Paulo [Cocker1895s, Iherin1897, Fernal1903b]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Hempel (1900a).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 6]; Cocker1895s [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 203]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 332]; Cocker1902k [taxonomy: 453]; Cocker1902p [distribution: 254]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 178]; Hempel1900a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 446]; Iherin1897 [distribution: 406].



Akermes montanus (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium montanum Green, 1908a: 30. Type data: INDIA: Janusai, Himalayas, on an undetermined shrub. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Akermes montanus; Sanders, 1909b: 46. Change of combination.

Coccus montanus; Lindinger, 1910: 130. Change of combination.

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: India [Green1908a, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989].

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [host, distribution: 19]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 6]; Green1908a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 30-31]; Ramakr1921a [host, distribution: 350]; Sander1909a [host, distribution: 46]; ShafeeYoKh1989 [host, distribution: 47]; Varshn2005 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 151]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 32].



Akermes punctatus (Cockerell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium punctatum Cockerell, 1895m: 194. Type data: GRENADA: Botanic Gardens, on Citrus medica var. acida. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Akermes punctatus; Cockerell, 1902k: 453. Change of combination.



HOST: Rutaceae: Citrus medica acida [Cocker1895s].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Grenada.

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 6]; Cocker1895m [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 194-195]; Cocker1902k [taxonomy: 453]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 178].



Akermes riograndensis Hempel

NOMENCLATURE:

Akermes riograndensis Hempel, 1932: 331. Type data: BRAZIL: Rio Grande do Sul, Lavras, on Schinus dependens. Syntypes, female. Type depository: IBSP.

Mesolecanium riograndense; Lindinger, 1957: 544. Change of combination.

Akermes riograndensis; Ben-Dov, 1993: 6. Revived combination.



HOST: Anacardiaceae: Schinus dependens [Hempel1932, SilvadGoGa1968, CorseuBa1971].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil [SilvadGoGa1968] (Rio Grande do Sul [Hempel1932]).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 6-7]; CorseuBa1971 [host, distribution: 237]; Hempel1932 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 331-332]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 544]; SilvadGoGa1968 [host, distribution: 135]; Vernal1953 [host, distribution: 121-122].



Akermes scrobiculatus (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium scrobiculatum Maskell, 1893b: 221. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Whitton, on Acacia sp. Syntypes, both sexes. Type depositories: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK, Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: both sexes.

Lecanium pingue Maskell, 1895b: 58. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Bankstown near Sydney; on Dillwynia juniperina. Syntypes, female and first instar. Type depositories: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female and first instar. Synonymy by Froggatt, 1915: 612.

Lecanium scrobiculatum pingue; Maskell, 1896b: 392. Change of status.

Akermes pinguis; Cockerell, 1902k: 453. Change of combination and rank.

Akermes scrobiculatus; Fernald, 1903b: 178. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Fabaceae: Acacia decurrens [Frogga1915], Dillwynia juniperina [Frogga1915].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia [Cocker1896b] (New South Wales [Frogga1915]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Froggatt (1915).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 7]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 332]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 393]; Cocker1902k [taxonomy: 453]; DeitzTo1980 [taxonomy: 31]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 178]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 612]; GullanCo2007 [taxonomy: 413-425]; Maskel1893b [taxonomy, host, distribution: 221]; Maskel1895b [taxonomy, host, distribution: 58-59].



Akermes townsendi (Cockerell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium townsendi Cockerell, 1898j: 433. Type data: MEXICO: Frontera, Tabasco, on orange tree. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Akermes townsendi; Cockerell, 1902k: 453. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Rutaceae: Citrus [Cocker1898j, Cocker1898u], Citrus sinensis [Cocker1898j].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico [Cocker1899n]. Neotropical: Mexico (Tabasco [Cocker1898j]).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 7]; Cocker1898j [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 433]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 393]; Cocker1899n [distribution: 12]; Cocker1902k [taxonomy: 453]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 178]; Miller1996 [distribution: 69].



Akermes verrucosus (Signoret)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium verrucosum Signoret, 1873a: 442. Type data: URUGUAY: Montevideo, on undetermined plant. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Vienna: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria. Described: female.

Saissetia (Megasaissetia) verrucosa; Cockerell, 1901e: 33. Change of combination.

Akermes verrucosus; Cockerell, 1902i: 90. Change of combination.

Mesolecanium verrucosum; Lindinger, 1957: 544. Change of combination.

Akermes verrucosus; Ben-Dov, 1993: 7. Revived combination.

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Uruguay.

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 7]; Cocker1894d [taxonomy: 311]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 331]; Cocker1901e [taxonomy: 33]; Cocker1902p [distribution: 254]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 179]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 544]; Signor1873a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 442-443].



Akermes xylosma Granara de Willink

NOMENCLATURE:

Akermes xylosma Granara de Willink, 1999: 30. Type data: ARGENTINA: Chaco, Resistencia, on undetermined host. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Buenos Aires: Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, Division Entomologia, Argentina. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Flacourtiaceae: Xylosma [Granar1999].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina (Chaco [Granar1999], Corrientes [Granar1999], La Rioja [Granar1999]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Granara de Willink (1999).

KEYS: Granara de Willink 1999: 28 (female) [Argentina].

CITATIONS: Granar1999 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 30-32].



Alecanium Morrison

NOMENCLATURE:

Alecanium Morrison, 1921: 648. Type species: Alecanium hirsutum Morrison, by monotypy and original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters given by Morrison (1921), Hodgson (1990; 1994a) and by Tang (1991).

SYSTEMATICS: Subfamily: Myzolecaniinae. Tribe: Myzolecaniini. Hodgson (2008) indicated morphological characters that distinguish this genus from Sterculicoccus Hodgson.

KEYS: Hodgson 2008: 59 (female) [Key to related genera,].

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [taxonomy: 20]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 7-8]; Hodgso1990 [taxonomy: 219-220]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description: 102-105]; Hodgso2008 [taxonomy, description: 58-59]; Kondo2010b [taxonomy: 4]; Morris1921 [taxonomy: 648]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 5]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description: 149].



Alecanium hirsutum Morrison

NOMENCLATURE:

Alecanium hirsutum Morrison, 1921: 648. Type data: SINGAPORE: Botanic Gardens, on Alsodeia echinocarpa. Holotype female, male and first instar. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA.



HOSTS: Annonaceae: Annona squamosa [Takaha1952, Ali1971]. Clusiaceae: Mesua [Takaha1952, Ali1971]. Fabaceae: Dialium laurinum [Takaha1952, Ali1971]. Myrtaceae: Eugenia aquea [Takaha1952, Ali1971]. Sterculiaceae: Theobroma cacao [YunusHo1980]. Violaceae: Alsodeia echinocarpa [Morris1921, Takaha1952, Ali1971, Hodgso1994a].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Malaysia [Takaha1952, Ali1971, YunusHo1980]; Singapore [Takaha1952, Ali1971, Hodgso1994a] (Botanic Gardens.).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Tang (1991) and by Hodgson (1994a).

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 20]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 7-8]; Hodgso1990 [taxonomy: 219]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 103-105]; Morris1921 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 648-653]; Takaha1952 [host, distribution: 17]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 149-150]; YunusHo1980 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control].



Alecanochiton Hempel

NOMENCLATURE:

Alecanochiton Hempel, 1921: 144. Type species: Alecanochiton marquesi Hempel, by monotypy and original designation.

Alecaniochiton Lindinger, 1937: 178. Unjustified emendation; discovered by Morrison & Morrison, 1966: 5.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters given by Hempel (1921) and by Hodgson (1994a).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 8]; Hempel1921 [taxonomy, description: 144]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description: 105-108]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 178]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 5-6].



Alecanochiton marquesi Hempel

NOMENCLATURE:

Alecanochiton marquesi Hempel, 1921: 144. Type data: BRAZIL: Sao Paulo, Angatuba, on Coffea sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil.



HOSTS: Bombacaceae: Melaleuca [SilvadGoGa1968]. Malvaceae: Gossypium [SilvadGoGa1968]. Oleaceae: Jasminum [SilvadGoGa1968]. Rubiaceae: Coffea [Hempel1921, SilvadGoGa1968]. Unknown: Lacuma caimito [Hodgso1994a].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil [SilvadGoGa1968, Hodgso1994a] (Rio de Janeiro; St. Antonio de Tauo.) (Sao Paulo); French Guiana [Hodgso1994a] (Lavaud; Kozon.).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson (1994a).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 8]; Hempel1921 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 144-145]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 106-108]; Kondo2013 [distribution, host: 44]; SilvadGoGa1968 [host, distribution: 136]; Vernal1953 [host, distribution: 122].



Alecanopsis Cockerell in Cockerell & Parrott

NOMENCLATURE:

Alecanopsis Cockerell in Cockerell & Parrott, 1901: 58. Type species: Lecanopsis filicum Maskell, by monotypy and original designation.

Alecaniopsis Lindinger, 1932f: 178. Unjustified emendation; discovered by Morrison & Morrison, 1966: 5.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by Morrison & Morrison (1922), Green (1924b) and by Hodgson (1994a). Morrison & Morrison (1922), Green (1924b)

SYSTEMATICS: Subfamily: Myzolecaniinae. Tribe: Myzolecaniini.

KEYS: Green 1924b: 41 (female).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 8]; CockerPa1901 [taxonomy, description: 58]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 211]; Green1924b [taxonomy: 41]; GullanSt1996 [taxonomy: 310]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description: 108-111]; Kondo2010b [taxonomy: 4]; Lindin1932f [taxonomy: 196]; MorrisMo1922 [taxonomy: 83-85]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 5-6].



Alecanopsis callitris (Froggatt)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium callitris Froggatt, 1925: 379. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Forbes, on Callitris calcarata. Syntypes, female. Type depository: NSWA. Described: female.

Alecanopsis callitris; Froggatt, 1933: 365. Change of combination.



HOST: Cupressaceae: Callitris calcarata [Frogga1925].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Fernal1903b, Frogga1925]).

BIOLOGY: Occurs in cavities under the bark, in nests of the ant Podomyrma bimaculata (Froggatt, 1925).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description of adult female by Froggatt (1925).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 8]; Frogga1925 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 379-380]; Frogga1933 [taxonomy: 365].



Alecanopsis casuarinae (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium casuarinae Maskell, 1898: 240. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Victoria, Myrniong, on Casuarina sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female.

Alecanopsis (Lecanopsis) casuarinae; Froggatt, 1933: 364. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Asclepiadaceae: Woodia aspera [Frogga1933]. Casuarinaceae: Casuarina [Maskel1898, Frogga1933]. Cupressaceae: Frenela robusta [Frogga1915]. Proteaceae: Banksia integrifolia [Frogga1933], Grevillea robusta [Frogga1933].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Victoria [Frogga1915, Frogga1933]).

BIOLOGY: Found in deserted burrow of a wood moth in the centre of a stem of Casuarina (Maskell, 1898).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Froggatt (1915).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 8-9]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 394]; DeitzTo1980 [taxonomy: 27]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 605]; Frogga1933 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 364-365]; Maskel1898 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 240-242].



Alecanopsis dixoni (Froggatt)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium dixoni Froggatt, 1925: 379. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Victoria, Eltham, in stem of Loranthus sp. parasitic on Eucalyptus sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: NSWA. Described: female.

Alecanopsis dixoni; Froggatt, 1933: 365. Change of combination.



HOST: Loranthaceae: Loranthus [Frogga1925].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Victoria [Frogga1925]).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 9]; Frogga1925 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 379]; Frogga1933 [taxonomy: 365].



Alecanopsis eucalypti (Froggatt)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium eucalypti Froggatt, 1925: 378. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Dorrigo, Brooklana, on stem of Eucalyptus sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: NSWA. Described: female.

Alecanopsis eucalypti; Froggatt, 1933: 365. Change of combination.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus [Frogga1925].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Frogga1925]).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 9]; Frogga1925 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 378-379]; Frogga1933 [taxonomy: 365].



Alecanopsis filicum (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanopsis filicum Maskell, 1894b: 225. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Kurrajong Heights, near Richmond, on Doodia aspera. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Hodgson, 1994a: 111. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female.

Alecanopsis filicum; Cockerell & Parrott, 1901: 58. Change of combination.



HOST: Blechnaceae: Doodia aspera [Maskel1894b, Fernal1903b, Hodgso1994a].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia [Hodgso1994a] (New South Wales [Fernal1903b, Frogga1915]).

BIOLOGY: Lives on roots of the host plant (Maskell, 1894a).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Morrison & Morrison (1922) and by Hodgson (1994a).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 9]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 333]; CockerPa1901 [taxonomy: 58]; DeitzTo1980 [taxonomy: 28]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 211]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 755]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 108-111]; LinGuCo2010 [host plants: 90-98]; Maskel1894a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 225-226]; Maskel1895a [distribution: 17]; MorrisMo1922 [taxonomy: 83-85].



Alecanopsis grandis Green

NOMENCLATURE:

Alecanopsis grandis Green, 1924b: 44. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Bundarra, on a fern rhizome. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK.



HOST: Pterodiphyta [Green1924b].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales).

BIOLOGY: Found in a burrow in the rhizome made by the ant Camponotus intrepidus (Green, 1924b).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Green (1924b).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 9]; Green1924b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 44-45].



Alecanopsis mirus Green

NOMENCLATURE:

Alecanopsis mirus Green, 1924b: 42. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Queensland, Townsville, from nests of Crematogaster australis. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK.

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Queensland).

BIOLOGY: Collected from nests of the ant Crematogaster australis (Green, 1924b).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Green (1924b).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 9]; Green1924b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 42-44].



Alecanopsis tenuis Green

NOMENCLATURE:

Alecanopsis tenuis Green, 1924b: 41. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Victoria, Beaumaris, on Banksia integrifolia. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK.



HOST: Proteaceae: Banksia integrifolia [Green1924b].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Victoria).

BIOLOGY: Found in hollows in the stem of the host plant (Green, 1924b).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Green (1924b).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 9-10]; Green1924b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 41-42].



Alichtensia Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Alichtensia Cockerell, 1902k: 451. Type species: Lichtensia attenuata Hempel, by original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters given by Hodgson (1994a) and by Granara de Willink (1999).

SYSTEMATICS: Subfamily: Filippiinae.

KEYS: Granara de Willink 1999: 24 (female) [Argentina].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 10]; Cocker1902k [taxonomy, description: 451]; Cocker1902p [catalogue: 253]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 163]; Granar1999 [taxonomy, description: 32-33]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description: 111-114]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 6].



Alichtensia argentina (Leonardi)

NOMENCLATURE:

Pulvinaria argentina Leonardi, 1911: 260. Type data: ARGENTINA: Mendoza, Cacheuta, on Lycium chilense; collected by Lahille. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Granara de Willink, 1999: 38. Type depository: Tucuman: Fundacion e Instituto Miguel Lillo, Universidade Nactional de Tucuman, Argentina. Described: female. Illust.

Ceroplastodes misiones Morrison, 1919: 81. Type data: ARGENTINA: Bomplana, Misiones, on undetermined plant. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Granara de Willink, 1999: 34.

Alichtensia misiones; Lizer y Trelles, 1942: 71. Change of combination.

Alichtensia argentina; Granara de Willink, 1999: 34. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Baccharis [Lizery1939], Baccharis dracunculifolia [Lizery1942], Baccharis oxyodonta [Lizery1939]. Solanaceae: Cestrum parqui [Lizery1939], Fabiana denudata [Sassce1912, Lizery1939], Lycium chilense [Leonar1911, Sassce1912], Nicotiana cavanillesii [Lizery1939]. Vitaceae: Parthenocissus [Granar1999].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina [Sassce1912] (Buenos Aires [Granar1999], Cordoba [Granar1999], Entre Rios [Granar1999], Mendoza [Granar1999], Misiones [Granar1999], Santiago del Estero [Granar1999], Tucuman [Granar1999]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Granara de Willink (1999).

KEYS: Granara de Willink 1999: 33 (female) [Argentina].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 62, 250-251]; Granar1999 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 34-38]; Leonar1911 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 260-262]; Lizery1939 [host, distribution: 187, 198]; Lizery1942 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 71-72]; Morris1919 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 81-82]; Sassce1912 [host, distribution: 87].



Alichtensia attenuata (Hempel)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lichtensia attenuata Hempel, 1900a: 494. Type data: BRAZIL: Sao Paulo, Ypiranga, on Baccharis genistelloides var. trimera. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil. Described: female.

Alichtensia attenuata; Cockerell, 1902k: 451. Change of combination.

Alichtensia attenuata; Hempel, 1912: 35. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Baccharis [SilvadGoGa1968], Baccharis genistelloides trime [Hempel1900a, Hodgso1994a], Baccharis genistelloides [SilvadGoGa1968].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil [SilvadGoGa1968, Hodgso1994a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson (1994a).

KEYS: Hodgson & Matile-Ferrero 2002: 112 (female) [South America].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 10]; Cocker1902k [taxonomy: 451]; Cocker1902p [distribution: 253]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 163]; Hempel1900a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 494-495]; Hempel1901a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 105-106]; Hempel1912 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 35]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 111-114]; HodgsoMa2002 [taxonomy: 112]; SilvadGoGa1968 [host, distribution: 136]; Vernal1953 [host, distribution: 122-123].



Alichtensia couturieri Hodgson & Matile-Ferrero

NOMENCLATURE:

Alichtensia couturieri Hodgson & Matile-Ferrero, 2002: 109. Type data: PERU: Iquitos, Quistococha, on Psidium guajava; collected G. Couturier, 20.3.1992. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France; type no. 12156-1. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Psidium guajava [HodgsoMa2002].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Peru [HodgsoMa2002].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Hodgson & Matile-Ferrero (2002).

KEYS: Hodgson & Matile-Ferrero 2002: 112 (female) [South America].

CITATIONS: HodgsoMa2002 [host, distribution, taxonomy, description, illustration: 109-112].



Alichtensia orientalis Lahille

NOMENCLATURE:

Alichtensia orientalis Lahille, 1924: 105. Type data: URUGUAY: Colonia, on Baccharis refracta. Syntypes, female, male and first instar. Type depository: Montevideo: Defensa Agricola, Uruguay.



HOSTS: Apocynaceae: Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco [Granar1999]. Asteraceae: Baccharis [Granar1999], Baccharis refracta [Lahill1924], Senecio [Granar1999].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina (Buenos Aires [Granar1999], Catamarca [Granar1999], Entre Rios [Granar1999], Jujuy [Granar1999], Santiago del Estero [Granar1999]); Uruguay.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Granara de Willink (1999).

KEYS: Granara de Willink 1999: 34 (female) [Argentina].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 10]; Granar1999 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 38-40]; Lahill1924 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 105-108].



Alichtensia simillima (Cockerell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lichtensia simillima Cockerell, 1902i: 90. Type data: ARGENTINA: General Acha, on a shrubby plant. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA, and London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Alichtensia simillima; Granara de Willink, 1999: 40. Change of combination.

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina [Granar1999] (La Pampa [Granar1999]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Granara de Willink (1999).

KEYS: Granara de Willink 1999: 33 (female) [Argentina].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 163]; Cocker1902i [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 90]; Cocker1902p [distribution: 253]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 145]; Granar1999 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 40-42]; Lizery1939 [host, distribution: 187]; Willia1985a [taxonomy: 229].



Alichtensia spinulosa (Leonardi)

NOMENCLATURE:

Luzulaspis spinulosa Leonardi, 1911: 262. Type data: ARGENTINA: Cacheuta, on Atriplex lampa. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Granara de Willink, 1999: 44. Type depository: Portici: Dipartimento de Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria di Portici, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Italy. Described: female.

Alichtensia spinulosa; Granara de Willink, 1999: 42. Change of combination.



HOST: Chenopodiaceae: Atriplex lampa [Leonar1911, Sassce1912, Granar1999].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina (Mendoza [Sassce1912, Granar1999]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Granara de Willink (1999).

KEYS: Granara de Willink 1999: 34 (female) [Argentina].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 169]; Granar1999 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 42-44]; Koteja1978 [taxonomy: 325]; Leonar1911 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 262-264]; Lizery1939 [host, distribution: 187]; Sassce1912 [host, distribution: 87].



Alichtensia ultima Granara de Willink

NOMENCLATURE:

Alichtensia ultima Granara de Willink, 1999: 45. Type data: ARGENTINA: Santiago del Estero, Ro Hondo, on Baccharis. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Tucuman: Fundacion e Instituto Miguel Lillo, Universidade Nactional de Tucuman, Argentina. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Asteraceae: Baccharis [Granar1999].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina (Santiago del Estero [Granar1999]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Granara de Willink (1999).

KEYS: Granara de Willink 1999: 34 (female) [Argentina].

CITATIONS: Granar1999 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 45-46].



Allopulvinaria Brain

NOMENCLATURE:

Allopulvinaria Brain, 1920a: 16. Type species: Allopulvinaria subterranea Brain, by monotypy and original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters given by Hodgson (1994a).

SYSTEMATICS: Subfamily: Eulecaniinae.

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 10]; Brain1920a [taxonomy, description: 16]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy: 115-118]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 7].



Allopulvinaria subterranea Brain

NOMENCLATURE:

Allopulvinaria subterranea Brain, 1920a: 16. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Cape Province, Stellenbosch, Jonkershoek, on stems of 'quick' grass. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa.



HOST: Poaceae [Brain1920a, BenDov1993, Hodgso1994a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [Brain1920a, Hodgso1994a] (Stellenbosch, Jonkershoek.).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson (1994a).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 10]; Brain1920a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 16]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 115-118].



Anapulvinaria Borchsenius

NOMENCLATURE:

Anapulvinaria Borchsenius, 1952a: 300. Type species: Pulvinaria pistaciae Bodenheimer, by monotypy and original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters given by Borchsenius (1952a; 1957), Hadzibejli (1983), Tang (1991) and by Hodgson (1994a).

SYSTEMATICS: Subfamily: Coccinae. Tribe: Pulvinariini. Ben-Dov (1993) regarded this genus as a subjective synonym of Pulvinaria.

KEYS: Borchsenius 1957: 203 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 10]; Borchs1952a [taxonomy, description: 300]; Borchs1957 [taxonomy, description: 282-283]; Hadzib1983 [taxonomy, description: 120]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy: 118-121]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 9]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description: 273]; Terezn1981 [taxonomy: 130].



Anapulvinaria pistaciae (Bodenheimer)

NOMENCLATURE:

Pulvinaria pistaciae Bodenheimer, 1926a: 189. Type data: ISRAEL: Mount Kana'an, Safad, on Pistacia palestina. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Ben-Dov & Harpaz, 1985: 26. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Anapulvinaria pistaciae; Borchsenius, 1952: 301. Change of combination.

Anapulvinaria pistaceae; Hadzibejli, 1977: 550. Misspelling of species name.

Anapulvinaria pistacia; Hadzibejli, 1983: 120. Misspelling of species name.

Pulvinaria pistaciae; Ben-Dov, 1993: 276. Revived combination.



FOE: HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Coccophagus lycimnia Walker [Bolu2012].

HOSTS: Anacardiaceae: Pistacia [Bodenh1943, TerGri1956, TerGri1962, AbuYam1970, Aziz1977], Pistacia khinjuk [Bodenh1944b], Pistacia mutica [Kiritc1931], Pistacia palestina [Bodenh1926a, AbuYam1970, Hodgso1994a], Pistacia terebinthus [BenDov2012], Pistacia vera [Bodenh1943, AbuYam1970, Argyri1983, Potaev1993], Rhus coriaria [Danzig1972b]. Juglandaceae: Juglansss regia [Moghad2013a]. Tamaricaceae: Tamarix sp. [Moghad2013a]

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Afghanistan [Siddiq1966, KozarFoZa1996]; Armenia [TerGri1956, TerGri1962]; Azerbaijan [BenDov1993]; Cyprus [BenDov1993]; Georgia; Greece [Argyri1983]; Iran [Bodenh1944b, Kaussa1957, KozarFoZa1996, Moghad2009]; Iraq [Bodenh1943, AbuYam1970, Aziz1977]; Israel [Bodenh1926a, Bodenh1935, BenDov1993, Hodgso1994a]; Kyrgyzstan (=Kirgizia); Syria; Tajikistan (=Tadzhikistan); Turkey [CebeciSe2004, KaydanUlEr2007, KaydanKo2010]; Turkmenistan [Potaev1993]; Ukraine (Krym (=Crimea) Oblast); Uzbekistan.

BIOLOGY: In Israel it develops on Pistacia palestina one annual generation. Nymphs develop on the twigs during summer and winter (June until April). In April-May the young females migrate to the new flush of leaves on which they reproduce (Ben-Dov, 1993). One annual generation was observed on Pistacia vera in Iraq (Abu-Yaman, 1970).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Davatchi (1958), Hadzibejli (1983), Tereznikova (1983), Tang (1991) and by Hodgson (1994a). Description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1957).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Abu-Yaman (1970) reported this species a pest of pistachio, Pistacia vera in Iraq, and studied its chemical control.

CITATIONS: AbuYam1970 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 242-247]; Argyri1983 [host, distribution: 365]; Aziz1977 [host, distribution: 46]; BenDov1971 [host, distribution: 29-30]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 276]; BenDov2012 [catalogue, distribution, host: 24,42]; Bodenh1926a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 189-191]; Bodenh1935 [host, distribution: 249]; Bodenh1937 [host, distribution: 218]; Bodenh1943 [host, distribution: 13]; Bodenh1944b [host, distribution: 89]; Bodenh1953a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 106-107]; Bolu2012 [biological control: 109]; Borchs1937 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 78]; Borchs1952a [taxonomy: 301]; Borchs1957 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 283-285]; CebeciSe2004 [host, distribution: 213]; Danzig1972 [host, distribution: 198-199]; Danzig1972c [host, distribution: 581-582]; Davatc1958 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 44-48]; Gavril2011a [cytogenetics: 386]; Georgh1977 [host, distribution: 148]; Hadzib1983 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 120-122]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 118-121]; Kaussa1957 [host, distribution: 1]; KaydanKo2010 [host, distribution: 197]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 91]; Kiritc1931 [host, distribution: 316]; Kiritc1932a [taxonomy: 265]; Kiritc1936 [distribution: 70]; KozarFoZa1996 [host, distribution: 65]; KozarWa1985 [catalogue: 76]; Moghad2009 [host, distribution: 4]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 7]; Peleka1962 [host, distribution: 61]; Potaev1993 [host, distribution: 34, 37]; Siddiq1966 [economic importance, host, distribution: 4-5]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 274-275]; Terezn1981 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 130-132]; TerGri1956 [host, distribution: 44]; TerGri1962 [host, distribution: 135]; Ulgent2003 [structure: 393-398]; YanikYuAk2001 [host, distribution: 301-309].



Anopulvinaria Fonseca

NOMENCLATURE:

Anopulvinaria Fonseca, 1972a: 195. Type species: Anopulvinaria cephalocarinata Fonseca, by monotypy and original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters given by Fonseca (1972a) and by Hodgson (1994a).

SYSTEMATICS: Subfamily: Filipiinae.

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 10]; Fonsec1972a [taxonomy, description: 195-196]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description: 121-124].



Anopulvinaria cephalocarinata Fonseca

NOMENCLATURE:

Anopulvinaria cephalocarinata Fonseca, 1972a: 195. Type data: BRAZIL: Rio Grande do Sul, Caxias do Sul., on Annona sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Anapulvinaria cephalocarinata; Foldi, 1991: 174. Misspelling of genus name.



HOST: Annonaceae: Annona [Fonsec1972a, Hodgso1994a].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul [Fonsec1972a, Hodgso1994a]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Fonseca (1972a) and by Hodgson (1994a).

STRUCTURE: Foldi (1991) gave a SEM micrograph of the tubular duct.

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 11]; Foldi1991 [structure: 174]; Fonsec1972a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 195-198]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 121-124].



Antandroya Mamet

NOMENCLATURE:

Antandroya Mamet, 1959a: 410. Type species: Antandroya euphorbiae Mamet, by original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters given by Mamet (1959a) and by Hodgson (1994a). Relationship to other families in the Cardiococcinae in Vea (2011).

SYSTEMATICS: Subfamily: Cardiococcinae. Tribe: Cardiococcini.

KEYS: Hodgson 1994a: 74 (female) [World].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 11]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description: 124-127]; Mamet1959a [taxonomy, description: 410-412]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 11]; Vea2011 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 13-14].



Antandroya euphorbiae Mamet

NOMENCLATURE:

Antandroya euphorbiae Mamet, 1959a: 412. Type data: MADAGASCAR: Faux Cap, on Euphorbia stenoclada. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France.



HOSTS: Euphorbiaceae: Euphorbia [Mamet1957, Mamet1959a, Hodgso1994a], Euphorbia oncoclada [Mamet1959a, Hodgso1994a], Euphorbia stenoclada [Mamet1959a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Madagascar [Mamet1959a, Hodgso1994a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Mamet (1959a) and by Hodgson (1994a). Description and illustration of the first-instar nymph given by Mamet (1959a).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 11]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 124-127]; Mamet1959a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 375,412-416]; Vea2011 [phylogeny, structure, taxonomy: 5-7].



Antandroya tulearensis Mamet

NOMENCLATURE:

Antandroya tulearensis Mamet, 1959a: 416. Type data: MADAGASCAR: Tulear, on Euphorbia sp. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France.



HOST: Euphorbiaceae: Euphorbia [Mamet1959a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Madagascar [Mamet1959a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Mamet (1959a).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 11]; Mamet1959a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 375,416-417].



Anthococcus Williams & Watson

NOMENCLATURE:

Anthococcus Williams & Watson, 1990: 61. Type species: Anthococcus keravatae Williams & Watson, by monotypy and original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters given by Williams & Watson (1990) and by Hodgson (1994a).

SYSTEMATICS: Subfamily: Coccinae. Tribe: Paralecaniini.

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 11]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description: 127-130]; WilliaWa1990 [taxonomy, description: 60-63].



Anthococcus keravatae Williams & Watson

NOMENCLATURE:

Anthococcus keravatae Williams & Watson, 1990: 63. Type data: PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Keravat, on Eugenia malaccensis. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK.



HOSTS: Annonaceae: Annona muricata [WilliaWa1990]. Fabaceae: Gliricidia [WilliaWa1990]. Moraceae: Artocarpus integrifolia [WilliaWa1990]. Myrtaceae: Eugenia malaccensis [WilliaWa1990, Hodgso1994a]. Rutaceae: Citrus [WilliaWa1990]. Sterculiaceae: Theobroma cacao [WilliaWa1990].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Papua New Guinea [Hodgso1994a] (Keravat.).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Williams & Watson (1990) and by Hodgson (1994a).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 11]; GillKo1997 [economic importance, host, distribution: 161-163]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 127-130]; WilliaWa1990 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 62-64,132-134].



Aphenochiton Henderson & Hodgson in Hodgson & Henderson

NOMENCLATURE:

Aphenochiton Henderson & Hodgson in Hodgson & Henderson, 2000: 57. Type species: Inglisia inconspicua Maskell, by original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters given by Hodgson & Henderson (2000).

KEYS: Hodgson & Henderson 2000: 22-23 (female) [Genera of New zealand]; Hodgson & Henderson 2000: 58 (female) [Species of New Zealand].

CITATIONS: HodgsoHe2000 [taxonomy, description: 57-58].



Aphenochiton chionochloae Henderson & Hodgson in: Hodgson & Henderson

NOMENCLATURE:

Aphenochiton chionochloae Henderson & Hodgson in: Hodgson & Henderson, 2000: 68. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: South Island, North Canterbury, Mt Oxford (1060 meters), on Chionochloa flavescens, 8 Feb. 1955, coll. W.R. Boyce. Holotype female. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand; type no. 90-214d. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Poaceae: Chionochloa flavescens [HodgsoHe2000].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (South Island [HodgsoHe2000]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson & Henderson (2000).

KEYS: Hodgson & Henderson 2000: 58 (female) [New Zealand].

CITATIONS: HodgsoHe2000 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 59,68-69].



Aphenochiton dierama Henderson & Hodgson in: Hodgson & Henderson

NOMENCLATURE:

Aphenochiton dierama Henderson & Hodgson in: Hodgson & Henderson, 2000: 69. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: South Island, North Canterbury, Arthur's Pass, under bark of Dracophyllum sp., 23 Jan 1983, coll. J.M. Cox. Holotype female. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand; type no. 161. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Epacridaceae: Dracophyllum [HodgsoHe2000].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (South Island [HodgsoHe2000]).

BIOLOGY: Likely to have only one generation a year (Hodgson & Henderson, 2000).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson & Henderson (2000).

KEYS: Hodgson & Henderson 2000: 58 (female) [New Zealand].

CITATIONS: HodgsoHe2000 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 60,69-70].



Aphenochiton grammicus Henderson & Hodgson in: Hodgson & Henderson

NOMENCLATURE:

Aphenochiton grammicus Henderson & Hodgson in: Hodgson & Henderson, 2000: 70. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: North Island, Taupo, Pureora Forest Lodge, on Dracophyllum subulatum, 10 Jan 1995, coll. R.C. Henderson. Holotype female. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand; type no. 95-012. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Epacridaceae: Dracophyllum subulatum [HodgsoHe2000].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (North Island [HodgsoHe2000]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson & Henderson (2000).

KEYS: Hodgson & Henderson 2000: 59 (female) [New Zealand].

CITATIONS: HodgsoHe2000 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 61,70-71].



Aphenochiton inconspicuus (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Inglisia inconspicua Maskell, 1892: 19. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: Reefton, on Corokia cotoneaster. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Hodgson & Henderson, 2000: 72. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand; type no. 95-018c. Described: female.

Aphenochiton inconspicuus; Hodgson & Henderson, 2000: 71. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Olearia nummularifolia [HodgsoHe2000]. Elaeocarpaceae: Aristotelia fruticosa [HodgsoHe2000]. Escalloniaceae: Corokia [HodgsoHe2000], Corokia cotoneaster [Maskel1892a]. Malvaceae: Plagianthus divaricatus [HodgsoHe2000]. Polygonaceae: Muehlenbeckia australia [HodgsoHe2000]. Rubiaceae: Coprosma [HodgsoHe2000], Coprosma propinqua [HodgsoHe2000]. Winteraceae: Pseudowintera colorata [HodgsoHe2000].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (South Island [Cocker1896b, HodgsoHe2000]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female in Hodgson & Henderson (2000).

STRUCTURE: See colour photograph in Hodgson & Henderson (2000).

KEYS: Hodgson & Henderson 2000: 58 (female) [New Zealand].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 148]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 330]; DeitzTo1980 [taxonomy: 29]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 162]; HenderRh2001 [taxonomy, structure : 1-14]; HodgsoHe2000 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 62,71-72]; Maskel1892 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 19-20]; Maskel1895a [distribution: 14]; Vea2011 [phylogeny, structure, taxonomy: 5-7,12]; Wise1977 [taxonomy, distribution: 105].



Aphenochiton kamahi Henderson & Hodgson in: Hodgson & Henderson

NOMENCLATURE:

Aphenochiton kamahi Henderson & Hodgson in: Hodgson & Henderson, 2000: 72. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: North Island, Gisborne, Kakanui, 300 meters, on Weinmannia racemosa, 30 April 1993, coll. R.C. Henderson. Holotype female. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand; type no. 93-284a. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Cunoniaceae: Weinmannia racemosa [HodgsoHe2000], Weinmannia silvicola [HodgsoHe2000].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (North Island [HodgsoHe2000], South Island [HodgsoHe2000]).

BIOLOGY: Probably develops one annual generation; overwintering as adult female; apparently restricted to Weinmannia spp. (Hodgson & Henderson, 2000).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson & Henderson (2000).

STRUCTURE: See colour photograph in Hodgson & Henderson (2000).

KEYS: Hodgson & Henderson 2000: 58 (female) [New Zealand].

CITATIONS: HodgsoHe2000 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 63,72-74].



Aphenochiton matai Henderson & Hodgson in: Hodgson & Henderson

NOMENCLATURE:

Aphenochiton matai Henderson & Hodgson in: Hodgson & Henderson, 2000: 74. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: North Island, Waikat, SF 97, Waimiha, (Te Kuiti), on Podocarpus spicatus, 1 October 1957, coll. R.C. Howie. Holotype female. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Podocarpaceae: Podocarpus spicatus [HodgsoHe2000].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (North Island [HodgsoHe2000]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson & Henderson (2000).

KEYS: Hodgson & Henderson 2000: 58 (female) [New Zealand].

CITATIONS: HodgsoHe2000 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 58,74-75].



Aphenochiton pronus Henderson & Hodgson in: Hodgson & Henderson

NOMENCLATURE:

Aphenochiton pronus Henderson & Hodgson in: Hodgson & Henderson, 2000: 75. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: North Island, Coromandel, Rock and Pillar Range, Summit Stonehenge, on leaves of Hebe pauciramosa, 2 December 1993, coll. B.H. Patrick. Holotype female. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand; type no. 93-375h. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Scrophulariaceae: Hebe pauciramosa [HodgsoHe2000].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (South Island [HodgsoHe2000]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson & Henderson (2000).

STRUCTURE: See colour photograph in Hodgson & Henderson (2000).

KEYS: Hodgson & Henderson 2000: 58 (female) [New Zealand].

CITATIONS: HodgsoHe2000 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 65, 75-76].



Aphenochiton pubens Henderson & Hodgson in: Hodgson & Henderson

NOMENCLATURE:

Aphenochiton pubens Henderson & Hodgson in: Hodgson & Henderson, 2000: 76. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: North Island, Auckland, Waitakere Range, Sharp Bush, on Mida salicifolia, 22 March 1998, coll. R.C. Henderson. Holotype female. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand; type no. 98-043d. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Griseliniaceae: Griselinia lucida [HodgsoHe2000]. Lauraceae: Beilshchmiedia tawa [HodgsoHe2000], Litsea calicaris [HodgsoHe2000]. Liliaceae: Cordyline banksii [HodgsoHe2000]. Monimiaceae: Hedycarya arborea [HodgsoHe2000]. Pittosporaceae: Pittosporum tenuifolium [HodgsoHe2000]. Podocarpaceae: Podocarpus totara [HodgsoHe2000]. Santalaceae: Mida salicifolia [HodgsoHe2000].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (North Island [HodgsoHe2000], South Island [HodgsoHe2000]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson & Henderson (2000).

STRUCTURE: See colour photograph in Hodgson & Henderson (2000).

KEYS: Hodgson & Henderson 2000: 58 (female) [New Zealand].

CITATIONS: HenderRh2001 [taxonomy, structure : 1-14]; HodgsoHe2000 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 66,76-78].



Aphenochiton subtilis Henderson & Hodgson in: Hodgson & Henderson

NOMENCLATURE:

Aphenochiton subtilis Henderson & Hodgson in: Hodgson & Henderson, 2000: 78. Type data: NEW ZEALAND: North Island, Auckland, Waitakere Range, Sharp Bush, on Mida salicifolia, 22 March 1998, coll. R.C. Henderson. Holotype female. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand; type no. 98-044a. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Araliaceae: Meryta sinclairii [HodgsoHe2000], Raukaua [HodgsoHe2000]. Monimiaceae: Hedycarya arborea [HodgsoHe2000]. Myrsinaceae: Elingamita [HodgsoHe2000]. Pittosporaceae: Pittosporum [HodgsoHe2000]. Santalaceae: Mida salicifolia [HodgsoHe2000].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: New Zealand (North Island [HodgsoHe2000], South Island [HodgsoHe2000], Three Kings Islands [Willia2013]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson & Henderson (2000).

STRUCTURE: Colour photograph in Hodgson & Henderson (2000).

KEYS: Hodgson & Henderson 2000: 58 (female) [New Zealand].

CITATIONS: HenderRh2001 [taxonomy, structure : 1-14]; HodgsoHe2000 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 58,78-79]; Willia2013 [distribution, host: 190].



Austrolecanium Gullan & Hodgson

NOMENCLATURE:

Austrolecanium Gullan & Hodgson, 1998: 199. Type species: Austrolecanium sassafras Gullan & Hodgson, by monotypy and original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters given by Gullan & Hodgson (1998).

SYSTEMATICS: Subfamily: Paralecaniini.

CITATIONS: GullanHo1998 [taxonomy, description: 197-217].



Austrolecanium cappari (Froggatt)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium cappari Froggatt, 1915: 604. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Gunnedah, on Capparis. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Gullan & Hodgson, 1998: 210. Type depository: Orange: Agricultural Scientific Collections Trust, New South Wales Agriculture, NSW, Australia. Described: female.

Platylecanium cappari; Ben-Dov, 1993: 237. Change of combination.

Austrolecanium cappari; Gullan & Hodgson, 1998: 210. Described: female and first instar. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Capparidaceae: Capparis [GullanHo1998], Capparis mitchelli [Frogga1915].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Frogga1915, GullanHo1998]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Gullan & Hodgson (1998). Description and illustration of the first-instar nymph given by Gullan & Hodgson (1998).

STRUCTURE: Live female dark chocolate brown with lighter-coloured edges to body when mature, of lighter coloration with yellow body margin when immature (Froggatt, 1915).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 237]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 604-605]; GullanHo1998 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 210-217].



Austrolecanium sassafras Gullan & Hodgson

NOMENCLATURE:

Austrolecanium sassafras Gullan & Hodgson, 1998: 202. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Yadboro State Forest, off Western Distributor Rd., on Carters Creek, on leaf of Doryphora sassafras. Holotype female and first instar. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia. Described: female and first instar.



HOST: Monimiaceae: Doryphora sassafras [GullanHo1998].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [GullanHo1998]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Gullan & Hodgson (1998). Description and illustration of the third-instar female nymph, second-instar female nymph, second-instar male nymph and first-instar nymph given by Gullan & Hodgson (1998).

STRUCTURE: Live female bright green with shiny dorsum, especially in mature female; young female partially transparent (Gullan & Hodgson, 1998).

CITATIONS: GullanCo2007 [taxonomy: 413-425]; GullanHo1998 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 197-217].



Austrolichtensia Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Austrolichtensia Cockerell, 1902k: 451. Type species: Lecanodiaspis hakearum Fuller, by monotypy and original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters given by Hodgson (1994a).

SYSTEMATICS: Subfamily: Filipiinae.

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 11]; Cocker1902k [taxonomy, description: 451]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 142]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description: 130-132]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 20].



Austrolichtensia hakearum (Fuller)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanodiaspis hakearum Fuller, 1897b: 1345. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Western Australia, Pinjarrah, on Hakea media. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Notes: Type material probably lost; Penny Gullan, 1990, personal communication to Yair Ben-Dov.

Lichtensia hakearum Fuller, 1899: 457. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Western Australia, Pinjarrah, on Hakea media. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Synonymy by Fuller, 1899: 458. Notes: Type material probably lost; P. Gullan, 1990, personal communication to Yair Ben-Dov.

Austrolichtensia hakearum; Cockerell, 1902k: 451. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Fabaceae: Acacia [Hodgso1994a]. Proteaceae: Hakea media [Fuller1899, Hodgso1994a].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Western Australia [Fuller1897b, Fuller1899, Frogga1915, Hodgso1994a] (Pinjarrah; Guildford.)).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson (1994a).

SYSTEMATICS: Fuller (1899) described the junior synonym, Lichtensia hakearum as a distinct species, however the type-data of the former were clearly identical with those of the senior synonym Lecanodiaspis hakearum Fuller, 1897.

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 12]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 395]; Cocker1902k [taxonomy: 451]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 142]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 420,754]; Fuller1897b [host, distribution: 1345]; Fuller1899 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 457-458]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 130-132].



Avricus De Lotto

NOMENCLATURE:

Avricus De Lotto, 1975: 61. Type species: Ceroplastodes psychotriae De Lotto, by original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters given by De Lotto (1975) and by Hodgson (1994a).

KEYS: De Lotto 1975: 62 (female) [Afrotropical].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 12]; DeLott1975 [taxonomy, description: 61-62]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description: 132-136].



Avricus adspersus (De Lotto)

NOMENCLATURE:

Ctenochiton adspersus De Lotto, 1958b: 165. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Transvaal, Nelspruit, on Trichilia roka. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Avricus adspersus; De Lotto, 1975: 62. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Euphorbiaceae: Antidesma venosum [Hodgso1969a]. Meliaceae: Melia [Hodgso1969a], Trichilia roka [DeLott1958b].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [DeLott1958b, Hodgso1969a]; Zimbabwe.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by De Lotto (1958b).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 12]; DeLott1958b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 165-167]; DeLott1975 [taxonomy, description: 62]; Hodgso1969a [host, distribution: 10-11].



Avricus amoenus (De Lotto)

NOMENCLATURE:

Ctenochiton amoenus De Lotto, 1958b: 168. Type data: ZIMBABWE: Melsetter, on Coffea arabica. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Avricus amoenus; De Lotto, 1975: 62. Change of combination.



HOST: Rubiaceae: Coffea arabica [DeLott1958b, Hodgso1969a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Zimbabwe [DeLott1958b, Hodgso1969a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by De Lotto (1958b).

CITATIONS: DeLott1958b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 168-169]; DeLott1975 [taxonomy, description: 62]; Hodgso1969a [host, distribution: 11]; Kondo2013 [distribution, host: 44].



Avricus arborescens (Laing)

NOMENCLATURE:

Ctenochiton arborescens Laing, 1928: 215. Nomen nudum.

Ctenochiton arborescens Laing, 1929a: 478. Type data: GHANA: Aburi, on Stenophylla coffee. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Avricus arborescens; De Lotto, 1975: 62. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Apocynaceae: Tabernaemontana [Laing1929a, DeLott1958b]. Loganiaceae: Strychnos angolensis [Hodgso1969a]. Rubiaceae: Coffea [Laing1929a, DeLott1958b], Coffea arabica [Laing1929a, DeLott1958b], Coffea canephora [DeLott1968a, Almeid1973b], Coffea robusta [Laing1929a, DeLott1958b], Coffea stenophylla [Laing1929a, DeLott1958b].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Angola [DeLott1968a, Almeid1973b]; Ethiopia; Ghana; Kenya [Laing1929a, DeLott1958b]; Sao Tome and Principe (Sao Tome [Laing1929a, DeLott1958b]); Sudan [Laing1929a, DeLott1958b]; Tanzania [Laing1929a, DeLott1958b]; Uganda [Laing1929a, DeLott1958b]; Zimbabwe [Hodgso1969a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by De Lotto (1958b).

CITATIONS: Almeid1973b [host, distribution: 4]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 12-13]; DeLott1958b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 169-171]; DeLott1968a [host, distribution: 83]; DeLott1975 [taxonomy, description: 62]; Hodgso1969a [host, distribution: 11]; Kondo2013 [distribution, host: 44]; Laing1928 [taxonomy: 215]; Laing1929a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 478-479].



Avricus castaneus (De Lotto)

NOMENCLATURE:

Ctenochiton castaneus De Lotto, 1958b: 171. Type data: KENYA: Thika, on Pistacia aethiopica. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Avricus castaneus; De Lotto, 1975: 62. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Anacardiaceae: Pistacia aethiopica [DeLott1958b]. Apocynaceae: Acokanthera schimperi [DeLott1958b].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Kenya [DeLott1958b].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by De Lotto (1958b).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 13]; DeLott1958b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 171-172]; DeLott1975 [taxonomy, description: 62].



Avricus pluvialis (Hodgson)

NOMENCLATURE:

Ctenochiton pluvialis Hodgson, 1969a: 11. Type data: ZIMBABWE: Victoria Falls, on Ficus capensis. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Avricus pluvialis; De Lotto, 1975: 62. Change of combination.



HOST: Moraceae: Ficus capensis [Hodgso1969a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Zimbabwe [Hodgso1969a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson (1969a).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 13]; DeLott1975 [taxonomy, description: 62]; Hodgso1969a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 11-13].



Avricus psychotriae (De Lotto)

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastodes psychotriae De Lotto, 1956b: 310. Type data: KENYA: Nairobi, on Psychotria nairobensis. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK.

Avricus psychotriae; De Lotto, 1975: 61. Change of combination.



HOST: Rubiaceae: Psychotria nairobensis [DeLott1956b, Hodgso1971, Hodgso1994a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Kenya [DeLott1956b, Hodgso1971, Hodgso1994a] (Nairobi.).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by De Lotto (1956b) and by Hodgson (1971; 1994a).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 13]; DeLott1956b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 310-312]; DeLott1975 [taxonomy, description: 62]; Hodgso1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 55-57]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 133-136].



Aztecalecanium Kondo & Williams

NOMENCLATURE:

Aztecalecanium Kondo & Williams, 2004: 5. Type species: Akermes colimae Cockerell, by monotypy and original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and definition by Kondo & Williams (2004).

KEYS: Kondo 2011: 3 (female) [Key to genera of New World Myzolecaniinae based on adult females]; Kondo & Williams 2009: 13-14 (female) [Genera of New World Myzolecaniinae].

CITATIONS: Kondo2010b [taxonomy: 4]; KondoWi2004 [taxonomy, description: 5-9]; KondoWi2009 [taxonomy: 13-14].



Aztecalecanium colimae (Cockerell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Akermes colimae Cockerell, 1903b: 47. Type data: MEXICO: Cualatan, Colima, on an undetermined tree. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA.

Aztecalecanium colimae; Kondo & Williams, 2004: 5. Change of combination.

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico (Colima [Cocker1903b, KondoWi2004]).

BIOLOGY: Attended by the ant, Azteca longiceps (Cockerell) - Dolichoderinae (Cockerell, 1903g; Kondo & Williams (2004).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female and first instar nymph by Kondo & Williams (2004). Description of adult female by Cockerell (1903g).

STRUCTURE: General appearance. "Female scale about 5 mm. long, ferruginous or coffee-colour, with a partial covering of a sort of snuff-coloured tomentum, which also covers the inside of the gall. They are shrunken, but appear to have been nearly globular. Anal plates small and corrugated, surrounded by a dark thickened area. The surface of the scale when seen with a lens appear dullish ferruginous, minutely marbled and spotted with black. No sign of any waxy or glassy secretion." (Cockerell, 1903b).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 5-6]; Cocker1903b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 47]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 178]; KondoWi2004 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 5-9]; Miller1996 [distribution: 69]; Willia1985a [taxonomy: 224].



Bodenheimera Bodenheimer

NOMENCLATURE:

Bodenheimera Bodenheimer, 1935: 251. Type species: Lecanium (Eulecanium) racheli Bodenheimer, by monotypy.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters given by Hodgson (1994a).

SYSTEMATICS: Subfamily: Filippiinae.

CITATIONS: BenDov1969 [taxonomy, description: 83-92]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 14]; Bodenh1935 [taxonomy: 251]; CebeciSe2004 [taxonomy: 218]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description: 143-151]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 24]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description: 150-151].



Bodenheimera rachelae (Bodenheimer)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium (Eulecanium) racheli Bodenheimer, 1924: 68. Type data: ISRAEL: Wadi Auje near Jericho, on Vitex agnus-castus. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Ben-Dov, 1980: 262. Type depository: Bet Dagan: Department of Entomology, The Volcani Center, Israel. Described: female.

Bodenheimera racheli; Bodenheimer, 1935: 251. Change of combination.

Bodenheimera rachelis Bodenheimer, 1943: 13. Unjustified emendation.

Bodenheimera rachelae; Ben-Dov, 1969: 70. Justified emendation.



FOES: COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Hyperaspis guttulata [Rivnay1945], Hyperaspis reppensis (Hbst.) [KfirRo1980a].

HOSTS: Verbenaceae: Vitex [Aziz1977, Hodgso1994a], Vitex agnus-castus [Bodenh1924, BenDov1969, KfirRo1980, Hodgso1994a, UygunSeEr1998], Vitex negundo [Bodenh1943, BenDov1969], Vitex pseudonegundo [Bodenh1944b, BenDov1969, MoghadTa2010].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Cyprus [BenDov1969]; Iran [BenDov1969, Bodenh1944b, KozarFoZa1996, Moghad2009, MoghadTa2010]; Iraq [Bodenh1943, BenDov1969, Aziz1977]; Israel [Bodenh1924, BenDov1969, BenDov1971, KfirRo1980, Hodgso1994a]; Turkey [BenDov1969, UygunSeEr1998, CebeciSe2004, KaydanUlEr2007].

BIOLOGY: A biparental species, which develops in Israel two annual generations. Reproducing females appear in May-June and in September-October.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Ben-Dov (1969) and by Hodgson (1994a).

CITATIONS: Aziz1977 [host, distribution: 46]; BenDov1969 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 71-74]; BenDov1971 [host, distribution: 24-25]; BenDov1980 [taxonomy: 262]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 14]; BenDov2012 [catalogue, distribution, host: 24, 42]; Bodenh1924 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 68-69]; Bodenh1935 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 251]; Bodenh1943 [host, distribution: 13]; Bodenh1944b [host, distribution: 90]; Borchs1953 [taxonomy: 285]; CebeciSe2004 [host, distribution: 218]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 143-151]; Hodgso1995a [taxonomy, description, illustration: 57-65]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 91]; KfirRo1980a [biological control, host, distribution: 114]; KozarFoZa1996 [host, distribution: 65]; KozarWa1985 [catalogue: 76]; Lindin1957 [taxonomy: 547]; Moghad2009 [host, distribution: 5]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 7]; MoghadTa2010 [host, distribution: 31]; Rivnay1945 [biological control, host, distribution: 117]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 151-152]; UygunSeEr1998 [host, distribution: 183-191].



Bombacoccus Kondo

NOMENCLATURE:

Bombacoccus Kondo, 2010a: 40. Type species: Bombacoccus aguacatae Kondo, by monotypy and original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and definition by Kondo (2010a).

SYSTEMATICS: (Bombacoccus is closest to Akermes Cockerell but the two genera can be separated by the following combination of features (morphological features of Akermes in parentheses): (i) dorsum with a dense pattern of microducts (dorsum without a dense pattern of rnicroducts), (ii) young insects in life covered by a white cottony or powdery wax (young insects in life not covered by a white cottony or powdery wax); and (iii) perivulvar pores mostly quinquelocular, with one central loculus (perivulvar pores variable, with 7 or 8 loculi, with 2 or 3 central loculi). Character states of Akermes taken from Granara de Willink (1999).

KEYS: Kondo 2013: 40-41 (female) [Key to genera of the Toumeyella-group based on adult females]; Kondo 2011: 3-4 (female) [Key to genera of New World Myzolecaniinae based on adult females]; Kondo 2010a: 39-40 (female) [Genera of New World Myzolecaniinae].

CITATIONS: Kondo2010a [taxonomy, description: 37-45]; Kondo2013 [taxonomy: 41].



Bombacoccus aguacatae Kondo

NOMENCLATURE:

Bombacoccus aguacatae Kondo, 2010a: 41. Type data: COLOMBIA: Caldas, Anserma, vereda Palo Blanco, Finca Yarumalito, 05 14' 36.5"N, 75 45' 46.2"W, on Persea americana, 1910 meters asl, collected T. Kondo, 2.iv.2009. Holotype female. Type depository: UNCB. Described: female. Illust.

COMMON NAMES: Cottony avocado scale [Kondo2010a]; Escama blanda algodonosa del aguacatae [Kondo2010a].



HOST: Lauraceae: Persea americana [Kondo2010a].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Colombia [Kondo2010a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Kondo (2010a).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Kondo (2010a) noted that this soft scale was collected on the varieties Booth 8 and Hass of avocado.

CITATIONS: Kondo2010a [taxonomy, description, illustration host, distribution: 37-45]; TanakaKo2015 [distribution: 112].



Cajalecanium Gmez-Menor Ortega

NOMENCLATURE:

Cajalecanium Gmez-Menor Ortega, 1965: 108. Type species: Cajalecanium salicorniae Gomez-Menor Ortega, by monotypy and original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters given by Gmez-Menor Ortega (1965) and by Hodgson (1994a).

SYSTEMATICS: Subfamily: Coccinae. Tribe: Saissetiini.

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 14]; GomezM1965 [taxonomy, description: 108]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description: 152-154].



Cajalecanium salicorniae Gmez-Menor Ortega

NOMENCLATURE:

Cajalecanium salicorniae Gmez-Menor Ortega, 1965: 108. Type data: SPAIN: Cabo Huerta de Alicante, on Salicornia sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Madrid: Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Spain. Described: female.



HOST: Chenopodiaceae: Salicornia [GomezM1965, Hodgso1994a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Spain [GomezM1965, Hodgso1994a] (Cabo Huerta de Alicante.).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson (1994a).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 14]; GomezM1965 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 108-111]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 152-154]; KozarWa1985 [catalogue: 76]; Martin1984MP [host, distribution: 67].



Cardiococcus Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Cardiococcus Cockerell, 1903a: 155. Type species: Cardiococcus umbonatus Cockerell, by original designation.

Cardioooococcus; Tao, 1999: 51. Misspelling of genus name.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by Hodgson (1994a). Relationship to other families in the Cardiococcinae in Vea (2011)

SYSTEMATICS: Subfamily: Cardiococcinae. Tribe: Cardiococcini.

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [taxonomy: 53]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 15]; Cocker1903a [taxonomy, description: 155]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 161]; Green1922a [taxonomy: 1034]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description: 154-156]; Miller1996 [taxonomy: 69]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 29]; Steinw1929 [taxonomy, description: 230-231]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description: 314-315]; Vea2011 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 13].



Cardiococcus bivalvatus (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Inglisia bivalvata Green, 1903a: 95. Type data: INDIA: South India, Rameswaram Island, on Thespesia populnea. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Cardiococcus bivalvata; Green, 1922b: 1034. Change of combination.

Cardiococcus bivalvatus; Pellizzari & Williams, 2013: 407. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.



ASSOCIATES: HYMENOPTERA Formicidae: Camponotus compressus Fabr. [SharmaSu2011], Crematogaster sp. [SharmaSu2011], Meranoplus sp. [SharmaSu2011], Myrmicaria brunnea Saunders [SharmaSu2011].

FOES: HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Anicetus inglisiae Hayat [HayatNaRe2003], Microterys agaeus Hayat [HayatNaRe2003], Philosindia inglisiae hayat [HayatNaRe2003].

HOSTS: Fabaceae: Pongamia [Ramakr1930], Pongamia glabra [Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989]. Malvaceae: Thespesia populnea [Green1903a, Ramakr1919a, Green1922a, Ramakr1930, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989]. Santalaceae: Santalum album [HayatNaRe2003].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: India [Green1903a, Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989] (Karnataka [HayatNaRe2003], Tamil Nadu [Ali1971]).

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [host, distribution: 52]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 15]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 162]; Green1903a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 95-96]; Green1922a [catalogue: 1034]; HayatNaRe2003 [host, distribution, biological control: 309-334]; PellizWi2013 [taxonomy: 406-407]; Ramakr1919a [host, distribution: 31]; Ramakr1921a [host, distribution: 346]; Ramakr1930 [description, illustration, host, distribution: 41]; ShafeeYoKh1989 [host, distribution: 47]; SharmaSu2011 [distribution, ecology: 62-64].



Cardiococcus foraminifer foraminifer (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Inglisia foraminifer Maskell, 1893b: 213. Type data: AUSTRALIA: South Australia, Semaphore near Adelaide, on Santalum acuminatum. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female.

Cardiococcus foraminifer; Cockerell, 1903a: 156. Change of combination.



HOST: Santalaceae: Santalum acuminatum [Frogga1915].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia [Cocker1896b, Frogga1915] (New South Wales [Frogga1915], South Australia [Frogga1915], Western Australia [Frogga1915]).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 15]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 330]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 394]; Cocker1903a [taxonomy: 156]; DeitzTo1980 [taxonomy: 28]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 161]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 514]; Maskel1893b [taxonomy, host, distribution: 213-214]; Maskel1895a [distribution: 14].



Cardiococcus foraminifer loranthi (Fuller)

NOMENCLATURE:

Inglisia foraminifer loranthi Fuller, 1897b: 1345. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Western Australia, Geraldton, on Loranthus sp. growing on 'Quandong'. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Notes: Type material probably lost (P. Gullan, 1990, personal communication to Yair Ben-Dov)

Cardiococcus foraminifer loranthi; Fernald, 1903b: 161. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Loranthaceae: Loranthus [Fuller1897b], Loranthus quandang [Fuller1899]. Santalaceae: Santalum [Fuller1899], Santalum acuminatum [Fuller1899].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Western Australia [Fuller1899]).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 15]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 161]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 514]; Fuller1899 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 460].



Cardiococcus formosanus (Takahashi)

NOMENCLATURE:

Inglisia formosana Takahashi, 1930: 34. Type data: TAIWAN: Shirin, on Pyrus serotina. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Taichung: Entomology Collection, Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, Wu-feng, Taichung, Taiwan. Described: female.

Cardiococcus formosanus; Tang, 1991: 315. Change of combination.



HOST: Rosaceae: Pyrus serotina [Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Taiwan [Ali1971].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Tao et al. (1983) and by Tang (1991).

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [host, distribution: 55]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 15]; Takaha1930 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 34-36]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 315-316]; Tao1978 [host, distribution: 82]; Tao1989 [catalogue: 59]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 51]; TaoWoCh1983 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 92-93]; Yang1982 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 188].



Cardiococcus fossilis (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Inglisia fossilis Maskell, 1897: 308. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Western Australia, Darling Range, on Acacia sp. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Cardiococcus fossilis; Cockerell, 1903a: 156. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Fabaceae: Acacia [Maskel1897, Frogga1915], Templetonia [Fuller1897b, Fuller1899]. Polygonaceae: Muehlenbeckia adpressa [Frogga1915].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Frogga1915], Victoria [Frogga1915], Western Australia [Fuller1897b, Fuller1899, Frogga1915]).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 16]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 394]; Cocker1903a [taxonomy: 156]; DeitzTo1980 [taxonomy: 29]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 162]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 515]; Fuller1897b [host, distribution: 1345]; Fuller1899 [host, distribution: 460]; Maskel1897 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 308-309].



Cardiococcus major (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Inglisia foraminifer major Maskell, 1897: 309. Type data: AUSTRALIA: South Australia, Murray River, Swan Hill, on Muehlenbeckia adpressa. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Cardiococcus major; Ben-Dov, Hodgson & Miller, 1997: 199. Described: nymphal stages. Change of combination and rank.



HOST: Polygonaceae: Muehlenbeckia adpressa [Maskel1897].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (South Australia).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 148]; BenDovHoMi1997 [taxonomy: 199-200]; DeitzTo1980 [taxonomy: 29]; Maskel1897 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 309].



Cardiococcus umbonatus Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Cardiococcus umbonatus Cockerell, 1903a: 155. Type data: MEXICO: Zapotlan, Jalisco, on wild guava. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA.

Cardioooococcus umbonatus; Tao, 1999: 51. Misspelling of genus name.



HOSTS: Clusiaceae: Calophyllum antillanum [Hodgso1994a], Mammea americana [MatileEt2006]. Myrtaceae: Psidium guajava [Cocker1903a, MatileEt2006].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico (Jalisco, Jalisco [Cocker1903a, Hodgso1994a]). Neotropical: Guadeloupe [MatileEt2006]; Puerto Rico & Vieques Island (Rio Piedras).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson (1994a).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 16]; Cocker1903a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 155-156]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 162]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 155-157]; MatileEt2006 [host, distribution: 164]; Miller1996 [distribution: 69]; Tao1999 [taxonomy: 51]; Vea2011 [phylogeny, structure, taxonomy: 5-7,12]; Willia1985a [taxonomy: 230].



Ceronema Maskell

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceronema Maskell, 1895b: 55. Type species: Ceronema banksiae Maskell, by monotypy.

Ceronesera; Watt & Mann, 1903: 310. Misspelling of genus name.

Ceronina; Kuwana, 1917b: 172. Misspelling of genus name.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters given by Ezzat & Hussein (1969), De Lotto (1978) and by Hodgson (1967c; 1994a).

SYSTEMATICS: Subfamily: Filippiinae.

KEYS: Hodgson 1969a: 4 (female) [Zimbabwe]; Hodgson 1967c: 1 (female) [Ethiopian Region].

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [taxonomy: 20]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 16]; Brain1920a [taxonomy, description: 22]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 394]; DeLott1978 [taxonomy: 178]; EzzatHu1969 [taxonomy, description: 378]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 127]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, description: 412]; Green1909a [taxonomy, description: 255]; Hodgso1967c [taxonomy, description: 1-2]; Hodgso1969a [taxonomy: 2, 4]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description: 156-160]; Kuwana1917a [taxonomy: 8]; Maskel1895b [taxonomy: 55-56]; MorrisMo1922 [taxonomy: 60-63]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 31]; Steinw1929 [taxonomy: 231]; WattMa1903 [taxonomy: 310].



Ceronema africanum Macfie

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceronema africana Macfie, 1913: 31. Type data: NIGERIA: Northern Nigeria, Shonga, on Caesalpinia pulcherrima. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK.

Ceronema acaciae Hall, 1923: 13. Type data: EGYPT: Luxor, on Acacia arabica nilotica. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Synonymy by Hall, 1932: 185.

Ceronema africanum; Pellizzari & Williams, 2013: 407. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.



HOSTS: Fabaceae: Acacia [Hall1932, EzzatHu1969], Acacia nilotica [Hall1923, Hall1927d, Hall1932, EzzatHu1969], Caesalpinia pulcherrima [Macfie1913, Sassce1915, Hall1932, Hodgso1967c], Cajanus cajan [EtiennMa1993], Desmanthus virgatus [EtiennMa1993], Desmodium scorpiurus [EtiennMa1993], Vigna [EtiennMa1993], Vigna unguiculata [EtiennMa1993]. Moraceae: Ficus carica [Hall1932]. Rhamnaceae: Ziziphus [BalachMa1970].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Mali [EtiennMa1993]; Mauritania [BalachMa1970]; Nigeria [Newste1914, Sassce1915, Hodgso1967c]; Senegal [EtiennMa1993]; Zanzibar [Green1916a]; Zimbabwe [Hall1932, Hodgso1967c]. Palaearctic: Egypt [Hall1923, Hall1925, Hall1927d, EzzatHu1969].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Ezzat & Hussein (1969) and by Hodgson (1967c).

KEYS: Mohammad & Moharum 2013: 146-148 (female) [Key to species and subspecies of family coccidae in Egypt]; Hodgson 1969a: 4 (female) [Zimbabwe].

CITATIONS: BalachMa1970 [host, distribution: 1085]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 16]; EtiennMa1993 [host, distribution: 254]; EzzatHu1969 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 379-381]; EzzatNa1987 [host, distribution: 86]; Green1916a [description, host, distribution: 376]; Hall1923 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 13-14]; Hall1925 [taxonomy, distribution: 21]; Hall1927d [host, distribution: 277]; Hall1932 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 185-186]; Hodgso1967c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 2-3]; Hodgso1969a [taxonomy: 4]; Macfie1913 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 31-34]; Matile1978 [taxonomy: 44]; MohammGh2008 [distribution: 149]; MohammMo2013 [illustration, taxonomy: 147, 153]; Newste1914 [host, distribution: 305]; PellizWi2013 [taxonomy: 407]; Sassce1915 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 31].



Ceronema asparagi (Brain)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lichtensia asparagi Brain, 1920a: 23. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Eastern Cape Province, on Asparagus capensis. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female.

Filippia asparagi; Lindinger, 1928: 107. Change of combination. Homonym of Filippia asparagi Giard.

Filippia braini Lindinger, 1928: 107. Unjustified replacement name; discovered by Ben-Dov, 1993: 17.

Ceronema asparagi; Matile-Ferrero, 1978: 44. Change of combination.



HOST: Liliaceae: Asparagus capensis [Brain1920a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [Brain1920a].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 17]; Brain1920a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 23]; Lindin1928 [taxonomy: 107]; Matile1978 [taxonomy: 44].



Ceronema banksiae Maskell

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceronema banksiae Maskell, 1895b: 56. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, near Sydney, on Banksia serrata. Lectotype female and first instar, by subsequent designation Hodgson, 1994a: 160. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand.



HOSTS: Proteaceae: Banksia attenuata [Fuller1897b], Banksia ilicifolia [Fuller1897b, Fuller1899], Banksia marginata [Hodgso1994a], Banksia menziesii [Fuller1897b, Fuller1899], Banksia serrata [Frogga1915, Hodgso1994a].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia [Hodgso1994a] (South Australia [Hodgso1994a] (Manly, near Sydney; Aldinga Beach.), Western Australia [Fuller1897b, Fuller1899, Frogga1915]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Hodgson (1994a).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 17]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy: 330]; DeitzTo1980 [taxonomy: 27]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 127]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 412]; Fuller1897b [host, distribution: 1345]; Fuller1899 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 460]; Hodgso1967c [taxonomy: 1]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 156-160]; Maskel1895a [distribution: 14]; Maskel1895b [taxonomy, host, distribution: 56-57]; Matile1978 [taxonomy: 44]; MorrisMo1922 [taxonomy: 60-63].



Ceronema brachystegiae Hall

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceronema brachystegiae Hall, 1941: 232. Type data: ZIMBABWE[=RHODESIA]: Inyanga, on Brachystegia sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.



HOSTS: Fabaceae: Brachystegia [Hall1941, Hodgso1967c], Cassia florida [Hall1941, Hodgso1967c]. Moraceae: Ficus [Sassce1912].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Uganda [Sassce1912]; Zambia [Hodgso1967c]; Zimbabwe [Hall1941, Hodgso1967c].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson (1967c).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 17]; Hall1941 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 232-235]; Hodgso1967c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 4-5]; Hodgso1969a [taxonomy: 4]; Matile1978 [taxonomy: 44]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549].



Ceronema caudatum Froggatt

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceronema caudata Froggatt, 1915: 412. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Thirroul and Lake Toronto near Ne, on Eucalyptus robusta. Syntypes, both sexes. Type depository: NSWA.

Ceronema caudatum; Pellizzari & Williams, 2013: 407. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus robusta [Frogga1915].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 17]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 412-413]; PellizWi2013 [taxonomy: 407].



Ceronema dryandrae Fuller

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceronema dryandrae Fuller, 1897b: 1345. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Western Australia, on Dryandra floribunda and D. nivea. Syntypes, female. Notes: Type material Probably lost (P. Gullan, 1990, personal communication).



HOSTS: Proteaceae: Dryandra floribunda [Fuller1897b, Fuller1899], Dryandra nivea [Fuller1897b, Fuller1899].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Western Australia [Fuller1897b, Fuller1899, Frogga1915]).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 17]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 394]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 127]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 413]; Fuller1897b [host, distribution: 1345]; Fuller1899 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 460-461].



Ceronema fryeri Green

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceronema fryeri Green, 1922a: 1028. Type data: SRI LANKA: Maha Illuppalama, on undetermined shrub. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Sri Lanka [Green1922a, Green1937, Ali1971].

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [host, distribution: 20]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 18]; Green1922a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 1028-1029]; Green1937 [host, distribution: 309-310].



Ceronema gowdeyi (Newstead)

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastodes gowdeyi Newstead, 1911: 98. Type data: UGANDA: Entebbe, on Ficus sycomorus. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK.

Ceroplastes gowdeyi; Sasscer, 1912: 88. Misspelling of genus name.

Ceronema gowdeyi; Matile-Ferrero, 1978: 45. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Moraceae: Ficus [Newste1911], Ficus sycomorus [Newste1911a, Hodgso1971].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Uganda [Newste1911, Hodgso1971].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson (1971).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 18]; Hodgso1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 53-55]; Matile1978 [taxonomy: 45]; Newste1911 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 98-100]; Sassce1912 [host, distribution: 88].



Ceronema koebeli Green

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceronema koebeli Green, 1909a: 256. Type data: SRI LANKA: Kandy, on Sapium sebiferum. Syntypes, both sexes. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK.

Mametia koebeli; Tang, 1991: 62. Change of combination.

Ceronema koebeli; Ben-Dov, 1993: 18. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Euphorbiaceae: Sapium sebiferum [Green1909a, Sassce1911, Green1937, Ali1971]. Fabaceae: Caesalpinia coriaria [Green1937, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989], Pithecellobium saman [Ruther1914, Green1937, Ali1971].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: India [Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989]; Sri Lanka [Green1909a, Sassce1911, Ruther1914, Green1937, Ali1971].

BIOLOGY: Rutherford (1914) presented observations on copulatory behaviour of the male.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Green (1909a).

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [host, distribution: 20]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 18]; BenDovHoMi1997 [taxonomy: 200]; Green1909a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 256-257]; Green1937 [host, distribution: 309]; Ramakr1921a [host, distribution: 345]; Ruther1914 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 267]; Sassce1911 [host, distribution: 66]; ShafeeYoKh1989 [host, distribution: 47]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 62-63]; Venkat1941 [taxonomy, description, illustration: 848-849].



Ceronema mobile Brain

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceronema mobilis Brain, 1920a: 22. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Natal, Illovo River, on Celastrus cordata. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female.

Ceronema mobile; De Lotto, 1978: 135. Justified emendation.



HOST: Celastraceae: Celastrus cordata [Brain1920a, DeLott1978].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [Brain1920a, DeLott1978].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 18]; Brain1920a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 22]; DeLott1978 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 135-137]; Matile1978 [taxonomy: 45].



Ceroplastes Gray

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus (Ceroplastes) Gray, 1828: 7. Type species: Coccus (Ceroplastes) janeirensis Gray. Subsequently designated by Fernald, 1903: 147.

Ceroplastus; Westwood, 1840: 449. Misspelling of genus name. Notes: Change of rank introduced as a mis-spelling

Coccopsidia Amyot, 1848: 496. Unavailable name.

Columnea Targioni Tozzetti, 1866: 142. Type species: Coccus caricae Fabricius (= Ceroplastes rusci (L.)). Subsequently designated by Targioni Tozzetti, 1867. Synonymy by Ben-Dov, 1993: 94.

Lacca Signoret, 1869: 848. Nomen nudum; discovered by Ben-Dov, 1993: xxiii.

Vinsonia Signoret, 1872a: 33. Type species: Vinsonia pulchella Signoret, by monotypy. Synonymy by Hodgson & Peronti, 2012: 27.

Ceroplastes; Signoret, 1872b: 35.

Columna; Signoret, 1877: 658. Misspelling of genus name.

Visonia; Ashmead, 1891: 99. Misspelling of genus name.

Gascardia Targioni Tozzetti in Gascard, 1893: 88. Type species: Gascardia madagascariensis Targioni Tozzetti, by monotypy. Synonymy by Hodgson & Peronti, 2012: 27.

Ceroplastes (Ceroplastidia) Cockerell, 1910a: 76. Type species: Ceroplastes bruneri Cockerell & Cockerell, by original designation. Synonymy by Gimpel et al., 1974: 17.

Ceroplastes (Ceroplastina) Cockerell, 1910a: 76. Type species: Ceroplastes lahillei Cockerell, by original designation. Synonymy by Ben-Dov, 1993: 60.

Baccacoccus Brain, 1920a: 127. Type species: Baccacoccus elytropappi Brain, by monotypy and original designation. Synonymy by De Lotto, 1971: 133.

Seroplastes; Seabra, 1925: 32. Misspelling of genus name.

Columella; ulc, 1936: 65. Misspelling of genus name.

Bacococcus Lindinger, 1937: 180. Unjustified emendation; discovered by Morrison & Morrison, 1966: 21.

Ceroplasses; Sankaran, 1954: 100. Misspelling of genus name.

Ceroplastidia; Morrison & Morrison, 1966: 32. Change of status.

Ceroplastina; Morrison & Morrison, 1966: 32. Change of status.

Cerostegia De Lotto, 1969b: 211. Type species: Ceroplastes rufus De Lotto, by original designation. Synonymy by Ben-Dov, 1993: 3.

Ceroplastidia De Lotto, 1971: 145. Synonymy by De Lotto, 1971: 145.

Vinzonia; Danzig & Konstantinova, 1990: 45. Misspelling of genus name.

Paracerostegia Tang, 1991: 303. Type species: Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock, by original designation. Synonymy by Ben-Dov, 1993: 199.

Winsonia; Fernandes, 1993: 111. Misspelling of genus name.

Baecoccus; Tao, 1999: 51. Misspelling of genus name.

Paracerostegla; Tao, 1999: 61. Misspelling of genus name. Notes: Mis-spelling of Paracerostegia.

BIOLOGY: Detailed description of the life history in Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by Zimmerman (1948), Borchsenius (1957), Williams & Kosztarab (1972), Gimpel et al. (1974), Tao et al. (1983), Hamon & Williams (1984), Williams & Watson (1990), Hodgson (1994a), Kosztarab (1996), Granara de Willink (1999) and by Peronti et al. (2008). Relationship to other families of Coccidae in Vea (2011)

STRUCTURE: Members of this subfamily can be recognised by the thick waxy test that covers the whole of the dorsum. The consistency of the wax varies between species depending on the amount of water,The test also varies in thickness between species (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: Subfamily: Ceroplastinae. Tribe: Ceroplastini. Ceroplastes is a very large genus from which several genera have been splitted, namely Baccacoccus, Gascardia, Ceroplastidia, Ceroplastina, Cerostegia, Columnea, Paracerostegia and Waxiella. The separation between these genera is controversial. Morrison (1919) noted the similarity of Ceroplastidia to Gascardia and its doubtful distinction from Ceroplastes. Gimpel et al. (1974) regarded all the above as synonyms of Ceroplastes. Ben-Dov (1993) recognized only Ceroplastes and Waxiella while Hodgson (1994a) accepted Ceroplastes, Gascardia and Waxiella as good genera. Following a cladistic analysis, Qin & Gullan (1995 concluded that all these genera should be classified into the senior synonym Ceroplastes. Granara de Willink (1999) suggested that Ceroplastidia was different from Ceroplastes and assigned to the former 7 species from Argentina. The generic name Lacca Nomen Nudum was first published by Signoret (1869) in the binomen Lacca alba Nomen Nudum, which he credited to Pearson (1794). However, such a name was not found in Pearson's paper (1794), who was only interested in the chemical properties of a wax, named by him 'white wax', produced by scale insects in India. Ben-Dov (1993) concluded that Lacca alba was a Latin form, introduced by Signoret (1869) and erroneously attributed to Pearson, of the term 'white wax'. Both the generic and specific names are Nomina Nuda. Nevertheless, there was good evidence to consider Lacca as a 'synonym' of Ceroplastes, as indicated by Morrison & Morrison (1966), De Lotto (1971) and by Ben-Dov (1993). The type species of Columnea Targioni Tozzetti, 1866 was designated by subsequent restriction to Coccus caricae Fabricius, by Targioni Tozzetti (1967). Columnea is here regarded as a subjective synonym of Ceroplastes. If Ceroplastes should be split into smaller generic units, Columnea might be an available name. Baccacoccus Brain is a subjective synonym of Ceroplastes (see De Lotto, 1971; Ben-Dov, 1993; Hodgson, 1994a. Cerostegia De Lotto is regarded here as a subjective synonym of Ceroplastes. Paracerostegia Tang, 1991, is her regarded a subjective synonym of Ceroplastes. Ceroplastina Cockerell, 1910a was ragarded by Ben-Dov (1993) as a subjective synonym of Ceroplastes. Hodgson (1994a: 167) traeted Ceroplastina"...probably... a subjective synonym of Gascardia.

KEYS: Hodgson et al. 2009: 102-104 (female) [Ceroplastes species of South Africa]; Peronti et al. 2008: 142-144 (female) [31 Ceroplastes species of Sao Paulo, Brazil]; Hodges 2002b: 208 (female) [Vinsonia and Ceroplastes species of Florida]; Hodgson & Henderson 2000: 185 (female) [New Zealand]; Granara de Willink 1999: 24 (female) [Argentina]; Kosztarab 1996: 325 (female) [Northeastern North America]; Kosztarab 1996: 325 (female) [Northeastren North America]; Pellizzari & Camporese 1994: 177 (female) [Mediterranean Region]; Qin & Gullan 1994 (female) [Australia]; Tang 1991: 297-298, 304 (female) [China]; Williams & Watson 1990: 65 (female) [Tropical South Pacific]; Gill 1988: 17 (female) [USA, California]; Avasthi & Shafee 1986: 328, 334 (female) [India]; Hamon & Williams 1984: 18 (female) [USA, Florida]; Mosquera 1984: 125-126 (female) [Colombia]; Tao et al. 1983: 61 (female) [Taiwan]; Tao et al. 1983: 61 (female) [as Vinsonia; Taiwan]; Kawai 1980: 166 (female) [Japan]; Wang 1980: 19-20 (female) [China]; Avasthi & Shafee 1979: 36-37 (female) [India]; Mosquera 1979: 625-526 (female) [Colombia]; De Lotto 1978: 138, 142 (female) [South Africa]; Paik 1978 (female) [Korea]; Gimpel et al. 1974: 18-20 (female) [U.S.A]; Williams & Kosztarab 1972: 36 (female) [USA, Virginia]; Hodgson 1969a: 4-5 (female) [Zimbabwe]; Hodgson 1969: 3, 19-20 (female) [Zimbabwe]; Hodgson 1969a: 14-15 (female) [as Gascardia; Zimbabwe]; Beardsley 1966 (female) [Micronesia]; Beardsley 1966: 479 (female) [as Vinsonia; Micronesia]; De Lotto 1965a: 183 (female) [Afrotropical Region]; De Lotto 1965a: 195 (female) [as Gascardia; Africa]; Gomez-Menor Ortega 1958b: 122 (female) [Spain]; Borchsenius 1957: 451 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Vilar 1951: 133-136 (female) [Palearctic Region]; Borchsenius 1950b: 154-155 (female) [USSR]; Gomez-Menor Ortega 1937: 307 (female) [Spain]; Green 1931: 290-291 (female) [Zimbabwe]; Hall 1931: 290-291 (female) [Zimbabwe]; Brain 1920a: 2 (female) [South Africa]; Green 1909a: 269 (female) [Sri Lanka]; Cockerell 1905b: 198 (female) [USA, Colorado]; Cockerell 1897r: 70 (female) [Brazil]; Cockerell 1895: 7-8 (female) [West Indies].

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [taxonomy: 18-19]; Almeid1969 [taxonomy: 10]; Almeid1973b [taxonomy: 5]; Ashmea1891 [taxonomy: 99]; AvasthSh1979 [taxonomy: 36]; AvasthSh1986 [taxonomy: 328,334-335]; Beards1966 [taxonomy, description: 479-480,496]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 13,19,60,94,143,153]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 338]; BenDov2006b [taxonomy: 296]; Bodenh1953a [taxonomy: 93]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description: 140,154-155]; Borchs1957 [taxonomy, description: 449-451]; Brain1920a [taxonomy, description: 268]; Brimbl1956a [taxonomy: 159]; CebeciSe2004 [taxonomy: 208]; Cocker1894v [taxonomy: 1050]; Cocker1895 [taxonomy: 5, 7-8]; Cocker1897r [taxonomy: 70]; Cocker1899n [taxonomy: 16,17]; Cocker1902p [taxonomy: 253]; Cocker1905b [taxonomy: 198]; Cocker1910a [taxonomy: 74-76]; Comsto1881a [taxonomy, description: 330]; DanzigKo1990 [taxonomy: 45]; DeLott1965a [taxonomy, description: 179-183,195,232]; DeLott1969b [taxonomy: 211]; DeLott1971 [taxonomy: 133,145,147]; DeLott1978 [taxonomy: 137-138,142]; EzzatHu1969 [taxonomy, description: 381]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 126,147,158]; Fernan1993 [taxonomy: 111]; Ferris1950a [taxonomy, description: 74-75]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, description: 421]; GaimarTa2001 [taxonomy: 311-328]; Gill1988 [taxonomy, biological control: 17]; GimpelMiDa1974 [taxonomy, description : 1-20]; GomezM1937 [taxonomy, description: 306-307]; GomezM1958b [taxonomy, description: 49,122-123]; Granar1999 [taxonomy, description: 47-48,57-58,78]; Gray1828 [taxonomy, description: 7]; Green1909a [taxonomy, description: 268-269]; Green1909a [taxonomy, description: 279]; Hadzib1983 [taxonomy, description: 152]; Hall1931 [taxonomy, description: 289-291]; HamonWi1984 [taxonomy, description: 16,18]; HamonWi1984 [taxonomy, description: 16, 128]; Hodges2002b [taxonomy: 205,208]; Hodgso1969 [taxonomy, description: 1-3,19-20]; Hodgso1969a [taxonomy, description: 2,4-5,14,15]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description: 137-139,161-163]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description: 167,170-173,185-186]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description: 268-271]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description: 591-593]; HodgsoHe2000 [taxonomy, description: 185]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 1-265]; HodgsoWiGi2009 [taxonomy: 95-105]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy: 166]; Koszta1996 [taxonomy, description: 323,325]; Koteja1974 [taxonomy: 306]; Koteja1974a [taxonomy: 249]; Koteja2001 [taxonomy: 45-46]; Leonar1920 [taxonomy: 355-356]; LinKoGu2013 [molecular data, phylogeny: 257]; LongoMaPe1995 [taxonomy: 122]; Mamet1949 [taxonomy: 22]; Mamet1949 [taxonomy: 31]; Mamet1954 [taxonomy: 12]; Mamet1957 [taxonomy: 374]; MatileNo1984 [taxonomy: 62]; Miller1996 [taxonomy: 69]; MorrisMo1966 [catalogue, taxonomy: 21,32,43,44]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy: 83]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy: 203]; Mosque1979 [taxonomy, description: 595-598,625-626]; Mosque1984 [taxonomy: 125-126]; Newste1903 [taxonomy]; Newste1903 [taxonomy, description]; Newste1908 [taxonomy: 1-4]; Newste1909 [taxonomy: 350-352]; Newste1910a [taxonomy, descriprion: 67]; Newste1910c [taxonomy, description: 192-193]; Newste1911 [taxonomy, description: 97-98]; Paik1978 [taxonomy]; PellizCa1994 [taxonomy, description: 175-192]; PerontSoGr2008 [taxonomy, description, revision: 139-191]; QinGu1994 [taxonomy: 923]; QinGu1994 [taxonomy: 954]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy, description: 289-308]; Seabra1925 [taxonomy: 32]; Signor1869 [taxonomy: 848]; Signor1872a [taxonomy: 35]; Signor1872a [taxonomy, description: 33-34]; Signor1877 [taxonomy: 658]; Steinw1929 [taxonomy: 231-232]; Steinw1929 [taxonomy, description: 241]; Sulc1936 [taxonomy: 65]; Tang1991 [taxonomy: 296-297,303-304]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description: 311]; Tao1978 [taxonomy, description: 79]; Tao1978 [taxonomy, description: 84]; Tao1999 [taxonomy: 51,61]; Tao1999 [taxonomy: 67]; TaoWoCh1983 [taxonomy, description: 93]; TaoWoCh1983 [taxonomy, description: 96,98]; Targio1866 [taxonomy, description: 131,138,142]; Targio1867 [taxonomy: 11]; Targio1884 [taxonomy: 400]; Targio1893a [taxonomy, description: 88-91]; Townse1892a [taxonomy: 255-257]; Tranfa1981 [taxonomy, description: 22]; VanHarCoWi1990 [taxonomy, description: 133-134]; VarshnMo1987 [taxonomy, description: 171]; Vea2011 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 13]; Vilar1951 [taxonomy: 111]; Wang1980 [taxonomy, description: 19-20]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 16]; WilliaKo1972 [taxonomy, description: 35-36]; WilliaWa1990 [taxonomy: 60-61,64-65]; WilliaWa1990 [taxonomy, description: 60-61,173]; Xie1998 [taxonomy, description: 22]; XieXuZh2006a [taxonomy: 1-7]; Yang1982 [taxonomy: 185]; Yang1982 [taxonomy, description: 183]; Zimmer1948 [taxonomy, description: 343].



Ceroplastes actiniformis Green

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes actiniformis Green, 1896: 8. Type data: SRI LANKA: Punduloya and Kandy, on coconut palm. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK.

Ceroplastes actiniformes; Moharana, 1990: 48. Misspelling of species name.



ASSOCIATES: HYMENOPTERA Formicidae: Componotus parius Emery [SharmaSu2011], Crematogaster sp. [SharmaSu2011].

HOSTS: Anacardiaceae: Mangifera indica [Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, Ali1971, Ali1973, ShahJhPa1986, ShafeeYoKh1989]. Annonaceae: Annona montana [Green1930c, Ali1971]. Apocynaceae: Alstonia scholaris [Ramakr1930, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989]. Arecaceae: Areca catechu [ShafeeYoKh1989, Ali1971], Cocos nucifera [Green1896, Newste1917b, Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, Ali1971, Ali1973], Phoenix canariensis [Bodenh1927a], Phoenix dactylifera [Hall1922], Pritchardia filifera [Bodenh1927a]. Cannaceae: Canna [Green1909a, Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, Green1937, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989]. Clusiaceae: Calophyllum [Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930], Calophyllum inophyllum [VarshnMo1987]. Euphorbiaceae: Sapium [Green1909a, Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, SilvadGoGa1968], Sapium sebiferum [Green1909a, Green1937, Ali1971]. Loranthaceae: Loranthus [Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, Ali1971, Ali1973, ShafeeYoKh1989]. Moraceae: Ficus [Ramakr1919a, Ali1971, Ali1973, ShafeeYoKh1989], Ficus carica [Ramakr1930, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989]. Myrtaceae: Psidium guajava [Ali1971, Ali1973, ShafeeYoKh1989]. Poaceae: Saccharum officinalis [AgarwaSi1964, Ali1971, Ali1973, ShafeeYoKh1989]. Santalaceae: Santalum album [Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989]. Vitaceae: Vitis vinifera [ShafeeYoKh1989].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Indonesia (Java [Green1930c, Ali1971]). Neotropical: Brazil [SilvadGoGa1968]. Oriental: Hong Kong [MartinLa2011]; India [Newste1917b, Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, Green1930c, Ali1971, AvasthSh1986] [ShafeeYoKh1989] (Bihar [Ali1971], Goa [Ali1973], Tamil Nadu [SharmaSu2011], West Bengal [Ali1971]); Indonesia (Sumatra [Ali1971]); Sri Lanka [Green1896, Green1909a, Green1930c, Green1937, Ali1971]. Palaearctic: Canary Islands [Green1930c]; China [DengYuZh2012]; Egypt [Hall1922, EzzatNa1987]; Israel [Bodenh1927a] (Bodenheimer (1927) found this wax scale on introduced Phoenix canariensis, Yucca whippleri and Pritchardia flifera at the acclimatization garden in Tel Aviv. Ben Dov (2012) has not collected it until the present, and assumes that it has not been established in Israel.).

GENERAL REMARKS: The various specimens in the BMNH from Africa labelled C. actiniformis are all misidentifications of other species in the C. rusci-group and it is considered that all published records from the Afrotropical Region are probably also misidentifications. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012) Bodenheimer (1927) found this wax scale on introduced Phoenix canariensis, Yucca whippleri and Pritchardia flifera at the acclimatization garden in Tel Aviv. Ben Dov (2012) has not collected it until the present, and assumes that it has not been established in Israel.

KEYS: Mohammad & Moharum 2013: 146-148 (female) [Key to species and subspecies of family coccidae in Egypt]; Pellizzari & Camporose 1994: 177 (female) [Ceroplastes species of Mediterranean]; Ezzat & Hussein 1969: 371 (female) [Egypt]; Green 1909a: 275 (female) [Ceylon].

CITATIONS: AgarwaSi1964 [host, distribution, economic importance: 149]; Ali1971 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 15]; Ali1973 [host, distribution: 671]; AvasthSh1986 [host, distribution: 330]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 19]; Bodenh1927a [host, distribution: 177]; Cocker1896b [host, distribution: 331]; DengYuZh2012 [distribution: 791]; EzzatNa1987 [distribution: 86]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 147]; FetykoKo2012 [distribution, taxonomy: 292]; Green1896 [host, distribution: 8]; Green1909a [host, distribution: 275]; Green1930c [host, distribution: 281]; Green1937 [host, distribution: 311]; Hall1922 [host, distribution: 15]; HodgsoPe2012 [taxonomy: 99,101,115,116,118]; KozarWa1985 [catalogue: 76]; MartinLa2011 [catalogue, distribution: 34]; MohammGh2008 [distribution: 149]; MohammMo2013 [host, structure: 146, 152]; Mohara1990 [taxonomy: 48]; Nair1964 [host, distribution, economic importance: 72]; Newste1917b [host, distribution: 128]; ParidaMo1982 [taxonomy: 19]; Ramakr1919 [host, distribution: 624-625]; Ramakr1919a [host, distribution: 29-30]; Ramakr1921a [host, distribution: 346]; Ramakr1930 [host, distribution: 39]; ShafeeYoKh1989 [host, distribution: 47]; ShahJhPa1986 [host, distribution: 67]; SharmaSu2011 [distribution, ecology: 62-64]; SilvadGoGa1968 [host, distribution: 137]; Varshn1994 [host, distribution: 340]; VarshnMo1987 [host, distribution: 172]; Wester1918 [host, distribution, economic importance: 5-57].



Ceroplastes acutus Peronti {in}: Peronti et al.

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes acutus Peronti {in}: Peronti et al., 2008: 144. Type data: BRAZIL: So Paulo State, Guaruj, Praia de Iporanga, host plant not identified; collected 22.iii.2002, A.L.B.G. Peronti. Holotype female. Type depository: So Carlos, Departamento de Ecologia e Biologia Evolutiva da UNiversidade Federal de So Carlos, So Paulo, Brazil. Described: female. Illust.

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Sao Paulo [PerontSoGr2008]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Peronti et al. (2008).

STRUCTURE: Colour photo of adult female by Peronti et al. (2008).

KEYS: Peronti et al. 2008: 142-144 (female) [Ceroplastes species of So Paulo, Brazil].

CITATIONS: PerontSoGr2008 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 144-146].



Ceroplastes agrestis Hempel

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes agrestis Hempel, 1932: 322. Type data: BRAZIL: So Paulo, Pirapitinguy, on undetermined tree. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Peronti et al., 2008: 145. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo, Brazil. Described: female. Illust.

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Sao Paulo [Hempel1932, PerontSoGr2008]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Peronti et al. (2008).

KEYS: Peronti et al. 2008: 142-144 (female) [Ceroplastes species of So Paulo, Brazil].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 20]; Hempel1932 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 322-323]; PerontSoGr2008 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 145-146]; Vernal1953 [taxonomy: 123].



Ceroplastes ajmerensis (Avasthi & Shafee)

NOMENCLATURE:

Cerostegia ajmerensis Avasthi & Shafee, 1979: 36. Type data: INDIA: Rajasthan, Ajmer, Hathi Bhata, on Cassia fistula. Holotype female. Type depository: Aligarh: Aligarh Muslim University, Department of Zoology, India. Described: female.

Ceroplastes neoceriferus Yousuf & Shafee, 1988: 61. Type data: INDIA: Himachal Pradesh, Solan, on Citrus sp. Holotype female. Type depository: Aligarh: Aligarh Muslim University, Department of Zoology, India. Synonymy by Avasthi & Shafee, 1991b: 22.

Paracerostegia ajmerensis; Tang, 1991: 304. Change of combination.

Ceroplastes ajmerensis; Ben-Dov, 1993: 20. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Fabaceae: Cassia fistulata [AvasthSh1979, AvasthSh1986, ShafeeYoKh1989]. Myrtaceae: Psidium guajava [YousufSh1988, ShafeeYoKh1989]. Rutaceae: Citrus [AvasthSh1991b].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: India [ShafeeYoKh1989] (Himachal Pradesh [AvasthSh1991b], Rajasthan [AvasthSh1979, AvasthSh1986]).

KEYS: Tang 1991: 304 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: AvasthSh1979 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 36-37]; AvasthSh1986 [host, distribution: 334]; AvasthSh1991b [host, distribution: 22-23]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 20]; ShafeeYoKh1989 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 48-49]; Tang1991 [host, distribution: 304-305]; Varshn2005 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 155]; YousufSh1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 61-63].



Ceroplastes alami Avasthi & Shafee

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes alami Avasthi & Shafee, 1986: 328. Type data: INDIA: Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore, Mettupalaiyam, on undetermined wild plant. Holotype female. Type depository: Aligarh: Aligarh Muslim University, Department of Zoology, India. Described: female.

Ceroplastes alamensis; Ben-Dov, 1993: 20, 504. Misspelling of species name.



HOST: Fabaceae: Dalbergia sissoo [AvasthSh1986, ShafeeYoKh1989].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: India [ShafeeYoKh1989] (Tamil Nadu [AvasthSh1986], Uttar Pradesh [AvasthSh1986]).

CITATIONS: AvasthSh1986 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, record: 328-330]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 20, 504]; Koteja2001 [taxonomy: 46]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 301]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; ShafeeYoKh1989 [host, distribution: 47].



Ceroplastes albolineatus albolineatus Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes albolineatus Cockerell, 1894h: 157. Type data: JAMAICA: Kingston, on ornamental shrub. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA.

COMMON NAME: thick wax scale [Cocker1895].



HOSTS: Anacardiaceae: Schinus [Cocker1895a, Iherin1897, Hempel1912, SilvadGoGa1968]. Asteraceae: Baccharis [Cocker1895a, Iherin1897, Hempel1912, SilvadGoGa1968]. Celastraceae: Maytenus [Hempel1900a, Hempel1912, SilvadGoGa1968]. Onagraceae: Fuchsia [Cocker1899n, Hempel1912, SilvadGoGa1968]. Platanaceae: Platanus [SilvadGoGa1968].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico [Cocker1899n]. Neotropical: Brazil [SilvadGoGa1968] (Sao Paulo [Cocker1895a, Iherin1897, Cocker1897r]); Jamaica [Cocker1895a].

KEYS: Cockerell 1895: 8 (female) [Jamaica].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 20]; Brown1975 [chemistry: 275]; Cocker1894h [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 157]; Cocker1895 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 7-8]; Cocker1895a [host, distribution: 100]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 331]; Cocker1897r [description, distribution: 70]; Cocker1899n [host, distribution: 19]; Cocker1902p [host, distribution: 254]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 148]; Hempel1900a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 474-475]; Hempel1912 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 29]; Iherin1897 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 409]; LoaizaCaBe2007 [chemistry, host, distribution: 109-115]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 301]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; Rios1966 [chemistry: 1507-1512]; RiosCo1965 [chemistry: 1184-1185]; RiosGo1969 [chemistry: 2929-2930]; RiosPe1969 [chemistry: 214-215]; RiosQu1969 [chemistry: 1317-1318]; SilvadGoGa1968 [host, distribution: 137]; Thomso1971 [chemistry: 1-5]; Vernal1953 [host, distribution: 123]; XieXuZh2004a [chemistry: 512-518].



Ceroplastes albolineatus vulcanicus Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes albolineatus vulcanicus Cockerell, 1903a: 160. Type data: MEXICO: Volcan de Colima, on low bush below pines. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA.

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico (Colima [Cocker1903a], Jalisco).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 20]; Cocker1903a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 160-161]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 148]; Miller1996 [distribution: 69]; Willia1985a [distribution: 223].



Ceroplastes amazonicus Hempel

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes amazonicus Hempel, 1900a: 454. Type data: BRAZIL: Amazonas, Manaos, on undetermined tree. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil.

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Amazonas).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 21]; Cocker1902p [distribution: 253]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 148,154]; Hempel1900a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution : 454-455]; Hempel1901 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 556-557].



Ceroplastes angolensis Compere nomen nudum

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes angolensis Compere, 1939d: 26. Nomen nudum; discovered by ScaleNet, 2004.



Ceroplastes angulatus Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes angulatus Cockerell, 1898j: 434. Type data: MEXICO: Frontera, on twig of native tree. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA.

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico [Cocker1898j, Cocker1899n]. Neotropical: Mexico (Tabasco).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 21]; Cocker1898j [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 434-435]; Cocker1899a [host, distribution: 394]; Cocker1899n [distribution: 18]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 148]; Miller1996 [distribution: 69].



Ceroplastes argentinus Brethes

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes argentinus Brethes, 1921: 79. Type data: ARGENTINA: Entre Rios, near Parana, on undetermined plant. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Granara de Willink, 1999: 61. Type depository: Castelar: Departamento de Patologia Vegetal, INTA, C.C. no. 25, Castelar, Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Described: female.

Ceroplastidia argentina; Granara de Willink, 1999: 59. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Eupatorium [Granar1999]. Myrtaceae: Myrciantes pungens [Granar1999].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina (Entre Rios [Granar1999], Neuquen [Granar1999], Tucuman [Granar1999]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Granara de Willink (1999).

KEYS: Granara de Willink 1999: 59 (female) [Argentina].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 21]; Brethe1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 79-80]; Granar1999 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 59-61]; Lizery1939 [host, distribution: 192].



Ceroplastes avicenniae Newstead

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes avicenniae Newstead, 1917a: 24. Type data: GUYANA: Mahaica Creek, on Avicennia nitida. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK.



HOST: Verbenaceae: Avicennia nitida [Newste1917a, Newste1917b].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Guyana [Newste1917a].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 21]; Newste1917a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 24-25].



Ceroplastes balachowskyi Hodgson & Peronti

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes balachowskyi Hodgson & Peronti, 2012: 101-103. Type data: GABON: Makokou, Ivindo, on unknown host, 7/19/1976 by A.S. Balachowsky. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France; type no. 5875. Described: female. Illust.

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Gabon [HodgsoPe2012].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Hodgson & Peronti, 2012.

STRUCTURE: Body rather roundly oval and probably fairly convex, with shallow stigmatic clefts; lateral tubercles indistinct or absent. Caudal process short and stout, probably directed rather upwards. Length of specimens 1.5-3.0 mm, width about 1.0-2.0 mm. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: In lacking tubular ducts in the cephalic region and in having abundant stigmatic setae around the margins, C. balachowskyi is superficially very similar to C. ghesquierei. It is easily separable due to the following combination of characters (those for C. ghesquierei in brackets): (i) dorsal setae on each anal plate in a different arrangement, with 2 large dorsal setae near inner margin (all large dorsal setae near posterior margin); (ii) dorsal clear area exceptionally large, extending laterally to dorsad to legs (much smaller), with many dorsal setae; (iii) stigmatic setae in each cleft rather variable in size, each group with 35 larger setae (only dorsal-most seta enlarged), and (iv) with many (8-18) marginal stigmatic setae along anterior margin between eyespots (0-2). It is also somewhat similar to C. singularis in having abundant stigmatic setae along the margins but these are also present along the posterior abdominal margins on C. singularis. C. balachowskyi is also very similar to C. galeatus, but the latter species lacks the large dorsal clear area, has only 0-2 stigmatic setae on anterior margin of head, and all stigmatic setae are similar apart from the 1 enlarged seta near apex of each group. Most Ceroplastes species with loculate microducts of the rusci-type also have wax-plate lines. These could not be detected on C. balachowskyi, probably because these lines are typically made up of loculate microducts with 2 or more satellite loculi, which are rare or perhaps sometimes absent on C. balachowskyi. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

KEYS: Hodgson & Peronti 2012: 100 (adult, female) [Key to adult females in the Ceroplastes rusci-group].

CITATIONS: HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 99,101-103,124,242].



Ceroplastes bergi Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes bergi Cockerell, 1901a: 288. Type data: ARGENTINA: Buenos Aires, on Schinus molle, Ligustrum japonicum and Citrus aurantium. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Notes:



HOSTS: Anacardiaceae: Schinus molle [Cocker1901a]. Oleaceae: Ligustrum japonicum [Cocker1901a]. Rutaceae: Citrus aurantium [Cocker1901a].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina [Cocker1901a].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 21]; Cocker1901a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 288-289]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 148].



Ceroplastes bernardensis Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes bernardensis Cockerell, 1902i: 93. Type data: PARAGUAY: San Bernardino, on twigs of an undetermined plant. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA.

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Paraguay.

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 21]; Cocker1902i [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 93]; Cocker1902p [catalogue: 254]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 148].



Ceroplastes bicolor Hempel

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes bicolor Hempel, 1901b: 390. Type data: BRAZIL: Sao Paulo, Campinas, on undetermined tree. Syntypes, both sexes. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil. Described: female.

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Sao Paulo).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 21]; Cocker1902p [catalogue: 254]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 148]; Hempel1901b [host, distribution: 390-391]; Vernal1953 [taxonomy: 123-124].



Ceroplastes bipartitus Newstead

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes bipartitus Newstead, 1917a: 25. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Locality and host plant of type material not indicated. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Notes: Lectotype (designated in Hodgson & Peronti, 2012): South Africa, left label: Dept. Agric. Mauritius; right label: Ceroplastes / bipartitus / Newstead / Cotype female With regard to the label Department of Agriculture, Mauritius on the lectotype specimens, it is believed (D.J. Williams, pers. comm.) that d'Emmerez de Charmoy either worked or collected in South Africa before becoming Director of the Department of Agriculture in Mauritius and that he took these specimens (and others) to Mauritius with him and then sent them to Newstead from there. Williams considers that Newstead would have written Mauritius on his slides (as he often did), referring to the sender rather than the original collecting site.

Gascardia bipartita; De Lotto, 1965a: 195. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Acanthaceae: Barleria [Hodgso1969]. Bignoniaceae: Markhamia acuminata [Hodgso1969]. Euphorbiaceae: Croton sylvaticus [DeLott1965a]. Loganiaceae [HodgsoPe2012]. Rubiaceae: Hymenodictyon floribunda [Hodgso1969]. Verbenaceae [HodgsoPe2012].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [Newste1917a, Brain1920a, DeLott1965a]; Zambia [Hodgso1969]; Zimbabwe [Hall1931, Hodgso1969].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

STRUCTURE: "Female test. Colour, in dried specimens, very like pale dirty beeswax. In the young adults the test is broadly oval, somewhat hemispherical and divided into nine plates: 3 bilateral, 1 cephalic, 1 anal and 1 dorsal, the last named with a conspicuous dark brown or blackish, oval spot, with a central elongated patch of pure white wax; the nuclear spots to the lateral plates are smaller and generally much less conspicuous than the dorsal one. Margin over the stigmatic areas with a pair of laterally compressed and somewhat disc-shaped extensions, each extension carrying on its edge a narrow strip of opaque white wax, the tip of which sometimes reaches the dark nuclear spot of the lateral thoracic plate. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: Ceroplastes bipartitus is very similar to C. jos, but differs (characterstates of C. jos in brackets): (i) ventral tubular ducts very sparse, possibly even absent on some specimens and not present medially on abdomen (tubular ducts frequent and present medially on abdomen); (ii) loculate microducts mainly with 2 satellite loculi, those with 4 satellite loculi rare or absent (mainly 3 satellite loculi, pores with 4 satellite loculi present but scarce, those with 2 satellite loculi infrequent); (iii) with generally more than 30 stigmatic setae in each cleft, and each group about as wide as long (about 25 or fewer stigmatic setae in a group and each group much wider than long); (iv) dorsal setae about 2x longer than width of basal socket and sharply pointed (subequal to or only slightly longer than width of basal socket, and bluntly pointed), and (v) claw denticle obscure at most (present). C. bipartitus is also close to C. longicauda, differing mainly in having a much shorter caudal process. Qin and Gullan (1995), in their morphological cladistic analysis of the wax scale insects, found only 1 difference in the character-states they scored for C. bipartitus and C. longicauda, and it is possible that C. longicauda is a synonym of C. bipartitus, with C. longicauda representing a more mature adult female where the sclerotisation of the caudal process has expanded more than on C. bipartitus, or that host plant or environmentaleffects have modified the degree of extension of the caudal process. Too little material is available to determine whether this is likely. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

KEYS: Hodgson & Peronti 2012: 64-65 (female) [Key to adult females in the C. longicauda-group.]; Hodgson et al. 2009: 102-104 (female) [Ceroplastes species of South Africa].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 21-22]; Brain1920a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 26-27]; DeLott1965a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 195-197]; Hall1931 [host, distribution: 293]; Hodgso1969 [host, distribution: 22-23]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 64,65-68,70,73,241]; HodgsoWiGi2009 [taxonomy: 102-104]; Newste1917a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 25-26]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 302]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549].



Ceroplastes boyacensis Mosquera

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes boyacensis Mosquera, 1979: 599. Type data: COLOMBIA: Umbita (Boyaca), on Baccharis tricuneata. Holotype female. Type depository: Bogota: Colleccion Taxonomica Nacional de Programa de Entomologia del ICA en el CNIA, Colombia. Described: female.



HOST: Asteraceae: Baccharis tricuneata [Mosque1979].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Colombia [Kondo2001].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 22]; Kondo2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 40]; Mosque1979 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 599-604]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 302]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; TanakaKo2015 [distribution: 112].



Ceroplastes brachystegiae Hodgson

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes brachystegiae Hodgson, 1969: 3. Type data: ZIMBABWE: Umtali, on Brachystegia sp. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.



HOST: Fabaceae: Brachystegia [Hodgso1969].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Congo [HodgsoPe2012]; Zimbabwe [Hodgso1969].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson (1969).

STRUCTURE: Test of the adult female white, with brown to reddish brown radiating areas; more or less oval in shape, but with the posterior end rather flattened. Dorsally, there is a small central dome with a ring of brown stain, in the centre of which is a longitudinal indentation carrying the dorsal boss; surrounding this area is a further area with brown radiations, which are more obvious towards the posterior end. Laterally there are faint indications of plates. The stigmatic bands are very clear white, and there are also whiter areas at the anterior end and 2 more directed posteriorly at the sides of the posterior end. Length 5 mm, height 3.5 mm and breadth 4 mm." "With waxy test removed, the adult female is elliptical, and produced dorsally into a blunt apical process; the cephalic and lateral processes are barely indicated by knobules; the caudal process is heavily sclerotised and is directed posteriorly, but is fairly short." (Hodgson, 1969a).

SYSTEMATICS: In having a line of spinose setae along the ventral margin of each stigmatic cleft, C. brachystegiae appears to show some affinity with Waxiella but here the spinose setae extend around the entire margin in a single line. Other interesting features of this species are: (i) the absence of tubular ducts associated with the anogenital folds, and (ii) the small size of both the dorsal and ventral microducts. C. neobrachystegiae is closely related. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 22]; Hodgso1969 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 2-4]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 27-32,241,257]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 301].



Ceroplastes brachyurus Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes brachyurus Cockerell, 1903b: 157. Type data: MEXICO: Zapotlan, Jalisco, on Rhus-like shrub. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Gimpel et al., 1974: 20. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

COMMON NAME: brachyuran wax scale [HamonWi1984].



HOSTS: Aquifoliaceae: Ilex [GimpelMiDa1974]. Rubiaceae: Bouvardia [GimpelMiDa1974]. Rutaceae: Citrus [Chen1974, GimpelMiDa1974].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico (Jalisco, Jalisco [Cocker1903a]); United States of America (Alabama, Arizona).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Gimpel et al. (1974) and by Hamon & Williams (1984).

KEYS: Hamon & Williams 1984: 18 (female) [USA, Florida]; Gimpel et al. 1974: 19 (female) [USA].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 22]; Cocker1903a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 157-158]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 148]; GimpelMiDa1974 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 20-23]; HamonWi1984 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 18-20]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy: 271]; Miller1996 [distribution: 69]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 301]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; Willia1985a [taxonomy: 223].



Ceroplastes bragai Peronti {in}: Peronti et al.

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes bragai Peronti {in}: Peronti et al., 2008: 146. Type data: BRAZIL: So Paulo State, Campos do Jordo, on undtermined plant; collected S.M.P. Braga, 24.xi.2001. Holotype female. Type depository: So Carlos, Departamento de Ecologia e Biologia Evolutiva da UNiversidade Federal de So Carlos, So Paulo, Brazil; type no. 327. Described: female. Illust.

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Sao Paulo [PerontSoGr2008]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Peronti et al. (2008).

KEYS: Peronti et al. 2008: 142-144 (female) [Ceroplastes species of So Paulo, Brazil].

CITATIONS: PerontSoGr2008 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 146-148].



Ceroplastes brevicauda Hall

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes destructor brevicauda Hall, 1931: 293. Type data: ZIMBABWE: Mazoe, Sinoia and Umtali, on Citrus aurantium, Toddalia asiatica, and on Cedrela toona. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Notes: Lectotype female. designated in Hodgson & Peronti, 2012: Zimbabwe [Southern Rhodesia]: upper label, scratched onto glass: Ceroplastes / destructor var. / brevicauda Hall / Citrus / aurantium / (Lu Rha / branches) / Mazoe / WJH 1/9/27; and lower stuck-on label: TYPE / 14.iii.30 / WJH (BMNH): 1/2ad..

Ceroplastes brevicauda; De Lotto, 1955: 267. Change of status.

Ceroplastes luteolus; De Lotto, 1965a: 196. Incorrect synonymy; discovered by Hodgson & Peronti, 2012: 50.

Gascardia brevicauda; De Lotto, 1965a: 196. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Anacardiaceae: Rhus anchietae [Hodgso1969], Rhus dentata [Hodgso1969], Schinus molle [DeLott1965a, Hodgso1969], Sclerocarya caffra [Hodgso1969]. Apocynaceae: Acokanthera longiflora [DeLott1965a], Allamanda [Hodgso1969], Nerium oleander [DeLott1965a], Rauvolfia caffra [Hodgso1969]. Aquifoliaceae: Ilex [Hodgso1969]. Arecaceae: Elaeis guineensis [HodgsoPe2012]. Asteraceae: Bidens pilosa [DeLott1965a], Chrysanthemum ?fentescens [HodgsoPe2012]. Bignoniaceae: Markhamia platycalyx [DeLott1955]. Burseraceae: Dacryodes edulis [HodgsoPe2012]. Euphorbiaceae: Uapaca kirkiana [Hodgso1969]. Fabaceae: Acacia [Cillie1967], Cajanus indicus [Cillie1967]. Loranthaceae [EtiennMa1993]. Meliaceae: Cedrela sp. [HodgsoPe2012], Cedrela toona [Hall1931], Khaya nyasica [Hodgso1969], Melia azedarach [Hodgso1969]. Moraceae: Ficus lutea [CouturMaRi1985]. Myricaceae: Myrica serrata [Hodgso1969]. Myrtaceae: Syzygium cordatum [Hodgso1969]. Pittosporaceae: Pittosporum viridiflorum [Hodgso1969]. Plumbaginaceae: Plumbago [Hodgso1969]. Rubiaceae: Coffea [Almeid1973b], Coffea arabica [DeLott1955, DeLott1965a, DeLott1967a, Almeid1973b], Coffea canephora [DeLott1967a], Coffea robusta [DeLott1965a], Coffea stenophylla [DeLott1965a, Almeid1973b], Gardenia [Hodgso1969], Pentas schimperana [Hodgso1969]. Rutaceae: Citrus [DeLott1965a], Citrus aurantium [DeLott1965a, Hall1931], Citrus maxima [DeLott1955], Citrus sinensis [Hodgso1969], Toddalia asiatica [Hall1931].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Angola [DeLott1965a, DeLott1967a, Almeid1973b]; Benin [HodgsoPe2012]; Cameroon [HodgsoPe2012]; Central African Republic [HodgsoPe2012]; Comoros [HodgsoPe2012]; Congo [HodgsoPe2012]; Cte d'Ivoire (=Ivory Coast); Eritrea [DeLott1965a]; Gabon [HodgsoPe2012]; Guinea [HodgsoPe2012]; Kenya [HodgsoPe2012]; Malawi [Hodgso1969]; Nigeria [HodgsoPe2012]; Rwanda [HodgsoPe2012]; Sao Tome and Principe (Sao Tome [HodgsoPe2012]); Senegal [EtiennMa1993]; Sierra Leone [HodgsoPe2012]; South Africa [DeLott1965a, Cillie1967]; Sudan [HodgsoPe2012]; Tanzania [HodgsoPe2012]; Uganda [DeLott1965a]; Zambia [Hodgso1969]; Zimbabwe [Hall1931, DeLott1965a, Hodgso1969].

BIOLOGY: Cilliers (1967) studied the biology and natural enemies in South Africa. Biology and pest status on coffee presented by Le Pelley (1968).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Hodgson & Peronti, 2012.

STRUCTURE:

SYSTEMATICS: Ceroplastes brevicauda differs from C. destructor in the following points: 1. Denuded of wax the adult female, instead of being more or less pyriform in outline, is very nearly circular. It is very highly convex andvuniformly rounded - only very slightly longer than broad. Lateral tubercles entirely absent. 2. The caudal process is rudimentary, being represented by a very small triangular projection. In C. destructor, the caudal process is half as long as the body and stout. 3. In old females, the deris is uniformly chitinised except for a small area round the base of the caudal process. This small hyaline area is characteristic and distinguishes it at once from C. destructor and other Ceroplastes species, with the exception of C. helichrysi. (Hall, 1931) De Lotto (1965) synonymised C. luteolus with C. brevicauda. It is clear that these 2 species are very similar but Hodgson & Peronti, 2012, determined that they should be considered distinct. In particular, the caudal process on C. brevicauda is never more than rather weakly sclerotised whereas on C. luteolus it is strongly sclerotised, even on young specimens (e.g., holotype).

KEYS: Hodgson & Peronti 2012: 49 [Key to adult females of C. destructor-group]; Hodgson et al. 2009: 102-104 (female) [Ceroplastes species of South Africa].

CITATIONS: Almeid1973b [taxonomy, host, distribution: 4]; Bedfor1973 [biological control: 4-11]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 22-23]; Cillie1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 1-59]; Cillie2001 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history, chemical control, biological control: 162-164]; CouturMaRi1985 [host, distribution: 275]; DeLott1965a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 196-199]; DeLott1967a [host, distribution: 111]; EtiennMa1993 [host, distribution: 255]; Hall1931 [host, distribution: 293-294]; HallFo1933 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-55]; Hodgso1969 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 23-24]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 50-53,241]; HodgsoWiGi2009 [taxonomy: 102-104]; Kondo2013 [distribution, host: 44]; LePell1968 [host, distribution]; Matile1970 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 175-176]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 302]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; RosaPeSo2011 [structure: 19].



Ceroplastes bruneri Cockerell & Cockerell in Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes bruneri Cockerell & Cockerell in Cockerell, 1902i: 91. Type data: PARAGUAY: San Bernardino, on unspecified host plant. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA, and Albany: New York State Museum Insect Collection, New York, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Ceroplastes bruneri; Fernald, 1903: 149. Notes: Author incorrectly cited.

Ceroplastes (Ceroplastidia) bruneri; Cockerell, 1910a: 76.

Ceroplastes (Ceroplastidia) bruneri; Lizer y Trelles, 1939: 195. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Cockerell" as author.



HOSTS: Fabaceae: Acacia [Hodgso1994a, Granar1999], Acacia bonariensis [Lizery1939], Acacia furcatispina [Granar1999], Acacia retinodes [Lizery1939], Acacia riparia [Lizery1939], Ceratonia siliqua [Lizery1939], Manganaroa furcata [Lizery1939], Manganaroa platensis [Lizery1939], Parkinsonia aculeata [Lizery1939]. Myrtaceae: Eugenia edulis [Granar1999].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina [Hodgso1994a] (Entre Rios [Granar1999], Misiones [Granar1999], Salta [Granar1999]); Bolivia; Colombia [Hodgso1994a, Kondo2001] (Doujaca, Magd.); Paraguay [Hodgso1994a] (San Bernardino); Uruguay [Granar1999].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson (1994a) and by Granara de Willink (1999).

KEYS: Granara de Willink 1999: 59 (female) [Argentina].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 23]; Cocker1902i [taxonomy, description, host, distribution : 91]; Cocker1902p [catalogue: 254]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 149]; Granar1999 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 61-64]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 164-166]; Kondo2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 41]; Lizery1939 [host, distribution: 195]; McCabeJo1980 [taxonomy: 7]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 302]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; Willia1985a [taxonomy: 223].



Ceroplastes bussei Newstead nomen nudum

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes bussei Newstead, 1906a: 74. Nomen nudum; discovered by De Lotto, 1965a: 181.

Ceroplastes bussei Newstead, 1906a: 74. Nomen nudum; discovered by De Lotto, 1965a: 181.

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: xxiii]; DeLott1965a [taxonomy: 181]; Newste1906a [taxonomy: 74]; Strick1947a [taxonomy: 498-499].



Ceroplastes caesalpiniae Reyne

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes caesalpiniae Reyne, 1964: 114. Type data: CURACAO: Noordkant, on Caesalpinia coriaria. Syntypes, female and first instar. Type depository: Amsterdam: Institut voor Taxonomische Zoologie, The Netherlands.



HOST: Fabaceae: Caesalpinia coriaria [Reyne1964].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Netherlands Antilles (Curacao).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 23]; Reyne1964 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 114-122].



Ceroplastes campinensis Hempel

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes campinensis Hempel, 1901b: 389. Type data: BRAZIL: Sao Paulo, Botucatu and Campinas, on Myrtaceae and Psidium guajava. Syntypes, both sexes. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Psidium guajava [Hempel1901b].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Sao Paulo).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 23-24]; Cocker1902p [catalogue: 254]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 149]; Hempel1901b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 389-390]; Hempel1920 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 19-20]; Vernal1953 [taxonomy: 124].



Ceroplastes cassiae (Chavannes)

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus cassiae Chavannes, 1848: 141. Type data: BRAZIL: So Paulo State, Glia, Estacao Ecologica de Caetetus, on Machaerium acutifolium; collected A.L.B.G. Pernti, 1.v.1003. Neotype female, by subsequent designation Peronti et al., 2008: 148. Type depository: So Carlos, Departamento de Ecologia e Biologia Evolutiva da UNiversidade Federal de So Carlos, So Paulo, Brazil; type no. 387. Described: female. Illust. Notes: The syntypes of Chavannes were collected in Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Bosafogo Bay, on Cassia sp. Depository of Chavannes' type material unknown (Ben-Dov, 1993).

Columnea gray Targioni Tozzetti, 1866: 145. Unjustified replacement name; discovered by.

Ceroplastes gray; Targioni Tozzetti, 1868: 728. Change of combination.

Ceroplastes cassiae; Signoret, 1869: 848. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Euphorbiaceae: Croton piptocalyx [PerontSoGr2008]. Fabaceae: Cassia [Chavan1848], Machearium acutifolium [PerontSoGr2008]. Moraceae: Ficus citrifolia [PerontSoGr2008].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Rio de Janeiro [Chavan1848, Cocker1897r], Sao Paulo [PerontSoGr2008]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Peronti et al. (2008).

STRUCTURE: Colour photo of adult female by Peronti et al. (008).

KEYS: Peronti et al. 2008: 142-144 (female) [Ceroplastes species of So Paulo, Brazil].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 24]; Chavan1848 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 141-144]; Cocker1893j [distribution: 254]; Cocker1894d [taxonomy, host, distribution: 311]; Cocker1896b [host, distribution: 330]; Cocker1897r [taxonomy: 70]; Cocker1902p [catalogue: 253]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 149]; Hempel1900a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution : 452]; PerontSoGr2008 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 148-149]; Signor1869 [host, distribution: 848, 855]; Signor1872a [catalogue: 43-44]; Targio1866 [catalogue: 145]; Targio1868 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 35]; Walker1852 [taxonomy: 1082]; Westwo1853b [taxonomy: 484]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 14].



Ceroplastes castelbrancoi Almeida

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes aff. longicauda; Almeida, 1969: 17. Misidentification.

Ceroplastes castelbrancoi Almeida, 1973b: 2. Type data: ANGOLA: Sa da Bandeira, on twigs of quince [=Cydonia oblonga]. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Lisbon: Coleccoes do Centro de Zoologia do Instituto de Investigacao Cientifica Tropical, Portugal; type no. 4450. Described: female.



HOST: Rosaceae: Cydonia oblonga [Almeid1969, Almeid1973b].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Angola [Almeid1969, Almeid1973b, MendesFe1989, HodgsoPe2012].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Almeida (1969).

STRUCTURE: Body oval, probably rather convex, with shallow, stigmatic clefts; dorsum probably with distinct tubercles. Caudal process (present on only 1 specimen) appearing to be about 1/3rd body length. Length of the body approximately 2.5-6.25 mm long and 0.65- 4.5 mm wide. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: The description and illustration of Ceroplastes aff. longicauda Brain, by Almeida (1969: 143) was a misidentification of Ceroplastes castelbrancoi Almeida, 1973b. Although adult female C. castelbrancoi appear to be very similar to C. eucleae and C. eugeniae, Almeida (1969) states (and illustrates) that mature C. castelbrancoi have a more elongate caudal process, which extends some distance posteriorly (rather less than one third of total body length) whereas on the other 2 species it is shorter, conical and extends dorso-posteriorly. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

KEYS: Hodgson & Peronti 2012: 100 (female, adult) [Key to adult females in the Ceroplastes rusci-group].

CITATIONS: Almeid1969 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution : 143-146]; Almeid1973b [host, distribution : 2]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 24]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, structure, taxonomy: 99,100,103-104,242]; MendesFe1989 [host, distribution: 56].



Ceroplastes centroroseus Chen

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes centroroseus Chen, 1974: 325. Type data: CHINA: Sichuan Province, on Citrus sp. Syntypes, female. Notes: Type material lost (F.T. Tang, 1989, personal communication).

Paracerostegia centroroseus; Tang, 1991: 305. Change of combination.

Paracerostegla centroroceus; Tao, 1999: 61. Misspelling of genus and species names.



HOSTS: Agavaceae: Yucca filamentosa [Tang1991]. Rutaceae: Citrus [Chen1974]. Theaceae: Thea sinensis [Tang1991].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Tang (1991).

KEYS: Fetyk & Kozr 2012: 293 (female) [Key to species of Ceroplastes in the Palaearctic Region based on slide-mounted adult females]; Tang 1991: 304 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 24]; Chen1974 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 325-327]; DengYuZh2012 [distribution: 791]; FetykoKo2012 [distribution, taxonomy: 292]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 305-306]; Tao1999 [taxonomy: 61]; Yang1982 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 187].



Ceroplastes ceriferus (Fabricius)

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus ceriferus Fabricius, 1798: 546. Type data: INDIA: Coromandel Coast, probably collected on Maytenus emarginatus. Syntypes, female. Notes: For details on the type material see De Lotto, 1971.

Coccus (Ceroplastes) chilensis Gray, 1828: 7. Type data: CHILE: on branches and peduncles of unidentified tree. Syntypes, preadult female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Synonymy by Green, 1899: 191.

Ceroplastes australiae Walker, 1852: 1087. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Sydney. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Synonymy by Green, 1899: 191.

Ceroplastes ceriferus; Walker, 1852: 1087. Change of combination.

Columnea cerifera; Targioni Tozzetti, 1866: 144. Change of combination.

Columnea chilensis; Targioni Tozzetti, 1866: 145. Change of combination.

Ceroplastes ceriferus; Signoret, 1869: 848. Notes: Author incorrectly cited as Anderson.

Lacca alba Signoret, 1869: 848. Nomen nudum; discovered by Ben-Dov, 1993: xxiii.

Ceroplastes ceriferus; Signoret, 1872a: 40. Notes: Author incorrectly cited as Anderson.

Ceroplastes australae; Green, 1904b: 375. Misidentification.

Seroplastes ceriferus; Seabra, 1925: 32. Misspelling of genus name.

Ceroplastes ceriferus; Kiritchenko, 1932a: 248. Notes: Author incorrectly cited as Anderson.

Ceroplastes vayssierei Mahdihassan, 1933: 561. Unjustified replacement name; discovered by.

Gascardia cerifera; De Lotto, 1965a: 198. Change of combination. Notes: Author incorrectly cited.

Ceroplastes pseudoceriferus; Paik, 1978. Misidentification.

Ceroplastes ceriferens; Tao, 1978: 79. Misspelling of species name. Notes: Author incorrectly cited.

Ceroplastes ceriferens; Su, 1982: 61. Misspelling of species name. Notes: Author incorrectly cited.

Ceroplastes cerifera Gill, 1988: 18. Unjustified emendation.

COMMON NAMES: Indian wax scale [GimpelMiDa1974, HamonWi1984, Gill1988, Koszta1996]; indian wax scale [GimpelMiDa1974, HamonWi1984, Gill1988, Koszta1996].



FOES: DIPTERA Cecidomyiidae: Pectinodiplosis erratica (Felt) [GagneEt2009]. HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Anicetus rarisetus Xu & He [XuHe1997], Anicetus zhejiangensis Xu & Li [XuLi1991].

HOSTS: Aceraceae: Acer japonicus [Green1921a]. Amaranthaceae: Amaranthus [GimpelMiDa1974]. Anacardiaceae: Buchanania [Ramakr1930, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989], Mangifera indica [Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989, KinjoNaHi1996], Rhus succedanea [Kuwana1907, Kuwana1923c], Schinus molle [QinGu1994], Spondias purpurea [MatileEt2006]. Apocynaceae: Carissa spinarium [Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989], Thevetia peruviana [GimpelMiDa1974]. Aquifoliaceae: Ilex aquifolium [GimpelMiDa1974], Ilex cornuta [GimpelMiDa1974], Ilex crenata [GimpelMiDa1974], Ilex japonicus [GimpelMiDa1974], Ilex latifolia [GimpelMiDa1974], Ilex opaca [GimpelMiDa1974], Ilex serrata [GimpelMiDa1974], Ilex vomitoria [GimpelMiDa1974]. Araliaceae: Aralia [Lindin1911a], Fatsia japonica [GimpelMiDa1974]. Asclepiadaceae: Asclepiadron [ShafeeYoKh1989]. Asteraceae: Artemisia abrotanum [WilliaKo1972], Artemisia capillaris [Ali1971]. Berberidaceae: Berberis julianae [WilliaKo1972], Berberis tricanthophora [WilliaKo1972], Mahonia [GimpelMiDa1974]. Betulaceae: Betula pendula [WilliaKo1972]. Bignoniaceae: Pandora pandorana [DeLott1971]. Burseraceae: Boswellia [Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989], Bursera simaruba [NakahaMi1981]. Buxaceae: Buxus sempervirens [GimpelMiDa1974]. Caprifoliaceae: Viburnum [HamonWi1984]. Casuarinaceae: Casuarina [Ramakr1930, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989]. Celastraceae: Celastrus ceriferus [Fabric1798, Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989], Celastrus ceriferus [Westwo1853b, Targio1866], Euonymus europaeus [GimpelMiDa1974], Euonymus japonicus [GimpelMiDa1974]. Combretaceae: Terminalia [Ramakr1930, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989]. Cucurbitaceae: Cucurbita moschata [GimpelMiDa1974]. Dennstaedtiaceae: Pteridium esculentum [DeLott1971, QinGu1994]. Ebenaceae: Diospyros kaki [Kuwana1923c, DanzigKo1990]. Epacridaceae: Monotoca elliptica [DeLott1971]. Ericaceae: Azalea [GimpelMiDa1974], Vaccinium arboreum [GimpelMiDa1974]. Fabaceae: Cassia [Iherin1897]. Heliconiaceae: Heliconia [MatileEt2006]. Icacinaceae: Phytocrene [Morris1920, Ali1971]. Lauraceae: Persea americana [QinGu1994], Persea gratissima [DeLott1971, Ali1971]. Lythraceae: Lagerstroemia indica [GimpelMiDa1974], Lawsonia alba [Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989]. Magnoliaceae: Magnolia grandiflora [WilliaKo1972], Magnolia virginiana [HamonWi1984]. Malvaceae: Abutilon indicum [AvasthSh1986, ShafeeYoKh1989]. Melastomataceae: Melastoma candidum [Ali1971]. Moraceae: Ficus [Green1909a, Green1937, Ali1971, Beards1986], Ficus hauili [Morris1920, Ali1971], Ficus hispida [WilliaMi2010], Ficus montana [WilliaMi2010], Ficus religiosa [ShafeeYoKh1989], Ficus retusa [Ali1971], Morus alba [Kuwana1923c, Ali1971], Morus indica [Green1937, Ali1971]. Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus deglupta [WilliaWa1990], Eugenia malaccensis [WilliaWa1990], Rhodomyrtus tomentosa [Ali1971]. Ochnaceae: Sauvagesia erecta [NakahaMi1981]. Philadelphaceae: Deutzia [WilliaKo1972]. Pinaceae: Keteleeria [Ali1971], Tsuga canadensis [GimpelMiDa1974]. Piperaceae: Piper [WilliaBu1987, WilliaWa1990]. Pittosporaceae: Pittosporum [GimpelMiDa1974]. Platanaceae: Platanus [HamonWi1984]. Podocarpaceae: Podocarpus macrophyllus [GimpelMiDa1974], Podocarpus nagi [GimpelMiDa1974]. Polygonaceae: Antigonon [Green1896, Green1909a, Ali1971], Polygonum [Ali1971]. Polypodiaceae: Pteris aquilina [DeLott1971], Pyrrosia lanceolata [WilliaWa1990]. Rhamnaceae: Ziziphus jujuba [ShafeeYoKh1989]. Rosaceae: Armeniaca vulgaris [Kuwana1923c], Chaenomeles japonica [WilliaKo1972], Cormus tschonoskii [Kuwana1923c], Crataegus [GimpelMiDa1974], Malus sylvestris [Kuwana1923c], Persica vulgaris [Kuwana1923c], Prunus domestica [Kuwana1923c], Prunus yedoensis [Kuwana1923c], Pygeum preslii [Ali1971], Pyracantha coccinea [GimpelMiDa1974], Spiraea [GimpelMiDa1974]. Rubiaceae: Coffea arabica [Newste1911a], Gardenia florida [Kuwana1923c], Ixora triflora [WilliaWa1990], Neonauclea calycina [WilliaMi2010]. Rutaceae: Citrus [Ali1971, GimpelMiDa1974, KomuraMiMi1982, ShafeeYoKh1989]. Salicaceae: Salix [HamonWi1984]. Sapindaceae: Euphoria longana [Ali1971, Takaha1942a], Nephelium lappaceum [GimpelMiDa1974]. Sapotaceae: Pometia pinnata [Ali1971]. Tamaricaceae: Tamarix [DeLott1971], Tamarix aphylla [QinGu1994], Tamarix gallica [GimpelMiDa1974]. Theaceae: Camellia japonica [GimpelMiDa1974], Camellia sasanqua [HamonWi1984], Camellia sinensis [Green1900c, Green1909a, Green1937, Ali1971, GimpelMiDa1974, ShafeeYoKh1989], Camellia sinensis [Tamaki1964, Tamaki1966, DanzigKo1990], Taonabo japonica [Kuwana1907]. Ulmaceae: Celtis occidentalis [WilliaKo1972], Ulmus [GimpelMiDa1974]. Urticaceae: Pouzolzia [Green1896, Ali1971], Pouzolzia walkeriana [Green1909a]. Verbenaceae: Callicarpa [GimpelMiDa1974], Duranta [QinGu1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Tanzania [Newste1911a] (The records from Tanzania and Uganda by Newstead (1910a, 1910b, 1911b) and those of Lindinger (1907, 1913) were based on "specimens of Gascardia destructor" (now Ceroplastes destructor), a species that was described only later by Newstead (1917). It is considered doubtful whether this species has been recorded from the Afrotropical Region. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)); Uganda [Newste1910a, Newste1910c] (The records from Tanzania and Uganda by Newstead (1910a, 1910b, 1911b) and those of Lindinger (1907, 1913) were based on "specimens of Gascardia destructor" (now Ceroplastes destructor), a species that was described only later by Newstead (1917). It is considered doubtful whether this species has been recorded from the Afrotropical Region. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)). Australasian: Australia [Green1899b, Kirkal1902, Frogga1915, Beards1986, DanzigKo1990, QinGu1994] (New South Wales [DeLott1971, QinGu1994], Queensland [Brimbl1956a, DeLott1971, QinGu1994], Western Australia [QinGu1994]); Christmas Island [AbbottGr2007]; Cook Islands; Fiji [Beards1986]; Guam [Beards1986]; Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii [Kirkal1902, Kirkal1904, DanzigKo1990]); New Caledonia; New Zealand [HodgsoHe2000]; Palau [Beards1986]; Papua New Guinea; Tonga; Vanuatu (=New Hebrides) [WilliaBu1987]. Nearctic: Mexico [Kirkal1902, KomuraMiMi1982, DanzigKo1990]; United States of America (Alabama, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, New Jersey [Koszta1996], New York, North Carolina, Ohio [Koszta1996], Oklahoma, Pennsylvania [Koszta1996, Stimme1998], South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia). Neotropical: Brazil [Iherin1897]; Chile [Gray1828, DanzigKo1990, KondoGu2010]; Guadeloupe [MatileEt2006]; Jamaica [Kirkal1902]; Panama [Beards1986]; Puerto Rico & Vieques Island (Puerto Rico [Martor1976, NakahaMi1981]); U.S. Virgin Islands. Oriental: China (Hunan [HuHeWa1992]); Hong Kong [MartinLa2011]; India [Fabric1798, Targio1866, Kirkal1902, ShafeeYoKh1989, DanzigKo1990] [Green1899b, Frogga1915, Newste1917b, Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, Ali1971] (Assam [Green1900c, Ali1971], Bihar [Ali1971], Madhya Pradesh [Ali1971], Tamil Nadu [Newste1894c, AvasthSh1986], West Bengal); Indonesia [Beards1986] [WilliaMi2010]; Kampuchea (=Cambodia) [MuniapShWa2011]; Malaysia; Philippines [Ali1971]; Ryukyu Islands (=Nansei Shoto) [KinjoNaHi1996]; Sri Lanka [Green1896, Green1899b, Green1900c, Green1909a, Green1937, Ali1971, DanzigKo1990]; Taiwan [Ali1971]; Thailand; Vietnam [DanzigKo1990]. Palaearctic: Canary Islands [Lindin1911a]; China [Westwo1853b, Ali1971, DanzigKo1990] (Shanxi (=Shansi) [Xie1998]); Italy [MoriPeTo2001]; Japan [Kuwana1917, Tamaki1964, Tamaki1966, Beards1986, KomuraMiMi1982, PawlakTeIw1983, DanzigKo1990]; Netherlands [FetykoKo2012]; United Kingdom (England [Green1921a]).

BIOLOGY: Ohgushi & Nishino (1975) studied the life tables in Japan. A parthenogenetic species in USA, Virginia; develops one annual generation in USA, Maryland and Virginia; overwinters as an adult female (Kosztarab, 1996).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by De Lotto (1971), Williams & Kosztarab (1972), Gimpel et al. (1974), Hamon & Williams (1984), Williams & Watson (1990), Tang (1991), Kosztarab (1996), Hodgson & Henderson (2000). Description and illustration of adult male by Gimpel et al. (1974).

STRUCTURE: Colour photograph in Kawai (1980, Figs. 6.58, a,b), Hamon & Williams (1984) and in Mori et al. (2001, 2001a). Body covered by thick white (young female) to pinkish white (old female) wet wax, convex, circular or irregular in outline, with an anteriorly projecting horn visible only on older females, without nuclei. Wax bands near both spiracles, anterior bands directed dorsally. Dry wax with filaments as follows: cephalic filament trifurcate; anterolateral and mediolateral simple; posterolateral bifurcate; caudal simple.(Lee, et al., 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: The authorship of this species was erroneously credited to Anderson (1790) for almost 200 years. However, the correct name is Ceroplastes ceriferus (Fabricius, 1798). For a detailed discussion on this topic see De Lotto (1971), Williams (2002) and Hodgson & Peronti, 2012. Lee, et al, 2012 examined 143 specimens labeled as C. pseudoceriferus, deposited at the National Academy of Agricultural Science, Korea and determined that they were actually C. ceriferus. According to Gimpel et al. (1974), C. ceriferus is close to C. pseudoceriferus Green and C. albolineatus Cockerell. C. ceriferus differs from C. pseudoceriferus in having significantly smaller legs and ntennae,few or no multilocular disc-pores near the procoxae and many fewer stigmatic setae in each cleft. C. pseudoceriferus also has 40 marginal setae between the anterior stigmatic furrows (less than 15 in C. ceriferus). C. albolineatus differs from C. ceriferus in having 7-segmented antennae and a tibio-tarsal articulatory sclerosis. Neither C. pseudoceriferus nor C. albolineatus has been recorded from Africa. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012) Deng, et al. (2012) determined DNA COI barcoding sequences for six Chinese Ceroplastes species. Ceroplastes ceriferus generated a distinct COI sequence. GenBank Accessions JQ795609-JQ795722. 28S DNA sequences: GenBank Accessions JQ795495-JQ795608.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: A pest of economic importance to many ornamentals in U.S.A. (Gimpel et al., 1974; Kosztarab, 1996). C. ceriferus is a highly polyphagous pest, and many of its host plants are citivated in Europe for fruit production or ornamental purposes. Its recent introduction into Italy showed that the pest is able to survive in parts of Europe. Although more data is needed on the impact of this scale on fruit crops, it seems that it is more a threat for ornamental crops. Control of scales is usually difficult in practice, although biological control agents exist in other parts of the world, it is not known whether they could reduce populations sufficiently under European conditions.

KEYS: Fetyk & Kozr 2012: 293 (female) [Key to species of Ceroplastes in the Palaearctic Region based on slide-mounted adult females]; Lee et al. 2012: 159-160 (female) [Key to the wax tests of adult females Ceroplastes in Korea]; Lee et al. 2012: 160 (female) [Key to slide mounted adult females Ceroplastes in Korea]; Kondo & Gullan 2010: 13-14 (female) [Coccidae species of Chile]; Mori, Pellizzari & Tosi 2001: 42 (female) [Italy]; Hodgson & Henderson 2000: 185 (female) [New Zealand]; Kosztarab 1996: 325 (female) [Northeastern North America]; Kosztarab 1996: 325 (female) [Northeastren North America]; Tang 1991: 297 (female) [China]; Williams & Watson 1990: 65 (female) [Tropical South Pacific]; Hamon & Williams 1984: 18 (female) [USA, Florida]; Kawai 1980: 166 (female) [Japan]; Gimpel et al. 1974: 19 (female) [USA]; Gimpel et al. 1974: 71 (male) [USA]; Williams & Kosztarab 1972: 36 (female) [USA, Virginia]; Borchsenius 1957: 451 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Green 1909a: 270-271 (female) [Ceylon]; Cockerell 1895: 8 (female) [India].

CITATIONS: AbbottGr2007 [host, distribution, biological control, ecology: 1238-1246]; Ali1971 [catalogue: 16]; Antonu2003 [taxonomy, illustration, host, distribution: 25-26]; AvasthSh1986 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 330-332]; Beards1986 [host, distribution: 9]; Beatti1993 [taxonomy: 1-19]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: xxiii, 24-26]; Blanch1883 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 238-239]; Borchs1957 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 457-459]; Brimbl1956a [taxonomy, host, distribution : 159-161]; Brimbl1962 [host, distribution, economic importance: 224-225]; Cocker1894d [taxonomy: 311]; Cocker1895 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 7-8]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 331,333]; Cocker1902p [distribution: 253]; DanzigKo1990 [host, distribution: 43]; DavidsRa1999 [economic importance, control: 1]; DeBach1958a [biological control: 759-768]; DeLott1965a [taxonomy: 198]; DeLott1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution : 133-140,142-143]; DengYuZh2012 [distribution, molecular data, taxonomy: 791-796]; Fabric1798 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 546]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 148-150]; Ferris1950a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 75]; FetykoKo2012 [distribution, taxonomy: 291-295]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution : 421-422]; GagneEt2009 [host, distribution, biological control: 348-349]; Gill1988 [distribution: 18]; GillKo1997 [economic importance, host, distribution: 161-163]; GimpelMiDa1974 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 23-29,71-73]; Gowdey1921 [host, distribution]; Gray1828 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution : 7]; Green1896 [host, distribution: 8]; Green1899b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 190-192]; Green1900c [host, distribution: 8]; Green1904b [taxonomy, description, distribution: 375]; Green1909a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution : 270-271]; Green1921a [taxonomy, host, distribution : 259]; Green1937 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 310]; HamonWi1984 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 20-22]; Hodges2001 [host, distribution, life history: 1-122]; Hodges2002b [taxonomy: 208]; HodgesBr2004 [host, life history, ecology: 611-622]; HodgsoHe2000 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 185-186,191]; HodgsoLa2011 [host, distribution: 19]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 33-37,50,53,54,234]; HuHeWa1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 183]; Hui1988 [biological control: 395-398]; Iherin1897 [host, distribution: 408-409]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 167-169]; KinjoNaHi1996 [host, distribution: 126]; Kiritc1932a [taxonomy: 248]; Kirkal1902 [taxonomy, distribution: 105]; Kirkal1904 [taxonomy, distribution: 228]; KomuraMiMi1982 [structure, taxonomy, host, distribution : 3053-3054]; KondoGu2010 [host, distribution: 13]; Koszta1996 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history, economic importance : 326-327]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy: 81]; KozarWa1985 [catalogue: 76]; Kuwana1907 [taxonomy, host, distribution : 190]; Kuwana1917 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 71-72]; Kuwana1923b [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history, biological control: 43-50]; LambdiWa1980 [host, distribution: 79]; LeeWuSu2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, molecular data: 157-162]; Lindin1911a [host, distribution: 33]; MaChZh1995 [host, distribution: 117-119]; Mahdih1933 [taxonomy: 561]; MartinLa2011 [catalogue, distribution: 34]; Martor1976 [host, distribution: 32,233]; Maskel1893b [taxonomy, host, distribution: 216-217]; Maskel1895a [distribution: 12]; MatileEt2006 [host, distribution: 164]; MillerRuPa2014 [catalogue: 65]; MoriPeTo2001 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 41-43]; MoriPeTo2002 [host, distribution: 331-336]; Morris1920 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 188]; MuniapShWa2011 [distribution, economic importance, host: 168,169]; NakahaMi1981 [distribution: 29]; Newste1894c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution : 21-23]; Newste1910a [host, distribution: 66]; Newste1910c [host, distribution: 195]; Newste1911a [host, distribution: 167]; Newste1917b [host, distribution: 128]; Ohgush1986a [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 59-62]; Ohgush1986b [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 147-149]; Ohgush1987a [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 82-85]; Ohgush1988 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 75-77]; OhgushNi1975 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 1-21]; PawlakTeIw1983 [structure, distribution: 1069-1072]; Pearso1794 [chemistry, life history,: 383]; PellizAnGa2005 [life history, distribution: 350]; PellizGaMo2004 [host, distribution, life history, chemical control, biological control: 39-46]; Pezzi2002 [host, distribution: 31-33]; QinGu1994 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 928-930]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 301]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; Ramakr1919a [host, distribution: 29]; Ramakr1921a [host, distribution: 346]; Ramakr1930 [host, distribution: 39]; RosaPeSo2011 [structure: 19]; Schmut2001 [host, distribution: 339-345]; Seabra1921 [host, distribution: 97-98]; Seabra1925 [taxonomy: 32]; ShafeeYoKh1989 [host, distribution: 47-48]; Signor1869 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 844,848,849]; Signor1872a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 40, 44-45]; SmithOtMc1971 [host, distribution, control, economic importance: 889-893]; Stimme1998 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance, control: 17-19]; Su1982 [taxonomy, distribution: 61]; Takaha1928 [host, distribution: 345]; Takaha1932a [host, distribution: 104]; Takaha1942b [host, distribution: 30]; Takaha1952 [host, distribution: 17]; Tamaki1964 [chemical control, host, distribution: 159-164]; Tamaki1966 [host, distribution: 297-300]; Tanaka1953 [illustration, host, distribution: 57,58]; Tang1977 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 92-93]; Tang1984b [host, distribution: 128]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 298-299]; Tao1978 [host, distribution: 79]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 51-52]; Targio1866 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 144-145]; Trembl1988b [host, distribution: 116]; Varshn1994 [host, distribution: 340-341]; Varshn2005 [taxonomy, illustration, host, distribution: 155-158]; Walker1852 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 1079, 1086, 1087]; Westwo1853b [host, distribution: 484]; Willia2001 [distribution: 225-227]; Willia2002 [taxonomy: 239]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 15]; WilliaBu1987 [host, distribution: 93]; WilliaKo1972 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 36-43]; WilliaMi2010 [host, distribution: 45]; WilliaWa1990 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 66-69]; Xie1998 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution : 38-40]; XieXu2005 [taxonomy, structure: 837-848]; XieXuZh2004a [chemistry: 512-518]; XieXuZh2005a [taxonomy, wax, infra-red: 133-143]; XieXuZh2006a [morphology, wax secretion, chemistry: 21-202]; XuHe1997 [host, distribution, biological control: 91-94]; XuLi1991 [host, distribution, biological control: 219-221]; Yang1982 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 187].



Ceroplastes circumdatus Green

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes circumdatus Green, 1923b: 95. Type data: GUYANA: Demerara, on Triphasia sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.



HOST: Rutaceae: Triphasia [Green1923b].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Guyana [Green1923b].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 26]; Green1923b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 95].



Ceroplastes cirripediformis Comstock

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes cirripediformis Comstock, 1881a: 333. Type data: U.S.A.: Florida, Sanford, on Eupatorium sp. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Gimpel et al., 1974: 29. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Ceroplastes plumbaginis Cockerell, 1893f: 82. Type data: ANTIGUA: on Plumbago capensis. Syntypes, female and first instar. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female and first instar. Synonymy by Gimpel et al., 1974: 29.

Ceroplastes euphorbiae Cockerell, 1896e: 17. Type data: JAMAICA: Red Hill District, on Euphorbia hypericifolia. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Gimpel et al., 1974: 29.

Ceroplastes mexicanus Cockerell, 1896f: 20. Type data: MEXICO: San Luis Potosi and Guyamas, on Catalpa sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Gimpel et al., 1974: 29. Notes: Also described as n. sp. in Cockerell, 1896h, p. 20.

Ceroplastes rarus Hempel, 1900a: 469. Type data: BRAZIL: Sao Paulo, Ypiranga, on twigs of an indigenous tree. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil. Synonymy by Peronti et al., 2008: 150.

Ceroplastes cultus Hempel, 1900a: 470. Type data: BRAZIL: Sao Paulo, Ypiranga, on twigs of Erigeron canadensis. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil. Synonymy by Peronti et al., 2008: 150.

Ceroplastes cuneatus Hempel, 1900a: 471. Type data: BRAZIL: Sao Paulo, Ypiranga, on twigs of Erigeron canadensis. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil. Synonymy by Peronti et al., 2008: 150.

Ceroplastes rotundus Hempel, 1900a: 473. Type data: BRAZIL: Sao Paulo, Ypiranga, on twigs of Maytenus sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil. Synonymy by Peronti et al., 2008: 150.

Ceroplastes breviseta Leonardi, 1911: 264. Type data: ARGENTINA: Mendoza, Cacheuta, on Atriplex lampa. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Granara de Willink, 1999: 51. Type depository: Portici: Dipartimento de Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria di Portici, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Italy. Described: female. Synonymy by Granara de Willink, 1999: 49.

Ceroplastes cerripidiformis; Houser, 1918: 159. Misspelling of species name.

Ceroplastes cirrepediformis; Hodges, 2002b: 205. Misspelling of species name.

COMMON NAMES: barnacle scale [HamonWi1984, Gill1988]; barnacle wax scale [GimpelMiDa1974, BenDov1993]; Conchuela cerosa [RipaRo2008a].



FOES: COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Azya luteipis [Bartle1978], Orcus chalybeus [Bartle1978]. HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Coccophagus caridei Brethes [MarinLCi1996], Coccophagus rusti Compere [MarinLCi1996]. Encyrtidae: Anicetus quintanai De Santis [MarinLCi1996], Gahaniella saissetiae Timberlake [MarinLCi1996]. Eulophidae: Pachyneuron [MarinLCi1996], Tetrastichus [MarinLCi1996]. Pteromalidae: Scutellista cyanea Motschulsky [MarinLCi1996].

HOSTS: Starchitaphtera [PerontSoGr2008]. Acanthaceae: Asystasia gangetica [Nakaha1981a], Graptophyllum pictum [Nakaha1981a], Pseuderanthemum atropurpureum [Nakaha1981a], Strobilanthes anisophyllus [GimpelMiDa1974]. Agavaceae: Agave americana [HamonWi1984]. Amaranthaceae: Alternathera amoena [GimpelMiDa1974, Nakaha1981a], Amaranthus [GimpelMiDa1974, Nakaha1981a]. Anacardiaceae: Mangifera [HodgsoHi1990], Mangifera indica [Nakaha1983, KondoKa1995], Schinus [HodgsoHi1990], Schinus terebinthifolia [GimpelMiDa1974, Nakaha1981a], Toxicodendron [HodgsoHi1990]. Annonaceae: Annona muricata [Kondo2008a]. Apocynaceae: Carissa carandas [HamonWi1984], Nerium [HodgsoHi1990], Plumeria [Nakaha1981a]. Aquifoliaceae: Ilex aquifolium [GimpelMiDa1974]. Araceae: Philodendron [GimpelMiDa1974, Nakaha1981a]. Aspidiaceae: Didymochlaena [HodgsoHi1990]. Asteraceae: Ageratum conyzoides [GimpelMiDa1974, Nakaha1981a], Artemisia [GimpelMiDa1974], Baccharis halimifolia [GimpelMiDa1974], Borrichia frutescens [GimpelMiDa1974], Chrysanthemum [GimpelMiDa1974, HodgsoHi1990], Chrysanthemum indicum [Ballou1926], Erigeron canadensis [Hempel1900a, PerontSoGr2008], Eupatorium capillifolium [HamonWi1984], Helianthus [HodgsoHi1990], Iva frutescens [GimpelMiDa1974], Palafoxia feayi [GimpelMiDa1974], Pluchea indica [Nakaha1981a], Pluchea odorata [GimpelMiDa1974, Nakaha1981a], Wedelia trilobata [Nakaha1981a]. Balanitaceae: Balanites [GimpelMiDa1974]. Balsaminaceae: Impatiens [HodgsoHi1990]. Bignoniaceae: Catalpa [Cocker1893m, Cocker1896f, Cocker1896h], Dorantha [HodgsoHi1990], Jacaranda cuspidifolia [PerontSoGr2008], Podranea [HodgsoHi1990], Tabebuia [PerontSoGr2008], Tabebuia donell-smithi [Nakaha1981a], Tecomaria [HodgsoHi1990]. Boraginaceae: Tiquilia darwinii [LincanHoCa2010], Tournefortia sp. [LincanHoCa2010]. Caprifoliaceae: Viburnum suspensum [HamonWi1984]. Celastraceae: Euonymus [GimpelMiDa1974, HodgsoHi1990], Maytenus [Hempel1900a, GimpelMiDa1974], Maytenus octogona [LincanHoCa2010]. Chenopodiaceae: Atriplex [Granar1999], Atriplex lampa [Leonar1911, Sassce1912], Suaeda [Granar1999]. Clusiaceae: Mammea [GimpelMiDa1974]. Combretaceae: Conocarpus [HodgsoHi1990], Laguncularia racemosa [LincanHoCa2010]. Convolvulaceae: Argyreia nervosa [Nakaha1981a], Ipomoea [Newste1917b], Ipomoea batatas [GimpelMiDa1974], Rivea speciosa [Ballou1926]. Cycadaceae: Cycas [HodgsoHi1990]. Ebenaceae: Diospyros kaki [GimpelMiDa1974]. Ehretiaceae: Ehretia anacua [GimpelMiDa1974]. Euphorbiaceae: Codiaeum [GimpelMiDa1974, HodgsoHi1990], Euphorbia hypericifolia [Cocker1896o], Euphorbia pulcherrima [GimpelMiDa1974], Hura crepitans [Newste1917b]. Fabaceae: Cassia corymbosa [GimpelMiDa1974], Parkinsonia aculeata [HamonWi1984]. Geraniaceae: Pelargonium [Ballou1926]. Lamiaceae: Rosmarinus [GimpelMiDa1974, HodgsoHi1990], Salvia [HodgsoHi1990]. Lauraceae: Laurus nobilis [Ballou1926], Ocotea pulchella [PerontSoGr2008]. Malpighiaceae: Byrsonima intermedia [PerontSoGr2008], Malpighia [Nakaha1983], Malpighia coccigera [GimpelMiDa1974, Nakaha1981a], Malpighia emarginata [MatileEt2006], Malpighia ilicifolia [PerontSoGr2008]. Malvaceae: Hibiscus [HodgsoHi1990]. Meliaceae: Melia azedarach [GimpelMiDa1974]. Moraceae: Ficus [HodgsoHi1990]. Musaceae: Musa paradisiaca [Nakaha1983]. Myoporaceae: Myoporum [Argyri1983]. Myrsinaceae: Ardisia pyramidalis [GimpelMiDa1974]. Myrtaceae: Eugenia [Nakaha1981a], Eugenia aquea [Green1904a], Feijoa sellowiana [GimpelMiDa1974], Myrtus [GimpelMiDa1974], Pimenta officinalis [Nakaha1981a], Psidium guajava [GimpelMiDa1974, Nakaha1981a, Nakaha1983]. Nyctaginaceae: Cryptocarpus pyriformis [LincanHoCa2010], Pisonia [GimpelMiDa1974], Pisonia aculeata [Ballou1926]. Onagraceae: Fuchsia [Granar1999], Gaura [GimpelMiDa1974]. Orchidaceae: Vanda aurora [GimpelMiDa1974]. Osmundaceae: Osmunda [HodgsoHi1990]. Passifloraceae: Passiflora [Nakaha1981a, HodgsoHi1990, MarinLCi1996a, PerontSoGr2008], Passiflora edulis [GimpelMiDa1974, Nakaha1981a, GalloVaBo1994], Passiflora ligularis [GimpelMiDa1974], Passiflora quadrangularis [GimpelMiDa1974]. Pittosporaceae: Pittosporum [HodgsoHi1990]. Plumbaginaceae: Plumbago capensis [Cocker1893m]. Polygonaceae: Coccoloba unifera [Nakaha1983]. Punicaceae: Punica [HodgsoHi1990], Punica granatum [GimpelMiDa1974, Nakaha1981a]. Ranunculaceae: Clematis hilarii [Granar1999]. Rhamnaceae: Karwinskia humboltiana [Bibby1931]. Rhizophoraceae: Rhizophora mangle [GimpelMiDa1974]. Rosaceae: Cotoneaster [GimpelMiDa1974], Eriobotrya [HodgsoHi1990], Pyracantha [HodgsoHi1990]. Rubiaceae: Chiococca [HodgsoHi1990], Gardenia jasminoides [GimpelMiDa1974, Nakaha1981a, Granar1999], Gardenia taitensis [Nakaha1981a]. Rutaceae: Citrus [HodgsoHi1990], Citrus limon [GimpelMiDa1974], Citrus sinensis [Ballou1926, GimpelMiDa1974], Fortunella [HodgsoHi1990]. Salicaceae: Salix [GimpelMiDa1974]. Sapindaceae: Cardiospermum [HodgsoHi1990], Dodonaea [HodgsoHi1990], Dodonaea viscosa [GimpelMiDa1974], Melicoccus bejuga [Ballou1926]. Sapotaceae: Achras sapota [Ballou1926], Chrysophyllum cainito [GimpelMiDa1974]. Scrophulariaceae: Russelia [HodgsoHi1990]. Solanaceae: Brunfelsia nitida [Ballou1926], Physalis [HodgsoHi1990], Solanum [HodgsoHi1990, PerontSoGr2008], Solanum melongena [MatileEt2006], Solanum muricatum [GalloVaBo1994], Solanum paniculatum [PerontSoGr2008], Solanum seaforthianum [Ballou1926]. Tamaricaceae: Tamarix [GimpelMiDa1974, HodgsoHi1990], Tamarix gallica [Ballou1926]. Theaceae: Cleyera japonica [GimpelMiDa1974], Thea. Turneraceae: Turnera subulata [MatileEt2006]. Ulmaceae: Celtis [HodgsoHi1990], Celtis laevigata [GimpelMiDa1974], Ulmus parvifolia [HamonWi1984], Ulmus pumila [GimpelMiDa1974]. Urticaceae: Urtica [HodgsoHi1990]. Verbenaceae [PerontSoGr2008], Citharexylum [Nakaha1981a, HodgsoHi1990], Citharexylum spinosum [Nakaha1981a], Clerodendrum fragrans [Ballou1926, GimpelMiDa1974, Marott1987], Duranta [HodgsoHi1990], Duranta plumieri [Cocker1899n], Duranta repens [GimpelMiDa1974, Nakaha1981a, PerontSoGr2008], Petrea volubilis [Ballou1926]. Vitaceae: Vitis vinifera [Granar1999]. Zingiberaceae: Alpinia [Granar1999].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii [BenDov1993]). Australasian: Indonesia (Java [Green1904a]). Australasian: Marshall Islands [BenDov1993]; Wake Island [BenDov1993]. Nearctic: Mexico [Cocker1896f, Cocker1899n, Ferris1921] (Baja California Sur [Ferris1921], Coahuila [BenDov1993], Guanajuato [BenDov1993], Jalisco [Cocker1903a], San Luis Potosi [Cocker1896f, Cocker1896h], Veracruz [Cocker1899n]); United States of America (Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, District of Columbia, Florida [Comsto1881a], Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Texas [Bibby1931]). Neotropical: Antigua and Barbuda (Antigua [Cocker1893gg]); Argentina [Sassce1912] (Entre Rios [Granar1999, GranarCl2003], Mendoza [Granar1999, GranarCl2003], Tucuman [Granar1999, GranarCl2003]); Bermuda [HodgsoHi1991, HodgsoHi1990]; Brazil (Alagoas [PerontSoGr2008], Sao Paulo [PerontSoGr2008]); Chile [GalloVaBo1994, RipaRo2008a, KondoGu2010]; Colombia [KondoKa1995, Kondo2001]; Cuba [Houser1918, Ballou1926]; Galapagos Islands [CaustoPeSi2006, LincanHoCa2010]; Guadeloupe [MatileEt2006]; Guatemala [Willia2010]; Guyana [Newste1917b]; Haiti [PerezG2008]; Jamaica [Granar1999]; Martinique [Granar1999]; Peru [MarinLCi1996a]; Puerto Rico & Vieques Island (Puerto Rico [Martor1976, NakahaMi1981]); Trinidad and Tobago (Trinidad); U.S. Virgin Islands. Oriental: Philippines. Palaearctic: Greece [Argyri1983]; Italy [Marott1987, LongoMaPe1995].

BIOLOGY: Gill (1988) reported that, apparently, it develops one annual generation in USA, California.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustrations of the adult female by Gimpel et al. (1974), Hamon & Williams (1984), Gill (1988), Kosztarab (1996), Granara de Willink (1999) and by Peronti et al. (2008). Description and illustration of the adult male given by Gimpel et al. (1974).

STRUCTURE: Adult female convex, hemispherical; 2-5 mm long. Body of the female reddish-brown to brown. Wax cover thick, grey in colour. Colour photograph of adult female by Gill (1988) and by Peronti et al. (2008). Wet wax rectangular to oval in dorsal view, hemispherical laterally, without horn, dirty to grayish white, with marginal flange small or absent and not hiding lateral filaments, divided into 1 dorsal and 6 lateral plates, with nuclei. Dry wax filaments as follows: cephalic filament appearing trifurcate, with acute apices; anterolateral and posterolateral filaments simple; posterolateral filaments bifurcate; caudal filaments with weakly divided, bifurcate apices; dorsal dry wax of first and second instars forming small central cap, surrounded by large dorsomedial nucleus; dorsal dry wax not tilted. Stigmatic wax bands present near both pairs of spiracles, anterior bands directed dorsally, filamentous wax confined to stigmatic areas. Length 3.8 (range 1.0-7.1) mm, width 2.4 (range 0.8-5.2) mm, height 2.0 (range 0.7-4.2) mm. (Gimpel et al., 1974

SYSTEMATICS: C. cirripediformis is close to C. sinensis. According to Gimpel et al. (1974), C. cirripediformis differs from C. sinensis as follows (data for C. sinensis in brackets): (i) dorsal setae mainly capitate (rarelycapitate); (ii) each anal plate with 1 ventral seta (with 2 ventral setae); (iii) stigmatic setae predominantly isosceleswith pointed apices, apical third never bent (predominantly hemispherical, bullet-shaped with rounded apices or lanceolate with apical third bent); (iv) ventral submarginal band of filamentous ducts absent (present), and (v) multilocular disc-pores present on all abdominal and generally on all thoracic segments (multilocular disc-pores absent from abdominal segments II and III and thorax).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: This soft scale is a pest of Citrus and many ornamentals (Gimpel et al., 1974; Kosztarab, 1996). In California it has not been recorded as a serious pest of commercial crops, but occasionally a pest of dooryard Gardenia plants (Gill, 1988). Occasionally a serious pest in Mexico, the West Indies and other areas of the Caribbean Sea (Bartlett, 1978).

KEYS: Mohammad & Moharum 2013: 146-148 (female) [Key to species and subspecies of family coccidae in Egypt]; Fetyk & Kozr 2012: 293 (female) [Key to species of Ceroplastes in the Palaearctic Region based on slide-mounted adult females]; Kondo & Gullan 2010: 13-14 (female) [Coccidae species of Chile]; Peronti et al. 2008: 142-144 (female) [Ceroplastes species of So Paulo, Brazil]; Hodges 2002b: 208 (female) [Ceroplastes species of Florida]; Granara de Willink 1999: 49 (female) [Argentina]; Kosztarab 1996: 325 (female) [Northeastern North America]; Kosztarab 1996: 325 (female) [Northeastren North America]; Pellizzari & Camporose 1994: 177 (female) [Ceroplastes species of Mediterranean]; Gill 1988: 17 (female) [USA, California]; Hamon & Williams 1984: 18 (female) [USA, Florida]; Gimpel et al. 1974: 19 (female) [USA]; Williams & Kosztarab 1972: 36 (female) [USA, Virginia]; Beardsley 1966: 480 (female) [Micronesia]; Cockerell 1895: 8 (female) [Florida].

CITATIONS: Argyri1983 [taxonomy: 364]; Ballou1926 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 13]; Bartle1978 [economic importance, biological control, host, distribution: 59]; Beards1966 [host, distribution: 480]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 23,27-30,48-49]; BennetRoCo1976 [biological control, economic importance: 359-395]; Bibby1931 [host, distribution: 588]; CaustoPeSi2006 [distribution: 137]; Cocker1893gg [taxonomy, host, distribution: 373]; Cocker1893j [distribution: 254]; Cocker1894d [taxonomy: 311]; Cocker1895 [taxonomy, host, distribution, economic importance: 5-6, 8]; Cocker1896b [host, distribution: 331,332]; Cocker1896f [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 34]; Cocker1896h [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 20]; Cocker1899n [distribution, host: 17]; Cocker1902p [distribution: 253-254]; Cocker1903a [host, distribution: 156]; Comsto1881a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 333-334]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 150-156]; Ferris1921 [host, distribution: 89]; FetykoKo2012 [distribution, taxonomy: 292]; GalloVaBo1994 [host, distribution: 69-71]; Gill1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, economic importance: 18-19,22]; GillKo1997 [economic importance, host, distribution: 161-163]; GimpelMiDa1974 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 29-35,71,73-79]; Gonzal1989 [taxonomy, host, distribution, economic importance, life history: 81]; Granar1999 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 49-51]; GranarCl2003 [host, distribution: 627]; Green1904a [taxonomy, illustration, host, distribution: 207]; HakkonPi1984 [biological control: 1109-1121]; HamonWi1984 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution : 22-25]; Hempel1900a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 469-472,473-474]; Hempel1901a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 65-68]; Hodges2002b [taxonomy: 205,208]; HodgsoHi1990 [host, distribution: 5-12,14-21]; HodgsoHi1991 [host, distribution: 136]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 37-39,241]; Houser1918 [host, distribution: 159]; JohnsoLy1988 [host, distribution]; Kiritc1932a [taxonomy: 248]; Kondo2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 41]; Kondo2008a [host: 28]; Kondo2010 [host, distribution: 41-44]; KondoGu2010 [distribution: 13]; KondoKa1995 [host, distribution: 57-58]; KondoLoQu2010 [biological control: 7-13]; Koszta1996 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, economic importance, life history: 328-329]; KozarWa1985 [catalogue: 76]; Leonar1911 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 264-266]; LincanHoCa2010 [host, distribution: 4]; Lizery1939 [host, distribution: 195]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 122]; MarinLCi1996a [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 91-96]; Marott1987 [host, distribution, life history: 98]; Martor1976 [host, distribution: 51,58,128,177,193]; MatileEt2006 [host, distribution: 164]; Miller1996 [distribution: 69]; MillerRuPa2014 [catalogue: 65]; MohammGh2008 [distribution: 149]; MohammMo2013 [illustration, structure: 146, 151]; Nakaha1981a [host, distribution: 389]; Nakaha1983 [host, distribution: 3]; NakahaMi1981 [host, distribution: 29]; Newste1917b [host, distribution: 128]; PerezG2008 [distribution: 212]; PerontSoGr2008 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 149-152]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 301,302]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; RipaRo2008a [description, host, distribution, life history, economic importance, biological control: 149-150]; RosaPeSo2011 [structure: 19]; Sander1906 [catalogue: 9]; Sassce1912 [host, distribution: 88]; SilvadGoGa1968 [host, distribution: 137]; Simmon1957 [host, distribution: 7]; SimmonBe1976 [biological control: 460]; Vernal1953 [host, distribution: 125,130]; VitoriZaMa2013 [description, distribution, host: 176-179]; Willia1985a [taxonomy: 228]; Willia2001 [distribution: 225-227]; Willia2010 [host, distribution: 145]; Woodwo1903 [taxonomy: 34].



Ceroplastes cistudiformis Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes psidii cistudiformis Cockerell, 1893i: 104. Type data: MEXICO: Guanajuato, on Bignonia sp. and Chrysanthemum sp. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Gimpel et al., 1974: 35. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA.

Ceroplastes cistudiformis; Cockerell, 1896b: 331. Change of status. Notes: Author incorrectly cited.

Ceroplastes cistudiformis; Cockerell, 1898n: 141.

Ceroplastes cistudiformis; Fernald, 1903b: 150. Notes: Author incorrectly cited.

COMMON NAME: tortoise wax scale [GimpelMiDa1974, Gill1988].



HOSTS: Acanthaceae: Beloperone gutata [Gill1988]. Anacardiaceae: Schinus [GimpelMiDa1974]. Apocynaceae: Nerium oleander [Gill1988]. Asteraceae: Chrysanthemum [GimpelMiDa1974], Parthenium [GimpelMiDa1974]. Bignoniaceae: Bignonia [GimpelMiDa1974]. Boraginaceae: Cordia boissieri [GimpelMiDa1974]. Convolvulaceae: Porana paniculata [Ballou1926, GimpelMiDa1974]. Orchidaceae: Chysis aurea [GimpelMiDa1974]. Pandanaceae: Panda [GimpelMiDa1974]. Passifloraceae: Passiflora [GimpelMiDa1974]. Piperaceae: Piper [Cocker1899n]. Rubiaceae: Bouvardia [GimpelMiDa1974]. Rutaceae [Gill1988].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico [Cocker1899n] (Distrito Federal, Guanajuato [Cocker1899n], Jalisco, Veracruz); United States of America (California [Cocker1899n]). Neotropical: Cuba [Ballou1926]; Guatemala [Willia2010]; Puerto Rico & Vieques Island (Puerto Rico [Martor1976, NakahaMi1981]). Palaearctic: United Kingdom [FetykoKo2012].

BIOLOGY: Gill (1988) reported that this species, apparently, develops one annual generation in USA, California.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Gimpel et al. (1974) and by Gill (1988).

STRUCTURE: Adult female hemispherical, 2-5 mm long. The wax cover resembles that of Ceroplastes cirripediformis but darker; see colour photograph in Gill (1988).

KEYS: Fetyk & Kozr 2012: 293 (female) [Key to species of Ceroplastes in the Palaearctic Region based on slide-mounted adult females]; Gill 1988: 17 (female) [USA, California]; Gimpel et al. 1974: 19 (female) [USA].

CITATIONS: Ballou1926 [host, distribution: 13]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 28]; Cocker1893i [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 104-105]; Cocker1894d [taxonomy: 311]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 331]; Cocker1898y [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 141]; Cocker1899n [host, distribution: 17]; Cocker1903a [distribution: 157]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 150]; FetykoKo2012 [distribution, taxonomy: 292]; Gill1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 19, 23]; GimpelMiDa1974 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 35-39]; KozarWa1985 [catalogue: 76]; Martor1976 [host, distribution: 116,148]; Miller1996 [distribution: 69]; NakahaMi1981 [host, distribution: 29]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 301]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; Willia2001 [distribution: 225-227]; Willia2010 [host, distribution: 145]; Woodwo1903 [taxonomy: 34].



Ceroplastes coloratus Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes coloratus Cockerell, 1898j: 435. Type data: MEXICO: Las Minas, Tabasco, on 'crucetilla'. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA.

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico. Neotropical: Mexico (Tabasco [Cocker1898j, Cocker1899n]).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 28]; Cocker1898j [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 435]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 394]; Cocker1899n [distribution: 18]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 150]; Miller1996 [distribution: 69]; Willia1985a [taxonomy: 224].



Ceroplastes confluens Cockerell & Tinsley

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes confluens Cockerell & Tinsley, 1898: 468. Type data: JAMAICA: on unknown host plant. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Vernonia polyanthes [SilvadGoGa1968]. Fabaceae: Acacia bonariensis [CorseuBa1971], Acacia dealbata [CorseuBa1971], Acacia decurrens mollis [CorseuBa1971], Acacia melanoxylon [SilvadGoGa1968], Calliandra tweediei [CorseuBa1971], Inga [SilvadGoGa1968], Mimosa [Hempel1900a], Mimosa saepiaria [CorseuBa1971], Mimosa serrana [CorseuBa1971]. Myrsinaceae: Myrsine umbellata [CorseuBa1971]. Myrtaceae: Eugenia [SilvadGoGa1968]. Ulmaceae: Celtis tala [CorseuBa1971].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina; Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul, Sao Paulo); Jamaica; Uruguay.

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 29]; BertelBa1966 [host, distribution: 17-46]; Cocker1899a [host, distribution: 394]; Cocker1902p [host, distribution: 253]; CockerTi1898 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 468]; CorseuBa1971 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 237]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 150]; GomesC1949 [host, distribution]; Hempel1900a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 461-462]; Lizery1939 [host, distribution: 196]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 302]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; SilvadGoGa1968 [host, distribution: 137]; Vernal1953 [host, distribution: 124-125].



Ceroplastes coronatus Peronti {in}: Peronti {et al.}

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes coronatus Peronti {in}: Peronti {et al.}, 2008: 152. Type data: BRAZIL: So Paulo, So Paulo, Iparanga, on Platanus sp.; collected A. Hempel, ix.1909. Holotype female. Type depository: Curitiba: Departamento de Zoologia, Setor de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Parana, Brazil; type no. 97a. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Platanaceae: Platanus [PerontSoGr2008].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Sao Paulo [PerontSoGr2008]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Decsription and illustration of adult female by Peronti et al. (2008).

KEYS: Peronti et al. 2008: 142-144 (female) [ceroplastes species of So Paulo, Brazil].

CITATIONS: PerontSoGr2008 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 152].



Ceroplastes cundinamarcensis Mosquera

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes cundinamarcensis Mosquera, 1979: 605. Type data: COLOMBIA: Bogota (Cundinamarca), on Schinus molle. Holotype female. Type depository: Bogota: Colleccion Taxonomica Nacional de Programa de Entomologia del ICA en el CNIA, Colombia. Described: female.



HOST: Anacardiaceae: Schinus molle [Mosque1979].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Colombia [Kondo2001].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 29-30]; Kondo2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 41]; Mosque1979 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 605-611]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 301]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; TanakaKo2015 [distribution: 112].



Ceroplastes danieleae Hodgson & Peronti

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes danieleae Hodgson & Peronti, 2012: 104-107. Type data: DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO: Lubumbashi (Elizabethville), on mulberry (Morus nigra) by Ringoot. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.

Ceroplastes danielae; Hodgson & Peronti, 2012: 241. Misspelling of species name.



HOST: Moraceae: Morus nigra [HodgsoPe2012].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Congo [HodgsoPe2012].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Hodgson & Peronti, 2012.

STRUCTURE: Body roundly oval and probably convex, with distinct, moderately deep, stigmatic clefts; dorsum with distinct tubercles. Caudal process broad and stout. Length 1.33.7 mm; width 1.53.0 mm. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: Holotype on glass slide with data scratched on the slide by Hall; with manuscript name C. solidus, probably given by Green. Paratype also labelled C. solidus, a manuscript name. Ceroplastes danieleae is very similar to C. mori, and, was initially identified as such. However, importantly, it has a large group of tubular ducts in the cephalic region, absent on C. mori. Green clearly recognised this as different when he gave this material the manuscript name C. solidus but unfortunately he left no notes as to what this species looked like in life. On the other hand, his suggested specific name can surely only refer to the wax which is therefore likely to be firm. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

KEYS: Hodgson & Peronti 2012: 100 (female, adult) [Key to adult females in the Ceroplastes rusci-group].

CITATIONS: HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 99,100,104-106,242].



Ceroplastes deceptrix (De Lotto)

NOMENCLATURE:

Gascardia deceptrix De Lotto, 1965a: 200. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Cape Province, Clanwilliam District, on Rhus undulata. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Ceroplastes deceptrix; Ben-Dov, 1993: 30. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Anacardiaceae: Rhus undulata [DeLott1965a]. Ericaceae [HodgsoPe2012]. Fabaceae [HodgsoPe2012]. Rubiaceae [HodgsoPe2012]. Santalaceae [HodgsoPe2012].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [DeLott1965a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Hodgson & Peronti, 2012.

STRUCTURE: Young adult females moderately convex, elliptical, about 3 mm long; wax test thin, fairly hard and brittle, not divided into plates; dorsum with a small depression at the centre of which is a minute elongate opaque white boss; colour semitransparent white; lateral margin with 2 narrow bands of snow-white wax arising from the stigmatic clefts. Wax of older examples white, amorphous, quite hard but watery when squashed, very thick (up to about 5 mm thick); stigmatic wax lines narrow, in deepish indentations, very white and linear; anal opening in a deep pit. Dorsal area with a small glassy boss. Largest adults 12 mm long and about 18 mm wide. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: In having ventral tubular ducts submarginally in the thorax and/or abdomen, and short blunt dorsal setae, C. deceptrix resembles C. rusticus (De Lotto). It differs in having (character-states of C. rusticus in brackets) (i) white wax (pale yellow); (ii) ventral tubular ducts not present medially on thorax (present); (iii) tubular ducts very sparse submarginally on thorax and absent submarginally on abdomen (fairly evenly distributed along entire submargin of body), and (iv) claw digitules of only slightly different sizes (very different). In having submarginal tubular ducts, C. deceptrix and C. rusticus are also somewhat similar to young C. madagascariensis but the latter has much longer, rather capitate dorsal setae, many more stigmatic setae and multilocular disc-pores which extend onto the thorax. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

KEYS: Hodgson & Peronti 2012: 40 [Key to adult females of C. deceptrix-group]; Hodgson et al. 2009: 102-104 (female) [Ceroplastes species of South Africa].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 30]; DeLott1965a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 200-201]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 39,40-44,241,98,242]; HodgsoWiGi2009 [taxonomy: 102-104]; Koteja2001 [taxonomy: 46]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 302]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549].



Ceroplastes deciduosus Morrison

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes deciduosus Morrison, 1919: 79. Type data: ARGENTINA: Buenos Aires, on Sapium biglandulosum. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Granara de Willink, 1999: 66. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Ceroplastidia deciduosa; Granara de Willink, 1999: 64. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Euphorbiaceae: Sapium [Granar1999], Sapium aucuparium [CorseuBa1971], Sapium aucuparium lanceolata [CorseuBa1971], Sapium aucuparium calicifolia [CorseuBa1971], Sapium biglandulosum [Morris1919, Granar1999], Sapium haematospermum [Lizery1939]. Fabaceae: Geoffroea decorticans [Granar1999], Sebastiana brasiliensis [Granar1999]. Punicaceae: Punica granatum [Lizery1939, Granar1999]. Sapindaceae: Dodonaea viscosa [Granar1999].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina (Buenos Aires [Granar1999], Entre Rios [Granar1999], Salta [Granar1999], San Juan [Granar1999], San Luis [Granar1999], Santa Fe [Granar1999]); Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Granara de Willink (1999).

KEYS: Granara de Willink 1999: 59 (female) [Argentina].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 30]; CorseuBa1971 [host, distribution: 237]; Granar1999 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 64-66]; Lizery1939 [host, distribution: 196]; Morris1919 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 79].



Ceroplastes delottoi Hodgson & Peronti

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes delottoi Hodgson & Peronti, 2012: 162-164. Type data: ANGOLA:Nova Lisboa, on Persea sp., 8/11/1965, by H. Cardosa. Holotype female (examined). Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Lauraceae: Persea sp. [HodgsoPe2012]

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Angola [HodgsoPe2012].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Hodgson & Peronti, 2012.

STRUCTURE: Body roundly oval and probably convex, with distinct but shallow stigmatic clefts; dorsum with distinct tubercles. Caudal process broad and stout. Length 2.25 mm; width of venter 1.5 mm, total width 1.8 mm. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: The main diagnostic characters of this species are: (i) the presence of multilocular disc-pores between the meso- and metacoxae, (ii) the wide gap between each stigmatic cleft without stigmatic setae, and (iii) loculate microducts of the intermediate type. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

KEYS: Hodgson & Peronti 2012: 161 (female, adult) [Key to adult females of Ceroplastes tachardiaformis-group].

CITATIONS: HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 162-164,166,168,242].



Ceroplastes deodorensis Hempel

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes deodorensis Hempel, 1937: 9. Type data: BRAZIL: Rio de Janeiro State, Deodoro, on a plant of the Annonaceae. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Peronti {et al.}, 2008: 152. Type depository: IBSP; type no. 360. Described: female. Notes: The lectotype was selected from dry material (tube no. 360, without data label) deposited in IBSP.



HOSTS: Annonaceae [Hempel1937], Annona muricata [PerontSoGr2008], Annona reticulata [PerontSoGr2008], Annona squamosa [PerontSoGr2008]. Moraceae: Ficus benjamina [PerontSoGr2008].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Alagoas [PerontSoGr2008], Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo [PerontSoGr2008]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Peronti et al. (2008).

STRUCTURE: Colour photo of adult female by Peronti et al. (2008).

KEYS: Peronti et al. 2008: 142-144 (female) [Ceroplastes species of So Paulo, Brazil].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 30]; Hempel1937 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 9-10]; PerontSoGr2008 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 152-154].



Ceroplastes depressus Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes depressus Cockerell, 1893f: 81. Type data: JAMAICA: Kingston. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Notes: Type material collected under bark of a lignum-vitae tree.

COMMON NAME: broad wax scale [Cocker1895].



HOST: Burseraceae: Bursera gummifera [Ballou1926].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Cuba [Ballou1926]; Jamaica.

KEYS: Cockerell 1895: 8 (female) [Jamaica].

CITATIONS: Ballou1926 [host, distribution: 14]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 30]; Cocker1893j [host, distribution: 254]; Cocker1894d [taxonomy: 311]; Cocker1895 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 6, 8]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 331]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 151].



Ceroplastes destructor Newstead

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes ceriferus; Newstead, 1910a: 66. Misidentification.

Ceroplastes ceriferus; Newstead, 1910c: 195. Misidentification.

Ceroplastes ceriferus; Newstead, 1911a: 167. Misidentification.

Ceroplastes ceriferus; Lindinger, 1913a: 80. Misidentification.

Ceroplastes destructor Newstead, 1917a: 26. Type data: UGANDA: Entebbe, Botanical Gardens, on Antigonon sp. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Williams & Watson, 1990: 69. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Gascardia destructor; De Lotto, 1965a: 200. Change of combination.

Gascardia postperlucidus Qin et al., 1994: 546. Nomen nudum; discovered by Qin & Gullan, 1999: 305.

Gascardia postperlucidus Qin & Gullan, 1995: 302. Nomen nudum; discovered by Qin & Gullan, 1999: 305.

Ceroplastes postperlucidus Qin & Gullan, 1999: 305. Type data: CONGO: Elizabethville [=Lubumbashi], on Schinus molle. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Synonymy by Qin & Gullan, 1999: 305.

COMMON NAME: soft wax scale [HodgsoHe2000].



FOES: COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Halmus chalybeus [LoCh2001]. HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Euxanthellus adustus Annecke & Prinsloo [AnneckPr1976]. Encyrtidae: Microterys umbrinus Compere [Comper1939d].

HOSTS: Acanthaceae: Dicliptera [Hodgso1969]. Actinidiaceae: Actinidia deliciosa [HodgsoHe2000]. Anacardiaceae: Rhus [QinGu1994], Rhus simarubaefolia [WilliaWa1990], Schinus molle [Cillie1967, QinGu1999]. Apocynaceae: Alyxia ruscifolia [QinGu1994], Plumeria [WilliaWa1990]. Araliaceae: Cussonia spicata [Hodgso1969], Schefflera [WilliaWa1990]. Asteraceae: Cassinia quinquefaria [QinGu1994], Conyza [Hodgso1969]. Celastraceae: Elaeodendron capense [Hodgso1969], Gymnosporia [Hall1931, DeLott1965a, Almeid1969], Gymnosporia buxifolia [Hall1931, Almeid1969], Maytenus [Hodgso1969], Maytenus senegalensis [Hodgso1969]. Celestraceae: Maytenus cymosus [Cillie1967]. Ebenaceae: Diospyros kaki [QinGu1994], Euclea crispa [Hodgso1969]. Ericaceae: Philippia [Hodgso1969], Philippia lecana [Hodgso1969]. Euphorbiaceae: Uapaca [Hodgso1969]. Hippocrateaceae: Hippocratea parvifolia [Almeid1973b]. Lauraceae: Persea americana [WilliaWa1990]. Loganiaceae: Nuxia oppositifolia [Hodgso1969], Nuxia viscosa [Hodgso1969]. Loranthaceae: Loranthus bidwilli [QinGu1994]. Magnoliaceae: Magnolia [WilliaWa1990]. Malvaceae: Hibiscus [Almeid1969]. Meliaceae: Dysoxylum patersoni [WilliaWa1990], Ekebergia meyeri [Cillie1967], Melia azedarach [Brain1920a, Almeid1969], Synoum glandulosum [QinGu1994], Trichilia emetica [Cillie1967]. Myrsinaceae: Maesa [Hodgso1969]. Myrtaceae: Eugenia malaccensis [Hall1931, Almeid1969], Psidium guajava [DeLott1965a, Hodgso1969], Syzygium [Hodgso1969], Syzygium cordatum [Hodgso1969]. Pittosporaceae: Bursaria spinosa [QinGu1994], Pittosporum crassifolium [WilliaWa1990]. Rosaceae: Prunus armeniaca [QinGu1994]. Rubiaceae: Aida micrantha [Hodgso1969], Coffea [Almeid1973b], Coffea arabica [DeLott1965a, DeLott1967a, Almeid1973b], Coffea canephora [WilliaWa1990], Coffea robusta [DeLott1965a], Gardenia [Hodgso1969], Otiophora inyangana parrifolia [Hodgso1969], Pavetta revoluta [QinGu1994], Platanocephalus morindaefolius [WilliaWa1990]. Rutaceae: Citrus [Mamet1959a, DeLott1965a, Cillie1967, SmithBeBr1997], Citrus aurantium [Hall1931, Almeid1969], Citrus maxima [DeLott1965a], Citrus reticulata [QinGu1994], Citrus sinensis [DeLott1967a, Almeid1973b, QinGu1994], Eremocitrus glauca [QinGu1994], Poncirus trifoliata [DeLott1965a], Zieria smithii [QinGu1994]. Sapindaceae: Dodonaea [QinGu1994], Dodonaea viscosa [WilliaWa1990]. Solanaceae: Solanum [QinGu1994]. Sterculiaceae: Theobroma cacao [Strick1947a]. Theaceae: Camellia sinensis [WilliaWa1990].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Angola [DeLott1967a, Almeid1969, Almeid1973b]; Cameroon [Kondo2013]; Congo [DeLott1965a, QinGu1999]; Cte d'Ivoire (=Ivory Coast); Kenya [DeLott1965a]; Madagascar [Mamet1959a]; Mozambique [DeLott1965a, Hodgso1969]; South Africa [Brain1920a, DeLott1965a, Cillie1967, DeLott1971]; Uganda [Newste1917a, DeLott1965a]; Zambia [Hodgso1969]; Zimbabwe [Hall1931, Hodgso1969]. Australasian: Australia (Australian Capital Territory [QinGu1994], New South Wales [QinGu1994, SmithBeBr1997], Queensland [QinGu1994, SmithBeBr1997]); Christmas Island [AbbottGr2007]; New Zealand [HodgsoHe2000]; Norfolk Island; Papua New Guinea; Solomon Islands. Oriental: India [AvasthSh1986].

BIOLOGY: Smith et al. (1997) reported two annual generations in Queensland, Australia. Cilliers (1967) studied the biology and natural enemies in South Africa. Two generations were found to occur annually on citrus in Queensland, Australia (Smith, 1970; Smith & Ironside, 1974). De Lotto (1971c) noted that the development of the caudal process is gradual and the organ attains its full size some time after the last moult has taken place. Beattie et al. (1990) studied the effect of nutrients in citrus (New South Wales, Australia) Milne (1993) studied in Australia, and concluded that watering regime did not significantly affect the survival of immature stages, but it did affect rate of development. Rate of development was also influenced by host plant species. Prolonged exposure to temperatures above 35C apparently caused high mortality of immature stages, on leaves, regardless of water regime. A major citrus pest in Queensland, Australia (Sabine, 1969; Smith & Ironside, 1974). Biology and pest status on coffee presented by Le Pelley (1968). Snowball (1969) surveyed the natural enemies in South Africa.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by De Lotto (1965a), Williams & Watson (1990) and by Hodgson & Henderson (2000).

STRUCTURE: See colour photograph in Hodgson & Henderson (2000).

KEYS: Fetyk & Kozr 2012: 293 (female) [Key to species of Ceroplastes in the Palaearctic Region based on slide-mounted adult females]; Hodgson & Peronti 2012: 49 [Key to adult females of C. destructor-group]; Hodgson et al. 2009: 102-104 (female) [Ceroplastes species of South Africa]; Hodgson & Henderson 2000: 185 (female) [New Zealand]; Williams & Watson 1990: 65 (female) [Tropical South Pacific].

CITATIONS: AbbottGr2007 [host, distribution, biological control, ecology: 1238-1246]; Almeid1969 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 136-139]; Almeid1973b [host, distribution: 4]; AnneckIn1970 [biological control: 227-237]; AnneckPr1976 [host, distribution, biological control: 1-7]; AvasthSh1986 [taxonomy, distribution: 335]; Bartle1978 [economic importance, biological control, host, distribution: 59]; Beatti1993 [taxonomy: 1-19]; BeattiWeCl1990 [taxonomy, chemical control, life history, distribution: 199-203]; Bedfor1973 [biological control: 4-11]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 30-31]; BlankOlGi1997 [host, distribution, life history, chemical control: 1997]; Boyce1948 [host, distribution, economic importance, control ]; Brain1920a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 28]; Brimbl1956a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 161-163]; Brimbl1962 [host, distribution, economic importance: 225]; CABI2000a [host, distribution: 1-3]; Cillie1967 [life history, taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 1-59]; Cillie2001 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history, chemical control, biological control: 162-164]; Comper1937 [biological control: 43-51]; Comper1939d [host, distribution, biological control: 16-17]; Comper1961a [biological control: 17-71]; ComperAn1961 [host, distribution, biological control: 17]; CouturMaRi1985 [host, distribution: 275]; DeLott1965a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 200-202]; DeLott1967a [host, distribution: 111]; DeLott1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration: 147]; Fernan1989 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 131-133]; FetykoKo2012 [distribution: 292]; Fletch1951 [economic importance, host, distribution: 1-24]; GillKo1997 [economic importance, host, distribution: 161-163]; Greath1971 [host, distribution, biological control ]; Greig1944 [taxonomy, economic importance]; Hackma1951 [chemistry: 150-154]; HackmaTr1952 [chemistry: 653-656]; Hall1931 [host, distribution: 293]; Hely1960 [life history, ecology, distribution: 355-356]; HelyLe1950 [host, distribution, economic importance: 307-310]; Hodgso1969 [host, distribution: 24]; HodgsoHe2000 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 185,187,191-192]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 49,50,53-58,234,241]; HodgsoWiGi2009 [taxonomy: 102-104]; Kondo2013 [distribution, host: 44]; LePell1968 [taxonomy, host, distribution, economic importance]; LoBl1992 [host, distribution, chemical control: 14-15]; LoBl1992a [host, distribution, chemical control, biological control: 99-102]; LoBlPe1996 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 315-321]; LoCh2001 [biological control, host, distribution: 57-66]; MalipaDuSm2000 [biological control: 74,75]; Mamet1959a [host, distribution: 375]; MatileNo1984 [host, distribution: 62]; Milne1993 [life history, physiology: 229-232]; Newste1917a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 26-28]; OliveiNaSi2001 [economic importance]; OlsonBlLo1993 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 25-29]; QinGu1994 [taxonomy: 930-934]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 302]; QinGu1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution, description: 305-306]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 546]; Reiche1981 [biological control, economic importance, host, distribution: 403-417]; RosaPeSo2011 [structure: 19]; Sabine1969 [chemical control: 83-88]; Samway1981a [biological control, host, distribution: 1]; SandsVa2003 [biological control, host: 41-53]; Smith1970 [life history, host, distribution, economic importance, chemical control: 704-708]; SmithBeBr1997 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance, biological control: 57-59]; SmithIr1974 [life history: 195-199]; Snowba1969 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 23-33]; Strick1947a [host, distribution: 498]; Wakgar2001 [economic importance, biological control, host, distribution: 339-352]; WakgarGi1998 [economic importance]; WakgarGi1998a [taxonomy, description, illustration: 303-316]; WakgarGi2000 [life history, ecology, host, distribution: 233-242]; WakgarGi2001 [economic importance, chemical control: 179-184]; WakgarGi2001a [economic importance, host, distribution, life history, ecology : 307-315]; WakgarGi2001b [host, distribution, economic importance, life history: 365-375]; WilliaWa1990 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 68-71]; Wise1977 [host, distribution: 105]; XieXuZh2004a [chemistry: 512-518].



Ceroplastes diospyros Hempel

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes diospyros Hempel, 1928: 236. Type data: BRAZIL: Sao Paulo State, Itupararanga, near Sorocaba, on Diospyros kaki; collected A. Hempel, 21.vi.1926. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Peronti et al., 2008: 154. Type depository: IBSP. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Anadardiaceae: Schinus molle [PerontSoGr2008]. Ebenaceae: Diospyros kaki [Hempel1928, PerontSoGr2008]. Punicaceae: Punica granatum [PerontSoGr2008].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Sao Paulo [PerontSoGr2008]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Peronti et al. (2008).

STRUCTURE: Colour photo of adult female by Peronti et al. (2008).

KEYS: Peronti {et al.} 2008: 142-144 (female) [Ceroplastes species of So Paulo, Brazil].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 32]; Hempel1928 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 236]; PerontSoGr2008 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 154-156]; Vernal1953 [host, distribution: 125-126].



Ceroplastes dugesii Lichtenstein

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes dugesii Lichtenstein, 1885: cxli. Type data: MEXICO: Guanajuato, Hybiscus [sic], Ficus sphaerocarpa, laurie and rose. Syntypes, female. Notes: Type material probably lost.

Ceroplastes ceriferus; Cockerell, 1893gg: 373. Misidentification.

Ceroplastes dugesii; Cockerell, 1893t: 100. Notes: Author incorrectly cited.

Ceroplastes roseatus Townsend & Cockerell, 1898: 176. Type data: MEXICO: El Cuyu del Chicosapote, near Frontera, Tabasco, on branches of wild fruit tree 'cojon de venado'. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Synonymy by Gimpel et al., 1974: 39.

Ceroplastes townsendi Cockerell, 1899n: 18. Type data: MEXICO: Arroyo San Isidro, near Frontesa, Tabasco, on bark of a small shrub. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Gimpel et al., 1974: 39.

Ceroplastes roseatus var. B Cockerell, 1903a: 157. Type data: MEXICO: Base of Volcan de Colima, on stem of tall herbaceous Compositae. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Synonymy by Gimpel et al., 1974: 39.

Ceroplastes townsendi percrassus Cockerell, 1903a: 159. Type data: MEXICO: Jalisco, Zapotlan, on Ficus sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Synonymy by Gimpel et al., 1974: 39.

Ceroplastes dugesii; De Lotto, 1971c: 140. Notes: Author incorrectly cited.

COMMON NAMES: Duges wax scale [GimpelMiDa1974, HamonWi1984]; duges wax scale [GimpelMiDa1974, HamonWi1984].



FOE: HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Aloencyrtus elisavetae Trjapitzin & Ruiz-Cancino [TrjapiRu2000].

HOSTS: Anacardiaceae: Schinus molle [GimpelMiDa1974]. Annonaceae: Annona [GimpelMiDa1974, Nakaha1983]. Apocynaceae: Nerium oleander [GimpelMiDa1974]. Asteraceae [Cocker1903a]. Burseraceae: Bursera gummifera [GimpelMiDa1974], Bursera simaruba [GimpelMiDa1974]. Ebenaceae: Diospyros silvestris [GimpelMiDa1974]. Malvaceae: Malva [GimpelMiDa1974], Malvaviscus acerifolius [Townse1892a], Malvaviscus arboreus [Townse1892a]. Moraceae: Ficus [GimpelMiDa1974]. Nyctaginaceae: Torrubia bracei [HamonWi1984]. Piperaceae: Piper medium [GimpelMiDa1974, NakahaMi1981]. Ulmaceae: Trema mollis [GimpelMiDa1974]. Verbenaceae: Citharexylum spinosum [MatileEt2006].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico (Colima [Cocker1899n, Cocker1903a], Distrito Federal, Guanajuato [Cocker1893gg, Cocker1899n], Jalisco [Cocker1903a], Morelos [TrjapiRu2000]); United States of America (Florida). Neotropical: Antigua and Barbuda (Barbuda); Cuba; Guadeloupe [MatileEt2006]; Guyana; Mexico (Tabasco (The type material of Ceroplastes townsendi.)); Panama; Puerto Rico & Vieques Island (Puerto Rico [NakahaMi1981]); U.S. Virgin Islands.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Gimpel et al. (1974), Hamon & Williams (1984) and by Hodgson (1994a).

STRUCTURE: See colour photograph in Hamon & Williams (1984).

KEYS: Hodges 2002b: 208 (female) [Ceroplastes species of Florida]; Hamon & Williams 1984: 18 (female) [USA, Florida]; Gimpel et al. 1974: 19 (female) [USA].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 32]; Cocker1893cc [taxonomy: 102]; Cocker1893gg [taxonomy, distribution: 373]; Cocker1894d [taxonomy: 311]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 331]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 394]; Cocker1899n [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 17-18]; Cocker1903a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 157,159-160]; DeLott1971 [taxonomy, description: 140-141]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 151,155,156,158]; GimpelMiDa1974 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 39-44]; HamonWi1984 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 25-27]; Hodges2002b [taxonomy: 208]; Lichte1885 [taxonomy, host, distribution: CXLI]; MatileEt2006 [host, distribution: 164]; Miller1996 [distribution: 69]; Nakaha1983 [host, distribution: 3]; NakahaMi1981 [host, distribution: 29]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 301]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; Townse1892a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 255]; TownseCo1898 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 176-177]; TrjapiRu2000 [host, distribution, biological control: 35-42]; Willia1985a [taxonomy: 229]; Willia2001 [distribution: 225-227].



Ceroplastes elaeis Hodgson & Peronti

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes elaeis Hodgson & Peronti, 2012: 172. Type data: ANGOLA:Salazar, on Elaeis guineensis, 8/16/1968, by P. de Carvalho. Holotype female (examined). Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa; type no. 3677. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Arecaceae: Elaeis guineensis [HodgsoPe2012].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Angola [HodgsoPe2012]; Congo [HodgsoPe2012]; Gabon [HodgsoPe2012].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Hodgson & Peronti, 2012.

STRUCTURE: Body oval, probably rather convex, with shallow, stigmatic clefts; dorsum with small distinct tubercles. Caudal process short and stout, probably pointing dorso-posteriorly. Length 3.43 [1.5-3.5] mm, total width of mounted specimen 3.08 [1.5-3.0] mm. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: C. elaeis is here considered to belong to the C. theobromae-group because, although each group of stigmatic setae is clearly broader than deep, no setae extend out of the cleft along the margin. As in other members of the C. theobromae group, it also lacks ventral tubular ducts in the cephalic region. It is close to C. quadrilineatus and C. mori but can be best separated using the characters in the key above. It is also somewhat similar to C. danieleae but C. danieleae has a large group of ventral tubular ducts in the cephalic region. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

KEYS: Hodgson & Peronti 2012: 171-172 (female, adult) [Key to adult females of Ceroplastes theobromae-group].

CITATIONS: HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 171,172-174,183,243].



Ceroplastes elytropappi (Brain)

NOMENCLATURE:

Baccacoccus elytropappi Brain, 1920: 127. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Cape Province, French Hoek, on Elytropappus rhinocerotis. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female. Notes: Lectotype female (designated in Hodgson & Peronti, 2012): South Africa: top label: Baccacoccus / elytropappi Brain / on Elytropappus / rhinocerotis / French Hock, CPL, 1904 / Paratype (SANC 297): 1/1 (poor).

Ceroplastes adustus De Lotto, 1967b: 781. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Cape Province, Ceres, on Passerina sp. Holotype female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female. Synonymy by De Lotto, 1971: 141.

Ceroplastes elytropappi; De Lotto, 1971: 141. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Elytropappus rhinocerotis [Brain1920]. Thymelaeaceae: Passerina [DeLott1967b, Hodgso1994a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [Brain1920, DeLott1967b, Hodgso1994a] (Cape Province, Ceres.).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by De Lotto (1967b) (as Ceroplastes adustus) and by Hodgson (1994a).

STRUCTURE: Unmounted material. "Test of the immature adult females small, about 3 mm long, 2 mm wide; fairly highly convex, with a well-marked lateral depression; centre of the dome with a rather large whitish boss; wax soft, not divided into plates; colour light brown. Length [presumably of unmounted specimens] 1.1 mm, width 0.8 mm." (De Lotto (1967b) of C. adustus). Mounted material. Body broadly elliptical to roundly circular; lateral processes well developed. Length: 0.85-2.5, width: 0.6-1.5. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: Brain (1920a) originally placed this species in a new genus Baccacoccus because his specimens lacked a wax test. However, as De Lotto (1971) pointed out when synonymising Baccacoccus with Ceroplastes, very old wax scale insects frequently lose their wax. Within this species group, C. elytropappi differs from C. delottoi in having fewer than 20 stigmatic setae in each cleft, and from the other 2 species in lacking ventral tubular ducts in the cephalic region. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

KEYS: Hodgson & Peronti 2012: 161 (female, adult) [Key to adult females of Ceroplastes tachardiaformis-group]; Hodgson et al. 1009: 102-104 (female) [Ceroplastes species of South Africa].

CITATIONS: AnneckIn1970 [biological control: 227-237]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 32-33]; Brain1920 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 241-242]; DeLott1967b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 781-782,797]; DeLott1971 [taxonomy, description: 141]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 137-139]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 164-166,243]; HodgsoWiGi2009 [taxonomy: 102-104]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 301]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549].



Ceroplastes eucleae Brain

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes eucleae Brain, 1920a: 30. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Transvaal, Pretoria, on Euclea sp., Ochna sp. and Pavetta sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female.

Ceroplastes toddaliae spicatus Hall, 1937: 122. Type data: ZIMBABWE[=RHODESIA]: South Marendellas, on Uapaca kirkiana. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Ceroplastes spicatus; Mamet, 1954: 12. Change of status.



HOSTS: Clusiaceae: Harungana madagascariensis [Mamet1954]. Ebenaceae: Euclea [Brain1920a]. Euphorbiaceae: Uapaca kirkiana [Hall1937, Hodgso1969]. Ochnaceae: Ochna [Brain1920a]. Rubiaceae: Pavetta [Brain1920a]. Ulmaceae: Ulmus parifolia [Hodgso1969].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Madagascar [Mamet1951, Mamet1954]; South Africa [Brain1920a]; Zimbabwe [Hall1937, Hodgso1969].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson (1969). Detailed description and illustrations in Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

STRUCTURE: "Adult female tests sometimes single on stem, often aggregated in dense masses. Test of adult female about 6 mm long, 5 mm wide, 5.5 mm high, without plaques but with the lower portion forming a wrinkled fold at the base of a highly conical dome. The colour is a delicate green, when alive, with the stigmatic bands conspicuous; when dry, it is semi-transparent, greenish yellow, with two white thin streaks on each side just above the stigmatic clefts. The central dome is pointed, without any central pit or depression, and is distinctly separated from the lower portion of the test by a groove. There is no indication of a caudal prominence on the test." "Female denuded of wax, smooth, regularly domed, without caudal prominence. Caudal prominence rudimentary". (Brain, 1920a). Body oval, probably rather convex, with shallow stigmatic clefts; dorsum probably with distinct tubercles. Caudal process short and stout. Length of body 1.2-4.5 (3.5-4.0) mm, total width of mounted specimens 1.2-4.0 (2.75) mm; width of venter 1.2-2.25 (2.5) mm. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: C. eucleae, which lacks distinct claw denticles, is very close to C. rusci, sharing with it generally fewer than 35 stigmatic setae in each cleft, but differs in having: (i) the stigmatic setae in each cleft almost invariably 3 deep (2 deep in most C. rusci) and (ii) more marginal setae anteriorly between the eyespots (generally more than 14 rather than less than 14 as on C. rusci).C. eucleae is also very close to C. eugeniae. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012) After a study of the type series of C. spicatus by Hodgson & Peronti, 2012, no constant differences could be found between it and C. eucleae. The limb measurements of C. spicatus were larger but they considered this to be an environmental effect and synonymised C. spicatus with C. eucleae.

KEYS: Hodgson & Peronti 2012: 100 (female, adult) [Key to adult females in the Ceroplastes rusci-group]; Hodgson et al. 2009: 102-104 (female) [Ceroplastes species of South Africa].

CITATIONS: AnneckIn1970 [biological control: 227-237]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 33,57]; Brain1920a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 30]; Hall1937 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 122]; Hodgso1969 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 9-11]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, physiology, structure, taxonomy: 107-112,242]; HodgsoWiGi2009 [taxonomy: 102-104]; Mamet1951 [host, distribution: 224]; Mamet1954 [host, distribution: 12]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 301,302]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549].



Ceroplastes eugeniae Hall

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes rusci eugeniae Hall, 1931: 298. Type data: ZIMBABWE: Mazoe and Banket, on Eugenia owariensis and Diplorhynchus mosambicensis. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Notes: Lectotype designated in Hodgson & Peronti, 2012: Zimbabwe [Southern Rhodesia]: scratched onto glass slide: top label: Ceroplastes / rusci var. / eugeniae Hall / Eugenia / owariensis / Mazoe / WJH 3/11/27. Bottom label: Type / 21.iii.30 / W.J. Hall. (BMNH): 1/4 (good, lectotype arrowed in top right-hand corner (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

Ceroplastes eugeniae; Hodgson, 1969: 4. Change of status.



HOSTS: Annonaceae: Annona muricata [KondoHo2013], Cananga odorata [Matile1978]. Apocynaceae: Diplorhynchus mosambicensis [Hall1931, Hodgso1969]. Clusiaceae: Garcinia huillensis [Hodgso1969]. Loranthaceae: Desrousseauxia [Matile1978], Loranthus quequensis [Hodgso1969]. Myrtaceae: Eugenia owariensis [Hall1931, Hodgso1969], Psidium guajava [Hodgso1969], Syzygium [Hodgso1969], Syzygium guiniense [Hodgso1969]. Rosaceae: Cliffortia nitidula [Hodgso1969], Cydonia oblonga [Hodgso1969], Malus sylvestris [Hodgso1969]. Thymelaeaceae: Synaptolepis alternifolia [Hodgso1969].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Comoros; Mozambique [Hodgso1969]; Zimbabwe [Hall1931, Hodgso1969]. Palaearctic: Algeria [FetykoKo2012].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson (1969).

STRUCTURE: Unmounted material. "Test of the adult female highly convex; the dome with a shallow median depression with a very small elongate boss, longitudinally orientated, pushed anteriorly by the cone of wax behind it. Plates only obscurely marked on the adult but more clearly on the young specimens. Diameter of the wax of the adult female up to 8 mm. With the wax removed, the adult female is highly convex, with 3 very small lateral processes, plus 1 cephalic and another dorsal; the caudal process is small and directed upwards at an angle of about forty-five degrees." (Hodgson, 1969). Mounted material. Body probably rather roundly oval and convex, with shallow stigmatic clefts; dorsum with distinct lateral tubercles. Caudal process short. Body length 2.5-3.5 mm, total width 1.5-2.75 mm. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: C. eugeniae is very close to C. rusci and C. eucleae but the latter 2 species differ from C. eugeniae in having generally fewer stigmatic setae in each cleft, particularly nonmarginal stigmatic setae. In addition, the specimens of C. rusci from north Africa and the Mediterranean have a distinct denticle on each claw, absent on most material from further south. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

KEYS: Hodgson & Peronti 2012: 100 (female, adult) [Key to adult females in the Ceroplastes rusci-group].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogur: 33]; FetykoKo2012 [distribution, taxonomy: 292]; Hall1931 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 298-299]; Hodgso1969 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 4-6]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 112-117,242]; KondoHo2013 [host: 519]; Matile1978 [host, distribution: 42]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 301]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549].



Ceroplastes excaecariae Hempel

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes excaecariae Hempel, 1912: 66. Type data: BRAZIL: Sao Paulo, Ypiranga, on Excaecaria biglandulosa. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil.



HOST: Euphorbiaceae: Excaecaria biglandulosa [Hempel1912, Sassce1915].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Sao Paulo [Sassce1915]).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 33]; Hempel1912 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 33]; Sassce1915 [host, distribution: 31]; Vernal1953 [host, distribution: 126].



Ceroplastes fairmairii Signoret

NOMENCLATURE:

Columnea fairmairei Targioni Tozzetti, 1866: 146. Nomen nudum.

Ceroplastes fairmairei Targioni Tozzetti, 1868: 728. Nomen nudum.

Ceroplastes fairmairii Signoret, 1872a: 43. Type data: URUGUAY: Montevideo, on Myrtaceae. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Vienna: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria.

Ceroplastes fairmairii; Fernald, 1903b: 152. Notes: Author incorrectly cited.



HOST: Myrtaceae [Signor1872a].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil; Uruguay.

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 33]; Cocker1894d [distribution: 311]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 330]; Cocker1902p [distribution: 253]; DeLott1971 [taxonomy: 141]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 152]; KozarWa1985 [catalogue: 76]; Maskel1893b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 216-217]; Signor1869 [taxonomy: 852]; Signor1872a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 43]; SilvadGoGa1968 [host, distribution: 138]; Targio1866 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 146]; Targio1868 [taxonomy: 728]; Vernal1953 [host, distribution: 126].



Ceroplastes feltyi Hodges

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes feltyi Hodges, 2002b: 205. Type data: U.S.A.: Florida, Manatee County, Palmetto, on Psychotria nervosa; collected jack Felty, 3 December, 1982. Holotype female. Type depository: Gainesville: American Entomological Institute, Florida, USA. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Oleaceae: Ligustrum lucidum [Hodges2002b]. Rubiaceae: Psychotria nervosa [Hodges2002b].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Florida [Hodges2002b]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Hodges (2002b).

KEYS: Hodges 2002b: 208 (female) [Ceroplastes species of Florida].

CITATIONS: Hodges2002b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 205-208].



Ceroplastes ficus Newstead

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes ficus Newstead, 1910c: 190. Type data: TANZANIA: Bukoba, on Ficus sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Ceroplastes pallidus Brain, 1920a: 33. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Transvaal, Pretoria, on fig. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female. Synonymy by Hall, 1931: 294.



HOSTS: Annonaceae: Annona [Newste1917b], Artobotrys brachypetalus [Hodgso1969]. Celastraceae: Maytenus senegalensis [Hodgso1969]. Chrysobalanaceae [HodgsoPe2012]. Euphorbiaceae: Euphorbia pulcherrima [DeLott1967a, Almeid1973b]. Moraceae: Ficus [Newste1910c, Brain1920a, DeLott1965a]. Ochnaceae: Ochna [Hall1931], Ochna pulchella [Newste1917b, Hall1931]. Proteaceae: Grevillea robusta [Hall1931]. Rosaceae: Parinari curatellifolia [Hodgso1969]. Umbelliferae [HodgsoPe2012].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Angola [DeLott1967a, Almeid1973b]; Eritrea [HodgsoPe2012]; Ghana [Newste1917b]; Malawi [Hodgso1969]; South Africa [Newste1917b, Brain1920a]; Tanzania [HodgsoPe2012]; Uganda [Newste1910c, DeLott1965a]; Zimbabwe [Hall1931, Hodgso1969].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Hodgson & Peronti, 2012.

STRUCTURE: Unmounted material. "Test of the adult female more or less hemispherical, thin, semitransparent, hard and brittle, shaded with horn coloured greys and browns; the large dorsal area comparatively smooth, with distinct lines radiating from the central nucleus, the larger ones being widely separated and equidistant. Besides these there are also some faint concentric ones visible in some of the examples. Lateral plates narrowly rectangular, length much greater than width, outer angles produced and darker than the rest; caudal process triangular, with the angle rounded; anal valves nude, minute, and only visible under a rather strong magnification. Length 6-6.5 mm; width 5-5.25 mm." (Newstead, 1910c). Mounted material. Body oval, probably rather convex, with shallow, stigmatic clefts; dorsum of mature adults with very pronounced, hemispherical lateral tubercles, with deep indentations between tubercles but much less pronounced on immature adults. Caudal process rather similar to a lateral lobe, with only apex sclerotised, at least on younger specimens. Limbs relatively short. Length 2.5-6.0 mm, total width of mounted specimen 2.0-5.0 mm. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

KEYS: Hodgson & Peronti 2012: 100 (adult, female) [Key to adult females in the Ceroplastes rusci-group]; Hodgson et al. 2009: 102-104 (female) [Ceroplastes species of South Africa].

CITATIONS: Almeid1973b [host, distribution: 2]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 34]; Brain1920a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 33]; DeLott1965a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 183-185]; DeLott1967a [host, distribution: 111]; Hall1931 [host, distribution: 294-295]; Hodgso1969 [host, distribution: 6-7]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 118-121,242]; HodgsoWiGi2009 [taxonomy: 102-104]; Newste1910c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 190-192]; Newste1917b [host, distribution: 128]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 301]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; Sassce1911 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 65].



Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes vinsonii Signoret, 1872a: 38. Type data: MAURITIUS: on Eriobotrya japonica. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Synonymy by Ben-Dov, Matile-Ferrero & Gafny, 2000: 424. Notes: Type material probably lost. No type material was found in MNHW, by Yair Ben-Dov and Daniele Matile-Ferrero, during a visit (December 1994) at the Vienna Museum of Natural History.

Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock, 1881a: 331. Type data: U.S.A.: Florida, Jacksonville, on Tangerine orange. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Gimpel et al., 1974: 44. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA.

Ceroplastes floridensis; Bodenheimer, 1953a: 112. Notes: Erroneous citation of Maskell as author.

Cerostegia floridensis; De Lotto, 1969b: 211. Change of combination.

Paracerostegia floridensis; Tang, 1991: 306. Change of combination.

Ceroplastes vinsoni; Ben-Dov, 1993: 59, 60, 535. Misspelling of species name.

COMMON NAMES: cochonilha-cerosa [CarvalAg1997]; donagit floridit; escama de cera [QuezadCoDi1972]; Florida wax scale [GimpelMiDa1974, HamonWi1984, BenDov1993, SmithBeBr1997]; qenima floridit; qenimat shaava floridit; The Florida Ceroplastes [Comsto1881a].



FOES: HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Coccophagus caridei Brethes [MarinLCi1996], Coccophagus lycimnia (Walker) [SengonUyKa1998], Coccophagus rusti Compere [MarinLCi1996], Coccophagus scutellaris [AbdRab2002b], Encarsia [MarinLCi1996]. Encyrtidae: Anicetus quintanai De Santis [MarinLCi1996], Cheiloneurus gahani Dozier [MarinLCi1996], Microterys nietneri (Motschulsky) [SengonUyKa1998, RugmanFoGu2010, MyartsRu2011, BasheeAsRa2014]. Eulophidae: Aprostocetus toddaliae (Risbec) [SengonUyKa1998], Tetrastichus [MarinLCi1996], Tetrastichus ceroplastae (Girault) [Blumbe1997]. Pteromalidae: Scutellista caerulea [BadaryAb2011], Scutellista cyanea Motschulsky [Bartle1978, MarinLCi1996].

HOSTS: Acanthaceae: Sanchezia nobilis [Ballou1926]. Anacardiaceae: Anacardium occidentale [Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, Nakaha1983, ShafeeYoKh1989], Mangifera indica [Cocker1899n, Hall1923, Green1923b, Ballou1926, BenDov1970b, AvasthSh1986, BenDov1993, Hodgso1994a], Mangifera indica [Mamet1943a, KondoKa1995], Pistacia lentiscus [Bodenh1924, BenDov1970], Pistacia palestina [BenDov1970], Schinus [Hall1922, Hall1924a], Schinus molle [Bodenh1924, BenDov1970], Schinus terebinthifolius [Hall1923, BenDov1970]. Annonaceae: Annona cherimolia [BenDov1970], Annona muricata [Nakaha1983], Annona squamosa [Ramakr1930, BenDov1970, Nakaha1983, ShafeeYoKh1989], Uvaria rufa [Ballou1926]. Apocynaceae: Carissa carandas [TaoWoCh1983], Carissa grandiflora [BenDov1970, ArgovPoBa1987], Nerium [HodgsoHi1991, HodgsoHi1990], Nerium oleander [Bodenh1924, BenDov1970, UygunSeEr1998], Plumeria rubra [Ballou1926, BenDov1970], Thevetia nereifolia [Ballou1926], Thevetia peruviana [BenDov1970b], Trachelospermum jasminoides [KawaiMaUm1971]. Aquifoliaceae: Ilex canariensis [VieiraCaPi1983], Ilex cornuta [GimpelMiDa1974], Ilex crenata [GimpelMiDa1974], Ilex perado [VieiraCaPi1983], Ilex vomitoria [GimpelMiDa1974]. Araceae: Philodendraon sp. [BenDov2012], Philodendron [Matile1978]. Araliaceae: Aralia [GimpelMiDa1974], Dizygotheca veitchii [BenDov1970], Hedera [Hempel1900a], Hedera canariensis [VieiraCaPi1983, PerontSoGr2008], Hedera helix [Hall1923, Balach1939, BenDov1970b, ArgovPoBa1987, UygunSeEr1998], Hedera pastuchowii [Moghad2013a], Schefflera [Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995], Schefflera actinophylla [PerontSoGr2008], Schefflera arboricola [PerontSoGr2008], Sciadophyllum [Hall1923], Tupidanthus [Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995]. Arecaceae: Washingtonia filifera [BenDov1970]. Asclepiadaceae: Periploca gracea [BenDov1970]. Aspleniaceae: Asplenium nidus avis [ArgovPoBa1987]. Asteraceae: Chrysanthemum indicum [BenDov1970], Erigeron crispus [BenDov1970], Hieracium [Bodenh1924], Psiadia altissima [Mamet1951]. Bignoniaceae: Kigelia pinnata [BenDov1970], Stenolobium stans [BenDov1970], Tecomaria capensis [BenDov1970]. Boraginaceae: Cordia gerascanthus [Ballou1926], Cordia myxa [BenDov1970]. Burseraceae: Bursera simaruba [HamonWi1984]. Buxaceae: Buxus sempervirens [Green1923b]. Cactaceae: Epiphyllum sp. [BenDov2012]. Casuarinaceae: Casuarina [ShafeeYoKh1989]. Celastraceae: Elaeodendron [Brimbl1956a, WilliaWi1988], Euonymus japonicus [BenDov1970], Maytenus octogona [LincanHoCa2010]. Clusiaceae: Calophyllum inophyllum [TaoWoCh1983]. Combretaceae: Bucida buceras [Nakaha1983], Terminalia arjuna [BenDov1970]. Convolvulaceae: Convolvulus [BenDov1970], Ipomoea tuberosa [Ballou1926]. Cucurbitaceae: Cucurbita moschata [ArgovPoBa1987]. Cupressaceae: Metasequoia glyptostroboides [Moghad2013a]. Cycadaceae: Cycas circinalis [Ballou1926], Cycas revoluta [Ballou1926, Mamet1943a, BenDov1970]. Ebenaceae: Diospyros discolor [TaoWoCh1983], Diospyros kaki [Ballou1926, GimpelMiDa1974, DanzigKo1990]. Elaeagnaceae: Elaeagnus angustifolia [BenDov1970]. Elaeocarpaceae: Elaeocarpus oboratus [QinGu1994]. Ephedraceae: Ephedra alte [BenDov1970]. Ericaceae: Agauria salicifolia [Mamet1943a, WilliaWi1988], Arbutus andrachne [BenDov1970], Arbutus unedo [BenDov1970], Pernettya [GimpelMiDa1974], Vaccinium [Ferris1950a, GimpelMiDa1974]. Euphorbiaceae: Antidesma bunius [BenDov1970], Phyllanthus [Hall1922, Hall1924a]. Fabaceae: Acacia farnesiana [BenDov1970], Ceratonia siliqua [Bodenh1924, BenDov1970], Cyamopsis [Ramakr1930], Cyamopsis psoraboides [ShafeeYoKh1989], Parkinsonia aculeata [Brimbl1956a], Retama roetam [BenDov1970]. Heliconiaceae: Heliconia [Mosque1984]. Lauraceae: Cinnamomum cassia [Ballou1926], Cinnamomum pseudopedunculatum [KawaiMaUm1971], Laurus azorica [VieiraCaPi1983], Laurus nobilis [Bodenh1924, Ballou1926, Balach1933d, Balach1933e, BenDov1970, ArgovPoBa1987, UygunSeEr1998], Lindera benzoin [GimpelMiDa1974], Machilus [TaoWoCh1983], Persea americana [BenDov1970b, Nakaha1983], Persea borbonia [GimpelMiDa1974], Persea gratissima [Ballou1926]. Loganiaceae: Strychnos spinosa [BenDov1970]. Lythraceae: Lagerstroemia indica [Ballou1926, Mamet1943a, WilliaWi1988, PerontSoGr2008]. Magnoliaceae: Michelia [Ramakr1930, ShafeeYoKh1989], Michelia champaca [Matile1978]. Malpighiaceae: Byrsonima [Ballou1926], Hiptage laurifolia [Green1904a], Malpighia glabra [Ballou1926]. Malvaceae: Abelmoschus esculentus [ShafeeYoKh1989], Hibiscus esculenta [Ramakr1930]. Meliaceae: Azadirachta indica [Schmut1998], Melia azedarach [Bodenh1924, BenDov1970]. Moraceae: Artocarpus incisa [Ballou1926], Artocarpus integrifolia [Beards1966, BenDov1970], Ficus [Hempel1900a, Ramakr1930, Nakaha1983], Ficus benghalensis [Bodenh1926, BenDov1970], Ficus benjamina [Moghad2013a], Ficus carica [Bodenh1924, BenDov1970, ShafeeYoKh1989], Ficus glomerata [Ramakr1930, ShafeeYoKh1989], Ficus infectoria [ShafeeYoKh1989], Ficus italica [Bodenh1924], Ficus laurifolia [Cocker1899n], Ficus microcarpa [PellizPoSe2011], Ficus nitida [Ballou1926], Ficus obliqua [BenDov1970], Ficus religiosa [Ballou1926], Ficus retusa [BenDov1970b], Ficus rubiginosa [BenDov2012], Ficus sycomorus [BenDov1970], Morus [Hall1922, Hall1924a], Morus alba [Hall1922, BenDov1970], Treculia perrieri [Mamet1951]. Musaceae: Musa [BenDov1970, Nakaha1983], Musa sapientium [Bodenh1924]. Myoporaceae: Myoporum acuminatum [BenDov1970], Myoporum diffusum [Brimbl1956a, QinGu1994], Myoporum lactum [BenDov1970b, ArgovPoBa1987]. Myrsinaceae: Ardisia sieboldii [KawaiMaUm1971], Maesa japonica [TaoWoCh1983], Myrsine africana [Ferris1950a, BenDov1970b]. Myrtaceae: Callistemon pheniceus [BenDov1970], Eugenia americana [PerontSoGr2008], Eugenia axillaris [Ballou1926], Eugenia caryophyllus [VidyasKoDe1989], Eugenia compacta [HamonWi1984], Eugenia cyanocarpa [QinGu1994], Eugenia jambolana [BenDov1970, GimpelMiDa1974], Eugenia jambos [Ballou1926], Eugenia malaccensis [Ballou1926], Feijoa sellowiana [BenDov1970], Melaleuca [QinGu1994], Melaleuca armillaris [BenDov1970], Melaleuca leucadendra [Brimbl1956a], Melaleuca quinquenervia [QinGu1994], Melaleuca viridiflora [Brimbl1956a, QinGu1994], Metrosideros boninensis [KawaiMaUm1971], Myricaria [CouturQuGo1997], Myrtus [Bodenh1924], Myrtus communis [BenDov1970, ArgovPoBa1987, SengonUyKa1998, UygunSeEr1998], Psidium cattleyanum [VieiraCaPi1983], Psidium guajava [Cocker1899n, Hall1922, Hall1923, Ballou1926, BenDov1970b, Nakaha1983], Psidium guajava [Green1909a, Hall1924a, Green1937, ShafeeYoKh1989], Psidium guajava [Mamet1943a], Psidium littorale [VieiraCaPi1983], Psidium pomiferum [Mamet1951, GimpelMiDa1974], Rhodomyrtus tomentosa [GimpelMiDa1974]. Oleaceae: Ligustrum micranthum [KawaiMaUm1971]. Oleandraceae: Nephrolepis cordifolia [Mamet1943a, WilliaWi1988]. Pinaceae: Cedrus sp. [Moghad2013a], Pinus elliotti [HamonWi1984], Pinus halepensis [BenDov1993], Pinus taeda [Brimbl1956a, QinGu1994], Tsuga canadensis [HamonWi1984]. Pittosporaceae: Pittosporum chichijimense [KawaiMaUm1971], Pittosporum tobira [Ballou1926], Pittosporum undulatum [BenDov1970]. Platanaceae: Platanus [GimpelMiDa1974]. Polygonaceae: Antigonon leptopus [Ballou1926], Coccoloba diversifolia [HamonWi1984], Polygonum baldschuanicum [BenDov1970], Polygonum convolvulus [Ballou1926]. Polypodiaceae: Nephrolepis davallioides [Ballou1926], Nephrolepis exaltata [BenDov1970]. Punicaceae: Punica granatum [Hall1923, Bodenh1924, Ballou1926, BenDov1970]. Rhamnaceae: Rhamnus alaternus [BenDov1970], Ziziphus jujuba [SunQiLi1989]. Rosaceae: Amygdalus communis [BenDov1970], Cotoneaster pannosa [BenDov1970], Crataegus azarolus [BenDov1970], Cydonia oblonga [Ballou1926, BenDov1970], Cydonia vulgaris [Bodenh1924], Eriobotrya [HodgsoHi1991, HodgsoHi1990], Eriobotrya japonica [Hall1922, Bodenh1924, Ballou1926, BenDov1970], Eriobotrya japonica [Signor1872b, Mamet1943a], Malus sylvestris [BenDov1970], Persica vulgaris [BenDov1970], Prunus armeniaca [BenDov1970], Prunus domestica [PerontSoGr2008], Prunus persica [Hall1923, Bodenh1924], Prunus salicina [GimpelMiDa1974], Pyrus communis [Hall1923, BenDov1970], Pyrus cydonia [Hall1923], Pyrus malus [Hall1923, Bodenh1924], Raphiolepis indica [Balach1930], Raphiolepis integerrima [KawaiMaUm1971], Raphiolepis ovata [VieiraCaPi1983], Raphiolepis umbellata [BenDov1970b, ArgovPoBa1987]. Rubiaceae: Casimiroa edulis [BenDov1970], Coffea arabica [BenDov1970], Coffea robusta [Hodgso1994a], Gardenia florida [Ballou1926], Gardenia jasminoides [GimpelMiDa1974], Ixora [Nakaha1983, ShafeeYoKh1989, Hodgso1994a], Ixora bandhuca [Ballou1926], Ixora lutea [Ballou1926], Psychotria boninensis [KawaiMaUm1971], Psychotria laurifolia [Ballou1926]. Rutaceae [DanzigKo1990], Citropsis schweinfurthii [Ballou1926], Citrus [Hempel1900a, Hall1922, Mamet1951, DeLott1965a, EzzatHu1969, DeLott1969b, Nakaha1983], Citrus [ArgyriKo1980a, PodoleDrRo1981, Argyri1983, HodgsoHi1991, MarinLCi1996, SmithBeBr1997], Citrus [Green1896, Bodenh1924, BenDov1970b, QuezadCoDi1972, Hodgso1994a], Citrus [ShafeeYoKh1989, MarinLCi1996a, CarvalAg1997, UygunSeEr1998, PerontSoGr2008], Citrus aurantifolia [Nakaha1983], Citrus aurantium [Bodenh1924, Bodenh1926, Ballou1926, Bodenh1926, ArgovPoBa1987], Citrus deliciosa unshiu [Ballou1926], Citrus grandis [Ballou1926], Citrus histrix [Ballou1926, Matile1978], Citrus limon [Bodenh1924], Citrus microcarpa [Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995], Citrus mitis [GimpelMiDa1974], Citrus paradisi [BenDov1970b], Citrus reticulata [BenDov2012], Citrus sinensis [Cocker1899n, Hall1924a, Ballou1926, QinGu1994], Fagara fagara [Ballou1926], Hesperethusa crenulata [Ballou1926], Microcitrus australis [Ballou1926], Poncirus trifoliata [Ballou1926, TaoWoCh1983], Zanthoxylum fagara [LincanHoCa2010]. Salicaceae: Populus deltoides [BenDov1970], Salix [Ferris1950a, BenDov1970b]. Santalaceae: Santalum boninense [KawaiMaUm1971]. Sapindaceae: Cupania cubensis [Ballou1926], Dodonaea viscosa [BenDov1970], Filicium [Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995], Melicoccus bijugatus [Nakaha1983], Nephelium lappaceum [BenDov1970]. Sapotaceae: Achras sapota [Ballou1926, BenDov1970], Chrysophyllum cainito [Ballou1926, BenDov1970], Lucuma mammosa [Ballou1926], Lucuma nervosa [Ballou1926], Manilkara zapota [Nakaha1983]. Schizaeaceae: Actinostachys boninensis [KawaiMaUm1971]. Scrophulariaceae: Russelia equisetiformis [BenDov1970]. Serraceniaceae: Serracenia minor [GimpelMiDa1974]. Solanaceae: Brunfelsia nitida [Ballou1926], Cestrum diurnum [Ballou1926], Solanum villosum [BenDov1970]. Sterculiaceae: Theobroma cacao [Conway1951]. Strelitziaceae: Ravenala madagascariensis [Ballou1926]. Tamaricaceae: Tamarix [Ramakr1930]. Theaceae: Camellia sinensis [Green1896, Green1900c, Green1909a, Green1937, TaoWoCh1983, ShafeeYoKh1989], Schima mertensiana [KawaiMaUm1971], Schima superba [TaoWoCh1983], Ternstroemia japonica [TaoWoCh1983]. Urticaceae: Boehmeria boninensis [KawaiMaUm1971]. Verbenaceae: Aloysia citriodora [Ballou1926], Avicennia [QinGu1994], Duranta repens [BenDov1970]. Zamiaceae: Encephalartos [VieiraCaPi1983].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Comoros [BenDov1993]; Kenya [Schmut1998]; Madagascar [Mamet1951]; Mauritius [Cocker1894t, Green1907, Green1908a, Mamet1943a]; Reunion [Cocker1894t, Green1907, Green1908a, Mamet1943a, BenDov1993, BenDovMaGa2000,, GermaiMiPa2014]; Seychelles [Green1907, DanzigKo1990]; Sudan [HodgsoPe2012]; Tanzania [Green1916a, Mamet1943a, DeLott1965a]. Australasian: Australia [Frogga1915, Mamet1943a, DanzigKo1990] (New South Wales [QinGu1994], Queensland [Brimbl1956a, QinGu1994, SmithBeBr1997]); Bonin Islands (=Ogasawara-Gunto) [Mamet1943a, Kawai1987]; Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii [Kirkal1902, Kirkal1904, Frogga1915, Mamet1943a, DanzigKo1990]). Australasian: Indonesia (Irian Jaya [BenDov1993], Java [Green1904a, Mamet1943a]). Australasian: Palau [Mamet1943a]. Nearctic: Mexico [Cocker1899n, DanzigKo1990]; United States of America (District of Columbia [BenDov1993], Florida [Comsto1881a, DeLott1969b, BenDov1970b], Georgia [BenDov1993], Louisiana [BenDov1993], Maryland [BenDov1993], Mississippi [BenDov1993], New Jersey [Koszta1996], New Mexico [BenDov1993], New York [BenDov1993], North Carolina [BenDov1993], Pennsylvania [Stimme1998], South Carolina [BenDov1993], Tennessee [BenDov1993], Texas [BenDov1993], Virginia [BenDov1993]). Neotropical: Antigua and Barbuda (Antigua [Cocker1895u]); Bermuda [HodgsoHi1991, HodgsoHi1990]; Brazil [Mamet1943a, DanzigKo1990] (Espirito Santo [CulikMaVe2007], Rio Grande do Sul, Sao Paulo [PerontSoGr2008]); Colombia [KondoKa1995, Kondo2001, Kondo2008a]; Cuba [Ballou1926, MestreHaEv2011]; Ecuador; El Salvador [QuezadCoDi1972]; Galapagos Islands [CaustoPeSi2006, LincanHoCa2010]; Guadeloupe [MatileEt2006]; Guatemala [LongoMaPe1995, Willia2010]; Guyana [Newste1914]; Haiti [PerezG2008]; Honduras [LongoMaPe1995]; Jamaica [Kirkal1902]; Mexico (Yucatan); Montserrat; Netherlands Antilles (Curacao); Nicaragua; Panama; Peru [MarinLCi1996a, CouturQuGo1997]; Puerto Rico & Vieques Island (Puerto Rico [Martor1976, NakahaMi1981]); Saint Croix [Beatty1944]; Saint Lucia [Malump2012b]; Trinidad and Tobago (Trinidad); U.S. Virgin Islands. Oriental: China (Hunan [HuHeWa1992]); Hong Kong [Hodgso1994a]; India [Frogga1915, Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, Mamet1943a, Hodgso1994a, Green1900c, ShafeeYoKh1989] (Kerala [VidyasKoDe1989], Uttar Pradesh [AvasthSh1986], West Bengal); Malaysia (Sabah [Conway1951]); Ryukyu Islands (=Nansei Shoto) [KinjoNaHi1996]; Sri Lanka [Green1896, Green1899b, Green1900c, Green1909a, Green1937, Mamet1943a]; Taiwan [Mamet1943a, WongChCh1999]; Vietnam [DanzigKo1990]. Palaearctic: Azores [CarvalFrAg1996]; Canary Islands [HodgsoPe2012]; China [Ferris1950a, BenDov1970b]; Crete [PellizPoSe2011]; Cyprus [SismanUl2010]; Egypt [Hall1922, Hall1923, Hall1924a, Mamet1943a, EzzatHu1969, ArgovPoBa1987]; France [Balach1930, Balach1933d, Balach1933e, Balach1939, Mamet1943a]; Greece [ArgyriKo1980a, Argyri1983, ArgovPoBa1987]; Iran [Kaussa1957, KozarFoZa1996, Moghad2009]; Israel [Bodenh1924, BenDov1969, BenDov1970, BenDov1971, PodoleDrRo1981, ArgovPoBa1987]; Italy [LongoMaPe1995]; Japan [Frogga1915, Kuwana1917, Mamet1943a]; Jordan [new]; Lebanon [Bodenh1926, ArgovPoBa1987]; Libya [ArgovPoBa1987]; Madeira Islands [Green1923b, CarvalFrAg1996, CarvalAg1997]; Malta [FetykoKo2012]; Netherlands; Oman [Hodgso1994a] (Rumais); Saudi Arabia [Beccar1971, Hodgso1994a]; Syria [Bodenh1926]; Tunisia [FetykoKo2012]; Turkey [Tuncyu1970a, ArgovPoBa1987, SengonUyKa1998, UygunSeEr1998, KaydanUlEr2007].

BIOLOGY: Balachowsky (1933d) studied and described the biology in southern France. Bodenheimer (1951b) discussed the biology and economic importance. Develops two annual generations on Citrus, in Israel (Ben-Dov, 1976d; Podoler et al., 1981), and in Greece (Argyriou & Kourmadas, 1980). Two generations per year develop in Queensland, Australia (Smith et al, 1997). Methods for laboratory rearing given by Ben-Dov (1970a). Population dynamics on Citrus in Israel studied by Podoler et al. (1981) and by Schneider et al. (1987a, 1987b). Yardeni (1987) and Yardeni & Rosen (1990) studied the wind dispersal of crawlers.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by De Lotto (1969b), Ezzat & Hussein (1969), Ben-Dov (1970b), Williams & Kosztarab (1972), Gimpel et al. (1974), Tao et al. (1983), Hamon & Williams (1984), Williams & Watson (1990), Tang (1991), Hodgson (1994a), Kosztarab (1996) and by Peronti et al. (2008).

STRUCTURE: Colour photograph of adult female by Kawai (1980, Fig. 6.57), Hodgson (1994a), Carvalho & Aguiar (1997), Wong et al. (1999) and by Peronti et al. (2008).

SYSTEMATICS: Green (1937) suggested that Ceroplastes vinsonii Signoret, 1872 was very likely identical with C. floridensis, but since no type material was available, he could not verify the synonymy. Ben-Dov (1993) concluded that for the sake of stability, it was advisable to retain C. vinsonii, which antedated C. floridensis, as a valid, but unrecognizable species. Ben-Dov et al. (2000) concluded that C. vinsonii should be regarded a Nomen Oblitum and synonymized it with (C. floridensis. C. floridensis is unique in having the ventral tubular ducts in a very distinct, rather narrow, submarginal band extending from near each antenna to near each anal lobe, each duct with a short, very swollen inner ductule. There was some variation in the material studied and some specimens had: (i) more than 2 pairs of interantennal setae; (ii) a reticulate pattern on the sclerotized area of the anal plate, and (iii) loculate microducts densest in a submarginal band. C. floridensis is quite close to C. japonicus Green which also has a submarginal band of similar tubular ducts extending part way around the submargin, bullet-shaped stigmatic setae, many marginal setae, and multilocular disc-pores associated with each coxa, but the latter differs in having the stigmatic setae continuous between the clefts on each side, not separated by a length of margin with just marginal setae. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012) Deng, et al. (2012) determined DNA COI barcoding sequences for six Chinese Ceroplastes species. Ceroplastes floridensis generated a distinct COI sequence. GenBank Accessions JQ795609-JQ795722. 28S DNA sequences: GenBank Accessions JQ795495-JQ795608.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: A major citrus pest in Israel (Bodenheimer, 1951b; Ben-Dov, 1976d). A pest of many ornamentals in U.S.A. (Gimpel et al., 1974). Peleg & Gothilf (1981) and Eisa et al. (1990) studied the adverse effects of several IGR's on this pest. Peleg (1987) reported on resistance to commercial formulation of carabaryl in Israel. Yardeni and Shapira (1995) proposed and applied a control method of the scale by thinning its population using a nutritional spray of 4% potassium nitrate with 2% spray oil.

KEYS: Mohammad & Moharum 2013: 146-148 (female) [Key to species and subspecies of family coccidae in Egypt]; Fetyk & Kozr 2012: 293 (female) [Key to species of Ceroplastes in the Palaearctic Region based on slide-mounted adult females]; Peronti {et al.} 2008: 142-144 (female) [Ceroplastes species of So Paulo, Brazil]; Hodges 2002b: 208 (female) [Ceroplastes species of Florida]; Mori, Pellizzari & Tosi 2001: 42 (female) [Italy]; Kosztarab 1996: 325 (female) [Northeastern North America]; Pellizzari & Camporose 1994: 177 (female) [Ceroplastes species of Mediterranean]; Tang 1991: 304 (female) [China]; Williams & Watson 1990: 65 (female) [Tropical South Pacific]; Hamon & Williams 1984: 18 (female) [USA, Florida]; Tao et al. 1983: 93 (female) [Taiwan]; Kawai 1980: 166 (female) [Japan]; Gimpel et al. 1974: 19 (female) [USA]; Williams & Kosztarab 1972: 36 (female) [USA, Virginia]; Ezzat & Hussein 1969: 371 (female) [Egypt]; Beardsley 1966: 480 (female) [Beardsley]; Borchsenius 1957: 451 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Green 1909a: 277 (female) [Ceylon]; Cockerell 1895: 8 (female) [West Indies].

CITATIONS: AbdRab2002b [host, distribution, biological control: 39-44]; AbouEl2001 [host, distribution, biological control: 185-195]; Ali1971 [host, distribution: 16-17]; Amitai1969 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 89-95]; ArgovPoBa1987 [host, distribution, biological control, life history: 277-285]; ArgovRo1988 [biological control: 303-314]; ArgovScRo1992 [host, distribution, biological control: 21-31]; Argyri1983 [host, distribution: 365]; ArgyriKo1980a [host, distribution, economic importance: 705-707]; AvasthSh1986 [host, distribution: 334]; AvidovRoGe1963 [biological control, chemical control, host, distribution, economic importance: 205-212]; BadaryAb2011 [biological control, distribution, host: 50-51]; Balach1926 [taxonomy, economic importance: 4]; Balach1930 [host, distribution: 180]; Balach1932d [taxonomy: 100,104,116,117]; Balach1933d [taxonomy, life history, description, illustration, host, distribution: 80-84]; Balach1933e [host, distribution: 5]; Balach1939 [host, distribution: 258]; Ballou1926 [host, distribution: 14-15]; Bartle1978 [economic importance, biological control, host, distribution: 59-60]; BasheeJa1964 [host, distribution, economic importance: 261-266]; BasuNaCh1969 [economic importance, host, distribution: 169-178]; Beards1966 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 480-481]; Beatti1993 [taxonomy: 1-19]; Beatty1944 [host, distribution: 114-172]; Beccar1971 [host, distribution: 194]; BenDov1970 [biological control, host, distribution: 84-87]; BenDov1970b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 273-277]; BenDov1970c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history, economic importance, biological control: 1-86]; BenDov1971 [host, distribution: 25-26]; BenDov1972a [economic importance, biological control, host, distribution: 17-34]; BenDov1976d [life history, biological control, host, distribution: 3-7]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 34-36,59-60]; BenDov2006a [host, distribution: 206]; BenDov2012 [catalogue, distribution, host: 24, 44]; BenDovMaGa2000 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 423-424]; Berger1932 [host, distribution, biological control: 131-136]; Blumbe1997 [biological control, ecology: 225-236]; Bodenh1924 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 64-65]; Bodenh1926 [host, distribution: 44]; Bodenh1935 [host, distribution: 249]; Bodenh1937 [life history, biological control: 219]; Bodenh1951a [life history, economic importance, chemical control, biological control, taxonomy, host, distribution: 364-381]; Bodenh1953a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 112]; Bolu2012 [biological control: 109]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 155]; Borchs1957 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 459-461]; Bordag1914 [host, distribution]; Boyce1948 [host, distribution, economic importance, control]; Brimbl1956a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 163-164]; CamporPe1994 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 182-185]; CarvalAg1997 [life history, economic importance, description, host, distribution, chemical control, biological control: 168-170]; CarvalFrAg1996 [host, distribution, economic importance: 614]; Castel1951a [biological control: 95-98]; CaustoPeSi2006 [distribution: 137]; CebeciSe2004 [host, distribution: 208]; Charmo1898a [host, distribution: 66]; Cocker1893j [distribution: 254]; Cocker1894d [taxonomy: 311]; Cocker1894t [distribution: 178]; Cocker1895 [taxonomy, host, distribution, economic importance: 5,8]; Cocker1895u [host, distribution: 727]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 331]; Cocker1899n [host, distribution: 17]; Cocker1902p [distribution: 253]; Cohen1969 [economic importance, biological control, host, distribution: 769-772]; Cohen1975 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 38-41]; Comsto1881a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 331-332]; Conway1951 [host, distribution, economic importance]; CorseuBa1971 [host, distribution: 237]; CouturQuGo1997 [economic importancem, host, distribution: 126]; CulikMaVe2007 [host, distribution: 1-5]; Danzig1972 [host, distribution: 199]; DanzigKo1990 [host, distribution: 43]; DavoodTaRa2004a [biological control: 887-899]; DeLott1965a [host, distribution: 185]; DeLott1969b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 211-213]; Delucc1975 [host, distribution, economic importance, chemical control]; DengYuZh2012 [distribution, molecular data, taxonomy: 791-796]; EisaElEl1990 [chemical control, life history: 49-55]; ElekciSe2007 [host, distribution, biological control: 29-34]; ElliotOhWy1998 [host, distribution, economic importance]; EzzatFa1980 [taxonomy, description: 25]; EzzatHu1969 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 381-383]; EzzatNa1987 [distribution: 86]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 152,158]; Ferris1950a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 75,91]; FetykoKo2012 [distribution, taxonomy: 292-295]; Foldi2000 [host, distribution: 81]; FrancoRuMa2011 [distribution: 4,22]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 422]; Georgh1977 [host, distribution: 148]; GermaiMiPa2014 [distribution: 22]; GillKo1997 [economic importance, host, distribution: 161-163]; GimpelMiDa1974 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 44-49]; GomesC1949 [host, distribution]; Gothil1962 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 1-14]; GothilBe1970 [life history, host, distribution: 93-99]; Green1896 [host, distribution: 8]; Green1899b [taxonomy, description: 191]; Green1900c [host, distribution: 8]; Green1904a [host, distribution: 207]; Green1907 [host, distribution: 200]; Green1908a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 33]; Green1909a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 277]; Green1916a [host, distribution: 375]; Green1923b [host, distribution: 88]; Green1937 [host, distribution: 311]; HabibSaAm1971 [host, distribution, life history: 318-330]; Hall1922 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 17]; Hall1923 [host, distribution: 38]; Hall1924a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 6-7]; HamonWi1984 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 27-28]; HarpazRo1971 [biological control, economic importance: 458-468]; Helmy1992 [host, distribution, chemical control: 809-816]; HelmyGiAb1984 [chemical control: 1125-1132]; Hempel1900a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 462]; HernanNiMa2011 [host: 379-380]; Hodges2001 [host, distribution, life history: 1-122]; Hodges2002b [taxonomy, distribution: 208]; HodgesRuBr2000 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 23-31]; HodgesRuBr2003 [host, distribution, life history, ecology, economic importance: 3-12]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 419-422]; HodgsoHi1990 [host, distribution: 6,9,15]; HodgsoHi1991 [host, distribution: 136]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 61-64,241]; HuHeWa1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 183]; IsmailElSo2004 [chemical control: 175-179]; Jansen1995 [host, distribution: 133, 141]; JohnsoLy1988 [economic importance, host, distribution]; KansuUy1979 [host, distribution, biological control: 565-567]; KaracaErYa2005 [host, distribution, biological control: 372-377]; Katsoy1996 [life history, host, distribution, economic importance, chemical control, biological control: 15,19-21,81-83]; Kaussa1957 [host, distribution: 2]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 167]; Kawai1987 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 77]; KawaiMaUm1971 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 17]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 91]; KinjoNaHi1996 [host, distribution: 126]; Kiritc1932a [host, distribution: 248]; Kirkal1902 [taxonomy, distribution: 105]; Kirkal1904 [taxonomy, distribution: 228]; KonarSa2002 [host, distribution, biological control: 65-68]; Kondo2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 41]; Kondo2008a [host, distribution: 25-29]; Kondo2010 [host, distribution: 41-44]; Kondo2013 [distribution, host: 44]; KondoKa1995 [host, distribution: 57-58]; Koszta1996 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 330-331]; Koteja1974a [taxonomy: 81]; KozarFoZa1996 [host, distribution: 65]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 76]; Kuwana1917 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 67-69]; Kuwana1923b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, biological control: 34-43]; LambdiWa1980 [host, distribution: 79]; LincanHoCa2010 [host, distribution: 4]; LongoMaPe1995 [host, distribution: 133,141]; MaChZh1995 [host, distribution: 117-119]; MalipaDuSm2000 [biological control: 96]; Malump2012b [distribution, host: 210,212]; Mamet1943a [host, distribution: 150-151]; Mamet1949 [distribution: 22]; Mamet1951 [host, distribution: 223]; Mamet1957 [taxonomy: 368]; MarinLCi1996a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history: 91-96]; MartinLa2011 [catalogue, distribution: 34]; Martor1976 [host, distribution: 14-224]; Matile1978 [host, distribution: 42]; MatileEt2006 [host, distribution: 164]; MendelPoRo1984b [life history, ecology: 30-33]; MestreHaEv2011 [catalogue, distribution, host: 5]; Miller1996 [distribution: 69]; MillerRuPa2014 [catalogue: 65]; Moghad2009 [host, distribution: 5]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 8]; MohammGh2008 [distribution: 149]; MohammMo2013 [illustration, taxonomy: 146, 152]; Mohara1990 [taxonomy: 48]; MoriPeTo2001 [taxonomy: 42]; Mosque1984 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 133-139]; MumaSeDe1961 [biological control, host, distribution: 1-39]; Nakaha1983 [host, distribution: 3]; NakahaMi1981 [host, distribution: 29]; Newste1914 [host, distribution: 306]; Panis1982 [distribution, biological control: 12-22]; ParidaMo1982 [taxonomy: 19]; Peleg1987 [chemical control: 601-603]; Peleg1988 [chemical control: 88-92]; PelegBa1995 [chemical control, biological control, economic importance: 262-263]; PelegGo1981 [chemical control: 124-126]; PellizCa1994 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 182-185]; PellizPoSe2011 [distribution, host: 294,296]; PerezG2008 [distribution: 212]; PerontSoGr2008 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 156-158]; Petch1921 [biological control: 18-40]; PodoleDrRo1981 [life history, economic importance, host, distribution: 81-90]; Pratt1958 [taxonomy]; QinGu1994 [taxonomy, illustration, host, distribution: 934-935]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 302]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; QuezadCoDi1972 [host, distribution: 23-24]; Ramakr1919a [host, distribution: 30]; Ramakr1921a [host, distribution: 346]; Ramakr1930 [host, distribution: 40]; RosaPeSo2011 [structure: 19]; Rosen1966 [biological control, host, distribution: 46-48]; Rosen1969 [biological control: 45-53]; Rosen1979 [host, distribution, biological control: 289-292]; Schmut1990 [economic importance, host, distribution: 193]; Schmut1998 [host, distribution: 36]; Schmut2001 [host, distribution: 339-345]; SchneiPoRo1983 [host, distribution, life history: 117-141]; SchneiPoRo1987 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 217-228]; SchneiPoRo1987a [economic importance, life history, host, distribution: 67-78]; SchneiPoRo1987b [economic importance, life history, host, distribution: 95-103]; SchneiPoRo1988 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 75-83]; SengonUyKa1998 [host, distribution, biological control: 128-131]; ShafeeYoKh1989 [host, distribution: 49]; Signor1872a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 38-39]; Simant1962a [biological control, economic importance, host, distribution: 105-112]; Simmon1957 [host, distribution: 7]; SinhaDi1984 [host, distribution, biological control, life history: 11-12]; SismanUl2010 [host, distribution: 219-224]; SmithBeBr1997 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance, biological control: 56-57]; Stimme1987 [host, distribution: 9]; Stimme1998 [life history, biological control, host, distribution, economic importance: 17-19]; Su1982 [distribution: 61]; SunQiLi1989 [biological control, economic importance: 1-4]; SwinglWe1896 [host, distribution: 1-6]; SwirskWyIz2002 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history, economic importance, biological control: 86-88]; Takaha1928 [host, distribution: 345]; Takaha1929 [host, distribution: 67-68]; Takaha1932a [distribution, host: 103]; Takaha1936c [host, distribution: 117]; Takaha1939b [host, distribution: 263]; Takaha1940a [host, distribution: 331]; Tang1991 [taxonomy: 306-308]; Tao1978 [host, distribution: 79]; Tao1989 [host, distribution: 59]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 61]; TaoWoCh1983 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 93-94,95]; TrabouBe1965 [host, distribution, biological control: 1-13]; Tuncyu1970a [host, distribution, economic importance: 67-80]; UsmanPu1955 [host, distribution: 49]; UygunSeEr1998 [host, distribution: 183-191]; Varshn1994 [host, distribution: 341]; VarshnMo1987 [host, distribution: 172]; Vernal1953 [host, distribution: 127]; VidyasKoDe1989 [host, distribution, economic importance, chemical control: 359-360]; VieiraCaPi1983 [host, distribution: 93]; Wang1980 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 25-26]; Webber1897 [chemical control: 53-58]; Willia2001 [distribution: 225-227]; Willia2010 [host, distribution: 145]; WilliaKo1972 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 43-48]; WilliaWa1990 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 70-73]; WilliaWi1988 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 55-56]; WongChCh1999 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 15,54]; XieXuZh2004a [chemistry: 512-518]; XieXuZh2006a [morphology, wax secretion: 21-112]; Yang1982 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 168,187]; Yarden1977 [life history, host, distribution, economic importance: 1-20]; Yarden1987 [life history, ecology, host, distribution: 25-31]; YardenRo1990 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 125-128]; YardenRo1992 [life history, ecology, host, distribution: 622-629]; YardenRo1995 [life history, ecology: 307-313]; YardenSh1995 [life history, chemical control, host, distribution: 271-276]; YunusHo1980 [host, distribution]; ZchoriBePo2005 [endosymbionts, Cardinium: 211-221].



Ceroplastes flosculoides Matile-Ferrero in Matile-Ferrero & Couturier

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes flosculoides Matile-Ferrero in Matile-Ferrero & Couturier, 1993: 441. Type data: PERU: Loreto, Jenaro Herrera, Plantation HAP, on Myricaria dubia . Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Psidium guajava [PerontSoGr2008]. Tamaricaceae: Myricaria dubia [MatileCo1993].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul [PerontSoGr2008], Sao Paulo [PerontSoGr2008]); Peru [MatileCo1993].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Matile-Ferrero & Couturier (1993) and by Peronti et al. (2008).

STRUCTURE: Colour photograph of the adult female given by Matile-Ferrero & Couturier (1993) and by Peronti et al. (2008).

SYSTEMATICS: This species was also reported as Ceroplastes sp. by Couturier et al. (1994).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Reported (Matile-Ferrero & Couturier, 1993) to damage cultivated plantation of Myricaria dubia (common name 'camu camu'), a valuable export crop in Peru.

KEYS: Peronti {et al.} 2008: 142-144 (female) [Ceroplastes species of So Paulo, Brazil].

CITATIONS: MatileCo1993 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 441-445]; PerontSoGr2008 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 158].



Ceroplastes formicarius Hempel

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes communis Hempel, 1900a: 459. Type data: BRAZIL: Sao Paulo, Ypiranga, on Maytenus sp. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: Sao Paulo: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil, and UCEC. Described: female. Synonymy by Peronti {et al.}, 2008: 158.

Ceroplastes formicarius Hempel, 1900a: 472. Type data: BRAZIL: Sao Paulo, Ypiranga, on Maytenus sp. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Granara de Willink, 1999: 54. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil; type no. 95-147. Described: female.

Ceroplastes scutigera Cockerell, 1902i: 92. Type data: ARGENTINA: Ceres, on a shrub with small, entire oval-laneolate leaves. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Granara de Willink, 1999: 51.



HOSTS: Achatocarpaceae: Achatocarpus praecox [Granar1999]. Casuarinaceae: Casuarina [SilvadGoGa1968]. Celastraceae: Maytenus [Hempel1900a, SilvadGoGa1968]. Flacourtiaceae: Casearia sylvestris [PerontSoGr2008]. Loranthaceae: Loranthus [Granar1999]. Malpighiaceae: Banisteriopsis oxyclada [PerontSoGr2008], Byrsonima [PerontSoGr2008]. Myrtaceae: Eugenia edulis [Granar1999]. Opiliaceae: Agonandra exelsa [Granar1999]. Tamaricaceae: Tamarix [Granar1999].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina (Catamarca [Granar1999], Chaco [Granar1999], Entre Rios [Granar1999], Salta [Granar1999], San Luis [Granar1999], Santa Fe [Granar1999], Tucuman [Granar1999]); Brazil (Amazonas [PerontSoGr2008], Pernambuco [PerontSoGr2008], Sao Paulo [PerontSoGr2008]).

BIOLOGY: Attended by a species of Camponotus (Hempel, 1900b).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female by Granara de Willink (1999) anf by Peronti et al. (2008).

STRUCTURE: Colour photo of adult female by Peronti et al. (2008

KEYS: Peronti {et al.} 2008: 142-144 (female) [Ceroplastes species of So Paulo, Brazil]; Granara de Willink 1999: 48 (female) [Argentina].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 29,36,54]; Cocker1902i [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 92]; Cocker1902p [distribution: 253,254]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 150,152,157]; Granar1999 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 51-54]; GranarCl2003 [host, distribution: 627]; Hempel1900a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 459-460,472-473]; Hempel1901 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 560]; Hempel1901a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 67-68]; Lizery1939 [host, distribution: 197]; PerontSoGr2008 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 158-160]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 301]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; SilvadGoGa1968 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 137]; Vernal1953 [host, distribution: 124,127].



Ceroplastes formosus Hempel

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes formosus Hempel, 1900a: 468. Type data: BRAZIL: Minas Gerais, Pocos de Caldas, on Eugenia sp. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Peronti {et al.}, 2008: 160. Type depository: Curitiba: Departamento de Zoologia, Setor de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Parana, Brazil; type no. 37. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eugenia [Hempel1900a], Eugenia sprengelli [PerontSoGr2008], Myrciaria cauliflora [PerontSoGr2008].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Minas Gerais [PerontSoGr2008], Sao Paulo [PerontSoGr2008]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Peronti et al. (2008).

STRUCTURE: Colour photograph of adult female by Peronti et al. (2008).

KEYS: Peronti {et al.} 2008: 142-144 (female) [Ceroplastes species of So Paulo, Brazil].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 36]; Cocker1902p [distribution: 253]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 152]; Hempel1900a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 468]; Hempel1901a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 64]; PerontSoGr2008 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 160-161]; Vernal1953 [host, distribution: 127].



Ceroplastes galeatus Newstead

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes galeatus Newstead, 1911: 95. Type data: UGANDA: Entebbe, on undetermined plant. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Notes: Lectotype female designated in Hodgson & Peronti, 2012: Uganda: right label: Colonial Office / Ent. Res. Comm. (T.A.) / 1804 / Entebbe / 10/VIII/10 / BM 1945, 121; left label: Ceroplastes / galeatus / Newstead / Cotype females (BMNH): 1/1 (fair-poor, dorsum and venter separated).



HOST: Rubiaceae: Coffea sp. [Kondo2013]

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Uganda [Newste1911, Sassce1912].

BIOLOGY: Biology and pest status on coffee presented by Le Pelley (1968).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Newstead (1911).

STRUCTURE: Unmounted material. "Test of adult female - wax hard; creamy white or dusky yellowish white; roughly hemispherical; divided into distinct plates; dorsum with a central dark nuclear spot situated in a deep depression, the latter extending as a narrow groove as far as the region of the anal lobes; lateral plates separated by dark depression lines; lateral margins over the stigmatic clefts projecting considerably beyond the hemispherical portion, in the form of 2 peak-like extensions, on both surfaces of which are the opaque white stigmatic bands; area surrounding the anal orifice almost denuded, so that the colour of the insect is visible. Width 4.5-5.0 mm, length 4.0-4.5 mm." (Newstead, 1911). Mounted material. Body elongate oval, probably rather convex, with shallow, stigmatic clefts; distinctness of dorsal tubercles uncertain. Caudal process short and stout, pointing more or less vertically. Length 2.7-3.5 mm, total width of mounted specimen 1.752.5 mm; width of venter 1.5-1.65 mm. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: The adult female of C. galeatus initially appears similar to several other species in the C. rusci-group but differs in: (i) having no ventral tubular ducts in the cephalic region; (ii) almost no tibio-tarsal articulatory scleroses; (iii) the distribution of the stigmatic setae, with the largest lying within the group (i.e., not the most dorsal seta); (iv) in the shortness of antennal segment III, and (v) stigmatic setae not meeting between clefts. Other species in the C. rusci-group that lack tubular ducts in the cephalic region are C. singularis, C. balachowskyi and C. ghesquierei. C. singularis differs in having stigmatic setae along entire margin, C. balachowskyi differs in having a very large mid-dorsal clear area and C. ghesquierei is very similar but has many more stigmatic setae which almost meet between the clefts. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Biology and pest status on coffee presented by Le Pelley (1968).

KEYS: Hodgson & Peronti 2012: 100 [Key to adult females in the Ceroplastes rusci-group].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 37]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 121-123,242]; Kondo2013 [distribution, host: 44]; LePell1968 [host, distribution, economic importance]; Newste1911 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 95-96]; Sassce1912 [host, distribution: 88].



Ceroplastes ghesquierei Hodgson & Peronti

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes ghesquierei Hodgson & Peronti, 2012: 124-126. Type data: DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO: Kisangani (=Stanleyville), on Loranthus sp., 7/14/1936, by J. Ghesdqire. Holotype female (examined). Type depository: Tervuren: Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Section d'Entomologie, Belgium; type no. 4097. Described: female. Illust. Notes:



HOSTS: Loranthaceae: Loranthus sp. [HodgsoPe2012]. Moraceae: Ficus sp. [HodgsoPe2012]

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Congo [HodgsoPe2012].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Hodgson & Peronti, 2012.

STRUCTURE: Unmounted material. The waxy test of 80 year-old dried specimens rather clear yellow but some clearly showing a basic structure similar to that of C. rusci, with a series of marginal plates, anterior 2 lateral pairs each with white stigmatic lines, plus a larger dorsal plate with a central dark nucleus. With wax removed, younger specimens with a central dorsal dome and a short caudal process. Mounted material. Body rather roundly oval and probably fairly convex, with shallow stigmatic clefts; lateral tubercles distinct although small. Caudal process short and stout, probably directed rather upwards. Length of young specimens 1.6-2.5 mm, width about 1.0-1.5 mm.

SYSTEMATICS: C. ghesquierei is clearly a member of the C. rusci-group but differs from the other members of this group in having the following combination of characters: (i) absence of ventral tubular ducts in cephalic region and often on abdomen; (ii) stigmatic setae on each side meeting between clefts and extending from near each eyespot a long way past each posterior cleft; also often with a few present between eyespots anteriorly; (iii) each stigmatic setal group broadening to 4 setae deep in each cleft, and with non-marginal stigmatic setae extending a long way along margin laterally; (iv) stigmatic setae sharply cone-shaped, (v) presence of only 1-5 marginal setae on each side laterally between clefts and (vi) large dorsal setae on each anal plate all located near posterior margin. In almost entirely lacking ventral tubular ducts, C. ghesquierei is similar to C. balachowskyi, C. singularis and C. galeatus. C. singularis differs from the other 3 species in having a band of stigmatic setae around the entire margin (absent from some parts of the margin on other 3 species). It also resembles C. galeatus, particularly in having the large dorsal setae on the anal plate restricted to near the outer margins of each plate but, based on the available material, differs from C. galeatus in having many more stigmatic setae on each side, meeting laterally between the clefts. It is possible that C. ghesquierei is a synonym of C. galeatus but, based on the available specimens, they are easily separable.

KEYS: Hodgson & Peronti 2012: 100 (adult, female) [Key to adult females in the Ceroplastes rusci-group].

CITATIONS: HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 124-126,242].



Ceroplastes giganteus Dozier

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes giganteus Dozier, 1931: 2. Type data: HAITI: Source Cazeau, on Ficus rubricosta. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA, and New York: American Museum of Natural History, Department of Entomology Collection, New York, USA. Described: female.



HOSTS: Bombacaceae: Neobuchia paulinae [Dozier1931]. Euphorbiaceae: Euphorbia pulcherrima [Willia2010], Jatropha curcas [Willia2010]. Moraceae: Ficus rubricosta [Dozier1931]. Rubiaceae: Coffea arabica [Willia2010]. Rutaceae: Citrus [Willia2010].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Guatemala [Willia2010]; Haiti [PerezG2008].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 37]; Dozier1931 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 1-2]; Kondo2013 [distribution, host: 44]; PerezG2008 [distribution: 212]; Willia2001 [distribution: 225-227]; Willia2010 [host, distribution: 145].



Ceroplastes gigas Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes gigas Cockerell, 1914b: 331. Type data: PHILIPPINES: near Los Banos. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Notes: Host plant of type material not recorded.

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Philippines [Sassce1915, Ali1971].

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [host, distribution: 17]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 37]; Cocker1914b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 331]; Sassce1915 [host, distribution: 31]; Willia1985a [taxonomy: 225].



Ceroplastes glomeratus Peronti {in}: Peronti {et al.}

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes glomeratus Peronti {in}: Peronti {et al.}, 2008: 162. Type data: BRAZIL: Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Maria, on Vernonia brevifolia; collected D. Link, 22.x.2002. Holotype female. Type depository: So Carlos, Departamento de Ecologia e Biologia Evolutiva da UNiversidade Federal de So Carlos, So Paulo, Brazil; type no. 251. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Anacardiaceae: Schinus therebibthifolius [PerontSoGr2008]. Asteraceae: Vernonia brevifolia [PerontSoGr2008]. Fabaceae: Acacia plumosa [PerontSoGr2008], Anadenanthera [PerontSoGr2008], Anadenanthera pavonina [PerontSoGr2008], Caesalpinia peltophoroides [PerontSoGr2008], Calliandra tweedii [PerontSoGr2008], Dalbergia frutescens [PerontSoGr2008], Inga [PerontSoGr2008], Piptadenia colubrina [PerontSoGr2008].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Mato Grosso [PerontSoGr2008], Parana [PerontSoGr2008], Rio Grande do Sul [PerontSoGr2008], Sao Paulo [PerontSoGr2008]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Peronti et al. (2008).

STRUCTURE: Colour Photo of adult female by Peronti et al. (2008).

KEYS: Peronti {et al.} 2008: 142-144 (female) [Ceroplastes species of So Paulo, Brazil].

CITATIONS: PerontSoGr2008 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 162-163].



Ceroplastes grandis Hempel

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes grandis Hempel, 1900a: 455. Type data: BRAZIL: So Paulo, Ypiranga, on Zanthoxylum sp., Ilex sp., Psidium sp., Mechilia flava, Baccharis sp. and various Myrtaceae. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil. Described: female. Illust.

Ceroplastes rhizophorae Hempel, 1918: 201. Type data: BRAZIL: Sao Paulo State, Santos, on Rhizophora mangle. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil. Described: female. Synonymy by Peronti {et al.}, 2008: 164.

Ceroplastidia grandis; Granara de Willink, 1999: 66. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Anacardiaceae: Schinus [PerontSoGr2008], Schinus molle [Granar1999, PerontSoGr2008]. Apocynaceae: Aspidosperma quebracho blanco [Granar1999], Nerium oleander [CorseuBa1971]. Aquifoliaceae: Ilex aquifolia [Granar1999], Ilex paraguariensis [Lizery1916d, CorseuBa1971]. Asteraceae: Baccharis [Hempel1900a]. Bignoniaceae: Jacaranda [CorseuBa1971, Granar1999], Tabebuia [Granar1999], Tabebuia avellanedae [PerontSoGr2008]. Combretaceae: Laguncularia recemosa [SilvadGoGa1968]. Ebenaceae: Diospyros kaki [CorseuBa1971]. Fabaceae: Acacia decurrens mollis [CorseuBa1971], Delonix regia [PerontSoGr2008], Prosopis chilensis [Granar1999]. Lythraceae: Lagerstroemia indica [CorseuBa1971]. Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus [SilvadGoGa1968], Eugenia guabiju [CorseuBa1971], Psidium guajava [CorseuBa1971]. Platanaceae: Platanus [PerontSoGr2008], Platanus orientalis [CorseuBa1971]. Punicaceae: Punica granatum [CorseuBa1971]. Rhizophoraceae: Rhizophora [SilvadGoGa1968], Rhizophora mangle [Hempel1918, PerontSoGr2008]. Rosaceae: Cydonia vulgaris [CorseuBa1971], Mespilus germanica [CorseuBa1971], Pyrus communis [CorseuBa1971], Pyrus germanica [CorseuBa1971]. Rubiaceae: Stenocalyx pitanga [PerontSoGr2008]. Rutaceae: Citrus [Granar1999], Citrus deliciosa [CorseuBa1971], Citrus nobilis [CorseuBa1971], Citrus reticulata [Granar1999], Zanthoxylum [Hempel1900a]. Tiliaceae: Luehea divaricata [CorseuBa1971]. Verbenaceae: Avicennia tomentosa [PerontSoGr2008], Duranta repens aurea [PerontSoGr2008].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina (Buenos Aires [Granar1999], Chaco [Granar1999], Entre Rios [Granar1999], La Rioja [Granar1999], Misiones [Lizery1916d, Granar1999], Salta [Granar1999], Tucuman [Granar1999, GranarCl2003]); Brazil (Parana [BorgesLaLa2003, PerontSoGr2008], Rio Grande do Sul [PerontSoGr2008], Rio de Janeiro [PerontSoGr2008], Santa Catarina [HickelDu1995], Sao Paulo [PerontSoGr2008]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Granara de Willink (1999) and by Peronti et al. (2008).

STRUCTURE: Photo colour of adult female by Peronti et al. (2008).

KEYS: Peronti {et al.} 2008: 142-144 (female) [ceroplastes species of So Paulo, Brazil]; Granara de Willink 1999: 59 (female) [Argentina].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 37-38, 49]; BertelBa1966 [host, distribution: 17-46]; BorgesLaLa2003 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history: 563-568]; Cocker1902p [distribution: 253]; CorseuBa1971 [host, distribution: 237]; EmbrapCeNa2000 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-24]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 133, 153]; GillKo1997 [economic importance, host, distribution: 161-163]; GomesC1949 [host, distribution]; Granar1999 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 66-69]; GranarCl2003 [host, distribution: 627]; Hempel1900a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 455-457]; Hempel1901 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 557-558]; Hempel1918 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 201]; Hempel1920 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 21-23]; HickelDu1995 [host, distribution, life history: 665-668]; Kondo2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 41]; Lepage1941a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, chemical control, economic importance: 343-346]; Lizery1916d [host, distribution: 433]; Lizery1939 [host, distribution: 192-194]; PerontSoGr2008 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 163-165]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 302]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; SaezMaHo2001 [host, distribution: 21-24]; SilvadGoGa1968 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 139]; Vernal1953 [host, distribution: 128]; Vernal1957 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 26-28]; VernalGaDa1974 [taxonomy, description: 129].



Ceroplastes gregarius Hempel

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes gregarius Hempel, 1932: 323. Type data: BRAZIL: Sao Paulo State, Ipiranga, on Gomphrena nagansellarti. Syntypes, female. Type depository: IBSP; type no. 537. Described: female.



HOST: Amaranthaceae: Gomphrena nagansellarti [Hempel1932, PerontSoGr2008].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Sao Paulo [Hempel1932, PerontSoGr2008]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Peronti et al. (2008).

KEYS: Peronti {et al.} 2008: 142-144 (female) [Ceroplastes species of So Paulo, Brazil].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 38]; Hempel1932 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 323-324]; PerontSoGr2008 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 165].



Ceroplastes hawanus Williams & Watson

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes hawanus Williams & Watson, 1990: 73. Type data: SOLOMON ISLANDS: San Cristobal, Hawa, on Barringtonia asiatica. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.



HOST: Lecythidaceae: Barringtonia asiatica [WilliaWa1990].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Solomon Islands.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Williams & Watson (1990).

KEYS: Williams & Watson 1990: 65 (female) [Tropical South Pacific].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 38]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 301]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; WilliaMi2010 [host, distribution: 45]; WilliaWa1990 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 72-73].



Ceroplastes helichrysi Hall

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes helichrysi Hall, 1931: 295. Type data: ZIMBABWE: Bromley, on Helichrysum sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Notes: Lectotype: (designated in Hodgson & Peronti, 2012): ZIMBABWE [Southern Rhodesia]: top label: Ceroplastes / helichrysi / Hall / Helychrysum / sp. / Bromley. Bottom label: WJHall 9/3/28 / TYPE / 14.iii.30 WJHall (lectotype top specimen of two).

Gascardia helichrysi; De Lotto, 1965: 181. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Helichrysum [Hall1931, Hodgso1969]. Rosaceae: Cliffortia sp. [HodgsoPe2012]

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [HodgsoPe2012]; Zimbabwe [Hall1931, Hodgso1969].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson (1969).

STRUCTURE: Test of the adult female convex and pure white. There is a deep submarginal depression giving the marginal area the appearance of being rounded and thickened. The outlines of the plates are indicated by shallow depressions, and each plate carries a rather obscure median circular depression. Centre of the dome with a small elongate raised white boss. There are faint indications of radiating lines and concentric rings on the dome, and a few specimens exhibit a well-marked concentric depression midway between the central boss and the submarginal groove. The wax is firm but not hard. Denuded of its wax, the adult female is highly convex and uniformly rounded, with a faint submarginal depression that is frequently missing in older examples. Cephalic lobes [tubercles] represented, but not at all conspicuous except in the young individuals. Dorsal processes [tubercles] wanting but traces of lateral processes found on a few examples. Caudal process small, triangular, with the apex directed upwards at an angle of 45. Stigmatic clefts shallow but well marked. Older examples uniformly sclerotised; the dermis is thin and brittle. Length of the test of adult female 5 mm; breadth 3.5 mm. (Hall, 1931)

SYSTEMATICS: The main characteristics of this species are: (i) the more or less unsclerotised anal process; (ii) presence of several larger spinose setae in each stigmatic group; (iii) rather wide primary loculus in each loculate microduct; (iv) dissimilar claw digitules; (v) small denticle on each claw; (vi) large number of tubular ducts in cephalic region, (vii) absence of tubular ducts laterally on thorax, and (viii) presence of ventral tubular ducts laterally on abdomen. In having a relatively unsclerotised caudal process, C. helichrysi resembles C. brevicauda, but the latter differs in having: (i) reduced antennae and legs; (ii) no ventral tubular ducts anteriorly in the cephalic region, and (iii) loculate microducts of the complex type. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

KEYS: Hodgson & Peronti 2012: 40 [Key to adult females of C. deceptrix-group].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 38]; DeLott1965a [taxonomy: 181]; Hall1931 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 295-296]; Hodgso1969 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 30-31]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 44-46,241]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 302]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549].



Ceroplastes hempeli Lizer y Trelles

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes grandis hempeli Lizer y Trelles, 1919a: 381. Type data: ARGENTINA: Misiones, on Ilex paraguariensis. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Castelar: Departamento de Patologia Vegetal, INTA, C.C. no. 25, Castelar, Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Ceroplastes hempeli; Vernalha et al., 1974: 127. Change of status.



HOST: Aquifoliaceae: Ilex paraguariensis [Lizery1919, Lizery1939].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina.

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 38]; Lizery1919 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 381-382]; Lizery1939 [host, distribution: 194]; VernalGaDa1974 [taxonomy, description: 130].



Ceroplastes hodgsoni (Matile-Ferrero & Le Ruyet)

NOMENCLATURE:

Gascardia hodgsoni Matile-Ferrero & Le Ruyet, 1985: 262. Type data: IVORY COAST: Tai, on Cleistanthus polystachyus. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female.

Ceroplastes hodgsoni; Ben-Dov, 1993: 38. Change of combination.



HOST: Euphorbiaceae: Cleistanthus polystachyus [MatileLe1985].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Cte d'Ivoire (=Ivory Coast). Palaearctic: Hungary [FetykoKo2012] (In greenhouse on Ficus benjamina.).

BIOLOGY: Protected under soil shelter constructed by ants, Crematogaster sp. (Matile-Ferrero & Le Ruyet, 1985).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Matile-Ferrero & Le Ruyet (1985). Detailed description and illustration in Hodgson & Peronti, 2012.

STRUCTURE: Body probably rather roundly oval and convex, with distinct, quite deep, stigmatic clefts; dorsum with small lateral tubercles. Caudal process short, placed posteriorly on dorsum. Length about 1.3-1.8 mm, width 1.25-1.38 mm. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: The adult females of C. hodgsoni differ from all others in this species-group in the very small size of the dorsal setae, which are present in all the dorsal clear areas, in having all loculate microducts of the ruscitype, none apparently with 2 or more satellite loculi, and in having few spiracular disc pores. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

KEYS: Fetyk & Kozr 2012: 293 (female) [Key to species of Ceroplastes in the Palaearctic Region based on slide-mounted adult females]; Hodgson & Peronti 2012: 171-172 (female, adult) [Key to adult females of Ceroplastes theobromae-group].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 38]; CouturMaRi1985 [host, distribution: 277]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 174-176,243]; KozarKoFe2013 [distribution, taxonomy: 52]; MatileLe1985 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 262-263].



Ceroplastes iheringi Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes iheringi Cockerell, 1895f: 100. Type data: BRAZIL: Rio Grande do Sul, on Baccharis platensis. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Baccharis [Cocker1895f, Cocker1897r], Baccharis dracunculifolia [CorseuBa1971, Hempel1900a], Baccharis genisteloides [CorseuBa1971], Baccharis platensis [Cocker1895f, Iherin1897, Hempel1900a, PerontSoGr2008], Hetherothalamus brunioides [CorseuBa1971], Vernonia polyanthes [PerontSoGr2008].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Minas Gerais [PerontSoGr2008], Rio Grande do Sul [Cocker1895f, Iherin1897, Cocker1897r], Sao Paulo [Iherin1897]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Peronti et al. (2008).

STRUCTURE: Colour photo of adult female by Peronti et al. (2008).

KEYS: Peronti {et al.} 2008: 142-144 (female) [Ceroplastes species of So Paulo, Brazil].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 39]; Cocker1895f [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 100]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 331]; Cocker1897r [description, host, distribution: 70]; Cocker1902p [distribution: 253]; CorseuBa1971 [host, distribution: 238]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 153]; GomesC1949 [host, distribution]; Hempel1900a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 452-454]; Hempel1904 [host, distribution: 315]; Hempel1912 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 32]; Iherin1897 [host, distribution: 409-410]; PerontSoGr2008 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 165-166]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 302]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; Vernal1953 [host, distribution: 128].



Ceroplastes immanis Green

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes immanis Green, 1935a: 274. Type data: BRAZIL: Goyaz, on branches of undetermined plant. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil [Green1935a].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 39]; Green1935a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 274-275].



Ceroplastes insulanus De Lotto

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes insulanus De Lotto, 1971: 141. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Lord Howe Island, on areal roots of an unidentified plant. Holotype female. Type depository: Canberra: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO Entomology, Australia. Described: female.



HOSTS: Convolvulaceae: Ipomoea cairica [QinGu1994]. Myrsinaceae: Rapanea [DeLott1971, QinGu1994].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Lord Howe Island [DeLott1971, QinGu1994].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by De Lotto (1971).

KEYS: Williams & Watson 1990: 65 (female) [Tropical South Pacific].

CITATIONS: Beatti1993 [taxonomy: 1-19]; BenDov1993 [distribution: 39]; DeLott1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 141-142]; QinGu1994 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 935-937]; WilliaWa1990 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 73-75].



Ceroplastes irregularis Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes artemisiarum Cockerell, 1893t: 160. Nomen nudum.

Ceroplastes irregularis Cockerell, 1893z: 351. Type data: MEXICO: State of Chihuahua, 6 miles north of Montezuma Railroad, on Artemisia sp. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Gimpel et al., 1974: 49. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Ceroplastes irregularis rubidus Cockerell, 1896o: 203. Type data: U.S.A.: New Mexico, Whitewater, on Atriplex canescens. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Gimpel et al., 1974: 49.

Ceroplastes irrigularis; Qin & Gullan, 1995: 301. Misspelling of species name.

COMMON NAME: irregular wax scale [Gill1988].



HOSTS: Asclepiadaceae: Sarcobatus [Cocker1893z]. Asteraceae: Artemisia [Cocker1893z, GimpelMiDa1974], Chrysothamnus [GimpelMiDa1974]. Chenopodiaceae: Atriplex [Cocker1912, Ferris1919a, Ferris1921], Atriplex canescens [Cocker1896o, Bibby1931, GimpelMiDa1974], Atriplex confertifolia [King1903b, Ferris1919a], Atriplex polycarpa [King1903b], Eurotia lanata [Ferris1919a, GimpelMiDa1974], Suaeda [Gill1988].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico [Cocker1899n] (Baja California Norte [Ferris1921]). Nearctic: Mexico (Chihuahua [Cocker1893z], Chihuahua [Ferris1919a]). Nearctic: United States of America (Arizona [Cocker1912], California [King1903b, Ferris1919a], Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico [Cocker1896o, Ferris1919a], Texas [Cocker1903a, Bibby1931]).

BIOLOGY: Apparently, it develops one annual generation in USA, California (Gill, 1988).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Gimpel et al. (1974) and by Gill (1988).

STRUCTURE: Adult female 5-8 mm long. Dorsal wax cover varies in colour, creamy white, pink or red-brown; see colour photograph in Gill (1988).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: According to Essig (1931) the wax produced by the females of this species was used by the California Indians for mending pottery, waterproofing baskets and other purposes.

KEYS: Gill 1988: 17 (female) [USA, California]; Gimpel et al. 1974: 19 (female) [USA].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 39-40]; Bibby1931 [host, distribution: 588]; Cocker1893cc [distribution: 99]; Cocker1893z [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 351]; Cocker1894d [taxonomy: 311]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 330]; Cocker1896o [taxonomy, host, distribution: 203]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 394]; Cocker1899n [host, distribution: 17]; Cocker1903a [host, distribution: 157]; Cocker1912 [host, distribution: 301]; Cocker1914b [host, distribution: 331]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 153]; Ferris1919a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 41-42]; Ferris1921 [host, distribution: 89]; Gill1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 20, 24]; GimpelMiDa1974 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 49-52]; King1903b [taxonomy, host, distribution: 194]; Miller1996 [distribution: 69]; MillerWi1990 [taxonomy: 343-344]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 301]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549].



Ceroplastes itatiayensis Hempel

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes itatiayensis Hempel, 1938: 263. Type data: BRAZIL: Rio de Janeiro State, Itatiaya, on undetermined tree. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil. Described: female.

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Rio de Janeiro).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 40]; Hempel1938 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 263-264].



Ceroplastes jamaicensis White

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes jamaicensis White, 1846: 333. Type data: JAMAICA: on trunk of Lance-wood tree [=Calophyllum sp.]. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA.

Columnea iamaicensis; Targioni Tozzetti, 1866: 145. Misspelling of species name.

Columnea jamaicensis; Targioni Tozzetti, 1866: 145. Change of combination.

COMMON NAME: lance-wood wax scale [Cocker1895].



HOST: Clusiaceae: Calophyllum [White1846].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Jamaica.

KEYS: Cockerell 1895: 8 (female) [Jamaica].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 40]; Cocker1893j [distribution: 254]; Cocker1894d [taxonomy: 311]; Cocker1895 [taxonomy, distribution: 6,8]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 331]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 153]; GomesC1949 [host, distribution]; Signor1869 [catalogue: 858]; Signor1872a [taxonomy: 45]; Targio1866 [taxonomy: 145]; Walker1852 [taxonomy, distribution: 1087]; Westwo1853b [taxonomy, host, distribution: 484]; White1846 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 333]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 27].



Ceroplastes janeirensis (Gray)

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus (Ceroplastes) janeirensis Gray, 1828: 7. Type data: BRAZIL: on Solanum sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Notes: Type material probably lost (Ben-Dov, 1993).

Coccus psidii Chavannes, 1848: 139. Type data: BRAZIL: Rio de Janeiro, Bosafogo Bay, on Psidium sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Synonymy by Peronti {et al.}, 2008: 167.

Columnea chavannesii Targioni Tozzetti, 1866: 145. Unjustified replacement name; discovered by Ben-Dov, 1993: 47.

Columnea ianeirensis; Targioni Tozzetti, 1866: 145. Misspelling of species name.

Ceroplastes chavannesii; Targioni Tozzetti, 1868: 35. Change of combination.

Ceroplastes janeirensis; Signoret, 1869: 858. Change of combination.

Ceroplastes psidii; Signoret, 1869a: 867. Change of combination.

Ceroplastes simplex Hempel, 1900a: 475. Type data: BRAZIL: Sao Paulo, Ypiranga, on twigs of plant of Myrtaceae. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil. Synonymy by Peronti {et al.}, 2008: 167.



ASSOCIATE: HYMENOPTERA Apidae: Plebeia droryana Friese [PerontFeFe2013].

HOSTS: Apocynaceae: Aspidosperma pirifolium [PerontSoGr2008], Aspidosperma quebracho blanco [Granar1999]. Asteraceae: Vernonia [PerontSoGr2008]. Bignoniaceae [PerontSoGr2008], Tabebuia [Granar1999]. Clusiaceae [PerontSoGr2008]. Fabaceae: Acacia bonariensis [CorseuBa1971], Machaerium acutifolium [PerontSoGr2008]. Moraceae: Ficus [Granar1999], Ficus citrifolia [PerontSoGr2008], Ficus retusa [SilvadGoGa1968]. Myrtaceae [Hempel1900a, Granar1999, PerontSoGr2008], Campomanesia pubescens [PerontSoGr2008], Campomanesia xanthocarpa [PerontSoGr2008], Eugenia uniflora [SilvadGoGa1968], Eugenia uvalha [PerontSoGr2008], Phyllocalyx laevigatus [CorseuBa1971], Psidium [Chavan1848, Targio1866, Hempel1900a], Psidium guajava [Iherin1897, Hempel1920a, CorseuBa1971, Granar1999, PerontSoGr2008], Stenocalyx pitanga [CorseuBa1971, PerontSoGr2008]. Punicaceae: Punica granatum [PerontSoGr2008]. Solanaceae: Solanum [Gray1828].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina (Buenos Aires [Granar1999], Chaco [Granar1999], Corrientes [Granar1999], Misiones [Granar1999]); Brazil (Paraiba, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro [Chavan1848, Targio1866], Sao Paulo [PerontSoGr2008]); Colombia [Kondo2001].

BIOLOGY: The females are neotenic, becoming adult after three moults. The first-instar nymphs are active and move in search of a suitable settling place on the host plant. They settle mainly along the veins on the ventral side of the leaves, remaining there until the end of second instar, although a few can also be found on the upper side of the leaves. The migration from the leaves to the younger branches occurs mainly after the moult to the third instar. (Rosa, et al., 2011)

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female by De Lotto (1965a), Hodgson (1994a), Granara de Willink (1999) and by Peronti et al. (2008). Description of adult female by Chavannes (1848) and by Hempel (1920a). Detailed description and illustrations of female nymphs in Rosa, et al., 2011)

STRUCTURE: the adults have a thick wax test covering the whole dorsal area. The first and second-instar female nymphs secrete a dorsal cap of dry wax which covers most of the dorsum, plus a submarginal series of about 15 filaments of dry wax. These dry wax filaments are retained in the third instar, but, the third instar also secretes a large volume of wet wax which covers the remainder of the dorsum. (Gimpel, et al., 1974) Colour photograph of adult female by Peronti et al. (2008.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Hempel (1920a) reported this wax scale as a serious pest of guavas in Northern Brazil (Paraiba and Pernambuco).

KEYS: Rosa et al. 2011: 29 (first instar, second inst) [Key to female stages of C. janeirensis ]; Peronti {et al.} 2008: 142-144 (female) [Ceroplastes species of So Paulo, Brazil]; Granara de Willink 1999: 55 (female) [Argentina].

CITATIONS: AbouEl2001 [host, distribution, biological control: 185-195]; AbouElAbEl1997 [life history, host, distribution: 205]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 40,47-48,54]; BertelBa1966 [host, distribution: 17-46]; ChackoKrAn1978 [biological control: 14-19]; Chavan1848 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 139-141]; Cocker1894d [taxonomy: 311]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 331]; Cocker1897r [taxonomy, distribution: 70]; Cocker1902p [taxonomy, distribution: 253-254]; CorseuBa1971 [distribution, host: 238]; DeLott1965a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 185-187]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 153,155,157]; FrohliRo1970 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-10]; Granar1999 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 55-56]; Gray1828 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 7]; Hempel1900a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 451-452,475-476]; Hempel1901a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 68-69]; Hempel1920 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 23-24]; Hempel1920a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 346, 369-370]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 161-163]; Iherin1897 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 408]; Kondo2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 41]; KozarWa1985 [catalogue: 76]; LimaOmMe2001 [host, distribution, biological control: 277]; Mamet1949 [taxonomy: 22]; Mohara1990 [taxonomy: 48]; MohyudMa1993 [host, distribution, biological control: 467-483]; PerontFeFe2013 [ecology: 453-454]; PerontSoGr2008 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 166-169]; PerontSoTa2001 [host, distribution, biological control: 251]; PuttarCh1953a [biological control: 97-95]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 301]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; RosaPeSo2011 [description, distribution, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 18-30]; Signor1869 [taxonomy: 858,867]; Signor1872a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 40-43]; Targio1866 [taxonomy: 145]; Targio1868 [taxonomy: 728]; Vernal1953 [host, distribution: 128-130]; Walker1852 [taxonomy: 1082,1087]; Waterh1997 [host, distribution, economic importance: 156-171]; Westwo1853b [taxonomy, description: 484]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 27,39]; Wolcot1958 [host, distribution, biological control, economic importance: 511-513].



Ceroplastes japonicus Green

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes floridensis japonicus Green, 1921a: 258. Type data: ENGLAND: Herts, St. Albans, on smaller branches of Japanese Maple (imported from Japan). Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK.

Ceroplastes japonicus; Borchsenius, 1949c: 181. Change of status.

Cerostegia japonica; De Lotto, 1969b: 213. Change of combination.

Ceroplastes rusci; Pellizzari Scaltriti & Antonucci, 1982: 47. Misidentification.

Paracerostegia japonica; Tang, 1991: 308. Change of combination.

Ceroplastes japonicus; Ben-Dov, 1993: 40. Change of combination.



FOES: COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Chilocorus bipustulatus L. [Kobakh1965], Chilocorus renipustulatus Scriba [Kobakh1965]. FUNGI : Fusarium [ZengWaCh1990], Lecanicillium lecanii [LiuXiXu2009]. HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Anicetus beneficus Ishii & Yasumatsu [Tachik1958], Anicetus ceroplastis Ishii [Tachik1958], Anicetus ohgushii Tachikawa [Tachik1958, LiuLiXu1983], Anicetus rarisetus Xu & He [XuHe1997], Anicetus zhejiangensis Xu & Li [XuLi1991], Microterys anyangensis Xu & Chen [XuCh2000], Microterys clauseni Compere [Yasnos1995, JaposhYaRz2005]. Eulophidae: Tetrastichus murakami Sugonyaev [Sugony1983a]. Pteromalidae: Scutellista caerulea (Fonscolombe) [Basova1983, JaposhYaRz2005]. NEUROPTERA Chrysopidae: Mallada boninensis (Okamoto) [MiyanoKa1992].

HOSTS: Aceraceae: Acer japonicus [Green1921a, DeLott1969b], Acer pseudoplatanus [KozarTrPe1984]. Apocynaceae: Nerium oleander [Borchs1957], Trachelospermum asiaticum [TakahaTa1956]. Aquifoliaceae: Ilex aquifolium [JancarSeZe1999], Ilex integra [TakahaTa1956]. Araliaceae: Hedera helix [Longo1985]. Berberidaceae: Berberis [Borchs1957], Epimedium colchicum [Borchs1957], Mahonia aquifolium [JancarSeZe1999]. Buxaceae: Buxus sempervirens [Borchs1957, JancarSeZe1999]. Celastraceae: Euonymus japonicus [Borchs1957, JancarSeZe1999]. Cornaceae: Cornus mas [Borchs1957], Svida [Borchs1957]. Cycadaceae: Cycas revoluta [TakahaTa1956]. Ebenaceae: Diospyros kaki [Borchs1957, JancarSeZe1999]. Ehretiaceae: Ehretia acuminata [TakahaTa1956]. Elaeagnaceae: Elaeagnus pungens [TakahaTa1956]. Elaeocarpaceae: Elaeocarpus decipiens [TakahaTa1956]. Hydrangeaceae: Hydrangea hortensia [JancarSeZe1999]. Lauraceae: Laurus nobilis [Borchs1957, JancarSeZe1999], Machilus thunbergii [TakahaTa1956]. Magnoliaceae: Magnolia grandiflora [Borchs1957]. Moraceae: Ficus carica [JancarSeZe1999], Morus [Borchs1957, JancarSeZe1999], Myrtus communis [Borchs1957]. Myrtaceae: Feijoa sellowiana [Borchs1957]. Pittosporaceae: Pittosporum tobira [Borchs1957]. Podocarpaceae: Podocarpus nagi [TakahaTa1956]. Punicaceae: Punica granatum [JancarSeZe1999]. Rhamnaceae: Ziziphus [Borchs1960b]. Rosaceae: Cerasus avium [Borchs1957], Cerasus vulgaris [Borchs1957], Chaenomeles japonica [JancarSeZe1999], Crataegus [Borchs1957], Cydonia vulgaris [Borchs1957], Eriobotrya japonica [Borchs1957, JancarSeZe1999], Malus domestica [Borchs1957, JancarSeZe1999], Persica vulgaris [Borchs1957], Prunus armeniaca [JancarSeZe1999], Prunus avium [JancarSeZe1999], Prunus laurocerasus [Borchs1957], Prunus mume [Borchs1960b], Prunus persica [JancarSeZe1999], Prunus yedoensis [TakahaTa1956], Pyrus communis [JancarSeZe1999], Pyrus sinensis [Borchs1957]. Rutaceae: Aegle sepiaria [KozarTrPe1984], Citrus [Borchs1957], Citrus limon [JancarSeZe1999], Citrus reticulata [JancarSeZe1999], Poncirus trifoliata [Borchs1957, JancarSeZe1999]. Salicaceae: Salix glandulosa [TakahaTa1956], Salix saidaeana [TakahaTa1956]. Theaceae: Camellia japonica [Borchs1957], Eurya japonica [Borchs1957], Thea sinensis [Borchs1957].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: China (Hunan [HuHeWa1992]). Palaearctic: Armenia [Beglar2003]; Bulgaria [TrenchTrTo2010]; China (Henan (=Honan) [ZhouShYa2003], Shanxi (=Shansi) [Xie1998]); Croatia [MastenSeSi2007, Masten&2008a]; France [Foldi2000]; Georgia [KozarYaKo1982, Yasnos1995, YasnosTaCh2005]; Hungary [FetykoKo2012]; Italy [KozarTrPe1984]; Japan [DeLott1969b]; Netherlands [FetykoKo2012]; Russia (Caucasus [KozarTrPe1984]); Slovenia [JancarSeZe1999, Seljak2008, Seljak2010]; South Korea [KwonHa2003]; Turkey [FetykoKo2012]; United Kingdom (England [DeLott1969b, Green1921a]).

BIOLOGY: Ohgushi & Nishino (1975) studied the life tables in Japan. This species develops one annual generation in Northern Italy; overwintering as adult female (Longo, 1985).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by De Lotto (1969b), Tang (1991) and by Pellizzari & Camporose (1994). Description and illustration of adult female and nymphal instars by Camporose & Pellizzari (1994). Description of adult female, adult male and first-instar nymph by Borchsenius (1957). Description and illustration of adult male, 2nd-instar male, male test, prepupa and pupa by Rainato & Pellizzari (2008).

STRUCTURE: Colour photograph by Kawai (1980, Figs. 6.56, a,b,c), Tranfaglia & Viggiani (1988) and by Camporose & Pellizzari (1998). Detailed discussion and SEM photos of the alimentary canal in Xie, et al., 2011.

SYSTEMATICS: Deng, et al. (2012) determined DNA COI barcoding sequences for six Chinese Ceroplastes species. Ceroplastes japonicus generated a distinct COI sequence. GenBank Accessions JQ795609-JQ795722. 28S DNA sequences: GenBank Accessions JQ795495-JQ795608.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: A pest of Actinidia chinensis in Italy (Pellizzari & Antonucci, 1982), of ornamentals (laurel, ivy, holly) and of persimon in Italy (Pellizzari & Camporose, 1994; Camporose & Pellizzari, 1998).

KEYS: Fetyk & Kozr 2012: 293 (female) [Key to species of Ceroplastes in the Palaearctic Region based on slide-mounted adult females]; Lee et al. 2012: 159-160 (female) [Key to the wax tests of adult females Ceroplastes in Korea]; Lee et al. 2012: 160 (female) [Key to slide mounted adult females Ceroplastes in Korea]; Mori, Pellizzari & Tosi 2001: 42 (female) [Italy]; Pellizzari & Camporose 1994: 177 (female) [Ceroplastes species of Mediterranean]; Tang 1991: 304 (female) [China]; Kawai 1980: 166 (female) [Japan]; Borchsenius 1957: 451 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: Basova1983 [host, distribution, biological control: 30-31]; Beglar2003 [host, distribution: 1-30]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 40-41]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, host, distribution: 155]; Borchs1957 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 461-468]; Borchs1960b [taxonomy, host, distribution: 214-218]; CABI2003a [host, distribution: 1-2]; CamporPe1994 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 49-58]; CamporPe1998 [life history, host, distribution, life history, biological control,: 42-50]; Danzig1972 [host, distribution: 199]; DeLott1969b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 213-215]; DengYuZh2012 [distribution, molecular data, taxonomy: 791-796]; FetykoKo2012 [distribution, taxonomy: 291-295]; Foldi2000 [host, distribution: 81]; Green1921a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 258-259]; Hadzib1983 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 154-156]; HuHeWa1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 183-184]; Hui1988 [biological control: 395-398]; JancarSeZe1999 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history: 443-449]; JancarSeZe1999 [host, distribution: 443-449]; JaposhYaRz2005 [host, distribution, biological control: 271-277]; Katsoy1996 [life history, economic importance, host, distribution, chemical control, biological control: 15,20-21,81-83]; Kawai1972 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history: 11]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 166-167]; Kozar1987 [distribution: 100]; Kozar1989 [economic importance, host, distribution: 176-177]; Kozar1995 [host, distribution, economic importance: 317]; KozarKoFe2013 [distribution, taxonomy: 52]; KozarTrPe1984 [host, distribution: 6]; KozarWa1985 [host, distribution: 76]; KozarYaKo1982 [host, distribution, biological control: 333-338]; KwonHa2003 [host, distribution: 279-288]; LeeWuSu2012 [distribution, host: 158]; Leonid2005 [host, distribution: 500-551]; LiangGaZh2006 [host, distribution, ecology: 472-476]; LiuLiXu1983 [biological control: 135-136]; LiuXiXu2009 [life history, anatomy, biological control: 96-105]; Longo1985 [taxonomy, life history, host, distribution: 185-132]; LongoMaPe1995 [host, distribution: 122]; MaChZh1995 [host, distribution: 117-119]; Masten&2008a [host, distribution: 11-15]; MastenSeSi2007 [host, distribution, economic importance: 330-334]; MillerRuPa2014 [catalogue: 65]; MiyanoKa1992 [life history, biological control: 196-199]; MoriPeTo2001 [taxonomy: 42]; Ohgush1986a [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 59-62]; Ohgush1986b [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 147-149]; Ohgush1987a [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 82-85]; Ohgush1988 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 75-77]; OhgushNi1975 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 1-21]; OhgushNi1975 [life history]; Paik1978 [taxonomy, host, distribution]; Pelliz1987 [host, distribution: 120-121]; PellizAn1982 [taxonomy, host, distribution, economic importance: 47-48]; PellizCa1994 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history: 185-188]; ProkopMo1981 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 43]; RainatPe2008 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 25-38]; SeinisDeMe1989 [chemical control, distribution: 115-118]; Seljak2008 [host, distribution: 121-127]; Seljak2010 [host, distribution: 104]; ShiXiXu2005 [chemistry, molecular data: 207-211]; Sugony1983a [host, distribution, biological control: 1907-1909]; Tachik1958 [host, distribution, biological control: 77-82]; TakahaTa1956 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 7-8]; TamakiKa1967 [chemistry, structure: 63-69]; Tanaka1966 [biological control: 1-42]; Tang1977 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 94-95]; Tang1984b [host, distribution: 128]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 308-310]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 61]; TranfaVi1988 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-30]; TrenchTrTo2010 [host, distribution: 114-123]; Wang1980 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 23-26]; Xie1998 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, economic importance: 22-38]; XieLiXu2010 [biological control, anatomy: 66-75]; XieLiZh2011 [structure: 898-904]; XieXu2005 [taxonomy, structure: 837-848]; XieXuYa2008 [host, distribution, biological control, chemistry, physiology, life history: 185-194]; XieXuZh2004a [chemistry: 512-518]; XieXuZh2005a [taxonomy, wax, infra-red: 133-143]; XieXuZh2006a [morphology, wax secretion, chemistry: 21-202]; XuCh2000 [host, distribution, biological control: 97-106]; XuHe1997 [host, distribution, biological control: 91-94]; XuLi1991 [host, distribution, biological control: 219-221]; Yang1982 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 187]; YangDuLi1996 [life history]; YangXiXu2006 [biological control, chemical ecology, life history: 215-219]; Yasnos1987 [economic importance: 229-234]; Yasnos1995 [host, distribution, economic importance: 247-251]; YasnosTaCh2005 [host, distribution, biological control: 295-302]; Yasuma1969 [biological control: 773-780]; ZengWaCh1990 [taxonomy: 93]; ZhouShYa2003 [host, distribution, economic importance, chemical control: 42-43,50].



Ceroplastes jordanensis Peronti {in}: Peronti {et al.}

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes jordanensis Peronti {in}: Peronti {et al.}, 2008: 169. Type data: BRAZIL: So Paulo State, Campos do Jordo, on plant of Myrtaceae; collected A.L.B.G. Peronti, 24.xi.2001. Holotype female. Type depository: So Carlos, Departamento de Ecologia e Biologia Evolutiva da UNiversidade Federal de So Carlos, So Paulo, Brazil; type no. 357. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Myrtaceae [PerontSoGr2008].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Sao Paulo [PerontSoGr2008]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Peronti et al. (2008).

KEYS: Peronti {et al.} 2008: 142-144 (female) [Ceroplastes species of Sp Paulo, Brazil].

CITATIONS: PerontSoGr2008 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 169-170].



Ceroplastes jos Hodgson & Peronti

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes jos Hodgson & Peronti, 2012: 68-70. Type data: NIGERIA: on "a large tree", 1/29/1962, by W.J. Hall. Holotype female (examined), by present designation. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust. Notes: holotype specimen nearest species name label; misidentified as C. bipartitus

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Nigeria [HodgsoPe2012].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Hodgson & Peronti, 2012.

SYSTEMATICS: Ceroplastes jos is very similar to C. bipartitus but differs (characterstates of C. jos in brackets): (i) ventral tubular ducts very sparse, possibly even absent on some specimens and not present medially on abdomen (tubular ducts frequent and present medially on abdomen); (ii) loculate microducts mainly with 2 satellite loculi, those with 4 satellite loculi rare or absent (mainly 3 satellite loculi, pores with 4 satellite loculi present but scarce, those with 2 satellite loculi infrequent); (iii) with generally more than 30 stigmatic setae in each cleft, and each group about as wide as long (about 25 or fewer stigmatic setae in a group and each group much wider than long); (iv) dorsal setae about 2x longer than width of basal socket and sharply pointed (subequal to or only slightly longer than width of basal socket, and bluntly pointed), and (v) claw denticle obscure at most (present). C. jos is also very similar to C. sinoiae Hall but C. sinoiae is currently only known from southern Africa whereas C. jos is only known from Nigeria. C. jos differs from C. sinoiae in having (character-states of C. sinoiae in brackets): (i) a much narrower caudal process, more or less parallel-sided (more or less triangular and about as broad basally as long); (ii) seven clear areas, the medio-dorsal area obscure or absent (dorsal area present); (iii) each group of stigmatic setae about twice as wide as long (about as wide as long); (iv) ventral tubular ducts present medially on posterior abdominal segments (believed to be absent), (v) loculate microducts with 3 satellite loculi most abundant and pores with 4 satellite loculi present (pores with 2 satellite loculi most abundant, those with 4 loculi absent), and (vi) dorsal setae quite sharply pointed (blunter). (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

KEYS: Hodgson & Peronti 2012: 64 (female) [Key to adult females in the C. longicauda-group.].

CITATIONS: HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 68-70,241].



Ceroplastes kunmingensis (Tang & Xie in Tang)

NOMENCLATURE:

Paracerostegia kunmingensis Tang & Xie in Tang, 1991: 310. Type data: CHINA: Yunnan Province, Kunming City, on Pittosporum glabratum. Holotype female. Type depository: Shanxi: Entomological Institute, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, China. Described: female.

Ceroplastes kunmingensis; Ben-Dov, 1993: 41. Change of combination.

Ceroplastes kumingensis; Tao, 1999: 52. Misspelling of species name.



HOSTS: Pittosporaceae: Pittosporum glabratum [Tang1991], Pittosporum tobira [Tang1991].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Tang (1991).

SYSTEMATICS: Deng, et al. (2012) determined DNA COI barcoding sequences for six Chinese Ceroplastes species. Ceroplastes kunmingensis generated a distinct COI sequence. GenBank Accessions JQ795609-JQ795722. 28S DNA sequences: GenBank Accessions JQ795495-JQ795608.

KEYS: Fetyk & Kozr 2012: 293 (female) [Key to species of Ceroplastes in the Palaearctic Region based on slide-mounted adult females].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 41]; DengYuZh2012 [distribution, molecular data, taxonomy: 791-796]; FetykoKo2012 [distribution, taxonomy: 292]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 310-311]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 52].



Ceroplastes lahillei Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes lahillei Cockerell, 1910a: 74. Type data: ARGENTINA: Tucuman, Santa Ana, on undetermined plant. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA.

Ceroplastes (Ceroplastina) lahillei; Cockerell, 1910a: 76.

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina (Tucuman [Cocker1910a]).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 41]; Cocker1910a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 74-76]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy: 167]; Lizery1939 [host, distribution: 194]; Sassce1911 [taxonomy: 65]; Teran1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 194-196].



Ceroplastes lamborni Newstead

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes lamborni Newstead, 1917a: 29. Type data: NIGERIA: Ibadan, on cacao and on climber on bush tree. Syntypes, female and first instar. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK.

Gascardia constricta De Lotto, 1969a: 417. Type data: ANGOLA: Novo Redondo, on Elaeis guineensis. Holotype female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female.

Ceroplastes constricta; Ben-Dov, 1993: 29. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Annonaceae: Annona muricata [KondoHo2013]. Arecaceae: Elaeis guineensis [DeLott1969a, Almeid1973b]. Sterculiaceae: Theobroma cacao [Newste1917a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Angola [DeLott1969a, Almeid1973b]; Cameroon [HodgsoPe2012]; Congo [HodgsoPe2012]; Cte d'Ivoire (=Ivory Coast) [HodgsoPe2012]; Ghana [HodgsoPe2012]; Nigeria [HodgsoPe2012]. Afrotropical: Nigeria [Newste1917a]. Afrotropical: Sierra Leone [HodgsoPe2012].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Hodgson & Peronti, 2012.

STRUCTURE: Unmounted material. C. lamborni. "Test of old adult female. Conical, more or less vertical in front and sloping upwards and forwards from the caudal process; sides with faint traces of three stigmatic plates. The four white stigmatic processes extending beyond the margin. Colour, in old dried examples, dusky red-brown and somewhat oily in appearance. Texture hard and almost as brittle as resin. Length 3.5 mm; height 3.5 mm" (Newstead, 1917a). Unmounted material. C. constricta. "The covering waxy test of all specimens examined was badly damaged in transit; in texture the wax was brittle and pure white in colour" (De Lotto, 1969a). Mounted material. Body probably rather roundly oval and convex, with distinct, quite deep, stigmatic clefts; presence of lateral tubercles unclear. Caudal process short and stout, probably directed rather upwards. Length about 2 to perhaps 3.5 (1.25-2.0) mm, width across venter about 1.25-2.25 (0.9-1.4) mm. Data in (..) refer to young C. constricta. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: Two major characters defining this species are the presence of 5 or more dorsal setae on each anal plate and claw denticles of distinctly different sizes. C. lamborni is rather similar to C. theobromae but has about half as many stigmatic setae and the latter species only has 3 or 4 dorsal setae on each anal plate. However, Hodgson & Peronti determined that it is just possible that these 2 species are synonyms.

KEYS: Hodgson & Peronti 2012: 171-172 (female, adult) [Key to adult females of Ceroplastes theobromae-group].

CITATIONS: Almeid1973b [host, distribution: 4]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 29, 41]; DeLott1969a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 417-419]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 176-180,243]; KondoHo2013 [host: 519]; Newste1917a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 29-30]; Strick1947a [host, distribution: 499].



Ceroplastes leonardianus Lizer y Trelles

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes irregularis Leonardi, 1911: 271. Type data: ARGENTINA: Mendoza, Cacheuta, on Larrea cuneata. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Granara de Willink, 1999: 71. Type depository: Portici: Dipartimento de Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria di Portici, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Italy. Described: female. Illust. Homonym of Ceroplastes irregularis Cockerell, 1893.. Notes:

Ceroplastes leonardianus Lizer y Trelles, 1939: 194. Replacement name for Ceroplastes irregularis Leonardi, 1911.

Ceroplastes leonardianus; Teran, 1973: 190. Notes: Author incorrectly cited.

Ceroplastidia leonardiana; Granara de Willink, 1999: 69. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Eupatorium buniifolium [Lizery1939], Tessaria absinthioides [Lizery1939]. Tiliaceae: Heliocarpus [Lizery1939]. Zygophyllaceae: Larrea [Granar1999], Larrea cuneata [Leonar1911, Sassce1912], Larrea divaricata [Teran1973, Granar1999].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina [Sassce1912] (Mendoza [Granar1999], Salta [Granar1999]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Granara de Willink (1999).

KEYS: Granara de Willink 1999: 59 (female) [Argentina].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 41-42]; Granar1999 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 69-71]; Leonar1911 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 271-273]; Lizery1939 [host, distribution: 194-195]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 289-308]; Sassce1912 [host, distribution: 88]; Teran1973 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 190-192].



Ceroplastes lepagei Costa Lima

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes lepagei Costa Lima, 1940: 9. Type data: BRAZIL: Rio de Janeiro, Manguinhos, on Moquilea tomentosa. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Rio de Janeiro: Fundacao Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Described: female.



HOST: Chrysobalanaceae: Moquilea tomentosa [CostaL1940].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Rio de Janeiro).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 42]; CostaL1940 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 9-12].



Ceroplastes longicauda longicauda Brain

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes longicauda Brain, 1920a: 31. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Natal Coast, on stems of native shrub. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Notes: Lectotype (designated in Hodgson & Peronti, 2012): South Africa, Left label: Natal Coast / July 1915 / C. Fuller / on stems of / native shrub / CKB 334 (SANC)

Ceroplastes longicauda sapii Hall, 1931: 296. Type data: ZIMBABWE: Embeza, on Sapium sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Synonymy by Hodgson & Peronti, 2012: 70-73.

Gascardia longicauda; De Lotto, 1965a: 202. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Bignoniaceae: Jacaranda mimosaefolia [DeLott1965a], Jacaranda ovalifolia [DeLott1967a, Almeid1973b]. Euphorbiaceae: Euphorbia pulcherrima [DeLott1967a, Almeid1973b], Sapium [Hall1931]. Meliaceae: Melia [Hodgso1969]. Tiliaceae: Grewia flavescens [Hodgso1969], Grewia monticola [Hodgso1969]. Verbenaceae: Vitex petersiana [Hodgso1969].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Angola [DeLott1967a, Almeid1973b]; Kenya [DeLott1965a]; South Africa [Brain1920a, DeLott1965a]; Zambia [Hodgso1969]; Zimbabwe [Hall1931, Hodgso1969].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Hodgson & Peronti, 2012.

STRUCTURE: "Adult female covered with a very thick layer of soft, white wax forming a test like a larger C. ceriferus specimen, i.e., a little more elongated than egbarum. Largest specimen seen measures 18 mm long, 11 mm wide and 12 mm high; marginal area prominent, forming a wide fold at the base of the central dome. The waxy appendages from the stigmatic clefts only project slightly from the main mass of the fold." "Adult female denuded of wax bright brown in colour, about 5 mm long without caudal process, which alone measures 3.5 mm. The body is star-shaped with 3 short lateral pointed spurs [tubercles] and 1 anterior. These are sharper and more prominent than on ceriferus. The dorsum is very convex, rising with straight sides to an acute point. The caudal process is exceedingly long, two thirds the length of the body, piceous, slightly tapering and extends in an horizontal direction." (Brain, 1920a). Mounted adult female rather roundly oval and convex; with distinct, quite deep, stigmatic clefts; dorsum with distinct lateral tubercles on younger specimens. Caudal process exceptionally long, pointing posteriorly and narrowing slightly towards apex. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: C. longicauda is very similar to C. bipartita, differing mainly in having a much longer caudal process. Nonetheless, it is speculated that these 2 species might prove to be synyonyms. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

KEYS: Hodgson & Peronti 2012: 64 (female) [Key to adult females in the C. longicauda-group.]; Hodgson et al. 2009: 102-104 (female) [Ceroplastes species of South Africa].

CITATIONS: Almeid1973b [host, distribution: 2, 4-5]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 42]; Brain1920a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 31]; DeLott1965a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 182,202-205]; DeLott1967a [host, distribution: 111]; Hall1931 [host, distribution: 296-297]; Hodgso1969 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 32]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, physiology, taxonomy: 70-73,241]; HodgsoWiGi2009 [taxonomy: 102-104].



Ceroplastes longiseta Leonardi

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes longiseta Leonardi, 1911: 268. Type data: ARGENTINA: Cacheuta, on Fabiana denudata. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Granara de Willink, 1999: 71. Type depository: Portici: Dipartimento de Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria di Portici, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Italy. Described: female. Illust.

Ceroplastidia longiseta; Granara de Willink, 1999: 71. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Baccharis dracunculifolia [Hempel1900a]. Polygonaceae: Muehlenbeckia [SilvadGoGa1968]. Solanaceae: Fabiana denudata [Leonar1911, Sassce1912, Granar1999]. Verbenaceae: Lippia lycoides [Lizery1939].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina [Sassce1912] (Mendoza [Granar1999]); Brazil (Sao Paulo).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description of the adult female given by Granara de Willink (1999).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 42]; Granar1999 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 71]; Leonar1911 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 268-270]; Lizery1939 [host, distribution: 196]; Sassce1912 [host, distribution: 88].



Ceroplastes lucidus Hempel

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes novaesi Hempel, 1900a: 457. Type data: BRAZIL: Capoeira Grande, Campinas, Sao Paulo and Cachoeira, on Abutilon sp., Baccharis dracunculifloiae and Vernonia riedelii. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Peronti {et al.}, 2008: 170.

Ceroplastes lucidus Hempel, 1900a: 465. Type data: BRAZIL: Sao Paulo, Ypiranga, on Baccharis dracunculifolia. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Ceroplastes novaesi mendozae Cockerell, 1902i: 92. Type data: ARGENTINA: Mendoza, on pithy stems of an herbaceous plant. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Synonymy by Granara de Willink, 1999: 75.

Ceroplastidia lucida; Granara de Willink, 1999: 71. Change of combination.

Ceroplastidia novaesi; Granara de Willink, 1999: 75. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Baccharis [Granar1999], Baccharis dracunculifolia [Hempel1900a, Granar1999, PerontSoGr2008], Baccharis lanceolata [Granar1999], Baccharis punctulata [Granar1999], Baccharis ulcina [Granar1999], Cyclolepis genistoides [Granar1999], Eupatorium [Granar1999, PerontSoGr2008], Flourensia campestris [Granar1999], Grindelia chiloensis [Granar1999], Gutierrezia solbrigii [Granar1999], Hyalis argentea [Granar1999], Pluchea sagitalis [Granar1999], Senecio [Granar1999], Solidago microglobosa [Granar1999], Tessaria absinthioides [CorseuBa1971], Vernonia [PerontSoGr2008], Vernonia riedelii [Hempel1900a]. Fabaceae: Mimosa [PerontSoGr2008]. Loranthaceae: Moquiniella polymorpha [SilvadGoGa1968], Phrygilanthus cuneifolius [Granar1999]. Malvaceae: Abutilon [Hempel1900a]. Sapindaceae: Dodonaea viscosa [Granar1999]. Solanaceae: Solanum davatum [Granar1999]. Verbenaceae: Lantana camara [SilvadGoGa1968].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina (Buenos Aires [Granar1999], Catamarca [Granar1999], Chubut [Granar1999], Corrientes [Granar1999], Entre Rios [Granar1999], Formosa [Granar1999], Jujuy [Granar1999], La Rioja [Granar1999], Mendoza [Granar1999], Salta [Granar1999], Tucuman [Granar1999]); Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul [PerontSoGr2008], Sao Paulo [PerontSoGr2008]); Uruguay [Granar1999].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Hempel (1900a), Granara de Willink (1999) and by Peronti et al. (2008).

STRUCTURE: Colour photo of adult female by Peronti et al. (2008).

KEYS: Peronti {et al.} 2008: 142-144 (female) [Ceroplastes species of So Paulo, Brazil]; Granara de Willink 1999: 59 (female) [Argentina].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 42-43, 45]; Cocker1902i [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 92-93]; Cocker1902p [distribution: 253]; CorseuBa1971 [host, distribution: 238]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 154-155]; Granar1999 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 71-75]; Hempel1900a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 457-459,465-466]; Hempel1901 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 559]; Hempel1901a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 62-63]; Hempel1904 [host, distribution: 315]; Lizery1939 [host, distribution: 196]; Lizery1939 [host, distribution: 197]; PerontSoGr2008 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 170-171]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 302]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; SilvadGoGa1968 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 140]; Vernal1953 [host, distribution: 129]; Willia1985a [taxonomy: 227].



Ceroplastes luteolus De Lotto

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes luteolus De Lotto, 1955: 268. Type data: KENYA: Nairobi, on Coffea arabica, 5/24/1953, by G. DeLotto. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Notes: Paratype females: Kenya, Nairobi, on Markhamia platycalyx, 7/17/1953, G. De Lotto (BMNH): 1/1 (good). Also a single paratype specimen with same data as holotype present in USNM.

Ceroplastes brevicauda; De Lotto, 1965a: 196. Incorrect synonymy.

Ceroplastes luteolus; Hodgson & Peronti, 2012: 50. Revived rank.



HOSTS: Bignoniaceae: Markhamia platycalyx [DeLott1955]. Rubiaceae: Coffea arabica [DeLott1955, DeLott1965a, DeLott1967a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Kenya [DeLott1955, DeLott1965a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Hodgson & Peronti, 2012.

STRUCTURE: Test of the adult female more or less hemispherical with a deep depression along the lateral margin, not divided into plates; center of the dome with a small elongate pad. Colour evenly light yellow with four bands of opaque white wax arising from the stigmatic clefts; wax rather thick and extremely soft. Length 4 to 6 mm; breadth 5 to 7 mm. Denuded of wax, the body of the female is hemispherical, devoid of lateral or cephalic tubercles; caudal process very short, conical and strongly chitinised; dermis at full maturity only moderately chitinised. (De Lotto, 1955)

SYSTEMATICS: De Lotto (1965) synonymised C. luteolus with C. brevicauda Hall. These 2 species are very similar but Hodgson and Peronti, 2012, suggest that they are distinct. The specimens of C. luteolus studied were young adults. The caudal process of young adult C. brevicauda is never more than weakly sclerotised. Even on the oldest adult females, the caudal process is never more heavily sclerotised than the rest of the dorsum. The caudal processes of young C. luteolus, on the other hand, are heavily sclerotised, although still rather uniform in structure. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

KEYS: Hodgson & Peronti 2012: 49 (female) [Key to adult females of C. destructor-group of Ceroplastes in the Afrotropical Region].

CITATIONS: DeLott1955 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 268-269]; DeLott1965a [taxonomy: 196]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 58-60,241]; Kondo2013 [distribution, host: 45].



Ceroplastes macgregori Sampedro & Butze

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes macgregori Sampedro & Butze, 1984: 143. Type data: MEXICO: Tepetlixpita, Morelos, on Spondias mombin. Holotype female. Type depository: Mexico: Coleccion Entomologica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico.



HOSTS: Anacardiaceae: Spondias mombin [SampedBu1984]. Rutaceae: Citrus limon [SampedBu1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico (Morelos).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 43]; Miller1996 [distribution: 69]; SampedBu1984 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 143-150].



Ceroplastes madagascariensis (Targioni Tozzetti)

NOMENCLATURE:

Gascardia madagascariensis Targioni Tozzetti, 1893: 88. Type data: MADAGASCAR: on an undetermined tree of the Lauraceae. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Notes: Type material probably lost; G. Pellizzari Scaltriti, 1990, personal communication to Yair Ben-Dov. Lectotype (designated in Hodgson & Peronti, 2012): South Africa: Left label: Coll. No. / Natal. (S. Africa) / Richmond / ex.: / Coll. Mr. Fuller; right label states: Lectotype (USDA):

Ceroplastes candela Cockerell & King in Cockerell, 1902g: 113. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Natal, Richmond. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Synonymy by Hodgson & Peronti, 2012: 76. Notes: Host plant of type material not given.

Ceroplastes combreti Brain, 1920a: 27. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: De Wildt, Pretoria District, on Combretum sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female. Synonymy by Hodgson & Peronti, 2012: 76.

Ceroplastes madagascariensis; MacGillivray, 1921: 154. Change of combination.

Gascardia combreti; De Lotto, 1970b: 145. Change of combination.

Ceroplastes candella; Ben-Dov, 1993: 24. Misspelling of species name.

COMMON NAME: Lokombitsika [Paulia1955].



FOES: DIPTERA Chloropidae: Siphonella pauliani Seguy [Paulia1955]. HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Eucomys tananarivensis Risbec [Paulia1955], Lombitsikala coccidivora Risbec [Paulia1955], Metaphycus praevidens Silvestri [Paulia1955]. LEPIDOPTERA Noctuidae: Autoba costimacula Saalm [Paulia1955]. Oecophoridae: Stathmopoda clarkei Viette [Paulia1955].

HOSTS: Asteraceae: Combretum [Brain1920a]. Lauraceae [Targio1895, Newste1909]. Sterculiaceae: Dombeya rotundifolia [DeLott1970b].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Madagascar [Newste1909, Mamet1943a, Mamet1950, Paulia1955, Mamet1959a, Hodgso1994a]; South Africa [Cocker1902g, Brain1920a, DeLott1970b, BenDov1993]. Neotropical: Brazil (Sao Paulo).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female by Hodgson (1994a).Description and illustration of the adult female given by De Lotto (1970b).

STRUCTURE: "Young adult female: white, stained rust-brown in the region of the single mediodorsal and seven submarginal nuclei; hemispherical with a mammiform swelling immediately below the two bilateral nuclei; tip of caudal process uncovered." (Newstead, 1908). Old adults: "Adult females exceedingly densely aggregated on twig, so that their bases touched all the way round twig and with their longitudinal axis along length of twig. Covered by a layer of yellowish wax to about same depth as height of insect, so that external appearance of twig was as a rod of wax." (Hodgson, 1994a). With wax removed, young adult female "dorsum with seven large spine-like tubercles and a mediodorsal tubercle; of these the median, anterior and two posterior ones are the shortest; anterior margin clypeate; caudal process shorter but stouter than the tubercle immediately surrounding it." (Newstead, 1908). "Old dried specimens dark brown, very long, with white wax streaks running up the stigmatic grooves...and probably right through the wax to the surface. Caudal process set high on posterior margin of dorsum. Posterior lobes [anal lobes] on either side of anal cleft rather swollen when viewed from side." (Hodgson, 1994a).

SYSTEMATICS: As far as could be seen by Hodgson & Peronti (2012) on the present specimens of C. candela, the morphology described by Cockerell & King (1902) is also that used to define G. madagascariensis as redescribed by Hodgson (1994a): (i) the exceedingly elongate group of stigmatic setae in each cleft; (ii) the shape of the dorsal setae, which were rather large, club-shaped to parallel-sided and narrower at the base than near their middle; (iii) the spiracular disc-pores with 10 loculi, and (iv) anal plates with 7 or 8 long setae. The dorsal pores are also similar in structure in these 2 species as is the distribution of the ventral tubular ducts. Although the specimens studied here were in poor condition, Hodgson & Peronti (2012) considered that C. candela should be considered a synonym of Ceroplastes (Gascardia) madagascariensis C. combreti was also determined to be extremely similar to C. madagascariensis, differing in only a few small particulars, the most important of which was that the former had fewer stigmatic setae and they did not extend a long way onto the dorsum. On seeing the young specimens of C. madagascariensis from Tulea, Madagascar, where each stigmatic cleft had many fewer stigmatic setae in a group about as long as wide, C. combreti was determined to represent the young adult stage of C. madagascariensis before the massive dorsal extension of the dorsum. Thus, C. combreti also was synonymised with Ceroplastes (Gascardia) madagascariensis.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Paulian (1955) reported about export (in economic importance) from Madagascar of the wax produced by this wax scale.

KEYS: Hodgson et al. 2009: 102-104 (female) [as Ceroplastes combreti; Ceroplastes species of South Africa].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 24,28,43]; BenDov2006b [taxonomy: 296]; Brain1920a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 27-28]; Cocker1902g [taxonomy, description, host, distribution : 113]; DeLott1970b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 145-146]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 127, 149]; Foldi1997 [structure: 206-207]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 268-271]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 76-81,242]; HodgsoWiGi2009 [taxonomy: 102-104]; Koteja2001 [taxonomy: 46]; Lindin1932f [taxonomy: 202]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy: 154]; Mamet1943a [host, distribution: 151]; Mamet1950 [host, distribution: 17,20]; Mamet1951 [host, distribution: 224]; Mamet1959a [host, distribution: 376]; Newste1908 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 4-6]; Newste1909 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 351-352]; Paulia1955 [host, distribution, biological control, natural enemies: 59-61]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 302]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy, distribution: 541-549]; Targio1893a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 88]; Targio1895 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 425-439].



Ceroplastes magnicauda Reyne

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes magnicauda Reyne, 1964: 126. Type data: CURACAO: St. Christoffe, on Croton flavens. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Amsterdam: Institut voor Taxonomische Zoologie, The Netherlands.



HOST: Euphorbiaceae: Croton flavens [Reyne1964].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Netherlands Antilles (Curacao).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 43]; Reyne1964 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 126-127].



Ceroplastes magnificus (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Vinsonia magnifica Green, 1930c: 290. Type data: INDONESIA: Sumatra, Fort de Kock, on Mangifera odorata and Eugenia malaccensis. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Vinsonia mangifica; Ali, 1971: 19. Misspelling of species name.

Ceroplastes magnifica; Hodgson & Peronti, 2012: 155. Change of combination.

Ceroplastes magnificus; Pellizzari & Williams, 2013: 407. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.



HOSTS: Anacardiaceae: Mangifera odorata [Green1930c, Ali1971]. Myrtaceae: Eugenia malaccensis [Green1930c, Ali1971].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Indonesia (Sumatra [Green1930c, Ali1971]).

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [host, distribution: 19]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 338]; Green1930c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 281,290-292]; PellizWi2013 [taxonomy: 407].



Ceroplastes marmoreus Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes marmoreus Cockerell, 1903a: 158. Type data: MEXICO: Zapotlan, on sage, Catalpa and Compositae. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA.



HOSTS: Asteraceae [Cocker1903a]. Bignoniaceae: Catalpa [Cocker1903a].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico (Jalisco [Cocker1903a]).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 43]; Cocker1903a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 158-159]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 154]; Miller1996 [distribution: 69]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 301]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; Willia1985a [taxonomy: 227].



Ceroplastes martinae Mosquera

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes martinae Mosquera, 1979: 612. Type data: COLOMBIA: Esmeralda (Caqueta), on Mangifera indica. Holotype female. Type depository: Bogota: Colleccion Taxonomica Nacional de Programa de Entomologia del ICA en el CNIA, Colombia.



HOST: Anacardiaceae: Mangifera indica [Mosque1979].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Colombia [Kondo2001].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 43]; Kondo2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 41]; Kondo2010 [host, distribution: 41-44]; Mosque1979 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 612-617]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 301]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; TanakaKo2015 [distribution: 112].



Ceroplastes mierii (Targioni Tozzetti)

NOMENCLATURE:

Columnea mierii Targioni Tozzetti, 1866: 145. Type data: BRAZIL: on unspecified shrub. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Notes: Type material probably lost.

Ceroplastes mierii; Ben-Dov, 1993: 44. Change of combination.

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil.

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 44]; Targio1866 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 145-146]; Westwo1853b [taxonomy: 484].



Ceroplastes milleri Takahashi

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes milleri Takahashi, 1939f: 323. Type data: SARAWAK (BORNEO): Mt Matang, on undetermined plant. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Taichung: Entomology Collection, Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, Wu-feng, Taichung, Taiwan.

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Malaysia (Sarawak [Ali1971]).

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 17-18]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 44]; Takaha1939f [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 323-324].



Ceroplastes minimus Peronti {in}: Peronti {et al.}

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes minimus Peronti {in}: Peronti {et al.}, 2008: 171. Type data: BRAZIL: So Paulo State, Campos do Jordo, on undetermined plant; collected A.L.B.G. Peronti, 24.xi.2001. Holotype female. Type depository: So Carlos, Departamento de Ecologia e Biologia Evolutiva da UNiversidade Federal de So Carlos, So Paulo, Brazil; type no. 340. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Melastomataceae: Miconia minutiflora [PerontSoGr2008]. Myrtaceae [PerontSoGr2008].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Sao Paulo [PerontSoGr2008]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Peronti et al. (2008).

KEYS: Peronti {et al.} 2008: 142-144 (female) [Ceroplastes species of So Paulo, Brazil].

CITATIONS: PerontSoGr2008 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 171-173].



Ceroplastes minutus Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes minutus Cockerell, 1898j: 434. Type data: MEXICO: Tabasco, Las Minas, on 'escobillo'. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA.

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico. Neotropical: Mexico (Tabasco [Cocker1898j, Cocker1899n]).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 44]; Cocker1898j [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 434]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 394]; Cocker1899n [distribution: 18]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 154]; Miller1996 [distribution: 70].



Ceroplastes mori Hodgson & Peronti

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes quadrilineatus; Hodgson, 1969: 32. Misidentification.

Ceroplastes mori Hodgson & Peronti, 2012: 180-183. Type data: ZIMBABWE:Harare (=Salisbury), Greendale, on mulberry (Morus nigra), 3/8/1967 by C.J. Hodgson. Holotype female (examined). Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Boraginaceae: Cordia holstii [HodgsoPe2012]. Lamiaceae: Salvia confertiflora [HodgsoPe2012]. Moraceae: Morus nigra [HodgsoPe2012]. Phyllanthaceae: Bridelia macrantha [HodgsoPe2012].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Cameroon [HodgsoPe2012]; Kenya [HodgsoPe2012]; Tanzania [HodgsoPe2012]; Zimbabwe [HodgsoPe2012].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Hodgson & Peronti, 2012.

STRUCTURE: Unmounted material. Wax test not recorded (believed to be white) but with wax removed, medio-dorsal, cephalic and lateral tubercles relatively small but distinct, smoothly rounded, with small tubercles. Caudal process directed upwards at a sharp angle. Stigmatic clefts not deeply indented. Mounted material. Body roundly oval and convex, with distinct, shallow, stigmatic clefts; dorsum with distinct tubercles. Caudal process broad and stout. Length 1.5-4.0 mm; width of young adults 1.5-3 mm; old adults: venter 2.7-2.9 mm, total width 5-6 mm. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: C. mori differs from C. quadrilineatus in the following particulars (data for C. quadrilineatus in brackets): (i) loculate microducts with 3 or 4 satellite loculi absent (both present, those with 3 quite common); (ii) pregenital disc-pores only present on abdominal segments V, VI and VII (present on all abdominal segments); (iii) each stigmatic cleft with usually less than 27 stigmatic setae (over 40); (iv) each stigmatic spine rather pointed (with a rounded apex); and (v) dorsal clear area obvious (possibly absent). C. mori is also similar to C. elaeis, but differs in having: (i) only about half as many stigmatic setae, and (ii) short dorsal setae, each only about as long as the width of the basal socket (clearly longer). C. danieleae is also superficially very similar but has a large group of ventral tubular ducts in the cephalic region. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

KEYS: Hodgson & Peronti 2012: 171-172 (female, adult) [Key to adult females of Ceroplastes theobromae-group].

CITATIONS: Hodgso1969 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 32-34]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 180-183,243].



Ceroplastes mosquerai Ben-Dov

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes bicolor Mosquera, 1984: 126. Type data: COLOMBIA: Suba, on Schinus molle. Holotype female. Type depository: Bogota: Colleccion Taxonomica Nacional de Programa de Entomologia del ICA en el CNIA, Colombia. Described: female. Homonym of Ceroplastes bicolor Hempel, 1901. Notes:

Ceroplastes mosquerai Ben-Dov, 1993: 44. Replacement name for Ceroplastes bicolor Mosquera, 1984.



HOST: Anacardiaceae: Schinus molle [Mosque1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Colombia [Kondo2001].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [taxonomy, catalogue: 44]; Kondo2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 41]; Mosque1984 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 126-133]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 301]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; TanakaKo2015 [distribution: 112].



Ceroplastes murrayi Froggatt

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes murrayi Froggatt, 1919: 439. Type data: PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Kikori River, Delta Division, on Mangifera sp. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Williams & Watson, 1990: 75. Type depository: NSWA. Described: female.



HOST: Anacardiaceae: Mangifera [WilliaWa1990].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Papua New Guinea [Frogga1919]. Oriental: Hong Kong [MartinLa2011]. Palaearctic: China [DengYuZh2012].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Williams & Watson (1990).

KEYS: Williams & Watson 1990: 65 (female) [Tropical South Pacific].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 44]; DengYuZh2012 [distribution: 791]; Frogga1919 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 439-441]; MartinLa2011 [catalogue, distribution: 34]; WilliaWa1990 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 74-75].



Ceroplastes myricae (Linnaeus)

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus myricae Linnaeus, 1767: 741. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Cape of Good Hope, on Myrica quercifolia. Data of Neotype: South Africa, Cape Province, Bettys Bay, on Morella quercifolia, 28.vii.2008, collected J.H. Giliomee. Neotype female, by subsequent designation Hodgson {et al.}, 2009: 100. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female. Notes: Linnaeus' Type material probably lost (Ben-Dov, 1993).

Columnea myricae; Targioni Tozzetti, 1866: 143. Change of combination.

Ceroplastes myricae; Signoret, 1872a: 39. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Apocynaceae: Nerium oleander [Cocker1893gg]. Cycadaceae: Cycas revoluta [Green1900c]. Myricaceae: Morella quercifolia [Linnae1767, Brain1920a, HodgsoWiGi2009].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [Cocker1893gg, Cocker1894t, Brain1920a, HodgsoWiGi2009]. Neotropical: Jamaica [Cocker1893gg].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Hodgson et al. (2009). C. myricae is currently only known from South Africa on Morella sp. (Rubiaceae) and Euclea sp. (Ebenaceae). Hodgson et al. (2009) mention Greens (1900) record of C. myricae from Upper Assam and North Lakhimpur, India. The figures in Green (1900) clearly show that this refers to C. rubens Maskell and Green later corrected the record (Green, 1909). (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

STRUCTURE: Colour photo of adult female by Hodgson et al. (2009) and by Giliomee (2009). Unmounted material. Waxy test composed mainly of peachy to whitish wet wax. In young adult females, basic shape approximately broadly cone-like, with a horizontal groove about half-way up, dividing test into a single dome-like top part and a broad bottom half. Center of dome-like top slightly indented with a central nucleus. Broad basal part divided vertically by eight grooves, thus producing eight approximately quadrate wax plates laterally, each with a central indentation with some dry wax filaments. Posterior-most quadrate area with anal plates showing centrally, appearing as a dark spot, flanked by a pair of dry wax filaments. Stigmatic wax bands appearing white, although not very obvious. Waxy test of old adult female larger, without grooves, with a rather smoothly-rounded outline. Test of old females about 7 mm long and 5 mm wide. With wax removed, lateral and cephalic processes present but small. Mounted material. Body elongate oval, rather convex; 3.04.5 mm long, 1.62.1 mm wide; stigmatic clefts shallow and distinct; dorsum with small lateral and cephalic processes. Caudal process short and stout, length 0.8-1.1 mm, width 0.7-1.0 mm. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: The characters that appear to distinguish this species from C. rusci are: (i) the larger number of tubular ducts in the cephalic region, and (ii) the presence of multilocular disc-pores generally at least on segment III and sometimes on posterior thoracic segments, and (iii) the lack of a claw denticle. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

KEYS: Hodgson & Peronti 2012: 100 (female, adult) [Key to adult females in the Ceroplastes rusci-group]; Hodgson {et al.} 2009: 102-104 (female) [Ceroplastes species of South Africa].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 44]; Brain1920a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 32-33]; Cocker1893gg [host, distribution: 373]; Cocker1894d [taxonomy: 311]; Cocker1894t [distribution: 178]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 331]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 154]; Gertss2008 [taxonomy: 55-58]; Giliom2009 [host, distribution, taxonomy: 36-37]; Goeze1778 [taxonomy: 337]; Green1900c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 8-9]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 126-130,242]; HodgsoWiGi2009 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 95-105]; Linnae1767 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution]; Signor1869 [taxonomy: 861]; Signor1872a [taxonomy: 39]; Targio1866 [taxonomy: 143]; Willia2007b [taxonomy: 448, 427-490]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 33].



Ceroplastes nakaharai Gimpel in Gimpel, Miller & Davidson

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes nakaharai Gimpel in Gimpel, Miller & Davidson, 1974: 52. Type data: U.S.A.: Florida, Dade County, on Coccolobis diversifolia. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

COMMON NAMES: Nakahara wax scale [GimpelMiDa1974, HamonWi1984]; nakahara wax scale [GimpelMiDa1974, HamonWi1984].



HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eugenia myrtoides [HamonWi1984]. Polygonaceae: Coccoloba diversifolia [GimpelMiDa1974], Coccoloba floridana [GimpelMiDa1974]. Rubiaceae: Ixora acuminata [GimpelMiDa1974]. Tamaricaceae: Tamarix [GimpelMiDa1974]. Viscaceae: Phoradendron flavescens [GimpelMiDa1974].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Florida [HamonWi1984]). Neotropical: Cuba.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration given by Gimpel et al. (1974) and by Hamon & Williams (1984).

STRUCTURE: See colour photograph in Hamon & Williams (1984).

KEYS: Hodges 2002b: 208 (female) [Ceroplastes species of Florida]; Hamon & Williams 1984: 18 (female) [USA, Florida]; Gimpel et al. 1974: 19 (female) [USA].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 45]; GimpelMiDa1974 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 52-57]; HamonWi1984 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 29-30]; Hodges2002b [taxonomy: 208]; MillerWi1990 [taxonomy: 344]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 302]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549].



Ceroplastes neobrachystegiae Hodgson & Peronti

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes neobrachystegiae Hodgson & Peronti, 2012: 27,32-33. Type data: KENYA: 20 km SW of Malindi Is., on Cynometra webberi, 5/19/1988, by J.H. Martin. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Fabaceae: Cynometra webberi [HodgsoPe2012].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Kenya [HodgsoPe2012].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Hodgson & Peronti, 2012.

STRUCTURE: Body rather elongate, oval and probably convex, with shallow stigmatic clefts; dorsum with distinct lateral processes. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: Ceroplastes neobrachystegiae is closely related to C. brachystegiae but differs in having: (i) rather capitate dorsal setae; (ii) many fewer marginal and stigmatic setae; (iii) perhaps fewer antennal segments; (iv) loculate microducts with mainly 1 satellite loculus, and (v) smaller legs. Like C. brachystegiae, it appears to lack tubular ducts associated with the anogenital folds, and has unusually small dorsal and ventral microducts. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

CITATIONS: HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 27,32-33,241].



Ceroplastes newsteadi Hodgson & Peronti

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes newsteadi Hodgson & Peronti, 2012: 130-135. Type data: CAMEROON:Bibundi, on Cacao, 02/??/1905, by Busse. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Anacardiaceae: Mango [HodgsoPe2012]. Apocynaceae: Carissa edulis [HodgsoPe2012]. Arecaceae: Phoenix canariensis [HodgsoPe2012]. Cannaceae: Canna indica [HodgsoPe2012]. Rubiaceae: Craterispermum caudatum [HodgsoPe2012]. Rutaceae: Citrus sp. [HodgsoPe2012]. Salicaceae: Salix subserrata [HodgsoPe2012]. Sapindaceae: Blighia sapida [HodgsoPe2012]. Sterculiaceae: Theobroma cacao [HodgsoPe2012].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Cameroon [HodgsoPe2012]; Congo [HodgsoPe2012]; Cte d'Ivoire (=Ivory Coast) [HodgsoPe2012]; Eritrea [HodgsoPe2012]; Ethiopia [HodgsoPe2012]; Kenya [HodgsoPe2012]; Nigeria [HodgsoPe2012]; Senegal [HodgsoPe2012]; Tanzania [HodgsoPe2012]; Uganda [HodgsoPe2012].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustrations in Hodgson & Peronti, 2012.

STRUCTURE: Mounted material. Body elongate oval and probably fairly convex, with shallow stigmatic clefts with abundant marginal setae; lateral tubercles distinct although perhaps small. Caudal process short and stout, probably directed rather upwards. Length about 3 (1.0-3.0) mm, width about 2 (0.75-2.2) mm. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: C. newsteadi is a member of the C. rusci-group but differs from the other members of this group in having the following combination of characters: (i) tubular ducts present in cephalic region; (ii) more than 100 stigmatic setae on each side, generally meeting between clefts; (iii) each group of stigmatic setae broadening to 4 or 6 setae deep in each cleft, and non-marginal setae extending a long way along margin laterally; (iv) nearly as many non-marginal as marginal stigmatic setae in each cleft; (v) stigmatic setae often present anterior to eyespots, and (vi) stigmatic setae sharply cone-shaped. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

KEYS: Hodgson & Peronti 2012: 100 (female, adult) [Key to adult females in the Ceroplastes rusci-group].

CITATIONS: HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, host, structure, taxonomy: 130-135,242].



Ceroplastes nr. ceriferus Mestre Novoa et al.

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes nr. ceriferus Mestre Novoa et al., 2011: 6. Notes: Identified by H. Morrison as C. ceriferus. Found in Cuba, Taco Taco, Sierra Rangel, 4/1/1922 and preserved in glass jars in CZAC.

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Cuba [MestreHaEv2011].

CITATIONS: MestreHaEv2011 [catalogue, distribution: 6].



Ceroplastes ocreus Mosquera

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes ocreus Mosquera, 1984: 139. Type data: COLOMBIA: Tocaima, on Achatocarpus aff. nigricans. Holotype female. Type depository: Bogota: Colleccion Taxonomica Nacional de Programa de Entomologia del ICA en el CNIA, Colombia. Described: female.



HOST: Achatocarpaceae: Achatocarpus nigricans [Mosque1984].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Colombia [Kondo2001].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 45]; Kondo2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 41]; Mosque1984 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 139-145]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 301]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; TanakaKo2015 [distribution: 112].



Ceroplastes parkinsonia Sugonyaev nomen nudum

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes parkinsonia Sugonyaev, 1989c: 95. Nomen nudum.



Ceroplastes parvus Green

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes parvus Green, 1935a: 272. Type data: URUGUAY: Canelones Atlantida, on Baccharis articulata. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.



HOST: Asteraceae: Baccharis articulata [Green1935a].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Uruguay [Green1935a].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 45]; Green1935a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 272-274].



Ceroplastes paucispinus De Lotto

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes paucispinus De Lotto, 1970b: 143. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Cape Province, Nossob Camp, on Acacia giraffae. Holotype female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female.



HOST: Fabaceae: Acacia giraffae [DeLott1970b].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [DeLott1970b].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Hodgson & Peronti, 2012.

STRUCTURE: Unmounted material. "Living young adult females slightly to fairly strongly convex; wax test obscurely divided into plates, 3 bilateral, 1 cephalic and 1 dorsal, at the centre of each of which there is a small opaque white boss; dorsal submarginal depression shallow; wax rather soft in texture; general colouration dark brown." (De Lotto, 1970b). Mounted material. Body oval; lateral processes poorly developed; caudal process short and conical, heavily sclerotised. Body length 2.38 mm, width on slide 1.5 mm; width of venter 1.38 mm. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: Within this species-group, C. paucispinus differs from C. delottoi in having fewer than 20 stigmatic setae in each cleft, and from the other 2 species as follows (character states for C. elytropappi and C. tachardiaformis in brackets): (i) presence of a well-developed tibio-tarsal articulation (absent), (ii) presence of tubular ducts in the cephalic region (absent in C. elytropappi), and (iii) absence of tubular ducts in abdomen (present). (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

KEYS: Hodgson & Peronti 2012: 161 (female, adult) [Key to adult females of Ceroplastes tachardiaformis-group]; Hodgson et al. 2009: 102-104 (female) [Ceroplastes species of South Africa].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 46]; DeLott1970b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 143-145]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 166-168,243]; HodgsoWiGi2009 [taxonomy: 102-104]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 301]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549].



Ceroplastes personatus Newstead

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes personatus Newstead, 1898: 94. Type data: NIGERIA: Lagos, on unspecified host plant. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Notes: Lectotype(designated in Hodgson & Peronti, 2012): Nigeria: Ceroplastes / personatus n. sp. / Newstead / on Coffee, Lagos / W.C. Africa, Cyril / Punch coll. Aug. 1897. / BM 1945, 121 (BMNH): 1/1 (fair).

Ceroplastes uapacae Hall, 1931: 300. Type data: ZIMBABWE: Mazoe, Umtali and Salisbury, on Uapaca kirkiana, and at Umtali on Eugenia malaccensis. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Synonymy by Hodgson & Peronti, 2012: 81-87.

Ceroplastes uapacae chrysophylli Hall, 1931: 302. Type data: ZIMBABWE [=RHODESIA]: Mtoroshanga Pass, Umvukwes, on Chrysophyllum argyrophyllum. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Synonymy by Hodgson, 1969: 14.



HOSTS: Anacardiaceae: Mangifera indica [BenDovCa2006, GermaiVaMa2010]. Apocynaceae [EtiennMa1993]. Euphorbiaceae: Uapaca [Hodgso1969], Uapaca kirkiana [Hall1931, Hodgso1969]. Meliaceae: Khaya [Hodgso1969]. Myrtaceae: Eugenia [Hodgso1969], Eugenia malaccensis [Hall1931], Syzygium [Hodgso1969], Syzygium cordatum [Hodgso1969], Syzygium gerrardii [Hodgso1969], Syzygium guiniense [Hodgso1969]. Rubiaceae: Aida micrantha [Hodgso1969], Coffea canephora [HodgsoPe2012], Coffea liberica [Newste1917b], Coffea robusta [HodgsoPe2012]. Rutaceae: Citrus [EtiennMa1993], Citrus paradisi [HodgsoPe2012]. Sapotaceae: Bequaertiodendron [DeLott1967b], Chrysophyllum argyrophyllum [Hall1931, Hodgso1969], Englerophytum sp. [HodgsoPe2012], Sapota (Manilkara) sp. [HodgsoPe2012]

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Benin [GermaiVaMa2010]; Cameroon [HodgsoPe2012]; Congo [HodgsoPe2012]; Cte d'Ivoire (=Ivory Coast) [HodgsoPe2012]; Gabon [HodgsoPe2012]; Ghana [Newste1917b]; Guinea-Bissau [BenDovCa2006]; Kenya [HodgsoPe2012]; Liberia [HodgsoPe2012]; Malawi [Hodgso1969]; Mozambique [Hodgso1969]; Nigeria [Vayssi1913]; Sao Tome and Principe (Sao Tome [EtiennMa1993]); Senegal [EtiennMa1993]; Sierra Leone [HodgsoPe2012]; South Africa [DeLott1967b]; Sudan [HodgsoPe2012]; Tanzania [HodgsoPe2012]; Uganda [HodgsoPe2012]; Zaire [EtiennMa1993]; Zambia [Hodgso1969]; Zimbabwe [Hall1931, Hodgso1969].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by De Lotto (1967b) and by Hodgson (1969).

SYSTEMATICS: Hodgson & Peronei (2012) determined that the 3 species, Ceroplastes personatus, C. uapacae and C. vinsonioides represent a single rather variable species. The only possibly significant differences appear to be the number of preopercular pores. However, they are of the opinion that this variation could be explained by differences in the age of the adults, with (for instance) the extension of the caudal process with age changing the shape of the test.

KEYS: Hodgson et al. 2009: 102-104 (female) [Ceroplastes species of South Africa].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 46,58-59]; BenDovCa2006 [host, distribution: 326]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 394]; DeLott1967b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 782-783,798]; EtiennMa1993 [host, distribution: 255]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 155]; GermaiVaMa2010 [host, distribution: 125]; Hall1931 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 300-302]; Hodgso1969 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 14-17]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 81-89,242]; HodgsoWiGi2009 [taxonomy: 102-104]; Kondo2013 [distribution, host: 45]; Newste1898 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 94-95]; Newste1917b [host, distribution: 128]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 301-302]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; Vayssi1913 [distribution: 430].



Ceroplastes pseudoceriferus Green

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes ceriferus; Green, 1921b: 259. Misidentification.

Ceroplastes pseudoceriferus Green, 1935: 180. Type data: SRI LANKA: on undetermined plant, and INDIA: on Azidarachta indica and Diospyros montana. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK.



FOE: HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Coccophagus hawaiiensis Timberlake [WenLe1986].

HOSTS: Aceraceae: Acer [Green1935], Acer buergerianum [Kajita1964], Acer palmatum [Kajita1964]. Anacardiaceae: Mangifera indica [Ali1971, AvasthSh1986, WenLe1986, ShafeeYoKh1989], Rhus succedanea [Kajita1964], Rhus verniciflua [Kajita1964]. Apocynaceae: Carissa caranda [DeLott1971], Nerium oleander [Kajita1964]. Aquifoliaceae: Ilex crenata [Kajita1964], Ilex integra [TakahaTa1956], Ilex mutchagara [Kajita1964], Ilex oldhami [Kajita1964], Ilex rotunda [TakahaTa1956]. Araceae: Amorphophalus konjac [Kajita1964]. Araliaceae: Fatsia japonica [Kajita1964], Gilibertia trifida [TakahaTa1956]. Asteraceae: Artemisia capillaris [TaoWoCh1983], Artemisia japonica [Kajita1964], Blumea lacera [AvasthSh1986, ShafeeYoKh1989], Chrysanthemum indicum [Kajita1964], Erigeron annuus [Kajita1964], Erigeron canadensis [Kajita1964], Erigeron linifolius [Kajita1964], Solidago vigra-aurea [Kajita1964]. Berberidaceae: Berberis thunbergii [Kajita1964], Mahonia fortunei [Kajita1964], Nandina domestica [Kajita1964]. Caprifoliaceae: Viburnum awabuki [Kajita1964], Viburnum japonicum [Kajita1964]. Celastraceae: Euonymus alata [Kajita1964], Euonymus japonicus [Kajita1964], Euonymus sieboldiana [Kajita1964]. Combretaceae: Terminalia chebula [Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989]. Commelinaceae: Commelina communis [Kajita1964]. Convolvulaceae: Ipomoea batatas [Kajita1964]. Cucurbitaceae: Cucurbita moschata [Kajita1964]. Ebenaceae: Diospyros [Green1937], Diospyros kaki [Green1937], Diospyros montana [Green1921a, Green1935, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989]. Elaeagnaceae: Elaeagnus multiflora [Kajita1964], Elaeagnus pungens [TakahaTa1956]. Euphorbiaceae: Croton [VarshnMo1987], Mallotus japonicus [Kajita1964]. Fabaceae: Glycine max [Kajita1964], Lespedeza bicolor [Kajita1964]. Fagaceae: Castanopsis acuta [Kajita1964], Shiia cuspidata [Kajita1964]. Hippocastanaceae: Aesculus turbinata [Kajita1964]. Lauraceae: Actinodaphne lancifolia [Kajita1964], Benzoin strychnifolium [Kajita1964], Cinnamomum sericeum [Kajita1964], Laurus nobilis [Kajita1964], Machilus thunbergii [Kajita1964], Persea americana [TaoWoCh1983]. Magnoliaceae: Magnolia compressa [Kajita1964], Magnolia obovata [Kajita1964], Michelia compressa [Kajita1964]. Malvaceae: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis [Kajita1964]. Melastomataceae: Melastoma candidum [TaoWoCh1983]. Meliaceae: Azadirachta indica [Green1935, Green1937, DeLott1971, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989], Melia indica [Green1937, DeLott1971], Toona sinensis [Kajita1964]. Menispermaceae: Sinomenium diversifolium [Kajita1964]. Moraceae: Artocarpus heterophyllus [Ali1971, VarshnMo1987, ShafeeYoKh1989], Ficus benghalensis [Ali1971, VarshnMo1987, ShafeeYoKh1989], Ficus glomerata [Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989], Ficus religiosa [Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989], Ficus vasculosa [TaoWoCh1983], Humulus lupulus [Kajita1964], Morus alba [TaoWoCh1983], Morus bombycis [Kajita1964]. Myrtaceae: Psidium guajava [VarshnMo1987], Rhodomyrtus tomentosa [TaoWoCh1983]. Oleaceae: Osmanthus ilicifolius [Kajita1964]. Oxalidaceae: Oxalis corniculata [Kajita1964]. Pittosporaceae: Pittosporum tobira [Kajita1964]. Platanaceae: Platanus occidentalis [Kajita1964], Platanus orientalis [Kajita1964]. Polygonaceae: Polygonum chinensis [TaoWoCh1983], Polygonum conspicuum [Kajita1964], Polygonum cuspidatum [Kajita1964]. Punicaceae: Punica granatum [Kajita1964]. Rosaceae: Agrimonia eupatoria [Kajita1964], Armeniaca vulgaris [Kajita1964], Chaenomeles lagenaria [Kajita1964], Crataegus cuneata [Kajita1964], Cydonia oblonga [Kajita1964], Eriobotrya japonica [Kajita1964], Malus pumila [Kajita1964], Malus sieboldii [Kajita1964], Mespilus germanica [Kajita1964], Persica vulgaris [Kajita1964], Photinia glabra [Kajita1964], Photinia serrulata [Kajita1964], Pourthiaea villosa [Kajita1964], Prunus mume [Kajita1964], Prunus preslii [TaoWoCh1983], Prunus salicina [Kajita1964], Prunus yedoensis [Kajita1964], Prunus zippeliana [Kajita1964], Pyracantha angustifolia [Kajita1964], Pyrus serotina [Kajita1964], Spiraea cantoniensis [Kajita1964], Spiraea thunbergii [Kajita1964]. Rubiaceae: Gardenia jasminoides [TakahaTa1956], Ixora chinensis [TaoWoCh1983]. Rutaceae: Citrus natsudaidai [Kajita1964], Citrus unshiu [TakahaTa1956], Fortunella japonica [Kajita1964], Poncirus trifoliata [Kajita1964]. Sapindaceae: Pometia pinnata [TaoWoCh1983], Sapindus mukurossi [Kajita1964]. Sapotaceae: Madhuca indica [Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989], Madhuca longifolia [Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989], Mimusops hexandra [Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989]. Solanaceae: Solanum melongena [Kajita1964], Solanum tuberosum [Kajita1964]. Tamaricaceae: Tamarix chinensis [TakahaTa1956]. Theaceae: Camellia japonica [Kajita1964], Camellia sasanqua [Kajita1964], Camellia sinensis [TaoWoCh1983], Cleyera ochnacea [Kajita1964], Eurya emarginata [Kajita1964], Eurya japonica [TakahaTa1956], Gordonia axillaris [TaoWoCh1983], Stewartia pseudo-camellia [Kajita1964], Ternstroemia japonica [Kajita1964], Thea sinensis [TakahaTa1956]. Ulmaceae: Celtis sinensis [TakahaTa1956], Holoptelea integrifolia [Ali1971]. Urticaceae: Boehmeria nivea [TakahaTa1956], Villebrunea frutescens [Kajita1964].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Palau. Oriental: Bangladesh [Ali1978]; China (Hunan [HuHeWa1992]); India [Green1935, DeLott1971, AvasthSh1986, ShafeeYoKh1989] (Uttar Pradesh [AvasthSh1986]); Sri Lanka [Green1935, Green1937, DeLott1971, Ali1971]; Taiwan [WenLe1986, WongChCh1999]. Palaearctic: China (Xizang (=Tibet)); Japan [Green1935, DeLott1971]; South Korea [KwonHa2003] (C. ceriferus was misidentified as C. pseudoceriferus by Kwon and Han (2003) and Kwon et al. (2005), and the mention of C. pseudoceriferus in the Checklist of Korean insects (Lee, 2010), probably represents a misidentification of C. ceriferus.Lee, et al., 2012 They examined 143 specimens labeled as C. pseudoceriferus, deposited at the National Academy of Agricultural Science, Korea and determined that they were actually C. ceriferus.).

BIOLOGY: Sankaran (1959) reported this species as univoltine in India (Banaras) and described its life history. Develops one annual generation in Kunming, China (Wang et al. 2006).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Tao et al. (1983) and by Tang (1991).

STRUCTURE: Toki et al. (1999) isolated a new sesterpene from the wax test. See colour photograph in Wong et al. 91999).

SYSTEMATICS: C. pseudoceriferus most nearly resembles C. ceriferus, but can be distinguished from the latter species by following characters: C. pseudoceriferus has about 40 marginal bristle-shaped setae between the anterior stigmatic furrows; about 10 such setae between each anterior and posterior stigmatic furrow; and about 130 stigmatic setae laterad of each stigmatic furrow. Whereas, C. ceriferus possesses about 10 marginal bristle-shaped setae between the anterior stigmatic furrows; about 3 such setae between each anterior and posterior stigmatic furrow; and about 54 stigmatic setae laterad of each stigmatic furrow. In addition, Lee, et al. used the 543 base pair DNA barcode region of the COI for the discrimination of allied species, C. ceriferus and C. pseudoceriferus. The alignment of their sequences showed 25 base-pair mismatch positions and the COI divergence was 4.6%. Deng, et al. (2012) determined DNA COI barcoding sequences for six Chinese Ceroplastes species. Ceroplastes pseudoceriferus generated a distinct COI sequence. GenBank Accessions JQ795609-JQ795722. 28S DNA sequences: GenBank Accessions JQ795495-JQ795608.

KEYS: Fetyk & Kozr 2012: 293 (female) [Key to species of Ceroplastes in the Palaearctic Region based on slide-mounted adult females]; Tang 1991: 297 (female) [China]; Tao et al. 1983: 93 (female) [Taiwan]; Beardsley 1966: 480 (female) [Micronesia].

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [host, distribution: 18]; Ali1978 [host, distribution, biological control: 69-70]; AvasthSh1986 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 332-334]; Beards1966 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 480-482]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 46-47]; DeLott1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 142-143]; DengYuZh2012 [distribution, molecular data, taxonomy: 791-796]; FetykoKo2012 [distribution, taxonomy: 292]; Green1935 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 180]; Green1937 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 310]; HuHeWa1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 184]; Kajita1964 [taxonomy, host, distribution, economic importance, life history: 1-6]; Kajita1965 [life history, biological control, distribution: 29-34]; Kawai1972 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 11]; KawaiTa1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, structure: 133-146]; KozarWa1985 [catalogue: 76]; KwonHa2003 [host, distribution: 279-288]; Leefma1929 [distribution, host: 157-158]; LeeWuSu2012 [distribution, host, molecular data, taxonomy: 157-162]; Mohara1990 [taxonomy: 48]; Paik1978 [taxonomy, host, distribution]; ParidaMo1982 [taxonomy: 19]; RosaPeSo2011 [structure: 19]; Sankar1955 [biological control: 100-119]; Sankar1959 [taxonomy, life history: 39-59]; Sankar1962 [taxonomy: 1-18]; Schmut2001 [host, distribution: 339-345]; ShafeeYoKh1989 [host, distribution: 48]; SinhaDi1984 [taxonomy, description, illustration, life history: 10-11]; TakahaTa1956 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 7]; Tamaki1964 [chemistry: 159-164]; Tamaki1964a [chemistry: 227-234]; Tamaki1966 [chemistry: 297-300]; TamakiKa1966 [chemistry: 297-300]; TamakiKa1967 [chemistry: 63-659]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 299-300]; Tao1989 [host, distribution: 59]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 52]; TaoWoCh1983 [taxonomy, description, illustration, life history: 94,95]; TokiOoKu1999 [chemistry: 1504-1509]; VarshnMo1987 [host, distribution: 172]; Wang1980 [host, distribution: 22-23]; Wang1981TC [host, distribution: 288]; WangChTa2006 [host, distribution, biological control: 311-314]; WangTaCh2006 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 239-242]; WenLe1986 [economic importance, life history, host, distribution, chemical control, biological control: 216-221]; WongChCh1999 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution : 9-10,47]; XieXuZh2004a [chemistry: 512-518]; Yasuma1969 [biological control: 773-780].



Ceroplastes purpurellus Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes purpurellus Cockerell, 1903a: 159. Type data: MEXICO: Tonila, Jalisco, on undetermined plant. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA.

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico (Jalisco [Cocker1903a]).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 48]; Cocker1903a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 159]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 155]; Miller1996 [distribution: 70]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 301]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; Willia1985a [taxonomy: 228].



Ceroplastes purpureus Hempel

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes purpureus Hempel, 1900a: 466. Type data: BRAZIL: Sao Paulo, Ypiranga, on Miconia sp. and other trees. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil.



HOSTS: Melastomataceae: Miconia [Hempel1900a]. Myrtaceae [PerontSoGr2008].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Sao Paulo [Hempel1900a, PerontSoGr2008]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Peronti et al. (2008).

STRUCTURE: Colour photo of adult female by Peronti et al. (2008).

KEYS: Peronti {et al.} 2008: 142-144 (female) [Ceroplastes species of So Paulo, Brazil].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 48]; Cocker1902p [distribution: 253]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 155]; Hempel1900a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 466-467]; Hempel1901a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 63-64]; PerontSoGr2008 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 173]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 301]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; Vernal1953 [host, distribution: 129-130].



Ceroplastes quadratus Green

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes quadratus Green, 1935a: 274. Type data: BRAZIL: Gois, on undetermined plant; collected R. Spitz, 24.xi.1933. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK.



HOSTS: Melastomataceae: Miconia [PerontSoGr2008], Miconia albicans [PerontSoGr2008], Miconia minutiflora [PerontSoGr2008]. Myrtaceae: Psidium guajava [PerontSoGr2008].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Goias [Green1935a, PerontSoGr2008], Minas Gerais [PerontSoGr2008], Sao Paulo [PerontSoGr2008]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Peronti (et al.) (2008).

STRUCTURE: colour photo of adult female by Peronti et al. (2008).

KEYS: Peronti {et al.} 2008: 142-144 (female) [ceroplastes species of So Paulo, Brazil].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 48]; Green1935a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 274]; PerontSoGr2008 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 174-175]; Takaha1955f [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 239-240]; Tao1989 [host, distribution: 59]; TaoWoCh1983 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 102-103].



Ceroplastes quadrilineatus Newstead

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes quadrilineatus Newstead, 1910c: 193. Type data: UGANDA: Kyetume near Kampala, on Annona muricata, and at Ndege, on Ficus sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Gascardia quadrilineata; De Lotto, 1965: 182. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Annonaceae: Annona muricata [Newste1910c, Newste1911]. Ixonanthaceae: Ochtocosmus mirabilis [CouturMaRi1985]. Lamiaceae: Salvia confertiflora [Hodgso1969]. Meliaceae: Melia [Hodgso1969]. Moraceae: Ficus [Newste1910c, Hodgso1969], Morus [Hodgso1969]. Rosaceae: Persica vulgaris [Hodgso1969], Prunus persicae [Hodgso1969]. Sterculiaceae: Theobroma cacao [CouturMaRi1985].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Cte d'Ivoire (=Ivory Coast); Uganda [Newste1910c, Newste1911, Newste1917b, Hodgso1969]; Zimbabwe [Hodgso1969] (It is likely that the records from Zimbabwe refer to C. mori. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson & Peronti, 2012. Because C. mori was misidentified as C. quadrilineatus in Hodgson, 1969, it is possible that the records from Zimbabwe refer to C. mori instead of C. quadrilineatus.

STRUCTURE: Unmounted material. "Test of adult female - Dorsum with a pair of large divergent pyriform bodies, the narrowed portions of which meet together immediately over the anal orifice; these very prominent swellings are a dull crimson colour with distinct and well-defined narrow transverse blackish bands; under a low magnification the banding has the appearance of striae, so that these very prominent portions of the test bear a striking resemblance to a pair of miniature shells of the genus Gryphaea; sides bulging and somewhat irregular in outline, colour sootycrimson; stigmatic bands pure white, narrow, extending right across the bulging portion of the test, forming 4 conspicuous white lines (2 on each side) against the darker portion of the wax. The wax immediately beneath the surface is white with a pinkish tinge; it contains a large percentage of water, and is soft and readily injured by pressure. Length, 6 mm, width 6 mm, depth 5-7 mm." (Newstead, 1910c). Mounted material. Body probably rather roundly oval and convex, with distinct, shallow, stigmatic clefts; dorsum possibly with small tubercles. Caudal process broad and stout. Body length about 6 (2.5-5.0) mm, width about 4 (1.5-3.5) mm. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: C. quadrilineatus is very similar to C. elaeis and C. mori, but differs from C. elaeis in having loculate microducts with 3 satellite loculi frequent in wax-plate lines (absent) and it differs from C. mori in having about twice as many stigmatic setae in each cleft. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

KEYS: Hodgson & Peronti 2012: 171-172 (female, adult) [Key to adult females of Ceroplastes theobromae-group].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 48]; CouturMaRi1985 [host, distribution: 277]; DeLott1965a [taxonomy: 182]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 183-186,243]; Newste1910c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 193-195]; Newste1911 [host, distribution: 97]; Newste1917b [host, distribution: 129]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 302]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; Sassce1911 [taxonomy: 65].



Ceroplastes reunionensis Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero in: Ben-Dov et al.

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes reunionensis Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero in: Ben-Dov et al., 2000: 425. Type data: REUNION: Ravine des Cabris, on Platycerium bifurcatum; 28.vi.1998, coll. S. Quilici. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France; type no. 13805-1. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Anacardiaceae: Mangifera indica [BenDovMaGa2000]. Apocynaceae: Carissa macrocarpa [BenDovMaGa2000]. Cycadaceae: Cycas revoluta [BenDovMaGa2000]. Lauraceae: Persea americana [BenDovMaGa2000]. Lythraceae: Lawsonia alba [BenDovMaGa2000]. Myrtaceae: Syzygium malaccense [BenDovMaGa2000]. Polypodiaceae: Platycerium bifurcatum [BenDovMaGa2000].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Reunion [BenDovMaGa2000, GermaiMiPa2014].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Ben-Dov et al. (2000).

STRUCTURE: "Wax of young and fully-grown female pure white; wax test observed on 8 host plants in Runion, being always white; no discernible division into plates. Wax test of young female 2 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, 1 mm high. Wax test of fully-grown female up to 5 mm long, 4 mm wide, 3 mm high. Middle of test with an oval white wax secretion of first instar; submarginal elevation poorly developed. A dry filamentous wax, very conspicuous on background of test, extends from each mesothoracic and metathoracic spiracle to submargin of test. Anal plates exposed. Body of alcohol preserved specimens light yellow brown." (Ben-Dov, et al., 2000)

SYSTEMATICS: The adult females of C. reunionensis are extremely similar to those of C. rubens. Ben-Dov et al. (2000) did a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis to compare these 2 species and concluded that they were different genetically but almost indistinguishable morphologically.

KEYS: Hodgson & Peronti 2012: 90 [Key to adult females of Ceroplastes rubens-group].

CITATIONS: BenDovMaGa2000 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 423-433]; GermaiMiPa2014 [distribution: 22]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 90-93,242].



Ceroplastes royenae Hall

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes quadrilineatus royenae Hall, 1931: 297. Type data: ZIMBABWE: Macheke, on Royena pallens. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Gascardia quadrilineata royenae; De Lotto, 1965: 182. Change of combination.

Gascardia royenae; Hodgson, 1969: 34. Change of status.

Ceroplastes royenae; Ben-Dov, 1993: 49. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Ebenaceae: Diospyros lycioides sericea [Hall1931, Hodgso1969], Royena pallens [Hall1931]. Euphorbiaceae: Pseudolachnostylus maprounifolia [Hodgso1969].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [HodgsoPe2012]; Zimbabwe [Hall1931, Hodgso1969].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson (1969).

STRUCTURE: Unmounted material. "In general appearance, the tests of the adult female are identical with those of [C.] quadrilineatus as shown in the photograph accompanying Newstead's original description. Closer examination of Rhodesian material, however, shows that the large pyriform bodies described by Newstead are wanting." (Hall, 1931). The test also differs in that "the colour is very dark grey to dull black relieved only by the conspicuous white stigmatic bands; the wax beneath the surface is very little paler but more transparent -- certainly not white; the test is extremely hard, and the adult female as seen from the ventral aspect is brick red." (Hall, 1931). Mounted material. Body probably rather roundly oval and convex, with distinct, quite deep, stigmatic clefts; dorsum with distinct but fairly small, lateral tubercles. Caudal process shallowly conical, set on posterior end of dorsum. Length 2-4 (3.3-4.0) mm, total width 1.7-3.0 (2.5-4.0) mm. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: C. royenae shows some similarity to C. uvariae in having each group of stigmatic setae narrower along the margin than the length of each group but differs in having: (i) only 3 large dorsal setae on each anal plate (thought to be 4 or 5 on C. uvariae); (ii) dorsal setae clearly longer than the width of the basal socket and quite sharply pointed (shorter and blunter on C. uvariae), and (iii) many fewer stigmatic setae in each group (less than 75 rather than well over 100). (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

KEYS: Hodgson & Peronti 2012: 171-172 (female, adult) [Key to adult females of Ceroplastes theobromae-group].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 49]; DeLott1965a [taxonomy: 182]; Hall1931 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 297-298]; Hodgso1969 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 34-37]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 186-189,243]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 302]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549].



Ceroplastes rubens Maskell

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes rubens Maskell, 1893b: 214. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Queensland, Brisbane, on Mangifera indica and Ficus sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand.

Ceroplastes rubens minor Maskell, 1897: 309. Type data: HONG KONG: on Pinus sinensis and P. thunbergii. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Synonymy by Gimpel et al., 1974: 57.

Ceroplastes myricae; Green, 1900c: 8. Misidentification.

COMMON NAMES: pink wax scale [SmithBeBr1997]; red wax scale [HamonWi1984, BenDov1993].



FOES: FUNGI : Fusarium [ZengWaCh1990]. HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Coccophagus ceroplastae (Howard) [MalipaDuSm2000], Coccophagus japonicus Compere [Gahan1926]. Encyrtidae: Aneristus ceroplastae Howard [Yasuma1953, Bartle1978], Anicetus annulatus Timberlake [Bartle1978], Anicetus beneficus Ishii & Yasumatsu [Bartle1978], Anicetus rarisetus Xu & he [XuHe1997], Anicetus rubensi Xu & He [XuHe1997], Microterys kotinskyi (Fullaway) [Bartle1978], Moranila californica (Howard) [Bartle1978]. Eulophidae: Tetrastichus ceroplastae [TaoChYa2003]. Pteromalidae: Anysis saissetiae [TaoChYa2003], Moranila ceroplastis (Perk.) [Bartle1978], Scutellista cyanea Motschulsky [Bartle1978].

HOSTS: Acanthaceae: Strobilanthes japonicus [Kuwana1923c]. Aceraceae: Acer ginnala [Kuwana1923c], Acer palmatum [TakahaTa1956], Acer trifidum [Kuwana1923c]. Amaranthaceae: Celosia cristata [Kuwana1923c]. Anacardiaceae: Anacardium occidentale [WilliaBu1987, WilliaWa1990], Mangifera [Kirkal1902, BenDovMaGa2000], Mangifera indica [Newste1917b, Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, DeLott1965a, Ali1971, NakahaMi1981, Nakaha1981a, QinGu1994], Mangifera indica [Green1909a, Green1937, Brimbl1956a, ShafeeYoKh1989, KinjoNaHi1996], Rhus succedanea [Kuwana1923c], Schinus [Nakaha1981a], Schinus terebinthifolius [Brimbl1956a, WilliaWa1990]. Annonaceae: Annona squamosa [Brimbl1956a]. Apocynaceae: Allamanda cathartica [Nakaha1981a], Alyxia elliptica [WilliaWa1990], Alyxia gynopogon [WilliaWa1990], Alyxia olivaeformis [GimpelMiDa1974, Nakaha1981a], Melodinus baueri [WilliaWa1990], Nerium oleander [WilliaWa1990], Plumeria [Nakaha1981a], Plumeria rubra [Brimbl1956a, QinGu1994], Thevetia peruviana [QinGu1994]. Aquifoliaceae: Ilex aquifolium [Nakaha1981a], Ilex cornuta [GimpelMiDa1974, Nakaha1981a], Ilex latifolia [TakahaTa1956], Ilex oldhami [TakahaTa1956], Ilex othera [Kuwana1923c], Ilex pedunculosa [Kuwana1923c], Ilex rotunda [Kuwana1923c], Ilex serrata [TakahaTa1956]. Araceae: Aglaonema [Jansen1995, NakahaMi1981, Kondo2008], Aglaonema commutatum pseudobracteatum [NakahaMi1981], Aglaonema costatum [MatileEt2006], Aglaonema modestum [Nakaha1981a], Aglaonema pictum [GimpelMiDa1974], Aglaonema tricolor [HamonWi1984], Anthurium [Nakaha1981a], Anthurium andraeanum [GimpelMiDa1974, Nakaha1981a], Dieffenbachia [Nakaha1981a], Epipremnum pinnatum [WilliaWa1990], Rhaphidophora [HodgsoLa2011], Syngonium [Nakaha1981a], Zantedeschia [Nakaha1981a]. Araliaceae: Aralia [QinGu1994], Aralia elegantissima [HamonWi1984], Brassaia actinophylla [Brimbl1956a, Nakaha1981a], Dizygotheca elegantissima [GimpelMiDa1974], Fatsia japonica [Kuwana1923c], Hedera helix [Brimbl1956a, GimpelMiDa1974], Meryta angustifolia [WilliaWa1990], Philodendron [Kondo2008], Polyscias guilfoylei [WilliaWa1990], Schefflera [WilliaWa1990], Schefflera actinophylla [BenDovMaGa2000]. Araliceae: Philodendron gigantium [GimpelMiDa1974]. Arecaceae [Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930], Cocos nucifera [WilliaWa1990], Monstera deliciosa [WilliaWa1990]. Aspleniaceae: Asplenium [Kirkal1902, Nakaha1981a], Asplenium australasicum [QinGu1994], Asplenium nidum [GimpelMiDa1974, Nakaha1981a]. Asteraceae: Artemisia vulgaris [Kuwana1923c], Chrysanthemum sinense [Kuwana1923c], Fitchia [WilliaWa1990], Gerbera [WilliaWa1990], Gerbera jamesonii [Brimbl1956a], Helianthus [GimpelMiDa1974]. Berberidaceae: Nandina domestica [Kuwana1923c]. Bischofiaceae: Bischofia javanica [TaoWoCh1983]. Bixaceae: Bixa orellana [Nakaha1981a]. Blechnaceae: Blechnum orientalis [WilliaWa1990]. Buxaceae: Buxus microphylla [GimpelMiDa1974]. Campanulaceae: Siphonodon pendulus [QinGu1994]. Caprifoliaceae: Viburnum [GimpelMiDa1974]. Celastraceae: Celastrus cunninghamii [Brimbl1956a, QinGu1994], Elaeodendron [Brimbl1956a, QinGu1994], Euonymus alata [Kuwana1923c], Euonymus europaeus [Kuwana1923c], Euonymus japonicus [Kuwana1923c]. Clusiaceae: Calophyllum [Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989], Calophyllum inophyllum [Ali1971, GimpelMiDa1974, WilliaWa1990], Calophyllum tomentosum [Green1909a, Ali1971], Garcinia myrtifolia [HodgsoLa2011], Garcinia spicata [Green1909a, Green1937, Ali1971], Garcinia subelliptica [TaoWoCh1983], Montrouziera [WilliaWa1990]. Cucurbitaceae [WilliaWa1990]. Cunoniaceae: Weinmannia rarotongensis [WilliaWa1990]. Cycadaceae: Cycas revoluta [Green1909a, Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, Green1937, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989], Cycas sp. [GimpelMiDa1974, GermaiMiPa2014]. Davalliaceae: Arthropteris palisotii [WilliaWa1990], Davallia [WilliaWa1990]. Dicksoniaceae: Cibotium [GimpelMiDa1974, Nakaha1981a]. Ebenaceae: Diospyros digyna [QinGu1994], Diospyros kaki [GimpelMiDa1974]. Elaeocarpaceae: Elaeocarpus bifidus [Nakaha1981a]. Ericaceae: Rhododendron indicum [Kuwana1923c]. Euphorbiaceae: Euphorbia [QinGu1994], Euphorbia heterophylla [Brimbl1956a], Euphorbia pulcherrima [WilliaWa1990]. Fabaceae: Acacia [GimpelMiDa1974, QinGu1994], Cytisus scoparius [Kuwana1923c], Dioclea violacea [Nakaha1981a], Inocarpus fagifer [WilliaWa1990], Palaquium formosanum [Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983], Spartium junceum [Kuwana1923c]. Gleicheniaceae: Dicranopteris flexuosa [NakahaMi1981], Gleichenia [WilliaWa1990]. Heliconiaceae: Heliconia [WilliaWa1990]. Hernandiaceae: Hernandia peltata [WilliaWa1990]. Hypoxidaceae: Curculigo capitulata [MatileEt2006], Molineria recurvata [Nakaha1981a]. Lauraceae: Cinnamomum [Green1909a, Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, DeLott1965a, Ali1971], Cinnamomum ceylonicum [Ali1971], Cinnamomum pedunculatum [Kuwana1923c], Cinnamomum zeylanicum [DeLott1965a], Cryptocarya triplinervis [QinGu1994], Laurus nobilis [TakahaTa1956], Lindera citriodora [Kuwana1923c], Machilus thunbergii [TakahaTa1956], Persea americana [Brimbl1956a, Nakaha1981a, WilliaBu1987], Persea gratissima [Ali1971]. Lecythidaceae: Barringtonia butonica [WilliaWa1990], Barringtonia racemosa [DeLott1965a, GimpelMiDa1974, Nakaha1981a]. Lomariopsidaceae: Elaphoglossum reticulatum [Zimmer1948, Nakaha1981a]. Loranthaceae: Loranthus [GimpelMiDa1974]. Magnoliaceae: Illicium anisatum [Kuwana1923c], Magnolia salicifolia [GimpelMiDa1974]. Malvaceae: Hibiscus tiliaceus [WilliaWa1990]. Melastomataceae: Astronidium robustum [WilliaWa1990]. Monimiaceae: Wilkiea macrophylla [Brimbl1956a]. Moraceae: Artocarpus [Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989], Artocarpus altilis [Nakaha1981a], Artocarpus integra [WilliaWa1990], Cudrania javanesis [GimpelMiDa1974], Ficus [Kirkal1902, Green1937, Nakaha1981a], Ficus benjamina [Brimbl1956a], Ficus carica [Brimbl1956a], Ficus foveolata [Kuwana1923c], Ficus hillii [Brimbl1956a], Ficus indica [Brimbl1956a], Ficus montana [WilliaMi2010], Ficus prolixa [WilliaWa1990], Morus alba [Kuwana1923c, Brimbl1956a]. Musaceae: Musa nana [Brimbl1956a], Musa paradisiaca [WilliaWa1990, QinGu1994]. Myristicaceae: Myristica cagayanensis [TaoWoCh1983], Myristica fragrans [WilliaWa1990], Myristica heterophylla [Ali1971]. Myrsinaceae: Ardisia humilis [WilliaWa1990], Ardisia japonica [Kuwana1923c], Myrsine [Nakaha1981a], Rapanea crassifolia [WilliaWa1990]. Myrtaceae: Agonis flexuosa [Brimbl1956a], Callistemon [QinGu1994], Callistemon viminalis [QinGu1994], Eucalyptus [Brimbl1956a, Nakaha1981a], Eucalyptus globulus [Kuwana1923c], Eugenia [Green1909a, Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, Ali1971, Nakaha1981a, QinGu1994], Eugenia australis [QinGu1994], Eugenia coolminiana [Brimbl1956a], Eugenia cumini [WilliaWa1990], Eugenia jambolana [WilliaWa1990], Eugenia jambos [Ali1971, Nakaha1981a, QinGu1994], Eugenia javanica [TaoWoCh1983], Eugenia malaccensis [Nakaha1981a], Eugenia smithii [Brimbl1956a, QinGu1994], Eugenia uniflora [Brimbl1956a], Eugenia ventenatii [Brimbl1956a], Feijoa sellowiana [WilliaWa1990], Melaleuca [Laing1933, WilliaWa1990, QinGu1994], Melaleuca bracteata [QinGu1994], Melaleuca leucadendra [Brimbl1956a, QinGu1994], Melaleuca nodosa [Brimbl1956a], Melaleuca quinquenervia [QinGu1994], Melaleuca viridflora [Brimbl1956a, QinGu1994], Metrosideros [Nakaha1981a], Metrosideros collina [GimpelMiDa1974, Nakaha1981a], Pimenta officinalis [WilliaWa1990], Psidium guajava [Brimbl1956a, Ali1971, GimpelMiDa1974, ShafeeYoKh1989, QinGu1994], Psidium guineense [QinGu1994], Rhodomyrtus tomentosa [GimpelMiDa1974, QinGu1994], Syzygium [BenDovMaGa2000], Syzygium cumins [QinGu1994], Syzygium moorei [QinGu1994]. Nyctaginaceae: Bougainvillea [Nakaha1981a]. Oleaceae: Ligustrum japonicum [Kuwana1923c], Olea verrucosa [WilliaWa1990]. Oleandraceae: Nephrolepis exaltata [QinGu1994]. Orchidaceae: Grammatophyllum [GimpelMiDa1974], Stanhopea [Nakaha1981a]. Peperomiaceae: Peperomia [Nakaha1981a]. Phyllanthaceae: Antidesma [Nakaha1981a]. Pinaceae: Pinus [Nakaha1981a], Pinus caribaea [WilliaWa1990], Pinus densiflora [Kuwana1923c], Pinus elliotti [Brimbl1956a], Pinus montezumae [Brimbl1956a], Pinus parviflora [GimpelMiDa1974], Pinus radiata [Brimbl1956a], Pinus sinensis [Maskel1897a], Pinus taeda [Brimbl1956a, QinGu1994], Pinus thunbergii [Maskel1897a]. Piperaceae: Macropiper excelsum [WilliaWa1990], Piper [WilliaWa1990]. Pittosporaceae: Pittosporum [QinGu1994, Nakaha1981a], Pittosporum bracteolatum [WilliaWa1990], Pittosporum tobira [Kuwana1923c], Pittosporum undulatum [Brimbl1956a]. Poaceae: Tristania conferta [QinGu1994]. Polygonaceae: Coccoloba uvifera [WilliaWa1990]. Polypodiaceae: Belvisia [WilliaWa1990], Phymatodes scolopendria [DeLott1965a], Platycerium bifurcatum [Brimbl1956a], Polypodium [GimpelMiDa1974]. Pteridaceae: Acrostichum [Mamet1943a], Acrostichum aureum [WilliaWa1990]. Punicaceae: Punica granatum [Brimbl1956a]. Rhizophoraceae: Rhizophora [GimpelMiDa1974]. Rosaceae: Chaenomeles [GimpelMiDa1974], Eriobotrya japonica [Kuwana1923c], Malus [GimpelMiDa1974], Malus sylvestris [Brimbl1956a], Photinia glabra [Kuwana1923c], Prunus domestica [Kuwana1923b], Prunus mume [Kuwana1923c], Pyrus communis [Ali1971], Pyrus serotina [Kuwana1923c], Spiraea thunbergii [TakahaTa1956]. Rubiaceae: Coffea [DanzigKo1990], Coffea arabica [Brimbl1956a], Gardenia [Brimbl1956a, Nakaha1981a], Gardenia jasminoides [GimpelMiDa1974, Nakaha1981a], Gardenia taitensis [Nakaha1981a], Gouldia [Nakaha1981a], Ixora [Brimbl1956a, NakahaMi1981], Ixora coccinea [NakahaMi1981], Paederia tomentosa [Kuwana1923c], Psychotria [Green1909a, Ali1971], Randia fitzalanii [Brimbl1956a], Randia tahitensis [WilliaWa1990], Straussia [Nakaha1981a]. Rutaceae [DanzigKo1990], Citrus [Ferris1921a, Ferris1950a, Ali1971, Nakaha1981a, QinGu1994, SmithBeBr1997], Citrus [Hall1924a, KomuraMiMi1982, ShafeeYoKh1989], Citrus aurantifolia [WilliaBu1987, WilliaWa1990], Citrus deliciosa [GimpelMiDa1974], Citrus limon [Brimbl1956a, WilliaWa1990, QinGu1994], Citrus paradisi [Brimbl1956a, DanzigKo1990, WilliaWa1990], Citrus reticulata [Brimbl1956a, GimpelMiDa1974, QinGu1994, Nakaha1981a], Citrus sinensis [Brimbl1956a, Newste1917b, WilliaWa1990], Citrus unshiu [TakahaTa1956], Eremocitrus glauca [Brimbl1956a], Evodia littoralis [WilliaWa1990], Flindersia australis [Brimbl1956a], Flindersia bennettiana [Brimbl1956a], Flindersia bourjotiana [Brimbl1956a], Flindersia brayleyana [Brimbl1956a], Flindersia schottiana [Brimbl1956a], Pelea [Nakaha1981a], Poncirus trifoliata [Kuwana1923c]. Santalaceae: Exocarpos phyllanthoides [WilliaWa1990]. Sapindaceae: Cupaniopsis serrata [Brimbl1956a], Dimocarpus longa [QinGu1994], Euphoria longana [Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983], Litchi [GimpelMiDa1974, DanzigKo1990], Litchi chinensis [QinGu1994], Nephelium lappaceum [WilliaWa1990]. Sapotaceae: Calocarpum [GimpelMiDa1974], Pouteria caimito [QinGu1994], Pouteria sericea [QinGu1994]. Schisandraceae: Kadsura japonica [GimpelMiDa1974]. Sinopteridaceae: Aspidotis ficus [QinGu1994], Pellaea [GimpelMiDa1974]. Symplocaceae: Symplocos japonica [Kuwana1923c]. Tamaricaceae: Tamarix chinensis [Kuwana1923c]. Taxaceae: Cephalotaxus [GimpelMiDa1974], Podacarpus [Jansen1995], Podocarpus nageia [Kuwana1923c]. Theaceae: Camellia japonica [GimpelMiDa1974], Camellia rusticans [GimpelMiDa1974], Camellia sasanqua [GimpelMiDa1974], Camellia sinensis [Green1909a, Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, Ali1971, WilliaWa1990, QinGu1994], Camellia sinensis [Green1937, ShafeeYoKh1989], Cleyera ochnacea [TakahaTa1956], Eurya emarginata [Kuwana1923c], Eurya japonica [TakahaTa1956], Eurya ochnacea [Kuwana1923c], Ternstroemia japonica [Kuwana1923c]. Thymelaeaceae: Daphne odora [Kuwana1923c]. Ulmaceae: Celtis [GimpelMiDa1974]. Verbenaceae: Premna [WilliaWa1990]. Zingiberaceae: Alpinia purpurata [GimpelMiDa1974, Nakaha1981a], Zingiber officinale [Nakaha1981a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Kenya [DeLott1965a]; Reunion [GermaiMiPa2014]; Seychelles; South Africa [DeLott1965a, DaneelMeJa1994]; Tanzania [HodgsoPe2012]; Zanzibar [Newste1917b, Mamet1943a, DeLott1965a]. Australasian: Australia [Cocker1896b, Frogga1915, Mamet1943a, DanzigKo1990, QinGu1994] (Australian Capital Territory [QinGu1994], New South Wales [QinGu1994, SmithBeBr1997], Northern Territory [QinGu1994], Queensland [QinGu1994, SmithBeBr1997, BenDovMaGa2000], Victoria [QinGu1994], Western Australia [QinGu1994]); Cook Islands; Fiji [HodgsoPe2012]; French Polynesia (Tahiti); Guam; Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii [Kirkal1902, Kirkal1904, Frogga1915, Mamet1943a]). Australasian: Indonesia (Java). Australasian: Kiribati; New Caledonia [Laing1929]; Norfolk Island [QinGu1994]; Northern Mariana Islands [Mamet1943a] (Rota Island, Saipan Island); Palau; Papua New Guinea; Solomon Islands; Vanuatu (=New Hebrides) [WilliaBu1987]; Western Samoa [Kondo2013]. Nearctic: United States of America (Florida). Neotropical: Colombia [Kondo2008]; Guadeloupe [MatileEt2006]; Haiti [PerezG2008]; Martinique [MatileEt2006]; Puerto Rico & Vieques Island (Puerto Rico [NakahaMi1981]). Oriental: China (Hunan [HuHeWa1992], Yunnan [Ferris1950a, Ali1971]); Hong Kong [MartinLa2011]; India [Green1908a, Newste1917b, Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, Mamet1943a, Ali1971, AvasthSh1986, ShafeeYoKh1989] [ShafeeYoKh1989, Kalsho1981] (West Bengal); Malaysia [Ali1971]; Maldives [WatsonOoGi1995]; Philippines [Mamet1943a, Ali1971]; Ryukyu Islands (=Nansei Shoto) [KinjoNaHi1996]; Sri Lanka [Green1909a, Frogga1915, Green1937, Mamet1943a, Ali1971]; Taiwan [Ferris1921a, Mamet1943a, Ali1971, WongChCh1999]; Thailand [Ali1971]; Vietnam [DanzigKo1990]. Palaearctic: China [Mamet1943a] (Henan (=Honan) [HuHeWa1992], Shanxi (=Shansi) [Xie1998], Xizang (=Tibet)); Egypt [Hall1924a]; Hungary [KozarKoFe2013]; Japan [Frogga1915, Kuwana1917, Mamet1943a, KomuraMiMi1982]; South Korea.

BIOLOGY: Life history in Japan studied by Kuwana (1923a, 1923c). Smith et al. (1997) reported 2 generations per year in Queensland and Northern Territory, Australia. Tanaka (1953) evaluated the suitability of 15 cultivars of potatoes for laboratory rearing of this wax scale. Ohgushi & Nishino (1975) studied the life tables in Japan. Mitsuhashi et al. (1956) described several methods for distinguishing between dead and live scale after treatment with hydrogen cyanide. Biology and pest status on coffee presented by Le Pelley (1968). Loch & Zalucki (1996; 1997; 1998) studied various aspects of the outbreaks on umbrella trees, Schefflera actinophylla in south-eastern Queensland, Australia.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Zimmerman (1948), Gimpel et al. (1974), Tao et al. (1983), Hamon & Williams (1984) and by Williams & Watson (1990), Tang (1991) and by Ben-Dov et al. (2001).

STRUCTURE: Colour photograph of external appearance of live, adult female by Kawai (1980, Fig. 6.59), Hamon & Williams (1984), Wong et al. (1988) and by Kondo (2008).

SYSTEMATICS: GeneBank Accession No. AB439530 (Yokogawa & Yahara, 2009). Ben-Dov et al. (2001) revised and evaluated earlier taxonomic descriptions of the adult female and provided an updated taxonomic description. Deng, et al. (2012) determined DNA COI barcoding sequences for six Chinese Ceroplastes species. Ceroplastes rubens generated a distinct COI sequence. GenBank Accessions JQ795609-JQ795722. 28S DNA sequences: GenBank Accessions JQ795495-JQ795608.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: A major pest of citrus in Australia (Sabine, 1969), Hawaii and Japan (Ebeling, 1959). Gimpel et al. (1974). Loch & Zalucki (1996; 1997; 1998) studied various aspects of the outbreaks on umbrella trees, Schefflera actinophylla in south-eastern Queensland, Australia.

KEYS: Mohammad & Moharum 2013: 146-148 (female) [Key to species and subspecies of family coccidae in Egypt]; Fetyk & Kozr 2012: 293 (female) [Key to species of Ceroplastes in the Palaearctic Region based on slide-mounted adult females]; Hodgson & Peronti 2012: 90. Notes: Key to adult females of Ceroplastes rubens-group; Lee et al. 2012: 159-160 (female) [Key to the wax tests of adult females Ceroplastes in Korea]; Lee et al. 2012: 160 (female) [Key to slide mounted adult females Ceroplastes in Korea]; Hodson et al. 2009: 102-104 (female) [Ceroplastes species of South Africa]; Hodges 2002b: 208 (female) [Ceroplastes species of Florida]; Tang 1991: 297 (female) [China]; Williams & Watson 1990: 65 (female) [Tropical South Pacific]; Hamon & Williams 1984: 18 (female) [USA, Florida]; Tao et al. 1983: 93 (female) [Taiwan]; Kawai 1980: 166 (female) [Japan]; Gimpel et al. 1974: 19 (female) [USA]; Beardsley 1966: 480 (female) [Micronesia]; Borchsenius 1957: 451 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Green 1909a: 273-274 (female) [Ceylon].

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [host, distribution: 18]; AvasthSh1986 [taxonomy: 334]; BalciuBuPu1995 [biological control: 247-267]; Bartle1978 [economic importance, biological control, host, distribution: 58-59]; Beards1966 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 480,482]; Beatti1993 [taxonomy: 1-19]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 49-51]; BenDovMaGa2000 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 423-433]; BennetRoCo1976 [economic importance, biological control: 359-395]; Borchs1957 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 468-471]; Boyce1948 [host, distribution, economic importance, control]; Brimbl1956a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 164-166]; Brimbl1962 [host, distribution, economic importance: 225]; Brown1975 [taxonomy: 275]; Butani1979 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 36-40]; CABI1960b [distribution: 1-2]; Chou1947a [chemical control: 37]; Clause1958 [biological control: 291-310]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 331]; Cocker1898r [distribution: 240]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 394]; Daneel2001a [host, distribution, economic importance, life history, chemical control, biological control: 214-216]; DaneelMeJa1994 [host, distribution: 72]; DanzigKo1990 [host, distribution: 43]; DeBach1958a [biological control: 759-768]; DeitzTo1980 [taxonomy: 30-31]; Dekle2001 [host, distribution, taxonomy, life history, economic importance: 237]; DeLott1965a [host, distribution: 187]; DengYuZh2012 [distribution, molecular data, taxonomy: 791-796]; DoaneFe1916 [host, distribution: 399]; Ebelin1959 [taxonomy, host, distribution, economic importance]; ElliotOhWy1998 [host, distribution, economic importance]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 156]; Ferris1921a [host, distribution: 212]; Ferris1950a [host, distribution: 75]; FetykoKo2012 [distribution, taxonomy: 291-295]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 422-423]; FrohliRo1970 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-10]; Gahan1926 [host, distribution, biological control: 24]; GermaiMiPa2014 [distribution, host: 22]; GillKo1997 [economic importance, host, distribution: 161-163]; GimpelMiDa1974 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 57-62]; Green1900c [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 8-9]; Green1908a [distribution: 32]; Green1909a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 273-274]; Green1937 [host, distribution: 310]; GroveDeDa2013 [distribution, host: 378]; Hall1924a [host, distribution: 26]; HamonWi1984 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history, economic importance, biological control: 30-32]; Hawkin1994 [biological control: 3]; Hodges2002b [taxonomy: 208]; HodgsoHe2000 [taxonomy: 192]; HodgsoLa2011 [host, distribution: 19]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 93-96,242]; HodgsoWiGi2009 [taxonomy: 102-104]; HuHeWa1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 184]; Hui1988 [biological control: 395-398]; Ishii1923 [host, distribution, biological control: 69-114]; Jansen1995 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 133]; JiangGu1983 [host, distribution, biological control: 249-250]; Kalsho1981 [description, distribution, host: 164]; Kato1964 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 61-64]; Kawai1972 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 11]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 169]; KimMoPa1979 [host, distribution, biological control: 107-110]; KinjoNaHi1996 [host, distribution: 126]; Kiritc1932a [taxonomy: 248-]; Kirkal1902 [host, distribution: 104]; Kirkal1904 [taxonomy, distribution: 228]; KomuraMiMi1982 [taxonomy, host, distribution, structure: 3053-3054]; Kondo2008 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 66-68]; Kondo2010 [host, distribution: 41-44]; Kondo2013 [distribution, host: 45]; Kono1932 [chemistry, structure, distribution, economic importance: 1150-1160]; KozarKoFe2013 [distribution, taxonomy: 52]; KozarWa1985 [catalogue: 76]; Krull2004 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 1-211]; KrullBa2005 [biological control: 323-329]; Kuwana1909 [host, distribution: 153]; Kuwana1917 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 65-67]; Kuwana1923 [life history, host, distribution]; Kuwana1923b [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history, biological control: 18-34]; Laing1927 [host, distribution: 37]; Laing1933 [host, distribution: 676]; LeeWuSu2012 [distribution, host: 158]; LePell1968 [host, distribution, economic importance]; LinGuCo2010 [host plant, species richness: 90-98]; Loch1997 [biological control, host, distribution: 303-306]; LochZa1996 [life history, ecology, economic importance, host, distribution: 599-609]; LochZa1997 [life history, ecology, economic importance, host, distribution: 399-407]; LochZa1998 [life history, ecology, economic importance, host, distribution, biological control: 328-334]; MalipaDuSm2000 [biological control: 60,67]; Mamet1943a [host, distribution: 151]; MartinLa2011 [catalogue, distribution: 34]; Maskel1893b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 214-215]; Maskel1895a [host, distribution: 12]; Maskel1897 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 309]; MatileEt2006 [host, distribution: 164]; MillerRuPa2014 [catalogue: 65]; MitsuhYaNa1956 [chemistry, economic importance: 162-170]; MohammGh2008 [distribution: 149]; MohammMo2013 [illustration, taxonomy: 146, 151]; Mohara1990 [taxonomy: 48]; Morris1920 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 188]; Nakaha1981a [host, distribution: 389]; NakahaMi1981 [host, distribution: 29-30]; Newste1917b [host, distribution: 129]; Ohgush1956 [biological control: 183-186]; Ohgush1986a [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 59-62]; Ohgush1986b [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 147-149]; Ohgush1987a [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 82-85]; Ohgush1988 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 75-77]; OhgushNi1975 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 1-21]; Paik1978 [host, distribution, economic importance]; ParidaMo1982 [taxonomy: 19]; PerezG2008 [distribution: 212]; QinGu1994 [taxonomy: 937-941]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 302]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; Ramakr1919a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 30]; Ramakr1921a [host, distribution: 346]; Ramakr1930 [illustration, host, distribution: 40]; RossHaOk2012 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 199]; Roush1981 [biological control: 97-105]; Sabine1969 [chemical control: 83-88]; ShafeeYoKh1989 [host, distribution: 48]; SinhaDi1984 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 11]; Smith1974 [host, distribution, chemical control: 225-226]; SmithBeBr1997 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance, biological control: 53-55]; Stimme1987 [host, distribution: 9-10]; Su1982 [distribution: 61]; Sweetm1958 [biological control, economic importance: 449-458]; Takagi2003b [host, distribution, biological control: 351-355]; Takaha1928 [host, distribution: 345]; Takaha1929 [host, distribution: 67]; Takaha1932a [host, distribution: 104]; Takaha1936c [host, distribution: 117]; Takaha1939b [host, distribution: 264]; Takaha1942b [host, distribution: 30]; Takaha1952 [host, distribution: 17]; TamakiKa1967 [chemistry, structure: 63-69]; Tanaka1953 [illustration, host, distribution: 55,58]; Tang1977 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 96-97]; Tang1984b [host, distribution: 128]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 300-301]; Tao1978 [host, distribution: 79]; Tao1989 [host, distribution: 59]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 52]; TaoChYa2003 [host, distribution, biological control: 38-41]; TaoWoCh1983 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 94-97]; Varshn1994 [host, distribution: 341]; VarshnMo1987 [host, distribution: 172]; Wang1980 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 20-22]; Wang1981TC [host, distribution: 288]; Watana1958 [host, distribution, biological control, economic importance: 515-517]; Waterh1997 [host, distribution, economic importance: 156-171]; WatsonOoGi1995 [host, distribution: 57]; WenLuHa2002 [host, distribution: 56-64]; WilliaBu1987 [host, distribution: 93]; WilliaMi2010 [host, fistribution: 45]; WilliaWa1990 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 76-78]; WongChCh1999 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 10,47]; XiaZhSu2005 [host, distribution, biological control: 439-442]; Xie1998 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 40-42]; XieXuZh2004a [chemistry: 512-518]; XieXuZh2005a [taxonomy, wax, infra-red: 133-143]; XieXuZh2006a [morphology, wax secretion, chemistry: 21-153]; XuHe1997 [host, distribution, biological control: 91-94]; Yang1982 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 187]; Yasuma1953 [life history, biological control, distribution: 17-26]; Yasuma1953a [biological control, host, distribution, life history: 7-15]; Yasuma1969 [biological control: 773-780]; YasumaNa1957 [life history, ecology: 203-219]; YokogaYa2009 [molecular data, phylogeny, genebank: 57-66]; ZchoriBePo2005 [endosymbionts, Cardinium: 211-221]; ZengWaCh1990 [biological control: 93]; Zimmer1948 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 343-347].



Ceroplastes rufus De Lotto

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes rufus De Lotto, 1966b: 143. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Cape Province, Bitterfontein, on Ruschia sp. Holotype female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female.

Cerostegia rufa; De Lotto, 1969b: 215. Change of combination.



HOST: Aizoaceae: Ruschia [DeLott1966b, DeLott1969b, Hodgso1994a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [DeLott1966b, DeLott1969b, Hodgso1994a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by De Lotto (1966b; 1969b) and by Hodgson (1994a).

STRUCTURE: "Test of young adult female rounded, low convex, with dorsal and lateral plates poorly marked; colour reddish brown with a large elongate opaque white boss on the centre of the dorsum; wax very soft." (De Lotto, 1966b).

SYSTEMATICS: De Lotto (1966b) suggested that this species is close to C. rubens (Maskell) but it is not clear why he thought this. They are unique in having the following combination of characters: (i) roundly convex stigmatic setae extending around most of the margin, mainly in a double band, the more dorsal setae largest (C. singularis Newstead also has stigmatic setae all around margin but they are more sharply pointed and not in this arrangement); (ii) ventral tubular ducts in a sparse submarginal band (De Lotto (1966b) stated that their frequency varied greatly between specimens); submarginal bands of tubular ducts are also found in C. deceptrix, C. madagascariensis, and C. rusticus; (iii) the shape and structure of the anal process - with a small area of sclerotisation (but which might be much larger in older specimens), and with the body margin extending to the apex of the anal process; (iv) only 6 dorsal clear areas; (v) very reduced legs (also known in C. brevicauda, C. destructor, C. luteolus, C. reunionensis and C. rubens), (vi) rather pointed dorsal setae, and (vii) 7- or 8-segmented antennae (although some other specimens might not have complete pseudoarticulations and thus appear 6 segmented). (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

KEYS: Hodgson et al. 2009: 102-104 (female) [Ceroplastes species of South Africa].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 51]; DeLott1966b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 143-144]; DeLott1969b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 215-216]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 170]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 96-98,242]; HodgsoWiGi2009 [taxonomy: 102-104]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549].



Ceroplastes rusci (Linnaeus)

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus rusci Linnaeus, 1758: 456. Type data: ITALY: Apulia, on Myrtus and Ruscus. Described: female. Notes: Type material probably lost; D.J. Williams, 1990, Personal communication to Yair Ben-Dov. Neotype designated by Hodgson & Peronti, 2012: labelled Ceroplastes rusci (L.), Italy, Legnaro, on Ficus carica, 6/29/2007, G. Pellizzari (BMNH): 1/4 (good; neotype specimen labelled and arrowed,left-hand specimen closest to collection-data label (left); remaining specimens good).

Coccus caricae Fabricius, 1794: 225. Type data: GALLIA [=FRANCE]: on Ficus carica. Syntypes, female. Synonymy by Fonscolombe, 1834: 205. Notes: Type material lost (Zimsen, 1964).

Coccus artemisiae Rossi, 1794: 56. Type data: ITALY: on twigs of Artemisia sp. Syntypes, female. Synonymy by Signoret, 1872a: 37. Notes: Type material probably lost (Ben-Dov, 1993).

Calypticus radiatus Costa, 1829: 12. Type data: ITALY: Livedia, near Capo di Bova, on oleander. Syntypes, female. Synonymy by Signoret, 1869: 871. Notes: Type material probably lost (G. Pellizzari Scaltriti, 1990, personal communication).

Calypticus testudineus Costa, 1829: 12. Type data: ITALY: on seven host plants, including myrtle, oleander and fig. Syntypes, female. Synonymy by Signoret, 1869a: 870. Notes: Type material probably lost (G. Pellizzari Scaltriti, 1990, personal communication).

Coccus hydatis Costa, 1829: 14. Type data: ITALY: on oleander. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Synonymy by Signoret, 1869: 871. Notes: Type material probably lost: G. Pellizzari Scaltriti, 1990, personal communication to Yair Ben-Dov.

Coccus mirti Costa, O.G., 1829: 7. Nomen nudum; discovered by Williams & Ben-Dov, 2009: 32.

Lecanium rusci; Walker, 1852: 1072. Change of combination.

Lecanium radiatum; Walker, 1852: 1078. Change of combination.

Lecanium testudineum; Walker, 1852: 1078. Change of combination.

Columnea testudiniformis Targioni Tozzetti, 1866: 142. Unjustified replacement name; discovered by Ben-Dov, 1993: 52.

Columnea caricae; Targioni Tozzetti, 1867: 12. Change of combination.

Chermes caricae; Boisduval, 1867: 320. Change of combination. Notes: Author incorrectly cited.

Columnea testudinata Targioni Tozzetti, 1868: 35. Unjustified replacement name; discovered by Ben-Dov, 1993: 52.

Calypticus hydatis; Signoret, 1869: 871. Change of combination.

Ceroplastes rusci; Signoret, 1872a: 35. Change of combination.

Lecanium artemisiae; Signoret, 1872a: 37. Change of combination.

Ceroplastes denudatus Cockerell, 1893f: 82. Type data: ANTIGUA: on Annona muricata. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Synonymy by Nakahara, 1978: 657.

Ceroplastes nerii Newstead, 1897: 101. Type data: ALGERIA: Constantine, on Nerium oleander. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Synonymy by Borchsenius, 1957: 455.

Coccus caricae; Fernald, 1903b: 156. Notes: Author incorrectly cited.

Ceroplastes rusci Borg, 1919: 37. Unjustified emendation. Notes: As Lecanium oleae Bernard.

Ceroplastes cirripediformis; Borg, 1919: 40. Misidentification.

Ceroplastes quadrilineatus simplex Brain, 1920a: 33. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Cape Province, Victoria West, on Rhus sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female.

Ceroplastes simplex De Lotto, 1965a: 187. Homonym of Ceroplastes simplex Hempel, 1900.

Ceroplastes fumidus De Lotto, 1978: 138. Replacement name for Ceroplastes simplex De Lotto, 1965a; synonymy by Hodgson & Peronti, 2012: 135-142.

Ceroplastes reusci; Bahder et al., 2013: 1293. Misspelling of species name.

COMMON NAMES: donagit hateena; fig wax scale [BenDov1993]; kermes du figuier [BenDov1993]; qenimat shaava shel hateena.



ASSOCIATE: VIRUS Closteroviridae: Ampelovirus GLRaV-3 [BahderPoAl2013].

FOES: COLEOPTERA Nitidulidae: Cybocephalus assiduous Kirejtshuk & Fallahzadeh [KirejtFa2008]. FUNGI : Oospora saccardiana Berlese [Berles1905]. HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Coccophagus lycimnia (Walker) [SengonUyKa1998]. Encyrtidae: Anicetus sp. Howard [BasheeAsRa2014], Metaphycus sp. [BasheeAsRa2014], Paraceraptrocerus italicus Masi [ArgyriStMo1976]. Eulophidae: Aprostocetus toddaliae (Risbec) [FallahNaSh2006]. Pteromalidae: Scutellista caerulae [BadaryAb2011], Scutellista cyaneae Motschulski [ArgyriStMo1976].

HOSTS: Anacardiaceae: Mangifera indica [CarnerPe1986], Pistacia lentiscus [Bodenh1928, GomezM1954, GomezM1958b, BenDov1970], Pistacia palestina [BenDov2012], Pistacia terebinthus [GomezM1954, GomezM1958b, Marott1987], Rhus [Brain1920a], Rhus coriaria [Marott1987], Rhus viminalis [Brain1920a], Schinus [Hall1922, EzzatHu1969], Schinus molle [Bodenh1928, GomezM1958b, CarnerPe1986], Schinus terebinthifolius [Bodenh1924, BenDov1970], Spondias purpurea [LincanHoCa2010]. Annonaceae: Annona [Nakaha1983], Annona cherimolia [Borg1932, GomezM1948, GomezM1958b, CarnerPe1986], Annona muricata [Nakaha1983], Annona squamosa [Nakaha1983]. Apocynaceae: Nerium oleander [Bodenh1924, Balach1927, Melis1930, Aziz1977, Marott1987, KozarPaPa1991, UygunSeEr1998], Thevetia peruviana [BenDov1970]. Aquifoliaceae: Ilex aquifolium [Marott1987]. Araliaceae: Hedera helix [Bodenh1924, BenDov1970, UygunSeEr1998]. Arecaceae: Chamaerops humilis [Marott1987], Cocos [Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995], Phoenix [Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995]. Asteraceae: Argyranthemum frutescens [Lindin1911a, CarnerPe1986], Artemisia [CarnerPe1986], Artemisia monosperma [BenDov2012]. Balsaminaceae: Impatiens sultani [CarnerPe1986]. Boraginaceae: Cordia lutea [LincanHoCa2010], Cordia myxa [BenDov1970]. Buxaceae: Buxus balearica [Balach1939]. Cannaceae: Canna sp. [BenDov2012]. Clusiaceae: Psorospermum [Hodgso1994a], Psorospermum febrifugum [Hall1931, Hodgso1969]. Combretaceae: Laguncularia racenosa [LincanHoCa2010]. Convolvulaceae: Convolvulus [Marott1987], Ipomoea [Borg1932], Ipomoea batatas [Nakaha1983]. Cyperaceae: Cyperus [Hall1922], Cyperus communis [CarnerPe1986], Cyperus flabelliformis [BenDov1970]. Ebenaceae: Euclea [DeLott1978], Euclea schimperi [Hodgso1969]. Ericaceae: Arbutus unedo [Balach1931a]. Euphorbiaceae: Codiaeum variagatum [Hodgso1994a], Euphorbia longan [CarnerPe1986]. Fabaceae: Albizia [KozarPaPa1991], Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. [Kumar2013], Phaseolus caracalla [Borg1932], Tamarindus [GomezM1958b]. Flacourtiaceae: Flacourtia ramontchii [WilliaMa2009b]. Juncaceae: Juncus acutus [CarnerPe1986]. Lauraceae: Laurus nobilis [UygunSeEr1998], Persea americana [BenDov1970]. Loranthaceae: Loranthus acaciae [BenDov2012]. Lythraceae: Lawsonia inermis [Hall1923]. Malvaceae: Gossypium [CarnerPe1986], Hibiscus rosa-sinensis [LincanHoCa2010]. Moraceae: Ficus [Hall1931, Danzig1972b, Aziz1977, Nakaha1983, Matile1988, KozarPaPa1991, Hodgso1994a], Ficus [Green1917a, Hall1924a, Hodgso1994a, Granar1999], Ficus avi avi [WilliaMa2009b], Ficus benghalensis [Hall1922, BenDov1970], Ficus benjamina [Marott1987, Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995], Ficus carica [Hall1922, Green1923b, Bodenh1926, Balach1927, Balach1939, GomezM1958b, Hodgso1969, BenDov1970], Ficus carica [Bodenh1924, Bodenh1926, Bodenh1935, Bodenh1944a, KhasawTa1964, KfirRo1980, Argyri1983, BenDov1993], Ficus carica [Lindin1911a, Borg1932, Inserr1971, Granar1999], Ficus dekdekena [Hodgso1994a], Ficus elastica [Marott1987], Ficus indica [Marott1987], Ficus infectoria [Hall1922, Bodenh1924], Ficus macrophylla [Balach1927], Ficus nitida [Balach1927, GomezM1958b, EzzatHu1969], Ficus obliqua [BenDov1970], Ficus pseudosycomorus [Hall1922], Ficus religiosa [Kumar2013], Ficus retusa [BenDov1970], Ficus rubiginosa [BenDov1970], Ficus sycomorus [Hall1923, Bodenh1924, Hall1927b, BenDov1970], Morus alba [BenDov1970], Morus nigra [Marott1987]. Musaceae: Musa [Hall1924a], Musa cavendishi [Marott1987], Musa sapientum [Hall1922]. Myrtaceae: Myrtus [Bodenh1928], Myrtus communis [Balach1930, Balach1931a, Balach1933e, BenDov1970, Aziz1977, Marott1987, UygunSeEr1998], Psidium guajava [Hall1922, Hall1924a, EzzatHu1969, BenDov1970], Psydium sp. [Kumar2013], Syzygium sp. [Kumar2013]. Ochnaceae: Ochna ciliata [WilliaMa2009b]. Pinaceae: Cedrus deodora [MazzeoLoRu1994]. Piperaceae: Piper [Hall1924a], Piper nigrum [GomezM1958b]. Pittosporaceae: Pittosporum [Balach1927, KozarPaPa1991], Pittosporum tobira [Marott1987]. Platanaceae: Platanus orientalis [GomezM1946, GomezM1948, GomezM1958b, BenDov1970]. Proteaceae: Grevillea robusta [BenDov1970]. Punicaceae: Punica granatum [Bodenh1926]. Ranunculaceae: Clematis cirrhosa [BenDov2012]. Rhamnaceae: Ziziphus mauritiana [Kumara2003]. Rosaceae: Amygdalus communis [PerezGCa1987], Crataegus [Newste1911, Hall1922], Crataegus azarolus [BenDov1970], Cydonia [DeLott1978], Cydonia oblonga [Brain1920a, BenDov1970], Cydonia vulgaris [CarnerPe1986], Mespilus germanica [Marott1987], Prunus dulcis [CarnerPe1986], Pyrus communis [Borg1932, BenDov1970]. Rubiaceae: Pavetta [DeLott1978]. Ruscaceae: Ruscus aculeatus [Marott1987]. Rutaceae: Citrus [Hall1922, Hall1924a, Melis1930, Borg1932, Inserr1971], Citrus aurantium [Bodenh1926, BenDov1970], Citrus grandis [BenDov2012], Citrus limon [Nakaha1983], Citrus paradisi [BenDov1970], Citrus reticulata [BenDov2012]. Salicaceae: Populus alba [Marott1987], Populus deltoides [BenDov1970], Salix [BenDov2012], Salix babylonica [Hall1923]. Santalaceae: Osyris alba [KozarPaPa1991]. Sapindaceae: Dodonaea viscosa [Hodgso1994a], Litchi chinensis [CarnerPe1986], Nephelium lappaceum [BenDov1970], Sapindus saponaria [Marott1987]. Sapotaceae: Sideroxylon oxyacantha [Hodgso1994a]. Smilacaceae: Smilax aspera [KozarFr1995]. Strelitziaceae: Strelitzia [Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995], Strelitzia reginae [CarnerPe1986]. Umbelliferae: Bupleurum subfructicosum [GomezM1946, GomezM1958b]. Vitaceae: Vitis vinifera [Hall1923, Balach1927, Borg1932, GomezM1958b, BenDov1970].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Angola [Fernan1989]; Cape Verde [VanHarCoWi1990, Hodgso1994a]; Eritrea [Hodgso1994a]; Mali [MuniapWaVa2012]; Sao Tome and Principe [Fernan1993]; South Africa [Brain1920a, DeLott1978]; Tanzania [Newste1911a]; Zimbabwe [Hall1931, Hodgso1969, Hodgso1994a]. Australasian: Indonesia (Irian Jaya). Nearctic: United States of America (Florida [Hodges2002b]). Neotropical: Antigua and Barbuda (Antigua [Cocker1893gg, Mamet1943a, Granar1999]); Argentina (Buenos Aires [Granar1999]); Brazil; Galapagos Islands [CaustoPeSi2006, LincanHoCa2010]; Guadeloupe [MatileEt2006]; Guyana [Newste1917b, Mamet1943a]; Haiti [PerezG2008]; Puerto Rico & Vieques Island (Puerto Rico [Martor1976, NakahaMi1981]); Saint Croix [Beatty1944]; U.S. Virgin Islands. Oriental: India [Kumar2013]; Vietnam [VuEaNg2006]. Palaearctic: Afghanistan [KozarFoZa1996]; Albania [FetykoKo2012]; Algeria [Balach1927, FetykoKo2012]; Azores [Fernan1981, FrancoRuMa2011]; Canary Islands [Lindin1911a, GomezM1967O, LongoMaPe1995, Jansen1995, BenDov2013]; Corsica [Foldi2003]; Crete [Ayouta1940, PellizPoSe2011]; Croatia [Masten2007]; Cyprus [SismanUl2010]; Egypt [Newste1911, Hall1922, Hall1923, Hall1924a, Hall1927b, EzzatHu1969]; France [Balach1930, Balach1931a, Balach1933e, Balach1939, Hodgso1994a]; Greece [Bodenh1928, ArgyriSa1980, Argyri1983, Kozar1985, KozarPaPa1991]; Hungary [FetykoKo2012] (According to Kosztarab (1955) the latest record of this species in Hungary was published in 1883.); Iran [Kaussa1957, KozarFoZa1996, Moghad2009, MoghadTa2010]; Iraq [Bodenh1944a, Aziz1977, KirejtFa2008]; Israel [Bodenh1924, Bodenh1935, Rosen1967, BenDov1970, KfirRo1980, Hodgso1994a]; Italy [Hodgso1969, Hodgso1994a, LongoMaPe1995, Granar1999]; Jordan [new]; Lebanon [Bodenh1926]; Libya [FetykoKo2012]; Madeira Islands [Green1923b, FrancoRuMa2011]; Malta [Borg1932]; Morocco [Vayssi1920, Balach1927, Rungs1970]; Netherlands; Portugal [Seabra1930, Fernan1992, KozarFr1995, CarvalFrAg1996, FrancoRuMa2011]; Sardinia [Melis1930, Pelliz2011]; Saudi Arabia; Sicily [Liotta1970, Inserr1971]; Spain [Balach1935b, GomezM1946, GomezM1948, LongoMaPe1995]; Syria [Bodenh1926]; Tunisia [FetykoKo2012]; Turkey [Tuncyu1970a, UygunSeEr1998, KaydanUlEr2007]; United Kingdom (England [Green1917a]).

BIOLOGY: Khasawinah & Talhouk (1964) studied the biology and phenology in Lebanon. Life history and economic importance in Israel studied by Bodkin (1927). Inserra (1970) studied the phenology and natural enemies on citrus in Sicily, Italy. Develops two generations a year in Greece (Argyriou & Santorini, 1980). Benassy & Franco (1974) observed one annual generation on fig trees in Southern France. A minor pest of citrus in Israel, but occasionally a serious pest (Ben-Dov, 1988). A pest of fig in the Mediterranean region (Bodkin, 1927; Bodenheimer, 1951b; Talhouk, 1959).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson (1969, 1994a) and by Hodgson & Peronti (2012). Description and illustration of the adult male and male nymphal instars (based on material which originated from Kalamata, Greece) by Rainato & Pellizzari (2010). Description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1957) and by Granara de Willink (1999).

STRUCTURE: Adult female with a thick, broadly oval, hemispherical test of quite hard wax; dorsal plate domed, apex with a small depressed oval dark nuclear spot with an elongate pad of white dry wax; marginal area thickened into a series of eight quadrate plates, each with a depressed centre and separated by marginal indentations. Colour generally pale pink, deepening to red at the junction of the marginal area but often almost pure white; usually with numerous fine radiating pinkish lines but these often absent; each marginal nucleus with 1 or more small dry-wax points, plus a line of very white stigmatic wax from each stigmatic area. With wax removed, mature female smoothly globular, margin slightly recurved, particularly anteriorly; venter reddish brown, stigmatic clefts shallow but distinct; caudal process short and stout, extending dorso-posteriorly. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012) Mounted material. Body oval, rather convex, with shallow, stigmatic clefts; dorsum with small indistinct tubercles. Caudal process short and stout. Length 1.3-3.25 (1.9-3.0) mm, total width of mounted specimen 0.9-2.2 (1.0-2.0) mm. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: The record of Ceroplastes rusci in Granara de Willink (1999: 57) as occurring in USA, is incorrect. Dug Miller of USNM (personal communication to Yair Ben-Dov, 4.2.2002) have looked at the slide, upon which Granara de Willink based the record, and found that it was a quarantine lot that was intercepted in Houston, Texas, from Jordan.

KEYS: Mohammad & Moharum 2013: 146-148 (female) [Key to species and subspecies of family coccidae in Egypt]; Hodgson & Peronti 2012: 100 (female, adult) [Key to adult females in the Ceroplastes rusci-group]; Hodgson et al. 2009: 102-104 (female) [Ceroplastes species of South Africa]; Hodgson et al. 2009: 102-104 (female) [as C. fumidus; Ceroplastes species of South Africa]; Hodges 2002b: 208 (female) [Ceroplastes species of Florida]; Mori, Pellizzari & Tosi 2001: 42 (female) [Italy]; Granarara de Willink 1999: 49 (female) [Argentina]; Pellizzari & Camporose 1994: 177 (female) [Ceroplastes species of Mediterranean]; Williams & Watson 1990: 65 (female) [Tropical South Pacific]; Ezzat & Hussein 1969: 371 (female) [Egypt]; Borchsenius 1957: 451 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Cockerell 1895: 8 (female) [Antigua].

CITATIONS: AbouEl2001 [host, distribution, biological control: 185-195]; AksitOzCa2003 [host, distribution: 181-189]; AlAwam2009 [host, distribution, life history, ecology, chemical control: 1-147]; AllahHaHe2000 [chemistry: 103-111]; Argyri1970 [host, distribution, biological control: 57-65]; Argyri1983 [host, distribution: 365]; ArgyriSa1980 [taxonomy, life history, host, distribution: 593-600]; ArgyriStMo1976 [host, distribution, biological control: 23]; Ayouta1940 [host, distribution: 2-4]; Aziz1977 [host, distribution: 46]; BadaryAb2011 [biological control, distribution, host: 51-52]; BahderPoAl2013 [economic importance: 1293]; Balach1927 [host, distribution: 186]; Balach1927a [host, distribution: 72]; Balach1930 [host, distribution: 313]; Balach1931a [host, distribution: 100]; Balach1932d [host, distribution: xxiii]; Balach1933e [host, distribution: 5]; Balach1935b [host, distribution: 264]; Balach1939 [host, distribution: 258]; BasheeAsRa2014 [biological control, distribution, host: 48, 50]; Beatty1944 [host, distribution: 114-172]; Benass1969 [ecology, distribution: 793-799]; BenassBi1963 [life history, ecology, biological control, host, distribution: 213-217]; BenassFr1974 [ecology, host, distribution: 11-39]; BenDov1970 [host, distribution: 87-89, 92]; BenDov1988a [economic importance, host, distribution: 1076]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 36-37,51-54]; BenDov2006a [host, distribution: 206]; BenDov2012 [catalogue, distribution, host: 25, 44]; BenDov2013 [distribution, host: 71]; Berles1905 [host, distribution, biological control: 8-14]; Blanch1883 [chemistry, economic importance: 235-238]; Bodenh1924 [host, distribution: 65-66]; Bodenh1926 [host, distribution: 44]; Bodenh1928 [host, distribution: 192]; Bodenh1935 [host, distribution: 249]; Bodenh1937 [distribution: 219]; Bodenh1944a [host, distribution: 84]; Bodenh1951a [host, distribution, economic importance: 388-389]; Bodenh1953a [host, distribution, economic importance: 112-113]; Bodkin1927 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance, chemical control, biological control: 259-261]; Bolu2012 [biological control: 109]; Borchs1937 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 79]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 154-155]; Borchs1957 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 455-457]; Borg1919 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 37-39]; Borg1932 [host, distribution: 16]; BouhelDeDe1932 [host, distribution, control: 1-60]; Brain1920a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 33-35]; Buchne1965 [taxonomy, structure: 235]; CABI1977 [distribution: 1-2]; CamporPe1994 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 177-180]; Carles1985a [economic importance, host, distribution, chemical control: 56-58]; CarnerPe1986 [host, distribution, biological control: 11-12]; CarvalFrAg1996 [host, distribution: 614]; CaustoPeSi2006 [distribution: 137]; CebeciSe2004 [host, distribution: 208]; Cocker1893gg [distribution: 373]; Cocker1893j [host, distribution: 254]; Cocker1894d [taxonomy: 311]; Cocker1895 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 6,8]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 330-331]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 394]; CorseuBa1971 [host, distribution: 238]; Danzig1972 [host, distribution: 199]; Danzig1972c [host, distribution: 582]; DelGue1906 [host, distribution: 257-263]; DeLott1965a [taxonomy: 187]; DeLott1978 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 138-139]; Delucc1975 [host, distribution, economic importance]; EzzatHu1969 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 386-388]; EzzatNa1987 [distribution: 86]; Fabric1794 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 225]; FallahNaSh2006 [host, distribution, biological control: 44]; FaurotMi1965 [chemistry: 93-97]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 129,151,154-157]; Fernan1973a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history, biological control: 262-265]; Fernan1981 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 48]; Fernan1989 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 129-131]; Fernan1992 [host, distribution: 59]; Fernan1993 [host, distribution: 111]; Foldi2000 [host, distribution: 81]; Foldi2003 [host, distribution: 150]; FoldiCa1985 [structure: 33-50]; FrancoRuMa2011 [distribution: 2,4,22]; FrohliRo1970 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-10]; GantneJaGo2004 [host, distribution: 181-189]; Georgh1977 [host, distribution: 148]; Gertss2008 [taxonomy: 55-58]; GillKo1997 [economic importance, host, distribution: 161-163]; Goeze1778 [taxonomy: 337]; GomezC1950 [biological control, host, distribution: 1-18]; GomezM1937 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history, biological control: 307-313]; GomezM1946 [host, distribution: 91]; GomezM1948 [host, distribution: 88]; GomezM1958b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 122-128]; GomezM1958c [host, distribution: 407]; GomezM1960O [host, distribution: 200]; GomezM1967O [host, distribution: 134]; Granar1999 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 57]; Green1917a [host, distribution: 210]; Green1923b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 88,94-95]; Hall1922 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 17-18]; Hall1923 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 38-39]; Hall1924a [host, distribution: 10]; Hall1927b [host, distribution: 163-165]; Hall1931 [host, distribution: 298]; HamonMa2001 [host, distribution, taxonomy, life history, economic importance: 187]; HernanNiMa2011 [host: 379-380]; Hodges2002b [taxonomy, distribution: 208]; Hodgso1969 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 7-9]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 186-188]; HodgsoHe2000 [taxonomy: 192]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 135-142,242]; HodgsoWiGi2009 [taxonomy: 102-104]; Inserr1971 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 77-97]; IsmailAb2001 [host, distribution, chemical control: 355-364]; Jansen1995 [host, distribution: 134,141]; KaracaErYa2005 [host, distribution, biological control: 372-377]; Katsoy1996 [life history, economic importance, host, distribution, chemical control, biological control: 15,19-21,81-83]; Kaussa1957 [host, distribution: 1]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 91]; KfirRo1980 [host, distribution, biological control: 114]; KhasawTa1964 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history, biological control, economic importance: 113-131]; KirejtFa2008 [host, distribution, biological control: 83-86]; Kiritc1932a [taxonomy: 248]; Koteja1974b [structure: 81]; Kozar1985 [host, distribution: 202]; KozarFoZa1996 [host, distribution: 65]; KozarFr1995 [host, distribution: 71]; KozarKoFe2013 [distribution, taxonomy: 52]; KozarPaPa1991 [host, distribution: 65]; KozarWa1985 [catalogue: 76]; Kumar2013 [biological control, economic importance, host]; LattinOm1983 [distribution, economic importance: 93]; Leonar1920 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 356-361]; LincanHoCa2010 [host, distribution: 4]; Lindin1911a [host, distribution: 33]; Lindin1912b [taxonomy, host, distribution: 68,77,102,154,21]; Linnae1758 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 456]; Linnae1767 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 741]; Liotta1970 [host, distribution, economic importance: 33]; LiottaMiRa1977 [host, economic importance: 29-67]; LongoMaPe1995 [host, distribution: 134,141]; LongoRu1986 [host, distribution, economic importance: 41]; Mamet1943a [host, distribution: 150]; Martin1984MP [host, distribution: 67-68]; Martor1976 [host, distribution: 8,75,118,125,128]; Masten2007 [host, distribution, taxonomy: 1-242]; Matile1988 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 24]; MatileEt2006 [host, distribution: 164]; MazzeoLoRu1994 [host, distribution: 205]; Melis1930 [host, distribution: 14-15]; MillerRuPa2014 [catalogue: 65]; Moghad2009 [host, distribution: 6]; Moghad2013a [distribution, life history: 8]; MoghadTa2010 [host, distribution: 31]; MohammGh2008 [distribution: 149]; MohammMo2013 [illustration, taxonomy: 146, 152]; Monast1962 [biological control, economic importance, description, host, distribution: 129-147]; MoriPeTo2001 [taxonomy: 42]; MorsiMo2004 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 59-64]; MuniapWaVa2012 [distribution, host: 3-6]; Nakaha1978 [taxonomy: 657-658]; Nakaha1983 [host, distribution: 3]; NakahaMi1981 [host, distribution: 30]; Neves1936 [host, distribution: 206-207]; Newste1911 [host, distribution: 97]; Newste1911a [host, distribution: 167]; Newste1917b [host, distribution: 128]; OnderTu1984 [host, distribution, economic importance, control: 200-212]; Paoli1915 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 244-248]; Peleka1962 [host, distribution: 60]; Pelliz2011 [distribution: 311]; PellizCa1994 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 177-180]; PellizPoSe2011 [distribution, host: 294,296]; PerezG2008 [distribution: 212]; PerezGCa1987 [host, distribution: 127]; Picard1919 [host: 3]; PietriBiCo1969 [chemical control: 909-915]; Podsia1983a [host, distribution: 273]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 302]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; RainatPe2010 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 50-62]; Rosen1966 [biological control, host, distribution: 46-48]; Rosen1969 [biological control: 45-53]; Rosen1979 [host, distribution, biological control: 289-292]; Rossi1794 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 56]; Rungs1970 [host, distribution, economic importance: 91-94]; Scorti1987 [host, distribution: 35-40]; Seabra1930 [host, distribution, economic importance: 129-130]; Seabra1941 [distribution: 7]; SengonUyKa1998 [host, distribution, biological control: 128-131]; Signor1869 [taxonomy: 843,847,869,870-872]; Signor1872a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 35-38]; SismanUl2010 [host, distribution: 219-224]; SwirskWyIz2002 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history, economic importance, biological control: 88]; Talhou1969 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 105-106]; Talhou2002 [host, distribution, economic importance: 88-90]; Targio1866 [taxonomy: 142-143]; Targio1867MH [chemistry: 246-247]; Targio1884 [host, distribution: 400-401]; Tranfa1981 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 22-23]; TranfaVi1987a [economic importance: 215-221]; Trembl1988a [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 254]; Tuncyu1970a [host, distribution, economic importance: 67-80]; UlgentCa2004 [host, distribution: 79-84]; UygunSeEr1998 [host, distribution: 183-191]; VanHarCoWi1990 [host, distribution: 133]; Vayssi1920 [host, distribution: 258]; Vicido2007 [host, distribution: 1-7]; VieiraCaPi1983 [host, distribution: 94-95]; Viggia1970a [host, distribution, economic importance: 47-55]; Vilar1951 [host, distribution, taxonomy: 177-181]; Vilar1952 [taxonomy, illustration, host, distribution: 7]; VuEaNg2006 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history, biological control: 196-201]; Walker1852 [taxonomy, distribution: 1072,1078]; WaltonKrSa2009 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-6]; Willia2007b [taxonomy: 454, 427-490]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 9,14,22,26,32,42]; WilliaMa2009b [host, distribution: 118]; WilliaWa1990 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 80]; Wood1962 [biological control, distribution: 8-11]; Woodwo1903 [taxonomy: 33].



Ceroplastes rusticus De Lotto

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes rusticus De Lotto, 1961b: 318. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Cape Province, Hartman's Kloof, on Selago glutinosa. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK.

Gascardia rustica; De Lotto, 1965a: 204. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Scrophulariaceae: Selago corymbosa [DeLott1965a], Selago glutinosa [DeLott1961b].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [DeLott1961b, DeLott1965a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by De Lotto (1961b).

STRUCTURE: Test of fully mature adult female dried in situ, highly convex, with a shallow mediodorsal depression carrying a minute elongate white boss; colour evenly pale yellow; wax fairly soft. Dimensions: up to 8 mm long; 7 mm wide and 5 mm high. (De Lotto, 1961).

SYSTEMATICS: C. rusticus De Lotto is most similar C. deceptrix but differs in having many more ventral tubular ducts submarginally plus some ducts medially on both the abdomen and posteriorly on the thorax. In addition, on C. rusticus, the clear areas dorsad to the stigmatic clefts appear to have coalesced into one large clear area on each side and there appears to be no clear areas latero-posteriorly on the abdomen, so that there are perhaps only 4 clear areas in all; C deceptrix has the normal 8 clear areas. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

KEYS: Hodgson & Peronti 2012: 40 [Key to adult females of C. deceptrix-group]; Hodgson et al. 2009: 102-104 (female) [Ceroplastes species of South Africa].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 54]; DeLott1961b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 318-319]; DeLott1965a [host, distribution: 204]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 47-49,241]; HodgsoWiGi2009 [taxonomy: 102-104]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 302]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549].



Ceroplastes sanguineus Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes sanguineus Cockerell, 1905d: 162. Type data: PARAGUAY: Villa Encarnacion, on Maytenus sp. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: Albany: New York State Museum Insect Collection, New York, USA, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.



HOST: Celastraceae: Maytenus [Cocker1905d, Cocker1905g].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Paraguay.

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 54]; Cocker1905d [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 162]; McCabeJo1980 [taxonomy: 9]; Sander1906 [catalogue: 7]; Willia1985a [taxonomy: 229].



Ceroplastes schrottkyi Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes schrottkyi Cockerell, 1905d: 162. Type data: PARAGUAY: Villa Encarnacion, on Salix chilensis. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.



HOST: Salicaceae: Salix chilensis [Cocker1905d, Cocker1905g].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Paraguay.

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 54]; Cocker1905d [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 161-162]; Sander1906 [catalogue: 7]; Willia1985a [taxonomy: 229].



Ceroplastes sinensis Del Guercio

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes sinensis Del Guercio, 1900: 3. Type data: ITALY: Liguria, on Citrus sinensis. Syntypes, female. Notes: Type material probably lost (G. Pellizzari Scaltriti, 1990, personal communication).

COMMON NAMES: Caparreta blanca [Lloren1990]; carrapeta-branca [CarvalAg1997]; Chinese wax scale [HamonWi1984, Gill1988, SmithBeBr1997]; chinese wax scale [HamonWi1984, Gill1988, SmithBeBr1997]; craca [CarvalAg1997]; hard wax scale [SmithBeBr1997]; hard wax scale [HodgsoHe2000].



ASSOCIATE: ENTEROBACTERIA [RosenbSaSa2012].

FOES: COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Chilocorus bipustulatus (L.) [Pen1960, StathaKaEl2003], Chilocorus renipustulatus Scriba [Pen1960], Exochomus quadripustulatus (L.) [StathaKaEl2003], Halmus chalybeus [LoCh2001]. HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Coccophagus lycimnia Walker [ArgyriStMo1976]. Eulophidae: Tetrastichus ceroplastae Girault [ArgyriStMo1976]. Pteromalidae: Scutellista caerulea (Fonscolombe) [MonacoSa1980, StathaKaEl2003]. LEPIDOPTERA Noctuidae: Coccidophaga scitula [MonacoSa1980]. NEUROPTERA Chrysopidae: Chrysopa carnea Stephens [ArgyriStMo1976].

HOSTS: Anacardiaceae: Mangifera indica [CarnerPe1986], Rhodosphaera rhodanthema [Snowba1970], Schinus molle [Balach1931a, Borg1932, GimpelMiDa1974], Schinus terebinthifolius [Snowba1970]. Annonaceae: Annona cherimolia [Snowba1970], Annona squamosa [Marott1987]. Aquifoliaceae: Ilex aquifolium [GimpelMiDa1974, MonacoSa1980], Ilex crenata [GimpelMiDa1974], Ilex vomitoria [GimpelMiDa1974]. Araliaceae: Aralia [CarnerPe1986]. Asclepiadaceae: Araujia sericofera [MonacoSa1980, Marott1987], Hoya carnosa [MonacoSa1980, Marott1987]. Asteraceae: Aster formosissima [Marott1987], Baccharis [GimpelMiDa1974], Baccharis halimofolia [DauphiMa2003], Cassinia laevis [QinGu1994], Chrysanthemum frutescens [Marott1987], Chrysanthemum grandiflora [Marott1987], Chrysanthemum indicum [CorseuBa1971], Dahlia variabilis [Marott1987], Felicia angustifolia [Snowba1970], Olearia paniculata [Snowba1970], Osteospermum moniliferum [Marott1987]. Bignoniaceae: Bignonia [Balach1939, Marott1987], Bignonia unguiscati [VieiraCaPi1983], Jacaranda mimosifolia [QinGu1994]. Buxaceae: Buxus sempervirens [VieiraCaPi1983]. Celastraceae: Euonymus europaeus [MonacoSa1980, Marott1987], Euonymus japonicus [Marott1987]. Cucurbitaceae: Cucurbita pepo [Marott1987]. Dennstaedtiaceae: Pteridium esculentum [HodgsoHe2000]. Ebenaceae: Diospyros fasciculosa [Snowba1970], Diospyros ferrea [Snowba1970], Diospyros kaki [MonacoSa1980, Marott1987]. Ericaceae: Arbutus unedo [MonacoSa1980, Marott1987], Erica arborea [GimpelMiDa1974], Vaccinium myrtillus [MonacoSa1980, Marott1987]. Escalloniaceae: Escallonia rubra [GimpelMiDa1974]. Euphorbiaceae: Croton scouleri [LincanHoCa2010], Drypetes australasica [Snowba1970], Euphorbia longan [CarnerPe1986], Euphorbia pulcherrima [Snowba1970], Mercurialis annua [Marott1987]. Fabaceae: Caesalpinia sepiaria [Snowba1970], Cytisus scoparius [Marott1987], Pultenaea villosa [QinGu1994]. Flacourtiaceae: Casearia sylvestris [CorseuBa1971]. Hippocastanaceae: Aesculus hippocastanum [Marott1987], Aesculus pavia [Marott1987]. Lamiaceae: Melissa officinalis [CarnerPe1986], Rosmarinus officinalis [MonacoSa1980, Marott1987], Salvia splendens [Marott1987]. Lauraceae: Apollonias barbujana [Snowba1970], Cinnamomum burmannii [Snowba1970], Cinnamomum zeylanicum [VieiraCaPi1983], Laurus [Marott1987], Persea americana [CarnerPe1986, QinGu1994]. Loranthaceae: Amyema congener [QinGu1994], Loranthus [CorseuBa1971]. Lythraceae: Punica granatum [Moghad2013a]. Malvaceae: Hoheria populnea [HodgsoHe2000], Lagunaria patersonii [VieiraCaPi1983]. Moraceae: Ficus carica [Borg1932, Marott1987], Ficus virens [Snowba1970], Ficus watkinsiana [Snowba1970], Myrtus communis [PellizPoSe2011]. Musaceae: Musa nana [Snowba1970]. Myoporaceae: Myoporum [Argyri1983], Myoporum acuminatum [VieiraCaPi1983]. Myrsinaceae: Aegiceras corniculatum [QinGu1994], Myrsine africana [Marott1987]. Myrtaceae: Acmena [Snowba1970], Baeckea camphorata [QinGu1994], Baeckea virgata [DeLott1971, QinGu1994], Callistemon citrinus [Snowba1970], Callistemon linearis [Snowba1970], Callistemon polandii [QinGu1994], Callistemon viminalis [QinGu1994], Eucalyptus curtisii [QinGu1994], Eugenia [QinGu1994], Eugenia greggii [Snowba1970], Feijoa sellowiana [MonacoSa1980, Marott1987], Melaleuca armillaris [Snowba1970, QinGu1994], Melaleuca bracteata [QinGu1994], Melaleuca decussata [Snowba1970], Melaleuca diasmifolia [Marott1987], Melaleuca elliptica [QinGu1994], Melaleuca hypericifolia [Snowba1970], Melaleuca linariifolia trichostachya [QinGu1994], Melaleuca pauciflora [Snowba1970], Melaleuca quinquenervia [QinGu1994], Psidium guajava [Marott1987], Rhodomyrtus psidioides [Snowba1970], Syncarpia glomulifera [Snowba1970], Syzygium [QinGu1994], Syzygium floribundum [GimpelMiDa1974], Syzygium francisii [Snowba1970], Syzygium luehmannii [Snowba1970], Syzygium moorei [Snowba1970], Syzygium paniculatum [QinGu1994], Tristania conferta [Snowba1970]. Ochnaceae: Ochna mauritiana [Snowba1970]. Oleaceae: Syringa vulgaris [MonacoSa1980, Marott1987]. Onagraceae: Fuchsia [MonacoSa1980, Marott1987]. Philadelphaceae: Philadelphus coronaria [Marott1987]. Pittosporaceae: Bursaria spinosa [Snowba1970]. Platanaceae: Platanus orientalis [MonacoSa1980, Marott1987]. Plumbaginaceae: Ceratostigma willmottianum [Snowba1970]. Polygonaceae: Muehlenbeckia platyclada [Marott1987]. Portulacaceae: Portulaca oleracea [Marott1987]. Proteaceae: Banksia ericifolia [QinGu1994], Grevillea [QinGu1994], Grevillea banksii [QinGu1994], Grevillea pteridifolia [QinGu1994], Hakea salicifolia [QinGu1994]. Punicaceae: Punica granatum [Snowba1970, MonacoSa1980, QinGu1994]. Rhamnaceae: Frangula alnus [Marott1987]. Rosaceae: Chaenomeles lagenaria [Snowba1970], Cotoneaster dammeri [GimpelMiDa1974], Crataegus [MonacoSa1980], Osteomeles schwerinae [Snowba1970], Prunus persica [MonacoSa1980], Pyrus communis [GimpelMiDa1974, MonacoSa1980], Rosa [MonacoSa1980]. Rubiaceae: Burchellia bubalina [Snowba1970], Canthium ventosum [Snowba1970], Coprosma [HodgsoHe2000], Coprosma rhamboides [HodgsoHe2000], Coprosma robusta [HodgsoHe2000], Gardenia florida [CorseuBa1971], Gardenia thunbergia [Snowba1970], Rondeletia amoena [Snowba1970]. Rutaceae: Calodendron capense [QinGu1994], Citrus [Balach1931a, Balach1939, Argyri1983, FrancoPa1991, Jansen1995, CarvalAg1997, SmithBeBr1997], Citrus aurantium [GomezM1958b], Citrus limon [DeLott1971, QinGu1994], Citrus nobilis [Balach1927], Citrus paradisi [QinGu1994], Citrus reticulata [Snowba1970, QinGu1994], Citrus sinensis [DelGue1900, QinGu1994], Coleonema pulchrum [Snowba1970], Medicosma cunninghamii [Snowba1970], Melicope simplex [HodgsoHe2000]. Sapindaceae: Arytera divaricata [Snowba1970], Dodonaea tenuifolia [QinGu1994], Dodonaea triquerta [Snowba1970], Dodonaea viscosa [Snowba1970], Harpullia pendula [Snowba1970], Litchi chinensis [QinGu1994], Sapindus saponaria [Marott1987], Sarcopteryx stipitata [Snowba1970]. Sapotaceae: Achras [Snowba1970], Martiusella imperialis [Snowba1970], Planchonella australis [Snowba1970], Planchonella myrsinoides [Snowba1970], Pouteria wakere [Snowba1970]. Scrophulariaceae: Galvezia leucantha [LincanHoCa2010], Halleria lucida [Marott1987], Hebe stricta [HodgsoHe2000], Veronica salicifolia [Marott1987]. Solanaceae: Capsicum annuum [Marott1987], Cyphomandra betacea [Marott1987], Lycium minimum [LincanHoCa2010], Lycopersicon esculentum [Marott1987], Solanum [Balach1933e], Solanum aviculare [HodgsoHe2000], Solanum nigrum [Marott1987], Solanum paniculatum [CorseuBa1971], Streptosolen [Green1923b], Streptosolen jamesonii [GimpelMiDa1974, QinGu1994]. Styracaceae: Styrax officinalis [Marott1987]. Theaceae: Thea [Pen1960]. Tiliaceae: Grewia flava [Marott1987], Grewia opositifolia [Marott1987]. Ulmaceae: Trema micrantha [Marott1987]. Urticaceae: Urtica dioica [Marott1987]. Verbenaceae: Avicennia marina [QinGu1994, HodgsoHe2000], Avicennia officinalis [DeLott1971], Duranta plumieri [Green1923b, Marott1987], Vitex lucens [HodgsoHe2000]. Viscaceae: Korthalsella salicornioides [HenderSuRo2010].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia [DeLott1971] (Australian Capital Territory [QinGu1994], New South Wales [QinGu1994, SmithBeBr1997], Queensland [QinGu1994, SmithBeBr1997], South Australia [QinGu1994], Western Australia [QinGu1994]). Australasian: Indonesia (Sulawesi (=Celebes) [Gavril2013]). Australasian: New Zealand [DeLott1971, HodgsoHe2000, LoCh2001, HenderSuRo2010] (Three Kings Islands); Norfolk Island; Solomon Islands [DeLott1971]. Nearctic: Mexico (Veracruz); United States of America (California, North Carolina, Pennsylvania [Stimme1998], Virginia). Neotropical: Bermuda [HodgsoHi1991]; Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina [HickelDu1995]); Chile [KondoGu2010]; Galapagos Islands [CaustoPeSi2006, LincanHoCa2010]. Oriental: Philippines [Baltaz1962]. Palaearctic: Algeria [HodgsoPe2012]; Azores [CarvalFrAg1996, LopesFiMa2008, FrancoRuMa2011]; Canary Islands [PerezGCa1987]; Corsica [Foldi2003]; Crete [PellizPoSe2011]; Croatia [Masten2007]; Cyprus [SismanUl2010]; Egypt [Hall1924a]; France [Balach1931a, Balach1933d, Balach1939, Foldi2000, DauphiMa2003]; Georgia [YasnosTaCh2005]; Greece [ArgyriStMo1976, Argyri1983, StathaKaEl2003]; Iran [Bodenh1944b, Kaussa1957, KozarFoZa1996, Moghad2009]; Italy [DeLott1971, Marott1987, LongoMaPe1995]; Madeira Islands [Green1923b, DeLott1971, CarvalFrAg1996, CarvalAg1997]; Malta [Borg1932]; Morocco [Rungs1970]; Netherlands [FetykoKo2012]; Portugal [Seabra1942, Fernan1992, CarvalFrAg1996]; Russia (Caucasus); Sardinia [Marott1987, Pelliz2011]; Sicily [Liotta1970, Marott1987]; Spain [Balach1935b, Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995]; Tunisia [HodgsoPe2012]; Turkey [Tuncyu1970a, CebeciSe2004, KaydanUlEr2007].

BIOLOGY: One annual generation was reported in Italy on citrus (Monastero & Zaami, 1959; Frediani, 1967); in USA, Virginia (Kosztarab, 1996); on pears in Italy (Frediani, 1960). Snowball (1970) outlined the life history in New South Wales. Life history in Spain described by Llorens Climent (1984). Beattie et al. (1990) studied the effect of nutrients in citrus (New South Wales, Australia) on the growth, size and phenology.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by De Lotto (1971), Williams & Kosztarab (1972), Gimpel et al. (1974), Hamon & Williams (1984), Gill (1988), Williams & Watson (1990), Kosztarab (1996) and by Hodgson & Henderson (2000). Description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1957).

STRUCTURE: Adult female 3-7 mm long; convex. Dorsal wax cover formed of plates not very distinctly divided; anterior portion of the cover slightly lower than posterior; anterior portion white while the posterior is light brown or pink. Colour photograph by Gill (1988), Katsoyannos (1996), Carvalho & Aguiar (1997), Hodgson & Henderson (2000) and by Germain et al., (2003).

SYSTEMATICS: Based on their cladistic analysis of wax scale insects, Qin et al. (1994) predicted that the native range of C. sinensis was within Central or South America. This supposition was supported later by the discovery of heavily parasitized individuals of C. sinensis in Argentina. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Natural enemies listed by Borchsenius (1957). A sporadic pest of citrus in Italy and Spain. A serious pest of citrus in Australia (Snowball, 1970; Qin & Gullan, 1994).

KEYS: Mohammad & Moharum 2013: 146-148 (female) [Key to species and subspecies of family coccidae in Egypt]; Fetyk & Kozr 2012: 293 (female) [Key to species of Ceroplastes in the Palaearctic Region based on slide-mounted adult females]; Kondo & Gullan 2010: 13-14 (female) [Coccidae species of Chile]; Hodgson et al. 2009: 102-104 (female) [Ceroplastes species of South Africa]; Mori, Pellizzari & Tosi 2001: 42 (female) [Italy]; Hodgson & Henderson 2000: 185 (female) [New Zealand]; Kosztarab 1996: 325 (female) [Northeastren North America]; Pellizzari & Camporose 1994: 177 (female) [Ceroplastes species of Mediterranean]; Williams & Watson 1990: 65 (female) [Tropical South Pacific]; Gill 1988: 17 (female) [USA, California]; Hamon & Williams 1984: 18 (female) [USA, Florida]; Gimpel et al. 1974: 19 (female) [USA]; Williams & Kosztarab 1972: 36 (female) [USA, Virginia]; Kosztarab 1966: 325 (female) [Northeastern North America]; Borchsenius 1957: 451 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: Argyri1970 [host, distribution, biological control: 57-65]; Argyri1983 [host, distribution: 364]; ArgyriStMo1976 [host, distribution, biological control: 23]; Balach1927 [host, distribution: 186]; Balach1931a [host, distribution: 100]; Balach1932d [taxonomy, host, distribution: xxxiv]; Balach1933e [host, distribution: 5]; Balach1935b [host, distribution: 264]; Balach1939 [host, distribution: 258]; BalciuBuPu1995 [viological control: 247-267]; Baltaz1962 [host, distribution: 6,12]; Beatti1979 [host, distribution, chemical control: 35]; Beatti1993 [taxonomy: 1-19]; Benass1969 [economic importance, chemical control, host, distribution: 793-799]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 54-56]; Bodenh1944b [host, distribution: 90]; Bodenh1951a [host, distribution: 387]; Bodenh1953a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 113-114]; Bolu2012 [biological control: 109]; Borchs1937 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 79-80]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, host, distribution: 154]; Borchs1957 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history, biological control: 451-454]; Borg1932 [host, distribution: 16]; BouhelDeDe1932 [host, distribution, control: 1-60]; CABI1980 [distribution: 1-2]; CamporPe1994 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 180-182]; CarnerPe1986 [host, distribution: 12-13]; Carrer1980 [host, distribution, biological control: 625-631]; CarvalAg1997 [life history, economic importance, description, host, distribution: 168-170]; CarvalFrAg1996 [host, distribution, economic importance: 614]; Castel1951a [biological control: 95-98]; CaustoPeSi2006 [distribution: 137]; CebeciSe2004 [host, distribution: 208]; Chou1947a [chemical control: 37]; CorseuBa1971 [host, distribution: 238]; Costan1948 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 85-88]; Danzig1972 [host, distribution: 199]; DauphiMa2003 [host, distribution: 161-263]; DelGue1900 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history: 3-26]; DelGue1906 [host, distribution: 257-263]; DeLott1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 143-145]; Delucc1975 [host, distribution]; Dzhash1970 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 182]; Evlakh1941 [host, distribution, biological control: 64-65]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 157]; Fernan1992 [host, distribution: 59]; FetykoKo2012 [distribution, taxonomy: 292]; Fletch1951 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-24]; Foldi2000 [host, distribution: 82]; Foldi2003 [host, distribution: 150]; FrancoRuMa2011 [distribution: 5,22]; Fredia1960 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 89-95]; FriedBaGe2013 [description, distribution, host, illustration: 285-289]; Gavril2013 [distribution: 78]; GermaiMaPi2002 [host, distribution: 255]; GermaiMaPi2003 [host, distribution, structure: 23]; Gill1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 20-21,25]; GillKo1997 [economic importance, host, distribution: 161-163]; GimpelMiDa1974 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 62-67]; GomesC1949 [host, distribution]; GomezM1937 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history, biological control: 313-316]; GomezM1958b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history, biological control: 128-134]; GradyRe1940 [host, distribution, taxonomy, economic importance: 1-32]; Green1923b [host, distribution: 88]; Greig1944 [taxonomy, host, distribution]; Hadzib1983 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history: 153-154]; Hall1924a [host, distribution: 23]; HamonWi1984 [life history, economic importance, taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 32-34]; HenderSuRo2010 [host, distribution: 2]; HickelDu1995 [host, distribution: 665-668]; HodgsoHe2000 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 190,193-194]; HodgsoHi1991 [host, distribution: 136]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 152-154, 243]; HodgsoWiGi2009 [taxonomy: 102-104]; Jansen1995 [host, distribution: 134]; JohnsoLy1988 [host, distribution]; Katsoy1996 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance, chemical control, biological control: 15,81-83]; Kaussa1957 [host, distribution: 1]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 91]; Kiritc1932a [taxonomy: 248]; Kiritc1935 [host, distribution: 3]; Kiritc1936 [host, distribution: 71]; KondoGu2010 [host, distribution: 12]; Koszta1996 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 332-333]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy: 81]; KozarFoZa1996 [host, distribution: 65]; KozarWa1985 [catalogue: 76]; KreiteAuGe2006 [distribution, economic importance, host: 143]; Leonar1920 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 364-366]; LimonMeBl1976a [host, distribution, biological control: 263-276]; LincanHoCa2010 [host, distribution: 4]; Lindin1912b [taxonomy, host, distribution: 115,219,307]; Liotta1970 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 33]; LiottaMiRa1977 [host, economic importance: 29-67]; Lloren1984 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution]; LoBlPe1996 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 315-321]; LoCh2001 [biological control, life history, host, distribution: 57-66]; LongoMaPe1995 [host, distribution: 134]; LongoRu1986 [host, distribution, economic importance: 41]; LopesFiMa2008 [host, distribution: 153-154]; Marott1987 [host, distribution, life history: 99-100]; Martin1984MP [host, distribution: 68]; Masten2007 [host, distribution, taxonomy: 1-242]; Miller1996 [distribution: 70]; MillerRuPa2014 [catalogue: 65]; Moghad2009 [host, distribution: 6]; Moghad2013a [distribution, illustration: 8]; MohammGh2008 [distribution: 149]; MohammMo2013 [illustration, taxonomy: 146,151]; MonacoSa1980 [host, distribution, life history, biological control, host, distribution: 3-6]; Monast1958 [economic importance, control: 131-165]; MonastZa1959 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history, biological control: 4-26]; MoriPeTo2001 [taxonomy: 42]; Neves1936 [host, distribution: 207-208]; Panis1982 [distribution, biological control: 12-22]; Paoli1927a [host, distribution: 382-387]; Pelliz2011 [distribution: 311]; PellizCa1994 [life history, taxonomy, host, distribution: 180-182]; PellizPoSe2011 [distribution, host: 274,297]; Pen1960 [biological control: 104-112]; PerezGCa1987 [host, distribution: 127]; PicartMa2000 [host, distribution: 14-20]; PietriBiCo1969 [chemical control: 909-915]; Priore1967 [life history, ecology: 46-46]; QinGu1994 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 941-953]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 302]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 541-549]; RosaPeSo2011 [structure: 19]; RosenbSaSa2012 [ecology, molecular data, physiology: 2357-2368]; Rungs1970 [host, distribution, economic importance: 91-94]; SandsVa2003 [host, biological control: 41-53]; Scorti1987 [host, distribution: 35-40]; Seabra1942 [distribution: 2]; Silves1920 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 3-17]; Silves1921 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-11]; Silves1926a [control, host, distribution: 97-101]; SismanUl2010 [host, distribution: 219-224]; SmithBeBr1997 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance, biological control: 59-61]; Snowba1970 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 57-66]; StathaKaEl2003 [host, distribution, life history, ecology, biological control: 271-275]; Stimme1987 [host, distribution: 10]; Stimme1998 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 17-19]; TabataLo2002 [chemical control: 30]; Tranfa1980 [host, distribution, taxonomy, description: 701-704]; Tranfa1981 [host, distribution, life history: 23-26]; TranfaVi1987a [economic importance: 215-221]; Trembl1988a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 251-254]; Tuncyu1970a [life history, exonomic importance, host, distribution: 67-80]; Valent1963 [biological control: 6-13]; Valent1967 [biological control: 1100]; VieiraCaPi1983 [host, distribution: 95]; Viggia1970a [host, distribution, economic importance: 47-55]; Vilar1951 [taxonomy, illustration: 177-181]; Vilar1952 [taxonomy, illustration: 8]; Willia2013 [distribution: 190]; WilliaKo1972 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 48-54]; WilliaWa1990 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 79-81]; Wise1977 [host, distribution: 103]; Yang1982 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 187]; Yasnos1987 [economic importance: 229-234]; Yasnos1995 [host, distribution, economic importance: 247-251]; YasnosTaCh2005 [host, distribution, biological control: 295-302].



Ceroplastes singularis Newstead

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes singularis Newstead, 1910c: 188. Type data: UGANDA: Entebbe, on Psidium guajava. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Ceroplastes hololeucus De Lotto, 1969a: 413. Type data: ANGOLA: Novo Redondo, on Elaeis guineensis. Holotype female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female. Synonymy by Hodgson & Peronti, 2012: 143-145.



HOSTS: Arecaceae: Elaeis guineensis [DeLott1969a, Almeid1973b]. Myrtaceae: Psidium guajava [Newste1910c]. Urticaceae: Musanga cecropioides [HodgsoPe2012].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Angola [DeLott1969a, Almeid1973b]; Congo [HodgsoPe2012]; Uganda [Newste1910c].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

STRUCTURE: Unmounted material. C. singularis: "Test of adult female hemispherical; thin and very hard; texture fairly smooth; dorsum with a faintly indicated plate, almost circular in outline, with indications also of 3 lateral plates; colour dirty ochreous." (Newstead, 1910). Unmounted material. C. hololeucus: "Immature adult females flattish, disc-like in shape; wax test faintly divided into plates: three bilateral, 1 cephalic and 1 dorsal; at the centre of each of them there is a small and elongate boss; colour in the test in material stored in alcohol evenly white; wax rather brittle in texture" (De Lotto, 1969). Mounted material. Body broadly elliptical to roundly circular, length 1.3-2.4 [about 2] mm, width 0.9-1.75 [?] mm. Dermal processes obscure. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: Ceroplastes singularis differs from most other species in the C. rusci-group in having: (i) stigmatic setae around of the entire margin (restricted to near stigmatic clefts on C. rusci and related species, never forming a complete band anteriorly on head); and (ii) ventral tubular ducts absent (otherwise only totally absent on C. balachowskyi, C. galeatus and C. ghesquierei. C. rufus also has stigmatic setae extending around most of the margin but the stigmatic setae are all rather sharply pointed on C. singularis rather than roundly conical, as on C. rufus.

KEYS: Hodgson & Peronti 2012: 100 [Key to adult females in the Ceroplastes rusci-group].

CITATIONS: Almeid1973b [host, distribution: 2]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 39,56]; DeLott1969a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 413-415]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 143-145,243]; Newste1910c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 188-190]; Sassce1911 [catalogue: 66].



Ceroplastes sinoiae Hall

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes helichrysi sinoiae Hall, 1931: 296. Type data: ZIMBABWE: Sinoia, on Ficus sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Notes: Lectotype (designated in Hodgson & Peronti, 2012) Ximbabwe [Southern Rhodesia]: top label: Ceroplastes / helichrysi var. / sinoiae Hall / Ficus sp. / S. Rhodesia.

Gascardia sinoiae; De Lotto, 1965a: 204. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Asclepiadaceae [HodgsoPe2012]. Bignoniaceae: Jacaranda mimosaefolia [DeLott1965a]. Clusiaceae: Hypericum revolutum [DeLott1965a]. Euphorbiaceae [HodgsoPe2012]. Fabaceae: Acacia [Hodgso1969], Brachystegia spiciformis [Almeid1973b]. Lamiaceae: Coleus [Hodgso1969]. Loganiaceae: Strychnos innocua [HodgsoPe2012]. Moraceae: Ficus [Hall1931], Ficus burkei [DeLott1965a]. Rubiaceae: Gardenia [Hodgso1969]. Verbenaceae [HodgsoPe2012].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Angola [Almeid1973b]; Madagascar [HodgsoPe2012]; South Africa [DeLott1965a]; Zimbabwe [Hall1931, Hodgso1969].

BIOLOGY: A uniparental species, which develops one annual generation on Jacaranda in South Africa. Bedford (1968) produced a comprehensive study on various aspects of the biology of this wax scale.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by De Lotto (1965a).

STRUCTURE: "Test of full-grown adult female hemispherical, not divided into plates, with a shallow medio-dorsal depression at the centre of which is situated a minute elongate boss; wax evenly white in colour; dimensions 8 mm long; 8 mm wide; 6 mm high." (De Lotto, 1965).

SYSTEMATICS: This species was originally described as a variety of C. helichrysi Hall. As pointed out by De Lotto (1965), C. sinoiae, although bearing a close superficial resemblance to C. helichrysi, is clearly specifically different and, in fact, is rather easily distinguished from the latter species. Some of the main differences between these 2 species are (character-states of C. helichrysi in brackets): (i) caudal process heavily sclerotised (barely sclerotised); (ii) loculate microducts of the complex type (simple type); (iii) tubular ducts on abdominal segments restricted to anogenital fold (also present medially and submarginally); (iv) tibio-tarsal articulatory sclerosis present (absent), and (v) dorsal setae mainly longer than width of basal sockets (subequal or shorter). (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: An urban pest of Jacaranda trees in South Africa (Bedford, 1968).

KEYS: Hodgson & Peronti 2012: 64 (female) [Key to adult females in the C. longicauda-group.]; Hodgson et al. 2009: 102-104 (female) [Ceroplastes species of South Africa].

CITATIONS: Almeid1973b [host, distribution: 5]; Bedfor1968 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance, biological control, chemical control, chemistry, structure, ecology: 1-111]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 56-57]; DeLott1965a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 204-207]; Greath1971 [host, distribution, biological control ]; Hall1931 [host, distribution: 296]; Hodgso1969 [host, distribution: 37]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 73-75,241]; HodgsoWiGi2009 [taxonomy: 102-104]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 302]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; RosaPeSo2011 [structure: 19].



Ceroplastes solanaceus Peronti {in}: Peronti {et al.}

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes solanaceus Peronti {in}: Peronti {et al.}, 2008: 175. Type data: BRAZIL: So Paulo State, Santa Rita do Passa Quatra, Parque Estadual de Vassununga; collected A.L.B.G. Peronti, 24.vii.2002. Holotype female. Type depository: So Carlos, Departamento de Ecologia e Biologia Evolutiva da UNiversidade Federal de So Carlos, So Paulo, Brazil; type no. 405. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Solanaceae: Solanum [PerontSoGr2008].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Sao Paulo [PerontSoGr2008]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Peronti et al. (2008).

KEYS: Peronti {et al.} 2008: 142-144 (female) [ceroplastes species of So Paulo, Brazil].

CITATIONS: PerontSoGr2008 [taxonomy, description, iluustration, host, distribution: 175-176].



Ceroplastes speciosus Hempel

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes speciosus Hempel, 1900a: 464. Type data: BRAZIL: So Paulo, Ypiranga, on various plants of Myrtaceae; . Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Peronti {et al.}, 2008: 176. Type depository: Curitiba: Departamento de Zoologia, Setor de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Parana, Brazil; type no. 82-a. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Myrtaceae [Hempel1900a, PerontSoGr2008].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Sao Paulo [Hempel1900a, PerontSoGr2008]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Peronti et al. (2008).

STRUCTURE: Colour photo of adult female by Peronti et al. (2008).

KEYS: Peronti {et al.} 2008: 142-144 (female) [Ceroplastes species of So Paulo, Brazil].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 57]; Cocker1902p [distribution: 253]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 158]; Hempel1900a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 464-465]; PerontSoGr2008 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 176-177]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 302]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; Vernal1953 [host, distribution: 131].



Ceroplastes stellifer (Westwood)

NOMENCLATURE:

Vinsonia pulchella Signoret, 1869: 868. Nomen nudum.

Coccus stellifer Westwood, 1871a: iii. Type data: ENGLAND: Pant y Goitre, Abergavenny, on Cypripedium niveum, imported from the west coast of SIAM [=THAILAND]. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Oxford: Hope Entomological Collections, University Museum, England. Described: female. Notes: Unmounted female syntypes are available at the Natural History Museum, Oxford, UK (Yair Ben-Dov, visit at OXUM, on December 15, 2002).

Coccus stellifer; Westwood, 1871b: 1006.

Vinsonia pulchella Signoret, 1872a: 34. Type data: REUNION ISLAND: on Mangifera indica. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Vienna: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria. Described: female. Synonymy by Signoret, 1877a: 608.

Vinsonia stellifera; Douglas, 1888b: 152. Change of combination.

Ceroplastes stellifer; Lindinger, 1913: 81. Change of combination.

Vinsonia stelifera; Seabra, 1925: 38. Misspelling of species name.

Vinsonia estellifera; Gomez-Menor Ortega, 1929: 4. Misspelling of species name.

Vinzonia stellifera; Danzig & Konstantinova, 1990: 45. Misspelling of genus name.

Vinsonia pulohella; Tang, 1991: 311. Misspelling of species name.

Vinsonia steliftra; Tang, 1991: 312. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Signoret" as author.

Vinsonia stellftra; Tang, 1991: 312. Misspelling of species name.

Winsonia stellifera; Fernandes, 1993: 111. Misspelling of genus name.

Ceroplastes stellifer; Peronti {et al.}, 2008: 177. Revived combination.

Ceroplastes stellifera Hodgson & Peronti, 2012: 154-155. Unjustified emendation.

COMMON NAME: stellate scale [HamonWi1984, BenDov1993].



FOE: HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Eriaphytis chackoi Rao [Rao1980].

HOSTS: Anacardiaceae: Mangifera [Ramakr1919a, Hodgso1994a], Mangifera indica [Cocker1892a, Cocker1892b, Cocker1893k, Mamet1943a, DeLott1965a, Ali1971], Mangifera indica [Green1896, Green1909a, Green1937, Almeid1973b, Nakaha1983, ShafeeYoKh1989], Mangifera indica [DanzigKo1990, KondoKa1995]. Apocynaceae: Alstonia scholaris [Green1909a, Green1937, Ali1971], Ervatamia orientalis [WilliaWa1990], Plumeria acutifolia [Mamet1943a]. Araliaceae: Schefflera [QinGu1994], Schefflera arboricola [MatileEt2006, PerontSoGr2008], Schefflera octophylla [DengLiWa2014]. Arecaceae: Cocos [HodgsoHi1991, HodgsoHi1990], Cocos nucifera [Green1896, Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, DeLott1965a, Ali1971, Nakaha1983], Cocos nucifera [Cocker1893k, Green1909a, Green1937, ShafeeYoKh1989]. Aspleniaceae: Asplenium [Cocker1896k]. Clusiaceae: Clusia [Cocker1896k], Garcinia [Ballou1926, HamonWi1984], Garcinia indica [Ramakr1930, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989], Garcinia mangostana [Hempel1904, HamonWi1984], Garcinia spicata [Green1909a, Green1937, Ali1971, HamonWi1984]. Ebenaceae: Diospyros discolor [TaoWoCh1983]. Euphorbiaceae: Bischofia javanica [WilliaWa1990]. Lauraceae: Cinnamomum camphora [Jansen1995], Persea americana [Mamet1943a]. Liliaceae: Asparagus sprengeri [CorseuBa1971]. Moraceae: Artocarpus integra [Beards1966], Ficus antimesma [Green1896], Ficus benghalensis [Mamet1943a]. Musaceae: Musa [Hodgso1994a]. Myrsinaceae: Ardisia polycephala [Cocker1893k]. Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus [Nakaha1983], Eugenia [Mamet1943a], Eugenia aquea [Mamet1943a], Eugenia jambolana [Newste1914, Mamet1943a, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989], Eugenia jambos [Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, Mamet1943a, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989], Syzygium cuminii [AvasthSh1986], Syzygium jambos [MestreHaEv2011]. Orchidaceae [HodgsoHi1990], Brassia caudata [MestreHaEv2011], Broughtonia sanguinea [Cocker1895a], Cattleya [Nakaha1983], Cypripedium niveum [Cocker1893k, Ali1971], Epidendrum [Jansen1995], Epidendrum ciliare [Nakaha1983], Maxillaria purpurea [MestreHaEv2011], Stanhopea [Cocker1895u, Willia2010]. Phyllanthaceae: Antidesma bunius [Green1909a, Green1937, Ali1971]. Poaceae: Oryza sativa [MestreHaEv2011]. Pteridaceae: Adiantum [CorseuBa1971]. Rubiaceae: Coffea sp. [Kondo2013], Ixora coccinea [PerontSoGr2008]. Rutaceae [DanzigKo1990], Citrus [HodgsoHi1991, HodgsoHi1990], Citrus aurantium [Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989], Citrus grandis [WilliaWa1990], Glycosmis pentaphylla [Green1909a, Ali1971], Jambolana [Cocker1893gg]. Sapotaceae: Achras sapota [HamonWi1984], Lucuma caimito [Hempel1900a], Manilkara zapota [MestreHaEv2011], Palaquium [Green1907, Mamet1943a]. Strelitziaceae: Ravenala madagascariensis [Nakaha1983]. Zingiberaceae: Alpinia purpurata [WilliaWa1990].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Angola [Almeid1973b]; Cape Verde [SchmutPiKl1978, VanHarCoWi1990]; Cte d'Ivoire (=Ivory Coast) [Hodgso1994a] (Intercepted in Spain.); Ghana [Kondo2013]; Kenya [DeLott1965a]; Mauritius [Mamet1943a]; Reunion [Cocker1894t, Cocker1895a, Mamet1943a, Mamet1957, GermaiMiPa2014]; Sao Tome and Principe (Sao Tome [Seabra1921, Seabra1925]); Seychelles [Green1907, Mamet1943a, Hodgso1994a]; Tanzania [HodgsoPe2012]; Zanzibar [DeLott1965a]. Australasian: Australia (Northern Territory [QinGu1994]); Federated States of Micronesia (Ponape Island); Fiji [HodgsoLa2011]. Australasian: Indonesia (Irian Jaya). Australasian: Niue; Palau [Mamet1943a]; Papua New Guinea; Solomon Islands; Tonga. Nearctic: United States of America (Alabama [HamonWi1984] (In Distribution Map XLIII, page 129), Florida [HamonWi1984, Hodges2002b], Georgia [HamonWi1984] (In Distribution map XLIII, page 129.)). Neotropical: Bahamas [BlackwPr2007]; Barbados [Cocker1893k]; Bermuda [HodgsoHi1990, HodgsoHi1991]; Brazil (Para [PerontSoGr2008], Pernambuco [PerontSoGr2008], Rio Grande do Sul [PerontSoGr2008], Rio de Janeiro [Hempel1904, PerontSoGr2008], Sao Paulo [PerontSoGr2008]); Colombia [KondoKa1995, Kondo2001]; Cuba [Ballou1926, MestreHaEv2011]; French Guiana [Remill1988]; Grenada [Cocker1896d]; Guadeloupe [MatileEt2006]; Guatemala [Willia2010]; Guyana [Newste1914, Jansen1995]; Haiti [PerezG2008]; Jamaica [Cocker1892a, Cocker1892b, Cocker1893k, Cocker1895a, Cocker1893gg]; Martinique [MatileEt2006]; Puerto Rico & Vieques Island (Puerto Rico [Martor1976, NakahaMi1981]); Saint Croix [Beatty1944]; Saint Lucia [Malump2012b]; Trinidad and Tobago (Trinidad [Cocker1895u, Cocker1896k]); U.S. Virgin Islands. Oriental: China (Yunnan [DengLiWa2014]); India [Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, Mamet1943a, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989] (Karnataka [Rao1980], Kerala [AvasthSh1986], West Bengal); Malaysia [Ali1971]; Maldives [WatsonOoGi1995]; Pakistan [PerontSoGr2008]; Philippines [Mamet1943a, Ali1971]; Sri Lanka [Cocker1895a, Green1896, Green1909a, Green1937, Mamet1943a, Ali1971]; Taiwan [Mamet1943a, Ali1971, WongChCh1999]; Thailand [Cocker1895a, Ali1971]; Vietnam [DanzigKo1990]. Palaearctic: Italy [FetykoKo2012]; Netherlands [Jansen1995].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by De Lotto (1965a), Tao et al. (1983), Hamon & Williams (1984), Williams & Watson (1990), Tang (1991), Hodgson (1994a) and by Peronti et al. (2008).

STRUCTURE: Colour photograph in Hamon & Williams (1984), Wong et al. (1999) and Peronti et al. (2008). Unmounted material. "Adult female with a semi-translucent waxy test, the margins of which are flattened and produced into seven rays that give the insect the appearance of a miniature starfish. Median area strongly convex above, the apex with an oblong pad of opaque white wax. Colour of living [mature] examples pink darkening with age to purplish red. In dried examples, this tint fades to reddish brown. Anal opercular dark brown. Margin colourless during life; yellowish in dried examples. Each ray is tipped by a fairly long conical process of opaque white wax. The median anterior ray carries a supplementary white point on each side of terminal process. The following 2 rays on each side have a well-defined median ridge. A pair of small white waxy processes project from the posterior margin immediately behind the anal aperture. Undersurface flat. After oviposition, the median area shrinks and forms a cavity for the reception of the eggs. From below, it can be seen that the median area corresponds with the cephalic lobe. The following 2 rays on each side are associated with the 2 pairs of stigmata, while the 2 remaining rays proceed from the abdominal lobes. At the extremity of each ray, below the base of the terminal process, is a fringe of minute glassy points - the remains of the earliest larval fringe. Diameter across rays: 3.5-4.5 mm." (Green, 1909). Wax almost translucent when young but becoming first pale green and then often reddish when mature; ends of each arm with white dry wax. Rather beautiful. Unmounted, with wax removed. Body round to 6-sided but with a pronounced cephalic lobe. Old individuals with almost entire dorsum sclerotised apart from lateral clear areas (anterior clear area hidden beneath anterior swelling of cephalic lobe on available material); dorsal clear area sclerotised with rest of dorsum. Caudal process about as long as broad, sclerotised. Eyespots dorsal. Ventrally, cephalic lobe on older individuals heavily sclerotised. Stigmatic clefts obscure. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012) Mounted material. Body oval, but with anterior margin of head forming a pronounced prominence in mature specimens; stigmatic clefts shallow; dorsum without tubercles. Caudal process short and extending dorsoposteriorly. Derm membranous when young but most of dorsum covered in a sclerotised plate-like extension from caudal process in mature specimens. Ventral derm of cephalic prominence heavily sclerotised on old specimens. Length 0.8-2.0 mm, total width of mounted specimens 0.6-1.45 mm. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: Ceroplastes stellifer can be recognised by the following combination of characters: (i) more than 5 pairs of inter-antennal setae; (ii) very small loculate microducts, with primary loculus much larger than satellite loculi (when latter present); (iii) tibia and tarsus fused; (iv) pregenital disc-pores very few, even on abdominal segment VII; (v) stigmatic setae few, restricted to stigmatic cleft, with setae on margin small and roundly conical and more dorsal setae larger and sharply spinose; (vi) dorsal setae minute, when present, and (vii) caudal process rather small.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Considered a potential threat threat to crops in Florida, USA (Hamon & Williams, 1984).

KEYS: Fetyk & Kozr 2012: 293 (female) [Key to species of Ceroplastes in the Palaearctic Region based on slide-mounted adult females]; Peronti {et al.} 2008: 142-144 (female) [Ceroplastes species of So Paulo, Brazil].

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [host, distribution: 19]; Almeid1973b [host, distribution: 6]; AvasthSh1986 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 335-337]; Ballou1926 [host, distribution: 44]; Beards1966 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 497]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 338-339]; BlackwPr2007 [host, distribution: 413-414]; Bordag1914 [host, distribution]; Cocker1892a [host, distribution: 55]; Cocker1892b [host, distribution: 334]; Cocker1893gg [host, distribution: 373]; Cocker1893j [host, distribution: 254]; Cocker1893k [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 548]; Cocker1894c [host, distribution: 307]; Cocker1894d [taxonomy: 311]; Cocker1894t [host, distribution: 178]; Cocker1895a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 100-101]; Cocker1895u [host, distribution: 727]; Cocker1896b [taxonomy, distribution: 330]; Cocker1896d [host, distribution: 307]; Cocker1896k [host, distribution: iv]; Cocker1899n [host, distribution: 16]; Cocker1902p [host, distribution: 253]; CorseuBa1971 [host, distribution: 240]; DanzigKo1990 [host, distribution: 45]; DeLott1965a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 234-236]; DengLiWa2014 [description, distribution, economic importance, host, illustration, life history, taxonomy: 278-282]; Dougla1888c [taxonomy: 152]; Esaki1940a [host, distribution: 274-280]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 159]; FetykoKo2012 [distribution, taxonomy: 291-295]; GermaiMiPa2014 [distribution: 22]; GillKo1997 [economic importance, host, distribution: 161-163]; GomezM1929 [taxonomy: 4]; Green1896 [host, distribution: 8]; Green1907 [host, distribution: 200]; Green1909a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 280-281]; Green1937 [host, distribution: 311]; HamonWi1984 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, economic importance: 128-130]; Hempel1900a [host, distribution: 477]; Hempel1904 [host, distribution: 315]; Hodges2002a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, economic importance]; Hodges2002b [taxonomy, host, distribution: 208]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 591-593]; HodgsoHi1990 [distribution, host: 6,15]; HodgsoHi1991 [host, distribution: 137]; HodgsoLa2011 [host, distribution: 22]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 155-158,243]; Jansen1995 [host, distribution: 134,142]; Kondo2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 43]; Kondo2010 [host, distribution: 41-44]; Kondo2013 [distribution, host: 45]; KondoKa1995 [host, distribution: 57-58]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 79]; Lindin1909c [host, distribution: 451]; Lindin1913 [taxonomy: 81]; Malump2012b [distribution: 210]; Mamet1943a [host, distribution: 155]; Mamet1949 [host, distribution: 32]; Mamet1957 [host, distribution: 375]; Martor1976 [host, distribution: 6-257]; MatileEt2006 [host, distribution: 167]; MestreBaRo2001 [host, distribution: 31-36]; MestreHaEv2011 [catalogue, distribution, host: 6]; Morris1920 [host, distribution: 187]; Nair1964 [host, distribution, economic importance: 72]; Nakaha1983 [host, distribution: 7]; NakahaMi1981 [host, distribution: 32]; Nath1972 [host, distribution: 5-6]; Newste1903 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution]; Newste1914 [host, distribution: 306]; PellizWi2013 [taxonomy: 407]; PerezG2008 [distribution: 213]; PerontSoGr2008 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 177-178]; QinGu1994 [taxonomy: 954-955]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 302]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 541-549]; Ramakr1919a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 30-31]; Ramakr1921a [host, distribution: 347]; Ramakr1930 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 40-41]; Rao1980 [host, distribution, biological control: 41-45]; Remill1988 [host, distribution: 58]; Schmut1990 [economic importance, host, distribution: 223-226]; Schmut1990a [host, distribution, economic importance]; Schmut2001 [host, distribution: 339-345]; SchmutPiKl1978 [host, distribution, economic importance: 329]; Seabra1921 [host, distribution: 98]; Seabra1925 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 38]; ShafeeYoKh1989 [host, distribution: 55]; Signor1869 [taxonomy: 868]; Signor1872a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 34]; Signor1877 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 608]; SilvaCa1977 [host, distribution: 25-26]; Simmon1957 [host, distribution: 9]; Su1982 [host, distribution: 61]; Takaha1929 [host, distribution: 69]; Takaha1939b [host, distribution: 264]; Takaha1942b [host, distribution: 31]; Takaha1942d [host, distribution: 355]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 311-312]; Tao1978 [distribution, host: 84]; Tao1989 [host, distribution: 59]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 67]; TaoWoCh1983 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 98-99]; VanHarCoWi1990 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 135]; Varshn1985a [host, distribution: 28]; Varshn1994 [host, distribution: 346-347]; VarshnMo1987 [taxonomy, structure: 175]; Vernal1953 [host, distribution: 149]; WatsonOoGi1995 [host, distribution: 57]; Westwo1871 [taxonomy: iii]; Westwo1871a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 1006]; Willia2001 [distribution: 225-227]; Willia2010 [host, distribution: 150]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 44]; WilliaWa1990 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 172-174]; WilliaWi1988 [host, distribution: 60]; WongChCh1999 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 17-18,57]; Yang1982 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 183-185].



Ceroplastes stenocephalus De Lotto

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes stenocephalus De Lotto, 1961b: 320. Type data: KENYA: Magadi, on Acacia sp. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Gascardia stenocephala; De Lotto, 1965a: 206. Change of combination.



HOST: Fabaceae: Acacia [DeLott1961b].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Kenya [DeLott1961b].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Hodgson & Peronti, 2012.

STRUCTURE: Unmounted material. "Tests crowded and fused together so as to form an indistinct mass of creamy-yellow wax, suffused with a pinkish tinge; wax rather hard." (De Lotto, 1961b). Mounted material. Body roundly oval and convex, with distinct, quite deep, stigmatic clefts; dorsum without lateral tubercles. Caudal process large but probably not very convex, set almost medially on dorsum. Body length 2.2-2.25 (1.9-2.5) mm, width across abdomen 2.07-2.08 (1.8-2.4) mm; caudal process 0.87-1.0 mm long and 1.17-1.23 mm wide. Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: The adult female of C. stenocephalus is very distinctive, with the broad group of densely packed, narrow, sharply-conical setae in each stigmatic cleft. Other diagnostic characters are: (i) the size and position of the caudal process; (ii) the absence of clear areas on the dorsum; (iii) dorsal setae quite large and sharply-spinose; (iv) antennae 7 or 8 segmented; (v) loculate microducts smaller than width of basal socket of dorsal setae, and (v) ventral tubular ducts absent from cephalic region. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 57]; DeLott1961b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 320-321]; DeLott1965a [taxonomy, description, illustration: 206,209]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 159-161,243]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 302]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549].



Ceroplastes stipulaeformis (Haworth)

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus stipulaeformis Haworth, 1812: 308. Type data: INDIA: Described from specimens taken off plants in the Herbarium of Sir Joseph Banks. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Notes: Type material lost (Williams, 1957).

Ceroplastes stipulaeformis; Williams & Ben-Dov, 2009: 44. Change of combination.

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: India [DeLott1971].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 90]; DeLott1971 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 146]; Hawort1812 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 308-309]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 44].



Ceroplastes subrotundus Leonardi

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes subrotundus Leonardi, 1911: 266. Type data: ARGENTINA: Mendoza, Cacheuta, on Cercidium andicolum. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Granara de Willink, 1999: 76. Type depository: Portici: Dipartimento de Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria di Portici, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Italy. Described: female. Illust.

Ceroplastidia subrotunda; Granara de Willink, 1999: 76. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Fabaceae: Caesalpinia praecox [Granar1999], Cercidium [Granar1999], Cercidium andicolum [Leonar1911, Sassce1912], Cercidium praecox [Lizery1939], Geoffroea decorticans [Granar1999].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina [Sassce1912] (Entre Rios [GranarCl2003], La Pampa [Granar1999], La Rioja [GranarCl2003], Mendoza [Granar1999, GranarCl2003], Tucuman [GranarCl2003]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Granara de Willink (1999).

KEYS: Granara de Willink 1999: 59 (female) [Argentina].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 57]; Granar1999 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 76-77]; GranarCl2003 [host, distribution: 627]; Leonar1911 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 266-268]; Lizery1939 [host, distribution: 197]; Sassce1912 [host, distribution: 88].



Ceroplastes sumatrensis Reyne

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes sumatrensis Reyne, 1965b: 155. Type data: SUMATRA: at Buo, on a dicotyledone shrub or tree. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Amsterdam: Institut voor Taxonomische Zoologie, The Netherlands.

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Indonesia (Sumatra [Ali1971]).

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [host, distribution: 18]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 57]; Reyne1965b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 155-159].



Ceroplastes tachardiaformis Brain

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes tachardiaformis Brain, 1920a: 35. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Cape Province, Aberdeen, on Elytropappus rhinocerotis. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female. Notes: Lectotype female (designated in Hodgson & Peronti, 2012): South Africa, left label: Messrs Watermeyer Br. / Aberdeen C.P. / November 1915 / on rhenosterbosch / CKB 94; right label: Ceroplastes / tachardiaformis (SANC): 1/1 (poor).

Gascardia tachardiaformis; De Lotto, 1965: 182. Change of combination.



ASSOCIATE: HYMENOPTERA Formicidae: Crematogaster peringueyi [Giliom2014].

HOSTS: Asteraceae: Elytropappus rhinocerotis [Brain1920a], Metalasia muricata [HodgsoPe2012], Stoebe cinerea [DeLott1978]. Compositae: Chrysanthemoides incana [Giliom2014].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [Brain1920a, DeLott1978].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Hodgson & Peronti, 2012.

STRUCTURE: Unmounted material. "Adult female tests aggregated in huge masses on stems of the host plant, often completely covering the stems for a distance of several inches. Female test Tachardia-like, globular, slightly flattened above, hard, thin, brittle, almost transparent resinous brown, due to the colour of the insect inside; without protuberances but with a slight apical depression containing the opaque white larval exuvia. Adult female denuded of wax moderately dense, globular, smooth and shiny. Caudal protuberance short, very dense, surrounded by a coarsely perforated plate." (Brain, 1920a). Specimens collected by Gullan had dark purple-red wax with distinct white stigmatic bands, whereas those from Vermont on Metalasia had soft white wax. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012) Mounted material. Young adults broadly oval, without lateral or dorsal protuberances (cephalic and anterior lateral processes well developed; median and posterior lateral ones fused together, forming a single large, broadly rounded process). Stigmatic clefts quite deep. Caudal process conical, pointing dorso-posteriorly. Length about 0.5.?3.0+ (1.0) mm, width 0.5.?2.5+ (0.8) mm. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: Within the C. tachardiaformis-group, C. tachardiaformis differs from C. delottoi in having fewer than 20 stigmatic setae in each cleft, from C. elytropappi in having ventral tubular ducts in the cephalic region; and from C. paucispinus in lacking a tibio-tarsal articulatory sclerosis (present and distinct in C. paucispinus), much shorter dorsal setae, and loculate microducts with only 1 or 2 satellite loculi (up to 4 in C. paucispinus). (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

KEYS: Hodgson & Peronti 2012: 161 (female, adult) [Key to adult females of Ceroplastes tachardiaformis-group]; Hodgson et al. 2009: 102-104 (female) [Ceroplastes species of South Africa].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 57-58]; Brain1920a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 35]; DeLott1978 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 143-144]; Giliom2014 [ecology, host, illustration: 34-35]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 168-171,243]; HodgsoWiGi2009 [taxonomy: 102-104].



Ceroplastes tenuitectus Green

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes tenuitectus Green, 1907: 204. Type data: ALDABRA ISLAND: on "Bois la fumee".. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK.

Ceroplastes rusci; Green, 1923b: 94. Incorrect synonymy.

Ceroplastes tenuitectus; Hodgson & Peronti, 2012: 145-148. Revived status.



HOSTS: Celastraceae: Mystroxylon aethiopicum [HodgsoPe2012]. Ochnaceae: Ochna ciliata [HodgsoPe2012]. Sapotaceae: Sideroxylon inerme [HodgsoPe2012].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Seychelles (Aldabra Island [Green1907, HodgsoPe2012]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Hodgson & Peronti, 2012.

STRUCTURE: Body rather roundly oval and convex, with shallow stigmatic clefts; dorsum with distinct lateral tubercles. Caudal process short. Body length 1.351.6 mm (2.25-4.5), width of venter 0.68-1.05, total width 0.8-1.38 mm. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: Adult female C. tenuitectus appear to be similar to those of C. eugeniae Hall. The distribution of the stigmatic setae and the frequency of ventral tubular ducts are similar. However, the data for the material listed above showed very little variance and all differed from those for C. eugeniae in having significantly smaller limbs and anal plates. Although synomomized with C. rusci by Green (1923b), these specimens are also significantly different, particularly in the distribution of the stigmatic setae, with many more non-marginal setae (about 1/3rd of the total per cleft) and with each group at least 3 deep (many fewer and usually only 2 deep on C. rusci). Hodgson & Peronti, 2012, determined that C. tenuitectus was not a synonym of C. rusci and recognised C. tenuitectus Green as a good species. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

KEYS: Hodgson & Peronti 2012: 100 (female, adult) [Key to adult females in the Ceroplastes rusci-group].

CITATIONS: Green1907 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 200, 204-5]; Green1923b [taxonomy: 94]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, illustration, host, physiology, taxonomy: 145-148,242].



Ceroplastes theobromae Newstead

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes theobromae Newstead, 1906a: 74. Nomen nudum.

Ceroplastes theobromae Newstead, 1908b: 38. Type data: CAMEROON: Soppo and Bamba, on cacao. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Ceroplastes coniformis Newstead, 1913: 72. Type data: UGANDA: Entebbe, Botanic Gardens, on Ficus sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Synonymy by Hodgson & Peronti, 2012: 189-194.



HOSTS: Annonaceae: Annona muricata [KondoHo2013]. Moraceae: Ficus [Newste1913, Sassce1915]. Sterculiaceae: Theobroma cacao [Newste1908b].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Cameroon [Newste1908b]; Congo [HodgsoPe2012]; Cte d'Ivoire (=Ivory Coast) [HodgsoPe2012]; Uganda [Newste1913, Sassce1915].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustrations in Hodgson & Peronti, 2012.

STRUCTURE: Unmounted material. C. theobromae. "Test of adult female reddish pink, darker in older examples, nucleated; margin with two large bilateral, stout, white appendages; caudal process uncovered at the tip; posterior extremity with two large mammiform swellings. Length 4-5; width 3.50-4.75 mm." (Newstead, 1908b). Unmounted material. C. coniformis. Female test "thin and distinctly cone-shaped, with the apex bluntly pointed; not divided into plates, but with a more or less distinct, minute, ovate patch of secretion at the apex of the test, and in the more perfect individuals some small white patches of secretion over the stigmatic clefts. Colour translucent yellowish-brown, sometimes with indefinite darker markings due evidently to foreign matter. Height 3.9-4.7 mm; greatest diameter at base 2.8-4 mm." (Newstead, 1913). Mounted material. Body probably quite broad and convex; stigmatic clefts quite deep; lateral tubercles small. Caudal process well developed and dorsal, probably forming a shallow cone. Length perhaps 1.3-4.0 (2.25) [4-5] mm, total width 1.0 (1.3-?) [3.5-4.75] mm. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012) (The data in [..] brackets are those given for C. theobromae by Newstead (1908b))

SYSTEMATICS: A fairly diagnostic combination of C. theobromae include: (i) legs without a tibio-tarsal articulation; (ii) claw digitules clearly different; (iii) distribution of the stigmatic setae in a group extending dorsally away from a rather deep cleft; (iv) each stigmatic spine mainly rounded and almost as wide as long; (v) each group of stigmatic setae with a single slightly larger spine; (vi) anal plates rather rounded; (vii) dorsal loculate microducts of the rusci-type, those with 2 satellite loculi scarce, and (viii) caudal process dorsal and probably not very convex. Hodgson and Peronti, 2012, determined that on the basis of the present knowledge of C. theobromae, C. coniformis appeared to be indistinguishable and was synonymised with C. theobromae Newstead. C. theobromae is very similar to C. lamborni.

KEYS: Hodgson & Peronti 2012: 171-172 (female, adult) [Key to adult females of Ceroplastes theobromae-group].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 29, 58]; DeLott1965a [taxonomy: 181]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 189-194,243]; KondoHo2013 [host: 519]; MatileNo1984 [host, distribution: 62]; Newste1906a [taxonomy: 74]; Newste1908b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 38]; Newste1913 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 72-73]; Sassce1915 [host, distribution: 31]; Strick1947a [taxonomy: 499]; Vayssi1913 [host, distribution: 430].



Ceroplastes titschaki Lindinger

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes titschaki Lindinger, 1942: 113. Type data: PERU: South Peru, near Apurimac, on Salix humboldtiana. Syntypes, female. Notes: Type material lost (Weidner & Wagner, 1968).



HOST: Salicaceae: Salix humboldtiana [Lindin1942].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Peru.

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 58]; Lindin1942 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 113]; WeidneWa1968 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 174].



Ceroplastes toddaliae Hall

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes toddaliae Hall, 1931: 299. Type data: ZIMBABWE: Embeza, on Toddalia austriaca, Annona senegalensis, Psorospermum febrifugum and Rhus sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.



HOSTS: Anacardiaceae: Rhus [Hall1931]. Annonaceae: Annona cherimolia [Hodgso1969], Annona senegalensis [Hall1931], Artobotrys brachypetalus [Hodgso1969]. Celastraceae: Cassine aethiopica [Hodgso1969]. Clusiaceae: Psorospermum febrifugum [Hall1931]. Ebenaceae: Euclea [Hodgso1969]. Lauraceae: Persea gratissima [Hodgso1969]. Loganiaceae: Strychnos innocua [Hodgso1969]. Moraceae: Ficus [Hodgso1969], Ficus capensis [Hodgso1969], Ficus natalensis [HodgsoPe2012]. Myricaceae: Myrica pululifera [Hodgso1969]. Ochnaceae: Ochna lanceolata [Hodgso1969]. Olacaceae: Coula edulis [CouturMaRi1985]. Rosaceae: Chaenomeles lagenaria [Hodgso1969], Cliffortia nitidula [Hodgso1969], Cliffortia polygonifolia [HodgsoPe2012]. Rubiaceae: Craterispermum caudatum [CouturMaRi1985]. Rutaceae: Citrus [EtiennMa1993], Toddalia austriaca [Hall1931, Hodgso1969]. Santalaceae: Osyris lanceolata [Hodgso1969]. Sapotaceae: Bequaertiodendron megalismontanum [Hodgso1969]. Sterculiaceae: Theobroma cacao [CouturMaRi1985].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Cte d'Ivoire (=Ivory Coast); Malawi [Hodgso1969]; Mozambique [Hodgso1969]; Senegal [EtiennMa1993]; South Africa [HodgsoPe2012]; Zambia [Hodgso1969]; Zimbabwe [Hall1931, Hodgso1969].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson (1969).

STRUCTURE: Unmounted material. "Test of the adult female highly convex; the dome with a shallow median depression carrying a very small elongate boss, longitudinally orientated, rising from its base. Submarginal depression confined to a lateral indentation on either side above the stigmatic areas. The test is waxy white, often somewhat semi-transparent, and is characterised by thin radiating lines of dark colour of indeterminate hue. These lines resemble a shaded pencil effect; they are fine, straight, close together as they leave the boss but gradually diverge and become fainter. Diameter of test of adult female 5-6.5 mm." "Denuded of wax, the female is not very convex, but the central portion of the dermis, or dome, assumes the form of a laterally compressed cone. Sub-marginal area flattened with what appears to be numerous irregularly shaped and distributed depressions of a darker colour. The marginal area is flattened, with 3 rounded bi-lateral tubercles and a cephalic tubercle. These tubercles have a few faint dark marks simulating those of the submarginal region, but less conspicuous. Beneath the extension of the integument carrying the tubercles there is a marked narrow but deep indentation separating it from the true margin which is correspondingly flattened. Caudal process very short, triangular, directed upwards at an angle of 30-45 degrees. The caudal process is dark brown with a clearly defined circular circumscribed chitinous area in the younger examples. Stigmatic clefts shallow but well marked." (Hall, 1931). Mounted material. Body oval, probably rather convex, with shallow, stigmatic clefts; dorsum probably with distinct tubercles. Caudal process short and stout. Length 1.5-3.0 mm, total width of mounted specimen 1.57-2.2 mm; width of venter 1.8 mm. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: C. toddaliae is close to both C. eucleae and C. eugeniae. The main difference between C. toddaliae and these 2 species is the greater number of marginal stigmatic setae in each cleft, stretching outwards so that they generally clearly meet between clefts. C. toddaliae is similar to C. eucleae in having the stigmatic setae in each cleft 3 deep (usually 4 deep on C. eugeniae), and it resembles C. eugeniae in having more non-marginal stigmatic setae than on C. eucleae (2-13 on C. eucleae, 13-23 on C. eugeniae and 12-21 on C. toddaliae); however, the stigmatic setae never meet between clefts on C. eucleae and, when they do meet on C. eugeniae, they are clearly denser within each cleft than between the clefts (as dense on C. toddaliae). Hodgson & Peronti, 2012

KEYS: Hodgson & Peronti 2012: 100 (female, adult) [Key to adult females in the Ceroplastes rusci-group].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 58]; CouturMaRi1985 [host, distribution: 275]; EtiennMa1993 [host, distribution: 255]; Hall1931 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 299-300]; Hodgso1969 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 11-14]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 148-152,242]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 302]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549].



Ceroplastes trochezi Mosquera

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes trochezi Mosquera, 1979: 618. Type data: COLOMBIA: Buga, on mango. Holotype female. Type depository: Bogota: Colleccion Taxonomica Nacional de Programa de Entomologia del ICA en el CNIA, Colombia. Described: female.



HOST: Anacardiaceae: Mangifera indica [Mosque1979].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Colombia [Kondo2001].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 58]; Kondo2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 41]; Kondo2010 [host, distribution: 41-44]; Mosque1979 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 618-625]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 302]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; TanakaKo2015 [distribution: 112].



Ceroplastes utilis Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes utilis Riley & Howard, 1892: 139. Nomen nudum.

Ceroplastes utilis Cockerell, 1893c: 83. Type data: GRAND TURK ISLAND: on undetermined tree or bush. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Gimpel et al., 1974: 67. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Ceroplastes dozieri Cockerell & Bueker, 1930: 7. Type data: HAITI: Sources Puantes, on Maytenus buxifolia. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Gimpel et al., 1974: 67.

COMMON NAMES: candle wax scale [HamonWi1984]; Grand Turk wax-scale [Cocker1895].



HOSTS: Bignoniaceae: Catalpa longissima [GimpelMiDa1974]. Celastraceae: Maytenus buxifolia [GimpelMiDa1974]. Myrtaceae: Eugenia myrtoides [HamonWi1984]. Rosaceae: Crataegus [GimpelMiDa1974]. Verbenaceae: Avicennia marina [GimpelMiDa1974].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Florida). Neotropical: Haiti [PerezG2008]; Turks and Caicos Islands (Grand Turk Island).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Gimpel et al. (1974) and by Hamon & Williams (1984).

KEYS: Hodges 2002b: 208 (female) [Ceroplastes species of Florida]; Hamon & Williams 1984: 18 (female) [USA, Florida]; Gimpel et al. 1974: 19 (female) [USA]; Cockerell 1895: 7 (female) [Grand Turk].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 59]; Cocker1893j [distribution: 254]; Cocker1894d [taxonomy: 311]; Cocker1895 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 7]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 331]; CockerBu1930 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 7]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 158]; GimpelMiDa1974 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 67-70]; HamonWi1984 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 34-37]; Hodges2002b [taxonomy: 208]; PerezG2008 [distribution: 212]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 302]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; RileyHo1892a [taxonomy: 139].



Ceroplastes uvariae Marchal

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes uvariae Marchal, 1909c: 68. Type data: GUINEA: near Labe, on Uvaria. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France.

Gascardia uvariae; De Lotto, 1965: 182. Change of combination.

Waxiella uvariae; Ben-Dov, 1986: 166. Change of combination.

Ceroplastes uvariae; Hodgson & Peronti, 2012: 194-196. Revived combination.



HOSTS: Annonaceae: Uvaria [Vayssi1913]. Arecaceae: Elaeis guineensis [Almeid1973b].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Angola [Almeid1973b]; Guinea [Vayssi1913, HodgsoPe2012].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Hodgson & Peronti, 2012.

STRUCTURE: Unmounted material. "Average diameter 8 mm. Similar to C. africanus senegalensis in size and appearance but differs from the latter species in having a unique combination of characters. This species tends to form a much larger mass of specimens, fused to form large clumps of wax around the branches so that it is difficult to distinguish individuals. However, some specimens are isolated, and these have an ear-shaped lobe of wax [marginal flange?] on each side, separated from the main wax by a groove, each side with two points of white wax that correspond to stigmas. The dorsal part of the wax test presents a rugged nipple-like central prominence, frequently very well developed and divided in two by a groove." "The insect, devoid of wax, is very similar to C. africanus senegalensis. The posterior horn (caudal process) is large and more prominent than in variety C. africanus senegalensis. The cephalic arch is less prominent, but it differs most in that the stigmatic setae typical of C. africanus senegalensis here resemble small buttons or short blunt cylinders, forming a dense group within each stigmatic furrow. In addition, the sclerotised areas surrounding each group of stigmatic setae typical of C. africanus senegalensis are poorly developed and obscure." (Rather free translation of Marchal, 1909 in Hodgson & Peronti, 2012). Mounted material. Body probably very convex and rather broadly oval, with distinct, quite deep, stigmatic clefts; dorsum with indistinct lateral tubercles. Caudal process short, probably extending semi-vertically. Length about 5 mm, width about 4 mm. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: C. uvariae is distinctive, with the following combination of characters: (i) absence of ventral tubular ducts in the cephalic region; (ii) each stigmatic setal group radially rather narrow; (iii) dorsal loculate microducts of the rusci-type; (iv) each tibio-tarsal articulation without a sclerosis; (v) preopercular pores mainly in a single line extending across anterior margin of anal plates and for a short distance down each posterior margin; (vi) anterior margin of anal plates rather rounded; (vii) each anal plate probably with at least 4 large setae on posterior half; (viii) dorsal setae bluntly spinose; (ix) most stigmatic setae roundly conical, and (x) pregenital discpores extending onto thoracic segments. C. uvariae is somewhat similar to C. royenae. Ben-Dov (1986) transferred Ceroplastes (Gascardia) uvariae to Waxiella, presumably based on Marchals description, which suggests a close similarity to Ceroplastes (now Waxiella) africana senegalensis. However, the morphology of C. uvariae is very different and so this species is here transferred back to Ceroplastes as Ceroplastes uvariae Marchal. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012

KEYS: Hodgson & Peronti 2012: 171-172 (female, adult) [Key to adult females of Ceroplastes theobromae-group].

CITATIONS: Almeid1973b [host, distribution: 5]; BenDov1986 [taxonomy: 344]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 344]; DeLott1965a [taxonomy: 182]; HodgsoPe2012 [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 194-196,243]; Marcha1909c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 68-69]; Marcha1909d [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 170-171]; QinGu1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 302].



Ceroplastes variegatus Hempel

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes variegatus Hempel, 1900a: 462. Type data: BRAZIL: So Paulo, Ypiranga, on Miconia sp. and various Myrtaceae. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Peronti {et al.}, 2008: 178. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Melastomataceae: Miconia [Hempel1900a, PerontSoGr2008]. Myrtaceae [Hempel1900a].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Sao Paulo [Hempel1900a, PerontSoGr2008]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Peronti et al. (2008).

KEYS: Peronti {et al.} 2008: 142-144 (female) [Ceroplastes species of So Paulo, Brazil].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 59]; Cocker1902p [distribution: 253]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 158]; Hempel1900a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 462-464]; Hempel1901 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 560-561]; PerontSoGr2008 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 178-179]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 302]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; Vernal1953 [host, distribution: 131].



Ceroplastes vinsonioides Newstead

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes vinsonioides Newstead, 1911: 96. Type data: UGANDA: Entebbe, Namukekera, on coffee. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK.



HOSTS: Loganiaceae: Strychnos [DeLott1965a]. Rubiaceae: Coffea [Newste1911, Sassce1912, Newste1917b, Almeid1973b], Coffea arabica [DeLott1965a, Hodgso1969], Coffea canephora [DeLott1968a, Boboye1971, Almeid1973b]. Rutaceae: Citrus [Hodgso1969, BenDovCa2006].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Angola [DeLott1968a, Almeid1973b]; Cameroon; Ghana [Kondo2013]; Guinea-Bissau [new]; Kenya [DeLott1965a]; Nigeria [Kondo2013]; Tanzania [Kondo2013]; Uganda [Newste1911, Sassce1912, Newste1917b]; Zimbabwe [Hodgso1969].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by De Lotto (1965a).

CITATIONS: Almeid1973b [host, distribution: 2]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 60]; BenDovCa2006 [host, distribution: 326]; Boboye1971 [host, distribution: 309]; DeLott1965a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 188-189]; DeLott1968a [host, distribution: 83]; FrohliRo1970 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-10]; Hodgso1969 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 17-19]; Kondo2013 [distribution, host: 45]; LePell1968 [host, distribution, economic importance]; MatileNo1984 [host, distribution: 62]; Newste1911 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 96-97]; Newste1917b [host, distribution: 129]; QinGu1995 [taxonomy: 302]; QinGuBe1994 [taxonomy: 541-549]; Sassce1912 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 88].



Ceroplastes willinkae Peronti {in}: Peronti {et al.}

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes willinkae Peronti {in}: Peronti {et al.}, 2008: 179. Type data: BRAZIL: So Paulo State, Araatuba, on undetermined plant; collected A. Hempel, June 1928. Holotype female. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo, Brazil; type no. 94. Described: female. Illust.

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Sao Paulo [PerontSoGr2008]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Peronti et al. (2008).

KEYS: Peronti {et al.} 2008: 142-144 (female) [Ceroplastes species of So Paulo, Brazil].

CITATIONS: PerontSoGr2008 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 179-180].



Ceroplastes xishuangensis Tang & Xie in Tang

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastes xishuangensis Tang & Xie in Tang, 1991: 301. Type data: CHINA: Yunnan Province, Jinghong Town, on Cycas siamensis. Holotype female. Type depository: Shanxi: Entomological Institute, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, China. Described: female.

Ceroplastes xishuangensis; Ben-Dov, 1993: 60.

Ceroplastes xishungensis; Tao, 1999: 52. Misspelling of species name.



HOSTS: Arecaceae: Elaeis guineensis [Tang1991]. Cycadaceae: Cycas siamensis [Tang1991].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: China.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Tang (1991).

KEYS: Fetyk & Kozr 2012: 293 (female) [Key to species of Ceroplastes in the Palaearctic Region based on slide-mounted adult females]; Tang 1991: 297 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 60]; DengYuZh2012 [distribution: 791]; FetykoKo2012 [distribution, taxonomy: 292]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 301-302]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 52].



Ceroplastodes Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanodiopsis; Lichtenstein, 1886: xxxix. Misspelling of genus name.

Ceroplastodes Cockerell, 1893r: 350. Type species: Fairmairia (Ceroplastodes) nivea Cockerell, by original designation.

Ceioplastodes; Cockerell, 1902n: 194. Misspelling of genus name.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters given by Morrison (1920), Steinweden (1929), Hodgson (1971, 1994a) and by Tao et al. (1983). described by Green (1909b), Steinweden (1929), and by Tang (1991).

SYSTEMATICS: Subfamily: Cardiococcinae. Tribe: Cardiococcini.

KEYS: Tang 1991 (female) [Asia]; Tao et al. 1983: 61 (female) [Taiwan]; Hodgson 1971: 49-50 (female) [Afrotropical Region]; Green 1909a: 284 (female) [Sri Lanka].

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [taxonomy: 52]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 60-61]; Brain1920a [taxonomy, description: 40]; Cocker1899n [taxonomy: 15]; Cocker1905b [taxonomy: 199]; Danzig1972c [taxonomy: 582]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 164]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, description: 515]; Green1909a [taxonomy, description: 284]; Hodgso1971 [taxonomy: 49-50]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description: 167-170]; Lawson1917 [taxonomy, description: 203]; Miller1996 [taxonomy: 70]; Morris1920 [taxonomy: 120]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy: 32]; Steinw1929 [taxonomy, description: 232-233]; Tang1991 [taxonomy: 33-34]; Tao1978 [taxonomy, description: 79]; TaoWoCh1983 [taxonomy, description: 96]; VarshnMo1987 [taxonomy: 171]; Vea2011 [taxonomy: 1]; Yang1982 [taxonomy, description: 181].



Ceroplastodes acaciae Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastodes acaciae Cockerell, 1895o: 2. Type data: U.S.A.: Arizona, near Tucson, on Acacia constricta. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.



HOST: Fabaceae: Acacia constricta [Cocker1895l, Cocker1895x, Ferris1919a].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Arizona [Cocker1895l, Ferris1919a], New Mexico).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 61]; Cocker1895l [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 56]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 330]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 164]; Ferris1919a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 43-44]; MillerWi1990 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 344].



Ceroplastodes bahiensis Bondar

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastodes bahiensis Bondar, 1925: 58. Type data: BRAZIL: Bahia, Sul, on cacao. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.



HOST: Sterculiaceae: Theobroma cacao [Bondar1925].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Bahia).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 61]; Bondar1925 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 58]; Silva1950 [host, distribution: 119-120].



Ceroplastodes dugesii (Signoret)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanopsis dugesii Signoret, 1886b: xxxix. Type data: MEXICO: on Mimosa sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Vienna: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria. Described: female.

Inglisia nivea Cockerell, 1893t: 160. Nomen nudum; discovered by Cockerell, 1902n: 194.

Fairmairia (Ceroplastodes) nivea Cockerell, 1893z: 350. Unjustified replacement name; discovered by Ben-Dov, 1993: 61.

Ceroplastodes daleae Cockerell, 1894m: 13. Type data: U.S.A.: New Mexico, Mesilla Valley, Tortugas Mountain, on Dalea formosa. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Avasthi & Shafee, 1991a: 1.

Ceroplastodes nivea; Cockerell, 1895c: 209. Change of combination.

Ceroplastodes dugesii; Fernald, 1903b: 164. Notes: Author incorrectly cited.

Ceroplastodes deani Lawson, 1917: 203. Type data: U.S.A.: Kansas, Phillips County, near Marvin, on Petalostemon violaceus. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Avasthi & Shafee, 1991a: 1.

Ceroplastodes dugesii; Avasthi & Shafee, 1991a: 1. Notes: Author incorrectly cited.



HOSTS: Fabaceae: Acacia [Cocker1893z, PellizHoRa2008], Dalea [AvasthSh1991a], Dalea formosa [Cocker1894v, AvasthSh1991a], Kuhnistera purpurea [AvasthSh1991a], Mimosa [Signor1886b, Cocker1899n, AvasthSh1991a], Petalostemon violaceus [Lawson1917, AvasthSh1991a], Prosopis pubescens [Hodgso1994a].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico [Cocker1899n, AvasthSh1991a] (Aguascalientes [Hodgso1994a], Chihuahua [Cocker1893z, Cocker1899n, AvasthSh1991a, Hodgso1994a]). Nearctic: Mexico (Chihuahua [PellizHoRa2008]). Nearctic: Mexico (Hidalgo [PellizHoRa2008]); United States of America (Kansas [AvasthSh1991a], New Mexico [AvasthSh1991a]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female and first instar nymph by Pellizzari et al. (2008).

STRUCTURE: Colour photograph of adult female by Pellizzari et al. (2008).

CITATIONS: AvasthSh1991a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 1-3]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 61]; Cocker1893cc [taxonomy: 102]; Cocker1893z [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 350-351]; Cocker1894d [taxonomy: 311-312]; Cocker1894v [taxonomy: 1054]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 330, 333]; Cocker1899n [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 15]; Cocker1902n [taxonomy, host, distribution: 194]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 164]; Hodgso1971 [taxonomy: 49]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 167-170]; Lawson1917 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 203-205]; Miller1996 [distribution: 70]; PellizHoRa2008 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 43-59]; Signor1886b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: xxxix]; Vea2011 [phylogeny, structure, taxonomy: 5-7,12]; Willia1985a [taxonomy: 224,227].



Ceroplastodes guilliermondi Mahdihassan nomen nudum

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastodes guilliermondi Mahdihassan, 1933: 561. Nomen nudum; discovered by Ben-Dov, 1993: xxiii.

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: xxiii]; Mahdih1933 [taxonomy: 561-562].



Ceroplastodes melaleucae (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Eriochiton melaleucae Green, 1900b: 12. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Victoria, Myrniong, on Melaleuca nodosa. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Ceroplastodes melaleucae; Fernald, 1903b: 164. Change of combination.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Melaleuca nodosa [Green1900b, Frogga1915].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Victoria [Green1900b, Frogga1915]).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 61-62]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 164]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 516]; Green1900b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 12-13]; Hodgso1994 [taxonomy: 171-172].



Ceroplastodes melzeri Bondar

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastodes melzeri Bondar, 1925: 56. Type data: BRAZIL: Bahia, on cacao. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.



HOST: Sterculiaceae: Theobroma cacao [Bondar1925, AvasthSh1991a].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Bahia [AvasthSh1991a]).

CITATIONS: AvasthSh1991a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 4-6]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 62]; Bondar1925 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 56].



Ceroplastodes ritchiei Laing

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastodes ritchiei Laing, 1925a: 55. Type data: TANZANIA: Morogoro, Government Experimental Farm, on Annona sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK.



HOSTS: Annonaceae: Annona [Laing1925a, Hodgso1971], Annona muricata [Hodgso1971].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Cte d'Ivoire (=Ivory Coast); Sierra Leone [Hodgso1971]; Tanzania [Laing1925a, Hodgso1971].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson (1971).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 62]; CouturMaRi1985 [host, distribution: 275]; Hodgso1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 57-58]; Laing1925a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 55-56].



Ceroplastodes theobromae Bondar

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastodes theobromae Bondar, 1925: 59. Type data: BRAZIL: Bahia, on cacao. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.



HOST: Sterculiaceae: Theobroma cacao [Bondar1925, AvasthSh1991a].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil [AvasthSh1991a] (Bahia).

CITATIONS: AvasthSh1991a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 3-4]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 62]; Bondar1925 [taxonomy, host, description, distribution: 59]; Silva1950 [host, distribution: 119-120].



Ceroplastodes wandoorensis Yousuf & Shafee

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastodes wandoorensis Yousuf & Shafee, 1988: 57. Type data: INDIA: Aldaman Islands, Port Blair, Wandoor, on wild plant. Holotype female. Type depository: Aligarh: Aligarh Muslim University, Department of Zoology, India.

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Andaman Islands [ShafeeYoKh1989].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 62]; ShafeeYoKh1989 [host, distribution: 49]; YousufSh1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 57-58].



Ceroplastodes zavattarii Bellio

NOMENCLATURE:

Ceroplastodes zavattarii Bellio, 1939: 232. Type data: ETHIOPIA: Neghelli, on twigs of undetermined plant. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Portici: Dipartimento de Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria di Portici, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Italy. Described: female.



HOSTS: Fabaceae: Cajanus cajan [EtiennMa1993]. Lamiaceae: Coleus [Hodgso1971]. Malvaceae: Pavonia hirsuta [Hodgso1971], Urena lobata [EtiennMa1993]. Poaceae: Bambusa [Hodgso1971]. Tiliaceae: Triumfetta [Hodgso1971].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Eritrea [Hodgso1971]; Ethiopia; Gambia [Hodgso1971]; Guinea [EtiennMa1993]; Guinea-Bissau [Fernan1990]; Nigeria [Hodgso1971]; Senegal [Hodgso1971, EtiennMa1993].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson (1971) and by Fernandes (1990).

CITATIONS: Bellio1939 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 232-236]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 62-63]; EtiennMa1993 [host, distribution: 255]; Fernan1990 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 175-177]; Hodgso1971 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 59-60].



Chlamydolecanium Goux

NOMENCLATURE:

Chlamydolecanium Goux, 1933: 119. Type species: Chlamydolecanium conchioides Goux, by monotypy and original designation.

Chlamidolecanium; Lindinger, 1935a: 142. Misspelling of genus name.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters given by Goux (1933), Borchsenius (1957) and by Hodgson (1994a).

STRUCTURE: Generic diagnosis. Adult female Dorsum. Dorsal setae entirely absent. Dorsal tubercles and tubular ducts absent. Preopercular pores present in a single longitudinal line medially, extending from anterior to anal plates to head. Simple pores and dorsal microducts present among preopercular pores and marginally. Anal plates each subtriangular and elongate, bearing strong spinose setae near apex. Margin. Marginal setae spinose and sharply conical. Stigmatic setae not differentiated. Stigmatic clefts absent. Simple pores and minute microducts present among marginal setae. Venter. Antennae short, 8 segmented. Legs well developed, without a tibio-tarsal articulatory sclerosis. Claw with a denticle. Claw digitules slightly knobbed. Stigmatic furrow with 5-loculi spiracular disc-pores. Tubular ducts present in a submarginal band and also medially on head and thorax. Pregenital disc-pores, each with 5-loculi, present on either side of anal cleft, pores with more than 5 loculi absent. Abdominal and inter-antennal setae short. (Vea, 2011)

SYSTEMATICS: Subfamily: Cardiococcinae. Tribe: Cardiococcini.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Generic description of family in Vea, 2011.

KEYS: Borchsenius 1957: 90 (female) [Palaearctic Region].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 63]; Borchs1957 [taxonomy, description: 138-139]; Goux1933 [taxonomy, description: 119]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description: 173-175]; Lindin1935 [taxonomy: 142]; LongoMaPe1995 [taxonomy: 122]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy: 35]; Vea2011 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 2,13].



Chlamydolecanium conchioides Goux

NOMENCLATURE:

Chlamydolecanium conchioides Goux, 1933: 120. Type data: FRANCE: Corsica, Bastia, on Lavandula stoechas. Syntypes, female and first instar. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female and first instar. Notes: Lectotype: France, Corsica, Bastia, route de Cardo, on Lavandula stoechas L. (Lamiaceae), 8/16/1930, by L. Goux, designated in Vea, 2011.



HOST: Lamiaceae: Lavandula stoechas [Goux1933, Hodgso1994a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Corsica [Hodgso1994a, Foldi2003]; Italy [Marott1987].

BIOLOGY: According to Goux (1933), the adult females become mature in August and most of them were sheltering completely developed nymphs, suggesting that they are ovoviviparous. (Vea, 2011)

GENERAL REMARKS: Description of the adult female and first-instar nymph given by Borchsenius (1957). Detailed redescription and illustration of adult female, young teneral female, and first-instar mymph in Vea, 2011.

STRUCTURE: Information given by Goux (1933): adult female "covered by a waxy, glassy test, easily removable from the body, and composed of two symmetrical valves, lamellibranch-like with a hooked edge, each of the two hooks being directed backwards. The line joining the valves forms a deep furrow, which becomes narrower next to the hooks, becoming wider anteriorly and particularly posteriorly. Each valve has small ridges radiating from the top. In general, the test just resembles a small lamellibranch shell. When separated from the rest of the body, it is almost transparent; when in place, it is yellowish-grey and slightly iridescent. Length 3.0 mm, width 2.0 mm and height 2.5 mm. The dorsal surface bears two prominences separated by a longitudinal and median groove that corresponds to the valve sutures. The ventral surface is flat and even concave." Slide mounted adult female body broadly oval, pear-shaped with a broader posterior region; anal cleft short with divergent sides, forming an obtuse angle. Dorsum wider than venter. Pregenital disc-pores present, each with five loculi on either side of anal cleft. Absence of dorsal setae.(Vea, 2011)

SYSTEMATICS: C. conchioides is the only species known in this genus and can be separated from species in the other genera in the Cardiococcinae by the combination of the following characters: (i) the presence of preopercular pores distributed in a longitudinal median single line anterior to anal plates to the head, (ii) the undifferentiated stigmatic setae and stigmatic spines, and (iii) the presence of a few pregenital 5-loculi disc-pores, restricted to either side of the anal cleft. The first-instar nymphs of C. conchioides are very similar to species in 3 other genera within the Cardiococcinae, namely Ceroplastodes dugesii (Pellizzari et al., 2008), Pseudokermes nitens (Cockerell) and Inglisia patella Maskell (Hodges & Williams, 2003). No dorsal microducts or trilocular pores could be detected on the nymphs of C. conchioides (present on the nymphs C. dugesii) and the protarsal digitules were similar to those on the other legs (currently unknown on other 1st-instar Coccidae nymphs). (Vea, 2011)

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 63]; Borchs1957 [taxonomy, description: 139-140]; Foldi2003 [host, distribution: 150]; Goux1933 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 120-123]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 174-175]; KozarWa1985 [catalogue: 76]; LongoMaPe1995 [taxonomy, distribution: 122]; Marott1987 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 100]; Vea2011 [description, illustration, phylogeny, structure, taxonomy: 2,5-13].



Cissococcus Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Cissococcus Cockerell, 1902a: 23. Type species: Cissococcus fulleri Cockerell, by monotypy and original designation.

BIOLOGY: Females induce galls on wild vines (Vitaceae) of the genus Rhoicissus, and currently are known only from the southeast to northeast areas of South Africa. Males do not induce galls but are free-living on foliage of host plants. Young galls of females appear as small convexities on stems, each with a large hole or orifice apically. The galls expand with age, becoming 5-8 mm in diameter. Galls are green and fleshy when young but become woody and darkened with age. (Hodgson, et al., 2011)

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters given by Ferris (1920a), Steinweden (1929) Hodgson (1994a). Photogaphs in Hodgson, et al., 2011.

STRUCTURE: When removed from gall adult female body salmon to burgundy pink to dark red in colour, depending on age; body globose to slightly flattened, with a distinct upper surface consisting of half of venter plus small true dorsum closest to gall orifice, and a lower surface formed of half of venter closest to attachment of gall to stem; dorsum clearly distinguishable as almost the only dark sclerotised structure (Fig. 1B) but representing only a small portion of the fully-expanded body (i.e., only about 1/40th area of venter of mature female). (Hodgson, et al., 2011) Third-instar female. Basically similar to adult female, but smaller. Dorsum with fewer pores and setae; anal plates with few spinose setae. Margin with fewer spinose setae. Eyespot more or less on margin. Venter with or without loculate pores on lower venter, and ventral setae few. Legs much better developed than on adult female, all segments clearly present, and placed near margins of mounted specimens. Antennae clearly 5 or 6 segmented. Mouthparts located on lower venter. (Hodgson, et al., 2011) Second-instar female. Venter not swollen in youngest individuals but becoming somewhat swollen in more mature specimens. (Hodgson, et al., 2011) First-instar nymph rather flat and orange to rusty-brown in colour, (Hodgson, et al., 2011) Second-instar male. Found on leaves and petioles, becoming covered in a loose mass of white wax. Mounted specimens similar to youngest second-instar females apart from dorsum with 2 submedial groups of tubular ducts on abdominal segment IV and sunken cone-shaped secretory spines (occasionally few or absent on some specimens), and venter with tubular ducts present more or less throughout and antennae 7 segmented. (Hodgson, et al., 2011) Prepupa. Develops beneath loose, white waxy test. Mounted specimens typical of Coccidae; lobes on abdominal segment VII rounded and very short, with a line of fleshy pleural setae; penial sheath large, about as long as basal width; loculate pores only present associated with anterior spiracles. (Hodgson, et al., 2011) Pupa. Structurally similar to prepupa but with much longer antennae, legs and wing-buds. (Hodgson, et al., 2011) Adult male moderately large. Head with dermal reticulations almost throughout; gena without genal setae; with 2 pairs of simple eyes. Antennae slightly longer than half body length. Body rather bald, with few body setae, most hair-like setae rather similar to fleshy setae; appendages, however, hirsute, with numerous fleshy setae easily differentiated from hair-like setae. Wings large, each with an alar seta; hamulohalteres present. Legs each with 1-segmented tarsus; no tarsal campaniform sensillum and only 1 tibial spur. Abdomen with a pair of deep glandular pouches, each with 2 capitate glandular pouch setae; glandular pouches with 2 types of pores. Penial sheath long (about total body length), narrow and sharply pointed; anus surrounded by sclerotised derm. (Hodgson, et al., 2011)

SYSTEMATICS: Subfamily: Cissococcinae. Tribe: Cissococcini.

KEYS: Hodgson et al. 2011: 6-7 (female) [Key for the separation of instars of Cissocuccus species].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 63]; Brain1918 [taxonomy, description]; Cocker1902a [taxonomy: 23]; Ferris1920a [taxonomy, description]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description: 178-182]; HodgsoMiGu2011 [description, distribution, life history, structure, taxonomy: 3-7]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy: 38]; Steinw1929 [taxonomy, description: 233].



Cissococcus braini Hodgson & Millar in Hodgson et al.

NOMENCLATURE:

Cissococcus fulleri; Brain, 1918: 133-134. Misidentification; discovered by Hodgson et al., 2011: 25-26.

Cissococcus braini Hodgson & Millar in Hodgson et al., 2011: 25-30. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Eastern Cape, Boesmansriviermond, 3340'S 2639'E, 11/26/2005, in gall of Rhoicissus digitata, by P.J. Gullan. Holotype female (examined). Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female and first instar. Illust.



HOST: Vitaceae: Rhoicissus digitata [HodgsoMiGu2011].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [HodgsoMiGu2011].

GENERAL REMARKS: The adult female of what was thought to be C. fulleri was redescribed by Hodgson (1994) but, with the availability of much new material, it now appears that the species illustrated in detail was a new species, C. braini, Detailed descriptions and illustrations of adult female, third-instar female and first-instar by Hodgson and Millar in Hodgson et al. (2011)

STRUCTURE: The female induces a tilted, conical to ovoid or pear-shaped gall 8-13 mm long, 7-8 mm high and of similar width, with apex truncate; orifice leading to gall chamber minute, circular to elongate, maximum dimension 0.3-0.5 mm, at bottom of a small outer chamber or concavity at apex of gall. Males are not known but presumably are free-living (Hodgson et al. 2011)

SYSTEMATICS: Originally it was placed in the Eriococcidae by Cockerell (1902) but later was considered to be a soft scale (Coccidae) and placed in its own subfamily, the Cissococcinae. (Hodgson, et al., 2011) The morphology of the adult females of Cissococcus species is very similar apart from the structure of the dorsum. It appears that the dorsum of the type species, C. fulleri, is almost flat (at least, it comes to lie flat on the slide once mounted) whereas the dorsum of C. braini, is rather larger and perhaps C-shaped, so that, during the mounting process, the dorsum is bent on itself. The consequence of this is that the actual dorsal surface of the anterior end of the dorsum (with the eyespots) faces ventrally and is more or less hidden on C. braini. Other differences between the adult females of the two species are (character states on C. fulleri in parentheses): (i) setae on dorsal surface of anal plates relatively few and not covering more than about half surface (numerous, covering almost entire surface); (ii) spiracles rather larger, smallest about 75 m wide (smaller, largest 65 m wide), and (iii) setae on lower venter very long, mostly more than 65 m long (shorter, mostly 50 m or less). (Hodgson, et al., 2011) The third-instar female of C. braini differs from that of C. fulleri in having: (i) abundant loculate pores medially on the thorax, (ii) many more marginal setae, and (iii) antennae only 5 segmented rather than 6 segmented. It differs from adult female C. braini (data for adult female in brackets) as follows: (i) dorsum of third instar about half total body length (much less than half total body length); (ii) ventral loculate pores frequent only medially on thoracic segments (abundant throughout most of venter); (iii) setae on lower venter few and fairly short (abundant and long), and (iv) dorsum with 8 or 9 pairs of setae (frequent throughout). (Hodgson, et al., 2011)

KEYS: Hodgson et al. 2011: 7 (female) [Key for the separation of adult females of Cissococcus species and Key for the separation of galls of adult females of Cissococcus].

CITATIONS: Brain1918 [description, distribution, illustration: 133-134]; HodgsoMiGu2011 [description, distribution, host, illustration, life history, taxonomy: 25-30].



Cissococcus fulleri Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Cissococcus fulleri Cockerell, 1902a: 23. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Umquahumbi Valley, on Cissus cuneifolia. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK, Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Cissococus fulleri; Hodgson et al., 2011. Misspelling of genus name.



ASSOCIATE: HYMENOPTERA Formicidae: Crematogaster desperans [HodgsoMiGu2011].

HOST: Vitaceae: Cissus cuniefolia [Cocker1902a, Hodgso1994a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [Hodgso1994a] (Natal.).

BIOLOGY: The insect forms large, globular, pear-shaped or urn-shaped galls on the stems, tendrils and leaf stalks of Cissus cuneifolia (Brain, 1918). This species is oviparous (Hodgson, et al., 2011)

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson (1994a). The adult female of what was thought to be C. fulleri was redescribed by Hodgson (1994a) but, with the availability of much new material, it now appears that the species illustrated in detail was C. braini Redescription and illustrations of all life stages by Hodgson et al. (2011)

STRUCTURE: The caudal end of the female's body is highly modified to form a sclerotized operculum for the gall aperture (Brain, 1918). Each gall of female develops on stem of host plant. Initially, each gall appears as a small convexity with an apical opening. When fully mature, gall brownish, hairless, globular or cup-shaped, sometimes almost cylindrical, 5-6 mm in diameter, slightly less tall; basal attachment to plant usually broad (at least half diameter of gall); gall surface broken into polygonal, slightly raised brown barky areas, each separated by greenish fissures. Top of gall flat and with a small concavity with a small central orifice, about 0.3-0.4 mm in diameter. When cut open, walls thick, fleshy and green. Adult female scale insect lying within a large, approximately round space, with body filling cavity and dorsum placed in gall opening. A short glassy white wax protrusion sometimes present, extending from anal plate area through orifice in gall; the glassy secretion is produced as a filament from each anal-plate seta and each dorsal marginal seta and these filaments combine to form a broad brush-like protrusion. Sometimes 2 or more galls coalesce. (Hodgson, et al., 2011) When removed from gall, body dark burgundy pink. Body slightly dorsoventrally flattened, with a covering of white wax on one, only slightly rounded, surface, which shows strong signs of segmentation and so clearly referable to median areas of venter (i.e. lower venter (see below)). Other, upper surface, more convex, with two converging lines of white wax in shallow grooves extending to small sclerotised dorsum - presumably wax secreted by bands of spiracular disc-pores which extend from spiracles to dorsum. Position of vulva possibly indicated by a small medial indentation on lower venter just anterior to dorsum. (Hodgson, et al., 2011) Third instar nymph gall similar to that of adult female but much smaller. Mature second- and third-instar females are distinctive and can be distinguished from all other immature instars of Cissococcus by their swollen, globular body shape, with a much enlarged venter and antennae on upper venter near dorsum. However, young teneral second-instar females are not swollen and have the venter approximately the same size as the dorsum. These two instars can be separated at all stages by the presence of the enlarged dorsal cone-shaped spines on the second-instar females (also present on second-instar males). Second and third-instar females of C. fulleri can be separated from second-instar males by the absence of dorsal and ventral tubular ducts; and from adult females by the absence of multilocular disc-pores (frequent throughout much of the venter of the adult females) and in having much better developed legs and antennae.(Hodgson, et al., 2011) Second instar females individually enclosed within a woody gall formed on twig; gall small initially but beginning to swell by end of instar. Body becoming rotund/globose when mature, with anterior and lateral parts of venter much larger than dorsum, with result that antennae on upper venter; mouthparts ventral, legs arising ventrally and projecting beyond edges of body. Venter not visible dorsally along posterior margins of body. (Hodgson, et al., 2011) Second instar males tend to settle against midrib on lower surface of young leaves or on petioles, often in groups. Initially mottled reddish-brown marginally, with median to submedian area translucent and marked by pairs of dark red-brown spots arranged segmentally; on mounted specimens, these spots correspond to conical sunken spines. On older individuals, dorsum becomes covered in glassy-wax tubes secreted from each dark spot; these wax tubes often curled and as long as or longer than body length. In addition, margin covered with short, glassy-wax extrusions, probably secreted by the fringe of marginal setae. (Hodgson, et al., 2011) The 1st-instar nymphs of Cissococcus appear to be reasonably typical coccid crawlers. The main unusual characters are: (i) the presence of what appears to be a trilocular pore anteriorly on the venter; and (ii) the presence of a sclerotised bar just anterior to the anal plates, otherwise only known on first-instar nymphs of Cryptostigma. First-instar nymphs differ from other instars in having the very long apical anal plate seta; they also differ from second-instar nymphs in lacking the sunken cone-shaped pores. (Hodgson, et al., 2011)

SYSTEMATICS: Brain (1919) described and illustrated Cissococus fulleri, his description has now been determined to be a misidentification of Cissococcus braini (Hodgson, et al., 2011)

KEYS: Hodgson et al. 2011: 7 (adult) [Key for the seperation of adult females of Cissococcus species and Key for the seperation of galls of adult females of Cissococcus species].

CITATIONS: Beards1984 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 87,96]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 63-64]; Cocker1902a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 23-24]; Ferris1919b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 112-113]; GullanMiCo2005 [taxonomy, structure: 164,181-182]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 178-182]; HodgsoMiGu2011 [description, distribution, ecology, host, illustration, life history, taxonomy: 7-25]; Willia1985a [taxonomy: 225].



Coccus Linnaeus

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus Linnaeus, 1758: 455. Type species: Coccus hesperidum Linnaeus.

Calymmata Costa, 1828: 6. Type species: Coccus hesperidum Linnaeus. Notes: Synonymy by community of type species.

Calypticus Costa, 1829: 8. Type species: Coccus hesperidum Linnaeus. Subsequently designated by Costa, 1835. Synonymy by Fernald, 1903b. Notes: Type species as a misidentification of Saissetia oleae (Olivier); subsequently also designated by Fernald (1902: 178).

Calymmatus; Costa, 1835: 22. Misspelling of genus name.

Calypticus; Costa, 1835: 1.

Coeus; Lopez y Ramos, 1835: 15. Misspelling of genus name.

Lecanium Burmeister, 1835: 69. Unavailable name; discovered by Opinion 1303, 1985: 139.

Calimmata; Costa, 1835: 2. Misspelling of genus name.

Caliptici; Costa, 1835: 2. Misspelling of genus name.

Calymmatus; Costa, 1840: 50. Misspelling of genus name.

Calypticus; Costa, 1840: 1.

Calymnatus; Signoret, 1868: 511. Misspelling of genus name.

Calymnatus; Signoret, 1869a: 856. Misspelling of genus name.

Cocus; Watt & Mann, 1903: 300. Misspelling of genus name.

Cossus; Rehcek, 1959: 625. Misspelling of genus name.

Taiwansaissetia Tao, Wong & Chang, 1983: 77. Type species: Lecanium formicarii Green, by monotypy and original designation. Synonymy by Lin et al., 2013: 249-264.

Taiwansaissetia; Kosztarab, Ben-Dov & Kosztarab, 1986: 16. Notes: Incorrect citation of authors.

Taiwansaissetia; Hodgson, 1994a: 566. Notes: Incorrect citation of authors.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters given by Leonardi (1920), Steinweden (1929), Zimmerman (1948), Borchsenius (1957), De Lotto (1959; 1965a), Hodgson (1967; 1994a), Williams & Kosztarab (1972), Gill et al (1977), Tao et al. (1983), Hamon & Williams (1984), Williams & Watson (1994), Kosztarab (1996) and by Granara de Willink (1999).

STRUCTURE: Adult female. Body oval, elongate or pyriform; usually flat, moderately convex, or nearly hemispherical. Derm membranous; gradually increasing in thickness during ageing. Dorsal setae setose, spinose, clavate or cylindrical. Dorsal tubular ducts and dorsal submarginal tubercles present or absent. Preopercular pores present or absent, varying in number and shape. Anal plates together quadrate. Anal ring with 6 or 8 setae. Marginal setae simple to branched; stigmatic clefts deep or shallow, each with 2-8 stigmatic spines. Venter. Antennae 2-8 segmented. Legs well developed or reduced; with or without a tibio-tarsal articulatory sclerosis. Spiracular disc-pores with 5 loculi. Pregenital disc-pores mainly with 10 loculi, present around anal opening, or extending anteriorly, even as far as head. Ventral tubular ducts present or absent; when present located medially, or forming a sparse or dense submarginal band. (Wang & Feng, 2012)

SYSTEMATICS: Subfamily: Coccinae. Tribe: Coccini. The generic name Lecanium Burmeister, 1835, was one of the most widely used names in the Coccidae, as well as in other families of scale insects, despite its obscure status. The status of this genus has been discussed by various authors, for example Morrison & Morrison (1966). The final rejection of this genus from the Coccoidea has been established by Opinion 1303 of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (1985), which placed Lecanium on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic names in Zoology. After Fernald (1903b) designated Coccus hesperidum Linnaeus as type species of Calypticus Costa, the latter was generally accepted as an objective synonym of Coccus. However, De Lotto (1970a) showed that the nominal type species of Calypticus was a misidentification by Costa (1829) of Saissetia oleae (Olivier). Saissetia oleae (Olivier) is also the type species of Bernardia Ashmead. Therefore, the case should be referred to ICZN. Calymmatus Costa, 1835, is a mis-spelling of Calypticus (see Morrison & Morrison, 1966). Type species was designated following the application by Danzig and Kerzhner (1981a).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Some Coccus species are pests of horticultural and ornamental plants in China (Wang & Feng, 2012a)

KEYS: Granara de Willink et al. 2010: 397 (female) [Species on Coffea in Brazil]; Hodgson & Henderson 2000: 195 (female) [New Zealand]; Granara de Willink 1999: 25 (female) [Argentina]; Kosztarab 1996: 337 (female) [Northeastern North America]; Kosztarab 1996: 337 (female) [Northeastren North America]; Avasthi & Shafee 1991: 329-330 (female) [India]; Tang 1991: 75-78 (female) [as Taiwansaissetia; China]; Williams & Watson 1990: 82 (female) [Tropical South Pacific]; Gill 1988: 26 (female) [USA, California]; Hamon & Williams 1984: 38 (female) [USA, Florida]; Tao et al. 1983: 63 (female) [as Taiwansaissetia; Taiwan]; Kawai 1980: 141-142 (female) [Japan]; Wang 1980: 26-27 (female) [China]; Gill et al. 1977: 10-12 (female) [North America]; Hodgson 1969a: 5 (female) [Zimbabwe]; Hodgson 1967: 2 (female) [Zimbabwe]; Beardsley 1966: 480, 482-483 (female) [Micronesia]; De Lotto 1966: 41-43 (female) [South Africa]; De Lotto 1965a: 190-191 (female) [Afrotropical]; De Lotto 1960: 389 (female) [Afrotropical]; De Lotto 1959: 153-154 (female) [Afrotropical]; Gomez-Menor Ortega 1958b: 63 (female) [Spain]; Borchsenius 1957: 294 (female) [Palaearctic Region]; Borchsenius 1957: 291 (female) [Palaearctic Region]; De Lotto 1957c: 295-296 (female) [Afrotropical]; Borchsenius 1950b: 144-146 (female) [USSR]; Zimmerman 1948: 293-294 (female) [Hawaii]; Morrison 1921 (female) [Singapore]; Cockerell 1905b: 199 (female) [USA, Colorado].

CITATIONS: Almeid1969 [taxonomy: 21]; Almeid1973b [taxonomy: 4]; Ashmea1891 [taxonomy: 97]; Avasth1993 [taxonomy: 73]; AvasthSh1991 [taxonomy, description: 329-330]; Beards1966 [taxonomy: 480,482]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 14-15,64]; Bodenh1953a [taxonomy: 94]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description: 144-146]; Borchs1957 [taxonomy, description: 292-294]; Burmei1835 [taxonomy: 61]; CebeciSe2004 [taxonomy: 209]; Cocker1893g [taxonomy: 49]; Cocker1905b [taxonomy: 199]; Cocker1929b [taxonomy, description: 150]; Costa1828a [taxonomy: 1-8]; Costa1828b [taxonomy: 449-454]; Costa1829 [taxonomy: 8]; Costa1835 [taxonomy: 1]; Dalman1826 [taxonomy: 350-374]; DeLott1957c [taxonomy: 295-296]; DeLott1959 [taxonomy: 150-154]; DeLott1960 [taxonomy: 389]; DeLott1965a [taxonomy, description: 189-191]; DeLott1966 [taxonomy: 41-43]; DeLott1971 [taxonomy: 145]; DeLott1971d [taxonomy, description: 257-258]; DeLott1978 [taxonomy: 139]; DietzMo1916a [taxonomy, description: 245]; EzzatHu1969 [taxonomy, description: 391]; Fernal1902 [taxonomy: 177-178]; Fernal1902a [taxonomy: 232-233]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 167]; Fernal1906 [taxonomy, description: 125-126]; Ferris1950a [taxonomy: 75]; Gill1988 [taxonomy, description: 26]; GillNaWi1977 [taxonomy, description: 1-44]; GomezM1937 [taxonomy, description: 295]; GomezM1958b [taxonomy, description: 48, 62-63]; Granar1999 [taxonomy, description: 80-81]; GranarPiFe2010 [taxonomy: 391-399]; GullanCo2001 [taxonomy, phylogeny: 91-99]; Hadzib1983 [taxonomy, description: 126]; HamonWi1984 [taxonomy, description: 17,36-38]; Hodgso1967 [taxonomy, description: 2]; Hodgso1969a [taxonomy: 4-5]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description: 182-185, 306, 566-56]; HodgsoHe2000 [taxonomy: 195]; ICZN1985 [taxonomy: 139-141]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, description: 141-142]; Koszta1996 [taxonomy, description: 324,336-337]; Koteja1974 [taxonomy: 306]; Lawson1917 [taxonomy, description: 195]; Leonar1920 [taxonomy: 319]; LinKoGu2013 [molecular data, taxonomy: 250]; Linnae1758 [taxonomy, description: 455]; LongoMaPe1995 [taxonomy: 122]; Lopezy1835 [taxonomy: 15]; Mamet1949 [taxonomy: 23]; Mamet1950 [taxonomy: 21]; Mamet1951 [taxonomy: 224]; Mamet1954 [taxonomy: 13]; Mamet1959a [taxonomy: 376]; Mamet1978 [taxonomy: 105]; MatileNo1984 [taxonomy: 63]; Miller1996 [taxonomy: 70]; Morris1921 [taxonomy, description: 653-654]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy: 27-28,42,47]; Paik1978 [taxonomy, description]; Rehace1959 [taxonomy, description: 625]; Rehace1960 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 44]; Savesc1982 [taxonomy, description: 274]; Signor1868 [taxonomy, description: 511]; Signor1869 [taxonomy, description: 856]; Steinw1929 [taxonomy, description: 222-223]; Sulzer1776 [taxonomy, description: 107-112]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description: 71-78, 84-85]; Tao1978 [taxonomy, description: 79]; Tao1999 [taxonomy: 53]; TaoWoCh1983 [taxonomy, description: 62-63, 77-80]; Terezn1981 [taxonomy, description: 148]; Tranfa1976 [taxonomy: 128]; UedaQuIt2008 [taxonomy, phylogeny, ant association: 2319-2326]; VarshnMo1987 [taxonomy: 173]; Walker1852 [taxonomy: 1080]; Wang1980 [taxonomy, description: 26-27]; WangFe2012a [taxonomy: 60]; Willia2007b [taxonomy: 427-490]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 1-64]; WilliaKo1972 [taxonomy, description: 54]; WilliaWa1990 [taxonomy, description: 60-61,81-83]; Xie1998 [taxonomy: 65]; XieXuZh2006a [taxonomy: 1-7]; Yang1982 [taxonomy, description: 166]; Zimmer1948 [taxonomy, description: 293-294].



Coccus acaciae (Newstead)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium acaciae Newstead, 1917: 355. Type data: KENYA: Nairobi, on Acacia melanoxylon. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Ben-Dov, 1977: 94. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Coccus elongatus; De Lotto, 1957b: 301. Misidentification; discovered by Ben-Dov, 1977: 94.

Coccus acaciae; Ben-Dov, 1977: 94. Revived status.



HOSTS: Fabaceae: Acacia melanoxylon [Newste1917], Albizia molucanna [Newste1917].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Kenya [Newste1917]. Australasian: Australia (Western Australia [Fuller1899]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Newstead (1917).

SYSTEMATICS: De Lotto (1957c: 301) erroneously synonymized Lecanium acaciae Newstead, 1917 with Coccus elongatus of Authors [=Coccus longulus]. Ben-Dov (1977:94) resurrected Lecanium acaciae Newstead, 1917, transferred it to Coccus and regarded it a valid species Coccus acaciae(Newstead). Consequently, Coccus acaciae (Newstead, 1917) became a junior secondary homonym of Coccus acaciae Maskell, 1897, which is currently known as Epicoccus acaciae (Maskell, 1897) in the Pseudococcidae. However, according to Article 59 of ICZN (1999), since the above species are now in different genera, there is no need to rename Coccus acaciae (Newstead, 1917).

CITATIONS: BenDov1977 [taxonomy: 94]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 64]; DeLott1957c [taxonomy: 301]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 168]; Fuller1899 [host, distribution: 439]; Newste1917 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 355-356]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 6].



Coccus acrossus De Lotto

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus acrossus De Lotto, 1969a: 415. Type data: ANGOLA: Novo Redondo, on Elaeis guineensis. Holotype female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female.

Coccus atrichos; Carvalho & Cardoso, 1970: 15. Misspelling of species name.



HOST: Arecaceae: Elaeis guineensis [DeLott1969a, Almeid1973b].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Angola [DeLott1969a, Almeid1973b].

CITATIONS: Almeid1973b [host, distribution: 2]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 65]; CarvalCa1970 [host, distribution: 15]; DeLott1969a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 415-417]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 6]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 10].



Coccus aequale (Newstead)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium aequale Newstead, 1917: 354. Type data: GUYANA: Sea Shore, East Coast, on Avicennia nitida. Syntypes, female and first instar. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Coccus aequale; Ben-Dov, 1993: 65. Change of combination.



HOST: Verbenaceae: Avicennia nitida [Newste1917].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Guyana [Newste1917].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 65-66]; Newste1917 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 354-355]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 7].



Coccus africanus (Newstead)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium viride africanum Newstead, 1898: 95. Type data: NIGERIA: Lagos, on coffee. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Coccus viridis africanus; Fernald, 1903b: 174. Change of combination.

Coccus africanus; De Lotto, 1960: 389. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Apocynaceae: Carissa edulis [DeLott1957c]. Celastraceae: Gymnosporia [DeLott1957c]. Ehretiaceae: Ehretia silvatica [DeLott1957c]. Myrtaceae: Psidium guajava [DeLott1957c]. Rubiaceae: Coffea [Newste1917, DeLott1957c, DeLott1960], Coffea arabica [DeLott1957c], Coffea robusta [DeLott1957c], Gardenia [DeLott1957c]. Rutaceae: Citrus limon [DeLott1957c]. Theaceae: Thea [LePell1959].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Angola [Almeid1973b]; Eritrea [DeLott1957c, BenDov1993, CABI1994]; Kenya [DeLott1957c]; Nigeria [Vayssi1913, DeLott1960]; Uganda [Newste1917, DeLott1957c].

BIOLOGY: Biology and pest status on coffee presented by Le Pelley (1968).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by De Lotto (1957c; 1960).

CITATIONS: Almeid1973b [host, distribution: 2]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 66,68]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 394]; DeLott1957c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 296-298]; DeLott1960 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 389-393]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 174]; GillKo1997 [economic importance, host, distribution: 161-163]; Kondo2013 [distribution, host: 45]; LePell1959 [host, distribution, biological control]; Newste1898 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 95-96]; Newste1917 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 357-359]; Vayssi1913 [host, distribution: 430]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 7,47].



Coccus almoraensis Avasthi & Shafee

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus almoraensis Avasthi & Shafee, 1984: 389. Type data: INDIA: Uttar Pradesh, Almora, on undetermined wild plant. Holotype female. Type depository: Aligarh: Aligarh Muslim University, Department of Zoology, India. Described: female.



HOST: Anacardiaceae: Mangifera indica [AvasthSh1984, ShafeeYoKh1989, AvasthSh1991].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: India [ShafeeYoKh1989] (Bihar [AvasthSh1984, AvasthSh1991], Uttar Pradesh [AvasthSh1984, AvasthSh1991]).

CITATIONS: AvasthSh1984 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 389-390]; AvasthSh1991 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 331]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 66]; ShafeeYoKh1989 [host, distribution: 50]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 8].



Coccus alpinus De Lotto

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium africanum; Newstead, 1917: 357. Misidentification; discovered by De Lotto, 1960: 393.

Coccus africanus; De Lotto, 1957c: 296. Misidentification; discovered by De Lotto, 1960: 393.

Coccus alpinus De Lotto, 1960: 393. Type data: KENYA: Ruiru, on Coffea arabica. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.



FOES: COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Chilocorus adustus Weise [LePell1968], Chilocorus angolensis Crotch [Murphy1991]. HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Coccophagus argocoxa Annecke & Insley [Murphy1991], Coccophagus nubes Compere [Murphy1991], Coccophagus pulvinariae Compere [Murphy1991], Coccophagus rusti compere [Murphy1991]. Encyrtidae: Aloencyrtus saissetiae (Compere) [Murphy1991], Aloencyrtus ugandensis (Comprere) [Murphy1991], Diversinervus stramineus Compere [Murphy1991], Metaphycus baruensis Noyes [Murphy1991], Metaphycus stanleyi Compere [Murphy1991].

HOSTS: Apocynaceae: Carissa edulis [DeLott1960, DeLott1965a]. Celastraceae: Gymnosporia [DeLott1960]. Ehretiaceae: Ehretia silvatica [DeLott1960]. Myrtaceae: Psidium guajava [DeLott1960]. Rubiaceae: Coffea [DeLott1960, DeLott1965a], Coffea arabica [DeLott1960, Hodgso1967], Coffea canephora [DeLott1968a, Almeid1973b], Coffea robusta [DeLott1960], Gardenia [DeLott1960]. Rutaceae: Citrus limon [DeLott1960]. Theaceae: Thea [Benjam1968].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Angola [DeLott1968a, Almeid1973b]; Congo [Kondo2013]; Eritrea [DeLott1960]; Ethiopia [DeLott1965a]; Kenya [DeLott1960]; Malawi [HillocPhOv1999]; Tanzania [DeLott1960]; Uganda [DeLott1960]; Zaire [DeLott1960]; Zimbabwe [Hodgso1967]. Neotropical: Brazil (Bahia [GranarPiFe2010], Minas Gerais [GranarPiFe2010]).

BIOLOGY: De Lotto (1960) noted that this species occurs in localities situated at altitudes above 1 - 1.3 km. Biology and pest status on coffee presented by Le Pelley (1968).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female by De Lotto (1960) and by Granara de Willink et al. (2010) (based on specimens from Brazil).

KEYS: Granara de Willink et al. 2010: 397 (female) [Coccus species on coffe in Brazil].

CITATIONS: Almeid1973b [host, distribution: 2-3]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 66]; Benjam1968 [host, distribution: 345-357]; DeLott1960 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 392-395]; DeLott1965a [host, distribution: 192]; DeLott1968a [host, distribution: 83]; GranarPiFe2010 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 392]; HillocPhOv1999 [host, distribution, economic importance: 199-206]; Hodgso1967 [host, distribution: 2]; Kondo2013 [distribution, host: 45]; LePell1968 [host, distribution, economic importance]; Murphy1991 [host, distribution, biological control: 519-529]; Schmut1969 [taxonomy, host, distribution, economic importance: 104-106]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 8].



Coccus anneckei De Lotto

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus anneckei De Lotto, 1962: 263. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Cape Province, Middelburg, on Lycium sp. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.



HOST: Solanaceae: Lycium [DeLott1962].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [DeLott1962].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 67]; DeLott1962 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 263-264]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 8].



Coccus antidesmae (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium antidesmae Green, 1896: 10. Type data: SRI LANKA: Punduloya, on Antidesma bunius. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Coccus antidesmae; Fernald, 1903b: 168. Change of combination.



HOST: Phyllanthaceae: Antidesma bunius [Green1896, Green1904d, Green1937, Ali1971].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Sri Lanka [Green1896, Green1904d, Green1937, Ali1971].

KEYS: Tang 1991: 76 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [host, distribution: 21-22]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 67]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 332]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 168]; Green1896 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 10]; Green1904d [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 209]; Green1937 [host, distribution: 301]; Ramakr1921a [host, distribution: 350]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 79]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 9].



Coccus aterrimus



Coccus australis (Walker)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium australe Walker, 1852: 1079. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Van Diemen's Land, presented by the Rev. T. Ewing. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Coccus australe; Fernald, 1903b: 328. Change of combination.

Coccus australis; Williams & Ben-Dov, 2009: 10. Justified emendation.

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia [Walker1852].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description of adult female by Walker (1852) and Signoret (1877.

SYSTEMATICS: This is an available species, which was listed by Fernald (1903b: 328) among the unrecognizable ones.

CITATIONS: Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 328]; Signor1869 [taxonomy: 844]; Signor1877 [taxonomy, description, distribution: 610,661]; Targio1868 [taxonomy: 39]; Walker1852 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 1079]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 10].



Coccus blanchardii Targioni Tozzetti nomen nudum

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus blanchardii Targioni Tozzetti, 1868: 725. Nomen nudum. Notes: See discussion in Williams & Ben-Dov (2009).



Coccus brasiliensis Fonseca

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus brasiliensis Fonseca, 1957: 128. Type data: BRAZIL: Sao Paulo State, Botucatu and Sao Paulo, on coffee. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil. Described: female.



HOST: Rubiaceae: Coffea [Fonsec1957].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Sao Paulo [Fonsec1957, GranarPiFe2010]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female by Fonseca (1957) and by Granara de Willink et al. (2010).

KEYS: Granara de Willink et al. 2010: 397 (female) [Coccus species on coffe in Brazil].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 67]; Fonsec1957 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 128-132]; GranarPiFe2010 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 393-394]; Kondo2013 [distribution, host: 45]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 12].



Coccus bromeliae Bouche

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus bromeliae Bouche, 1833: 49. Type data: GERMANY: Berlin, on bananas and Hibiscus. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Notes: Type material lost (Sachtleben, 1940).

Coccus bromelliae; Ben-Dov, 1993: 68. Misspelling of species name. Notes: Mis-spelled "C. bromelliae" on line 4 of the Remarks paragraph.



HOSTS: Bromeliaceae: Ananas [Bouche1833]. Malvaceae: Hibiscus [Bouche1833].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Germany.

GENERAL REMARKS: This species is known only from the description by Bouche (1833).

SYSTEMATICS: Both Signoret (1875c: 310) and Fernald (1903b: 98) interpreted this species as a mealybug. Lindinger (1932f, 1934d) have shown that the original description, provided clear indication that it was a soft scale, and suggested that likely it is identical with Saissetia coffeae (Walker). This synonymy may be correct, but if accepted would change the name of a very well known pest species and harm stability. Since no type material of C. bromeliae is available, Ben-Dov (1993) concluded that for the sake of stability, Coccus bromeliae Bouche should be maintained as a valid, unrecognizable species. See discussion in Ben-Dov & Cox (1990). Coccus bromeliae Bouche, 1833: 49, is a junior primary homonym of Coccus bromeliae Kerner, 1778, but is retained for the present under Article 23.9.5 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (1999).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 68]; BenDovCo1990 [taxonomy: 79-84]; Bouche1833 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 49]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 98]; Lindin1932f [taxonomy: 182-183]; Lindin1934d [taxonomy: 585-588]; Signor1869 [taxonomy: 845]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 12].



Coccus cajani (Newstead)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium cajani Newstead, 1917: 359. Type data: NIGERIA: Southern Nigeria, on pigeon-pea, Cajanus indicus. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Coccus cajani; De Lotto, 1962: 264. Change of combination.



HOST: Fabaceae: Cajanus indicus [Newste1917, DeLott1962].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Nigeria [Newste1917, DeLott1962].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 68]; DeLott1962 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 264-265]; Newste1917 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 359-360]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 13].



Coccus cambodiensis Takahashi

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus cambodiensis Takahashi, 1942b: 17. Type data: CAMBODIA: Angkor, on Ficus sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Taichung: Entomology Collection, Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, Wu-feng, Taichung, Taiwan.



HOSTS: Moraceae: Ficus [Takaha1942a, Ali1971], Ficus retusa [Tang1991].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Kampuchea (=Cambodia) [Ali1971].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Tang (1991).

KEYS: Wang & Feng 2012a: 61 (adult, female) [Key to adult female Coccus known from China]; Tang 1991: 76 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [host, distribution: 22]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 68]; Takaha1942b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 17-19]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 79-80]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 53]; WangFe2012a [taxonomy: 61]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 13].



Coccus cameronensis Takahashi

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus cameronensis Takahashi, 1952: 16. Type data: MALAYSIA: Cameron Highlands, on undetermined tree. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Kuala Lumpur: Selangor Museum, Malaysia. Described: female.

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Malaysia [Ali1971].

KEYS: Tang 1991: 76 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [host, distribution: 22]; BenDov1993 [catalogue]; Takaha1952 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 16]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 80]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 13].



Coccus capparidis (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium capparidis Green, 1904d: 187. Type data: SRI LANKA: Pundaluoya, on Capparis moonii. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Williams & Watson, 1990: 85. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Coccus capparidis; Sanders, 1906: 8. Change of combination.

Lecanium (Coccus) capparidis; Green, 1937: 299. Change of combination.

Coccus arens Hodgson, 1968a: 114. Type data: EGYPT: Giza, on Panax sp. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Synonymy by Ben-Dov, 1980: 262.

COMMON NAME: capparis soft scale [GillNaWi1977, HamonWi1984].



FOE: HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Metaphycus swirskii Annecke & Mynhardt [BlumbeSw1984, Blumbe1997].

HOSTS: Apocynaceae: Alyxia olivaeformis [GillNaWi1977, Nakaha1981a], Nerium oleander [HamonWi1984], Plumeria rubra [WilliaWa1990]. Araceae: Xanthosoma [WilliaWa1990]. Araliaceae: Aralia balfouriana [HamonWi1984], Meryta macrophylla [WilliaWa1990], Panax [Hodgso1968a, BenDov1980]. Asclepiadaceae: Asclepias curassavica [WilliaWa1990]. Asteraceae: Bidens pilosa [WilliaWa1990]. Boraginaceae: Cordia subcordata [WilliaWa1990]. Campanulaceae: Clermontia [Nakaha1981a]. Cannaceae: Canna indica [WilliaWa1990]. Capparidaceae: Capparis moonii [Green1937, Ali1971]. Ebenaceae: Diospyros virginiana [HamonWi1984]. Euphorbiaceae: Codiaeum [GillNaWi1977], Croton [GillNaWi1977], Jatropha integerrima [MestreHaEv2011]. Malvaceae: Hibiscus manihot [WilliaWa1990]. Moraceae: Artocarpus altilis [WilliaWa1990]. Musaceae: Musa paradisiaca [WilliaWa1990]. Myoporaceae: Myoporum acuminatum [BenDov1980]. Nyctaginaceae: Mirabilis jalapa [WilliaWa1990]. Orchidaceae: Cypripedium villosum [GillNaWi1977], Dendrobium [GillNaWi1977]. Pteridaceae: Acrostichum aureum [GillNaWi1977]. Rubiaceae: Guettarda speciosa [WilliaWa1990], Morinda citrifolia [WilliaWa1990]. Rutaceae: Citrus [Nakaha1981a], Citrus aurantium [BenDov1980], Citrus paradisi [BenDov1980], Citrus sinensis [WilliaWa1990], Murraya paniculata [Nakaha1981a]. Verbenaceae: Lantana camara [WilliaWa1990], Premna [WilliaWa1990], Stachytarpheta [WilliaWa1990].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii); Kiribati; Tonga; Western Samoa. Nearctic: United States of America (Florida). Neotropical: Bahamas; Cuba [MestreHaEv2011]; Honduras. Oriental: Hong Kong [MartinLa2011]; India [ShafeeYoKh1989] (West Bengal [AvasthSh1991]); Sri Lanka [Green1937, Ali1971]. Palaearctic: Egypt [Hodgso1968a, BenDov1980]; Israel [BenDov1980].

BIOLOGY: In Israel it reproduces parthenogenetically. On citrus the females infest the undersurface of leaves (Ben-Dov, 1980). Blumberg & Swirski (1984) studied the encapsulation response to parasitoids.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson (1968a) (as C. arens, Gill et al., (1977), Hamon & Williams (1984) and by Williams & Watson (1990).

STRUCTURE: See colour photograph in Hamon & Williams (1984).

KEYS: Mohammad & Moharum 2013: 146-148 (female) [Key to species and subspecies of family coccidae in Egypt]; Wang & Feng 2012a: 61 (adult, female) [Key to adult female Coccus known from China]; Tang 1991: 78 (female) [China]; Williams & Watson 1990: 82 (female) [Tropical South Pacific]; Hamon & Williams 1984: 38 (female) [USA, Florida].

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [hoat, distribution: 22]; AvasthSh1991 [taxonomy, distribution: 334]; BenDov1980 [host, distribution: 262]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 68-69]; BenDov2012 [catalogue, distribution, host: 25, 44]; Blumbe1997 [biological control, ecology: 225-236]; BlumbeSw1984 [life history, economic importance, biological control: 29-35]; GillNaWi1977 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 16-18]; Green1904d [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 187]; Green1937 [host, distribution: 299]; HamonWi1984 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 40-42]; Hodgso1968a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 114-115]; KozarWa1985 [catalogue: 76]; MartinLa2011 [catalogue, distribution: 34]; MestreHaEv2011 [catalogue, distribution, host: 6]; MohammGh2008 [distribution: 149]; MohammMo2013 [distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 147, 155]; Nakaha1981a [host, distribution: 390]; Ramakr1921a [host, distribution: 349]; Sander1906 [host, distribution: 8]; ShafeeYoKh1989 [host, distribution: 50]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 80-81]; WangFe2012a [taxonomy: 61]; Willia2001 [distribution: 225-227]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 9,14]; WilliaWa1990 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 85-87].



Coccus caudatus Walker

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus caudatus Walker, 1852: 1085. Type data: COLOMBIA: from Dr. Cuming's collection. Syntypes, male, by present designation. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: male.

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Colombia [Walker1852].

GENERAL REMARKS: Originally described from the adult male only (Walker, 1852).

SYSTEMATICS: There is also the species Coccus caudatus (Green, 1896) which is a secondary homonym of Coccus caudatus Walker, 1852, and a junior synonym of Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner). Fernald (1903b: 325) listed this species among the unrecognizable species of Coccus, while suggesting "A Phenacoccus?".

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 67]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 325]; Kondo2001 [taxonomy, distribution: 41]; Signor1869 [taxonomy: 848]; Signor1877 [taxonomy, description: 612]; TanakaKo2015 [distribution: 112]; Walker1852 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 1085]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 14].



Coccus caviramicolus Morrison

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus caviramicolus Morrison, 1921: 659. Type data: SINGAPORE. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Notes: Type material collected from hollow stems of Macaranga sp.



HOSTS: Euphorbiaceae: Macaranga [Ali1971, HeckroFiGu1998], Macaranga griffithiana [Takaha1950], Macaranga triloba [Morris1921].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Indonesia; Malaysia [Ali1971]; Singapore [Ali1971].

BIOLOGY: Occupies the hollow stems of myrmecophytic species of Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae) in association with ants of the genus Crematogaster (Heckroth et al., 1998)

GENERAL REMARKS: Description of adult female by Morrison (1921).

KEYS: Tang 1991: 76 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [host, distribution: 22-23]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 69]; HeckroFiGu1998 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 427-443]; Morris1921 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 659-661]; Takaha1950 [host, distribution: 71]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 14].



Coccus celatus De Lotto

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium viride; Newstead, 1910c: 187. Misidentification.

Coccus celatus De Lotto, 1960: 395. Type data: UGANDA: Kampala, on Coffea robusta. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Coccus consimilis De Lotto, 1960: 397. Type data: UGANDA: Kampala, on Coffea robusta. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Synonymy by Williams, 1982a: 108.



FOES: COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Chilocorus angolensis Crotch [Murphy1991], Chilocorus nigripes Mader [Murphy1991], Exochomus flavipes Thunberg [Murphy1991], Exochomus ventralis (Gerstaecker) [Murphy1991]. HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Coccophagus agrocoxa Annecke & Insley [Murphy1991], Coccophagus nubes Compere [Murphy1991]. Encyrtidae: Diversinervus stramineus Compere [Murphy1991], Metaphycus baruensis Noyes [Murphy1991], Metaphycus stanleyi Compere [Murphy1991].

HOSTS: Annonaceae: Annona muricata [WilliaWa1990]. Apocynaceae: Carissa [MatileNo1984]. Casuarinaceae: Casuarina [WilliaWa1990]. Clusiaceae: Calophyllum soulattrii [Willia1982], Calophyllum spectabile [WilliaWa1990]. Costaceae: Costus [Lit1997b]. Euphorbiaceae: Macaranga barteri [CouturMaRi1985]. Fabaceae: Arachis hypogaea [Willia1982]. Myrtaceae: Eugenia javanica [Willia1982], Psidium guajava [Newste1910c, DanzigKo1990], Syzygium [Willia1982]. Rubiaceae: Bertiera racemosa [CouturMaRi1985], Coffea arabica [DeLott1969a, DanzigKo1990], Coffea canephora [Willia1982], Coffea excelsa [Willia1982], Coffea robusta [DeLott1960, BuckleGu1991, Lit1997b], Corynanthe pachyceras [CouturMaRi1985], Gardenia [Hodgso1969a], Ixora coccinea [Willia1982], Psychotria [WilliaWa1990]. Rutaceae [DanzigKo1990], Citrus [Willia1982].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Cameroon; Cte d'Ivoire (=Ivory Coast); Kenya [DeLott1969a]; Somalia; Sudan [Kondo2013]; Tanzania [Kondo2013]; Uganda [Newste1910c, DeLott1960]; Zimbabwe [Hodgso1969a]. Australasian: Christmas Island [new]. Australasian: Indonesia (Irian Jaya [Gavril2013], Sulawesi (=Celebes)). Australasian: Papua New Guinea [DanzigKo1990]. Neotropical: Brazil [Kondo2013]. Oriental: Brunei; Malaysia [DanzigKo1990]; Philippines (Mindanao [Lit1997b]); Vietnam [DanzigKo1990].

BIOLOGY: De Lotto (1960) observed the ant Macromischoides aculeatum in Uganda, constructing shelter to protect this soft scale. Buckley and Gullan (1991) showed, in Papua New Guinea, that attendance by the aggressive ant, Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) reduced the rate of parasitization. Biology and pest status on coffee presented by Le Pelley (1968).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by De Lotto (1960), Williams & Watson (1990) and by Granara de Willink et al. (2010).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Regarded a coffee pest in Papua New Guinea (Williams, 1982a).

KEYS: Granara de Willink et al. 2010: 397 (female) [Coccus species on coffe in Brazil]; Williams & Watson 1990: 82 (female) [Tropical South Pacific].

CITATIONS: AbbottGr2007 [host, distribution, biological control, ecology: 1238-1246]; Bannon1997 [host, distribution, economic importance: 38]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 69-70]; BuckleGu1991 [host, distribution, life history, ecology, biological control: 284]; CouturMaRi1985 [host, distribution: 275]; DanzigKo1990 [host, distribution: 44]; DeLott1960 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 394-397]; DeLott1969a [host, distribution: 417]; Gavril2013 [distribution: 78]; GillKo1997 [economic importance, host, distribution: 161-163]; GranarPiFe2010 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 394-395]; Hodgso1969a [host, distribution: 6]; Kondo2013 [distribution, host: 45]; LePell1968 [host, distribution, economic importance: 284]; Lit1997b [host, distribution: 90-91]; MatileNo1984 [host, distribution: 62]; Murphy1991 [host, distribution, biological control: 519-529]; Murphy1997 [host, distribution, economic importance: 367-380]; Newste1910c [host, distribution: 187-188]; ODowdGrLa2003 [host, distribution: 813]; Waterh1997 [host, distribution, economic importance: 156-171]; Willia1982 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 107-109]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 14,17]; WilliaWa1990 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 87-89].



Coccus cestricola



Coccus chlaeoon



Coccus chloeon



Coccus chloeoon



Coccus circularis Morrison

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus circularis Morrison, 1921: 665. Type data: SINGAPORE. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Notes: Type material collected in hollow stems of Macaranga sp.



HOSTS: Euphorbiaceae: Macaranga [Morris1921, Ali1971], Macaranga triloba [Ali1971].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Singapore [Ali1971].

KEYS: Tang 1991: 76 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [host, distribution: 23]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 70]; Morris1921 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 665-667]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 16].



Coccus colemani Kannan

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus colemani Kannan, 1918: 135. Type data: INDIA: Mysore. Syntypes, female. Notes: Host plant of type material not indicated, probably on coffee and other host plants (type depository unknown).

Coccus viridis colemani; Usman & Puttarudraiah, 1955: 49. Change of combination and rank.

Coccus colemani; Ben-Dov, 1993: 70. Revived combination.



FOE: COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Chilocorus nigritus (Fabricius) [ColemaKa1918].

HOSTS: Anacardiaceae: Mangifera indica [ColemaKa1918]. Apocynaceae: Wrightia tinctoria [ColemaKa1918]. Fabaceae: Albizia [ColemaKa1918]. Moraceae: Artocarpus integrifolia [ColemaKa1918], Ficus [ColemaKa1918]. Myrtaceae: Eugenia jambolana [ColemaKa1918], Psidium guajava [ColemaKa1918]. Rubiaceae: Coffea [Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989], Coffea arabica [AvasthSh1991]. Rutaceae: Aegle marmelos [Varshn1985a], Citrus [ColemaKa1918].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: India [Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989, AvasthSh1991] (Karnataka [AvasthSh1991]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson (1994a).

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [host, distribution: 23]; AvasthSh1991 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 334-336]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 70]; ColemaKa1918 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history, biological control: 13-67]; ColemaKa1918 [taxonomy, description, biological control: 1-67]; Green1918a [taxonomy: 149-154]; Kannan1918 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 130-148]; Kondo2013 [distribution, host: 45]; Ramakr1919a [host, distribution: 38]; Ramakr1930 [host, distribution: 49]; ShafeeYoKh1989 [host, distribution: 50]; UsmanPu1955 [host, distribution: 49]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 17].



Coccus deformosus (Newstead)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium (Eulecanium) deformosum Newstead, 1920: 190. Type data: GUYANA: 'Cattle Trail Survey', on undetermined plant. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Coccus deformosum; Ben-Dov, 1993: 70. Change of combination.

Coccus deformosus; Williams & Ben-Dov, 2009: 19. Justified emendation.



ASSOCIATE: HYMENOPTERA : Acromyrmex [Newste1920].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Guyana [Newste1920].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 70]; Newste1920 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 190-191]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 19].



Coccus delottoi Matile-Ferrero & Le Ruyet

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus delottoi Matile-Ferrero & Le Ruyet, 1985: 259. Type data: IVORY COAST: Tai, on Diospyros subreana. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female.

COMMON NAME: DeLotto iceplant scale [Gill1988].



HOST: Ebenaceae: Diospyros soubreana [MatileLe1985].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Cte d'Ivoire (=Ivory Coast).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Matile-Ferrero & Le Ruyet (1985).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 71]; CouturMaRi1985 [host, distribution: 275]; MatileLe1985 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 259-260]; Washbu1984 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 1-184]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 19].

Coccus diacopeis

No valid record found for this species



Coccus diosma



Coccus discrepans (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium discrepans Green, 1904d: 204. Type data: SRI LANKA: Punadluoya, Yatiyantota and Passara, on tea plant. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Saissetia discrepans; Sanders, 1906: 9. Change of combination.

Coccus discrepans; Morrison, 1920: 654. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Anacardiaceae: Mangifera indica [Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989], Mangifera odorata [Green1930c, Ali1971]. Arecaceae: Areca oleracea [TaoWoCh1983], Cocos nucifera [Ali1971, Takaha1935]. Caricaceae: Carica papaya [Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983]. Euphorbiaceae: Glochidion [Ali1971], Glochidion callicarpa [TaoWoCh1983]. Musaceae: Musa [Ramakr1930, Ali1971], Musa paradisiaca [ShafeeYoKh1989]. Myrsinaceae: Maesa pedicellata [Takaha1935, Ali1971]. Rhamnaceae: Ziziphus jujuba [Ramakr1930, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989]. Rutaceae: Citrus [Ramakr1930, Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983, ShafeeYoKh1989], Murraya caloxylon [Morris1921, Ali1971]. Theaceae: Camellia sinensis [Green1904d, Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, Green1937, Ali1971, AvasthSh1991], Camellia sinensis [ShafeeYoKh1989], Thea [Green1904d]. Verbenaceae: Callicarpa formosana [Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: India [Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, Green1930c, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989, AvasthSh1991] (Andhra Pradesh, Assam [Ali1971], Bihar [Ali1971], Kerala); Indonesia (Sumatra [Ali1971]); Pakistan; Singapore [Ali1971]; Sri Lanka [Green1904d, Green1937, Ali1971, AvasthSh1991]; Taiwan [Ali1971, WongChCh1999]. Palaearctic: Japan.

BIOLOGY: Attended by and enclosed in nests of Crematogaster dohrni (Green, 1937).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Tao et al. (1983) and by Tang (1991).

STRUCTURE: See colour photograph in Wong et al. (1999).

KEYS: Wang & Feng 2012a: 61 (adult, female) [Key to adult female Coccus known from China]; Tang 1991: 77 (female) [China]; Tao et al. 1983: 63 (female) [Taiwan]; Kawai 1980: 141-142 (female) [Japan].

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [host, distribution: 23]; AvasthSh1991 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 336-337]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 71]; Das1959 [host, distribution: 437-448]; Green1904d [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 204]; Green1930c [host, distribution: 280]; Green1937 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 300]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 144]; KozarWa1985 [catalogue: 76]; Morris1921 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 654-659]; Ramakr1919a [taxonomy, illustration, host, distribution: 38]; Ramakr1921a [host, distribution: 349]; Ramakr1930 [taxonomy, illustration, host, distribution: 50]; Sander1906 [catalogue: 9]; ShafeeYoKh1989 [host, distribution: 50]; Takaha1935 [host, distribution: 6]; Takaha1955f [host, distribution: 239]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 82-83]; Tao1989 [host, distribution: 59]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 53]; TaoWoCh1983 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 64-65]; Varshn1985a [host, distribution: 26]; WangFe2012a [taxonomy: 61]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 19]; WongChCh1999 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 11,49]; Yang1982 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 169, 191].



Coccus draparnaldi



Coccus duartei (Almeida)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium duartei Almeida, 1969: 148. Type data: ANGOLA: Tchivinguiro, on trunk of undetermined tree. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Lisbon: Coleccoes do Centro de Zoologia do Instituto de Investigacao Cientifica Tropical, Portugal. Described: female.

Coccus duartei; Almeida, 1973b: 3. Change of combination.

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Angola [Almeid1969, Almeid1973b].

CITATIONS: Almeid1969 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 22-24]; Almeid1973b [host, distribution: 3]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 71]; MendesFe1989 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 57]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 20].



Coccus ehretiae (Brain)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium ehretiae Brain, 1920a: 4. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Transvaal, Pretoria, on Ehretia hottentotica. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female.

Coccus ehretiae; De Lotto, 1957b: 303. Change of combination.



FOE: HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Euxanthellus adustus Annecke & Prinsloo [AnneckPr1976].

HOST: Ehretiaceae: Ehretia hottentotica [Brain1920a, DeLott1957c].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Madagascar [Mamet1959a]; South Africa [Brain1920a, DeLott1957c].

CITATIONS: AnneckPr1976 [host, distribution, biological control: 1-7]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 71]; Brain1920a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 4-5]; DeLott1957c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 303-304]; Mamet1959a [host, distribution: 376]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 20].



Coccus elatensis Ben-Dov

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus elatensis Ben-Dov, 1981b: 649. Type data: ISRAEL: Elot, 5 km north of Elat, on Mangifera indica. Holotype female (examined). Type depository: Bet Dagan: Department of Entomology, The Volcani Center, Israel. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Anacardiaceae: Mangifera indica [BenDov1981b].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Israel [BenDov1981b].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Ben-Dov (1981b).

KEYS: Tang 1991: 78 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: BenDov1981b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 649-654]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 71-72]; BenDov2012 [catalogue, distribution, host: 25, 42]; KozarWa1985 [catalogue: 76]; SwirskWyIz2002 [taxonomy, host, distribution, biological control: 80]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 83-84]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 20].



Coccus elioides

Coccus erion

No valid record found for this species



Coccus erythrinae (Ihering)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium erythrinae Ihering, 1897: 407. Type data: BRAZIL: Rio Grande do Sul, on Erythrina crista galli. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Notes: Type material probably lost; Oliveira, M.G., 1990, personal communication to Yair Ben-Dov.

Coccus erythrinae; Corseuil & Barbosa, 1971: 238. Change of combination.



HOST: Fabaceae: Erythrina cristagalli [Iherin1897, CorseuBa1971].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul [Iherin1897]).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 72]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 393]; Cocker1902p [distribution: 255]; CorseuBa1971 [host, distribution: 238]; Hempel1900a [host, distribution: 438]; Iherin1897 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 407]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 21].



Coccus fagi



Coccus farinarius



Coccus farinosus

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus farinosus alni Goeze, 1778: 344. Homonym. Notes: See Williams & Ben-Dov (2009: 22).

Coccus farinosus; Gmelin, 1790: 2220. Notes: See Williams & Ben-Dov (2009: 21).



Coccus ficus cambii



Coccus formicarii (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium formicarii Green, 1896: 10. Type data: SRI LANKA: Punduloya, on tea and undetermined shrubs. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Lecanium globulosum Maskell, 1897b: 243. Type data: HONG KONG: on Stillingia sebifera. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand, and Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Ferris, 1936: 14.

Lecanium (Saissetia) formicarii; Cockerell & Parrott, 1899: 164. Change of combination.

Saissetia formicarii; Cockerell, 1901e: 32. Change of combination.

Saissetia formicarii; Fernald, 1903b: 202. Change of combination.

Coccus formicarii; Mamet, 1954: 13. Change of combination.

Taiwansaissetia formicarii; Tao et al., 1983: 77. Change of combination.

Coccus formicarii; Lin et al., 2013: 250-264. Revived combination.



FOE: HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Coccophagus acanthosceles Waterston [Das1959].

HOSTS: Anacardiaceae: Mangifera indica [Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983, Hodgso1994a], Rhus succedanea [TaoWoCh1983], Rhus vernicifera [Ali1971]. Araliaceae: Heptapleurum octophyllum [Ali1971]. Arecaceae: Areca catechu [TaoWoCh1983], Areca oleracea [Ali1971], Kentia macarthurii [Ali1971], Ptychosperma macarthurii [TaoWoCh1983]. Bischofiaceae: Bischofia javanica [Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983]. Bombacaceae: Eriodendron anfractuosum [Ali1971]. Buxaceae: Buxus microphylla [TaoWoCh1983]. Capparidaceae: Crataeva religiosa [TaoWoCh1983]. Clusiaceae: Garcinia spicata [Ali1971], Garcinia subelliptica [TaoWoCh1983]. Ebenaceae: Diospyros discolor [Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983], Diospyros kaki [Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983]. Elaeocarpaceae: Elaeocarpus [Green1904d, Green1937]. Ericaceae: Philippia [Mamet1954]. Euphorbiaceae: Macaranga [Green1904d, Ramakr1930, Green1937], Sapium sebiferum [Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983], Stillingia sebifera [Ferris1936]. Fabaceae: Palaquium formosanum [Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983]. Fagaceae: Lithocarpus [Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983]. Lauraceae: Cinnamomum camphora [Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983], Cinnamomum camphora nominale [Ali1971], Cinnamomum zeylanicum [Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983], Evodia triphylla [Ali1971], Litsea glutinosa [LinKoGu2013], Machilus [Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983], Machilus thunbergii [LinKoGu2013], Persea americana [TaoWoCh1983], Persea gratissima [Ali1971]. Lythraceae: Lagerstroemia flosreginae [Ali1971], Lagerstroemia speciosa [TaoWoCh1983]. Magnoliaceae: Michelia [Ali1971], Michelia alba [Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983]. Meliaceae: Aglaia odorata [Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983]. Moraceae: Artocarpus heterophyllus [TaoWoCh1983], Artocarpus integrifolia [Ali1971], Ficus [Ali1971], Ficus leucantatoma [Ali1971], Ficus microcarpa [LinKoGu2013], Ficus septica [TaoWoCh1983], Ficus vasculosa [Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983], Ficus virgata [LinKoGu2013], Ficus wightiana [Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983]. Myristicaceae: Myristica cagayanensis [TaoWoCh1983], Myristica heterophylla [Ali1971]. Myrsinaceae: Ardisia sieboldii [Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983]. Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus [Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983], Eugenia javanica [Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983], Psidium guajava [Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983]. Oleaceae: Olea europaea [Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983]. Proteaceae: Grevillea robusta [Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983]. Rosaceae: Prunus [Ali1971, Takagi1975]. Rubiaceae: Cinchona [Green1904d, Ramakr1930, Green1937], Gardenia florida [Ali1971], Gardenia jasminoides [TaoWoCh1983]. Rutaceae: Aegle marmelos [TaoWoCh1983], Aegle sepiaria [Ali1971]. Salicaceae: Salix [Ali1971]. Sapindaceae: Euphoria longana [Takaha1942b]. Theaceae: Camellia chrysanthera [LinKoGu2013], Camellia japonica [TaoWoCh1983], Camellia sinensis [Green1896, Green1904d, Ramakr1930, Green1937, Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983], Gordonia axillaris [Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983], Schima noronhae [Ali1971]. Verbenaceae: Callicarpa formosana [Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Madagascar [Mamet1954]. Oriental: Hong Kong [Ferris1936, Ali1971]; India [Green1908a, Ramakr1930, Ali1971] (Karnataka [Ali1971, AvasthSh1991]); Indonesia; Malaysia [Ali1971]. Oriental: Nepal. Oriental: Sri Lanka [Green1896, Green1904d, Green1937, Ali1971, Hodgso1994a]; Taiwan [Ali1971, WongChCh1999]; Thailand [LinKoGu2013]. Palaearctic: China [LinKoGu2013].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description, illustration and photograph in Lin, et al., 2013.

SYSTEMATICS: Adult females of C. hesperidum and T . formicarii share a combination of at least five morphological trait states: the presence of dorsal areolations, preopercular pores, sevensegmented antennae [some of T . formicarii specimens with eight segments], ventral tubular ducts that are restricted to thoracic segments, and multilocular disc pores present around the genital opening plus a few on the preceding one or two abdominal segments. The autapomorphies of T . formicarii, such as the absence of dorsal tubular ducts, submarginal tubercles and tibio-tarsal sclerosis that differentiate it from C. hesperidum, might be due to its habit of living inside ant nests. (Lin, et al., 2013)

KEYS: Wang & Feng 2012a: 61 (adult, female) [as Coccus formicarii; Key to adult female Coccus known from China]; Tang 1991: 77 (female) [China]; Tao et al. 1983: 77 (female) [Taiwan].

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [host, distribution: 44-45]; AvasthSh1991 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 336]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 72-73]; Cocker1897c [taxonomy, host, distribution: 241]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy.: 394]; Cocker1901e [taxonomy: 32]; Das1959 [host, distribution, biological control: 437-448]; DeitzTo1980 [taxonomy.: 29]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 202]; Ferris1936 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 14-15]; Green1896 [description, host, distribution: 10]; Green1904d [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution : 190]; Green1908a [host, distribution: 29]; Green1937 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 300]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 566-568]; KozarWa1985 [catalogue: 77]; LinKoGu2013 [behaviour, description, distribution, host, molecular data, phylogeny, taxonomy: 250-264]; Mamet1954 [host, distribution: 13]; MartinLa2011 [catalogue, distribution, host: 34,118]; Maskel1898 [taxonomy, host, distribution]; Ramakr1921a [host, distribution: 348]; Ramakr1930 [host, distribution: 47]; Takagi1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 4-7]; Takaha1928 [host, distribution: 343]; Takaha1929 [host, distribution: 58-59]; Takaha1942b [host, distribution: 19]; Takaha1950 [host, distribution: 71]; Takaha1952 [host, distribution: 16]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 84-85]; Tao1978 [host, distribution: 83]; Tao1989 [host, distribution: 59]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 54]; TaoWoCh1983 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 77,79,80]; UsmanPu1955 [host, distribution: 50]; WangFe2012a [taxonomy: 61]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 23]; WongChCh1999 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 11, 50]; Yang1982 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 174,191].



Coccus fraxini Chavannes nomen nudum

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus fraxini Chavannes, 1848: 143. Nomen nudum; discovered by Signoret, 1869: 854.

Coccus fraxini; Signoret, 1869: 854. Notes: Referred to Coccus fraxini Chavannes, 1848, Nomen Nudum.

Coccus fraxini; Signoret, 1877: 454. Notes: Referred to Coccus fraxini Chavannes, 1848, Nomen Nudum.



Coccus guerinii (Signoret)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium guerinii Signoret, 1869a: 96. Type data: MAURITIUS: on sugarcane. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Notes: Type material probably lost.

Coccus guerinii; Mamet, 1943a: 151. Change of combination.



HOST: Poaceae: Saccharum officinarum [Signor1869b, Mamet1943a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Mauritius [Cocker1894t, Green1907, Mamet1943a].

SYSTEMATICS: Williams & Ben-Dov (2009: 25) regarded this species as an unrecognizable species.

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 73]; Cocker1894t [distribution: 178]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 332]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 212]; Green1907 [distribution: 201]; Mamet1943a [host, distribution: 151]; Mamet1949 [host, distribution: 24]; Signor1869a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 96]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 25].



Coccus gummilaccae



Coccus gymnospori (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium gymnospori Green, 1908a: 29. Type data: INDIA: Poona, on Gymnosporia montana. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Ben-Dov, 1981b: 651. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Coccus gymnospori; Sanders, 1909b: 45. Change of combination.

Lecanium gymnosporiae Lindinger, 1932f: 197. Unjustified emendation.

Coccus gymnaspori; Tang, 1991: 78. Misspelling of species name.



HOSTS: Celastraceae: Gymnosporia [Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930], Gymnosporia montana [Green1908a, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989, AvasthSh1991].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: India [Green1908a, Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, ShafeeYoKh1989] (Andhra Pradesh [AvasthSh1991], Maharashtra [AvasthSh1991], Tamil Nadu [Ali1971]); Sri Lanka [AvasthSh1991].

KEYS: Tang 1991: 78 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [host, distribution: 24]; AvasthSh1991 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 338-339]; BenDov1981b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 651-653]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 73]; Green1908a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 29-30]; Lindin1932f [taxonomy: 197]; Ramakr1919a [host, distribution: 36]; Ramakr1921a [host, distribution: 349]; Ramakr1930 [host, distribution: 48]; Sander1909b [taxonomy: 45]; ShafeeYoKh1989 [host, distribution: 51]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 85-86]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 25].



Coccus hesperidum hesperidum Linnaeus

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus hesperidum Linnaeus, 1758: 455. Type data: EUROPE: collected on Citrus, Laurus and other host plants. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Notes: Type material lost; D.J. Williams, 1989, personal communication to Yair Ben-Dov.

Coccus citri Gmelin, P.F., 1766: 41. Nomen nudum; discovered by Williams & Ben-Dov, 2009: 16.

Calypticus laevis Costa, 1829: 11. Type data: ITALY: on peach. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Synonymy by Fernald, 1903: 169. Notes: Type material probably lost; G. Pellizzari Scaltriti, 1990, personal communication to Yair Ben-Dov.

Calypticus hesperidum; Costa, 1829: 8. Change of combination.

Lecanium hesperidum; Burmeister, 1835: 69. Change of combination.

Coccus patellaeformis Curtis, 1843a: 517. Type data: ENGLAND: in greenhouse, location and host plant not indicated. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Synonymy by Fernald, 1903b: 169. Notes: Type material probably lost.

Chermes lauri Boisduval, 1867: 340. Type data: FRANCE: Locality not clearly indicated, on Laurus nobilis. Syntypes, female. Synonymy by Maskell, 1893a: 103. Notes: Type material probably lost (D. Matile-Ferrero, personal communication, 1991)

Lecanium angustatus Signoret, 1873a: 398. Type data: FRANCE: in greenhouse on Cyperus rotundus. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Synonymy by Sanders, 1909a: 436. Notes: Type material probably lost (Ben-Dov, 1993).

Lecanium lauri; Signoret, 1873a: 400. Change of combination.

Lecanium maculatum Signoret, 1873b: 400. Type data: FRANCE: on Hedera helix. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Vienna: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria. Described: female. Synonymy by Ben-Dov, 1976b: 115.

Kermes aurantj Alfonso, 1875: 431. Type data: ITALY: Sicily, locality not given, on orange. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Synonymy by Fernald, 1903: 169. Notes: Type material probably lost.

Lecanium alienum Douglas, 1886b: 77. Type data: ENGLAND: on Asplenium bulbiferum. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Synonymy by Leonardi, 1920: 320.

Lecanium depressum simulans Douglas, 1887a: 28. Nomen nudum.

Lecanium minimum Newstead, 1892: 141. Type data: ENGLAND: on Areca sp. and Abutilon sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Synonymy by Boratynski & Williams, 1964: 108.

Lecanium assimile amaryllidis Cockerell, 1893g: 53. Type data: ANTIGUA: on Amaryllis. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Sanders, 1909: 436.

Lecanium assimile amaryllidis Cockerell, 1893j: 254. Nomen nudum.

Lecanium terminaliae Cockerell, 1893j: 254. Type data: JAMAICA: Kingston, on Terminalia catappa. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Sanders, 1909: 436.

Lecanium ceratoniae Gennadius, 1895: cclxxvii. Type data: CYPRUS: on carob tree. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Synonymy by Cockerell, 1897p: 590. Notes: Daniele Matile-Ferrero (in letter to Yair Ben-Dov, November 28, 2001) confirmed that syntypes are deposited in MNHN.

Lecanium hesperidum lauri; Cockerell, 1896b: 331. Change of status.

Lecanium nanum Cockerell, 1896h: 19. Type data: TRINIDAD: on leaves of 'Balata'. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Sanders, 1909a: 436. Notes: Also described as n. sp. in Cockerell, 1896k, page iv.

Lecanium minimum pinicola Maskell, 1897: 310. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Cape of Good Hope, on Pinus insignis. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Sanders, 1909a: 436.

Lecanium flaveolum Cockerell, 1897d: 52. Type data: U.S.A.: New Mexico, Mesilla Park, on Pilea sp. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Sanders, 1909a: 436.

Lecanium ventrale Ehrhorn, 1898: 245. Type data: U.S.A.: California, San Jose, Japanese Nursery, on tuberous plant. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Sanders, 1909a: 436.

Lecanium hesperidum alienum; Cockerell, 1899a: 393. Change of status.

Lecanium (Calymnatus) hesperidum pacificum Kuwana, 1902a: 30. Type data: ECUADOR: Galapagos Islands, on host plants belonging to 12 different species. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Ibaraki-ken: Insect Taxonomy Laboratory, National Institute of Agricultural Environmental Sciences, Kannon-dai, Yatabe, Tsukuba-shi, (Kuwana), Japan. Described: female. Synonymy by Sanders, 1909a: 436.

Coccus angustatus; Fernald, 1903: 168. Change of combination.

Chermes aurantii; Fernald, 1903: 169. Misspelling of genus and species names. Notes: Mis-spelling of Kermes aurantj Alfonso.

Lecanium hesperidum minimum; Newstead, 1903: 85. Change of combination.

Coccus (Lecanium) minimus; Cockerell, 1903a: 162. Change of combination.

Coccus flaveolus; Fernald, 1903b: 168. Change of combination.

Coccus patelliformis; Fernald, 1903b: 169. Misspelling of species name.

Coccus hesperidum alienus; Fernald, 1903b: 171. Change of combination.

Coccus hesperidum lauri; Fernald, 1903b: 171. Change of combination.

Coccus hesperidum pacificus; Fernald, 1903b: 171. Change of combination.

Coccus maculatus; Fernald, 1903b: 172. Change of combination.

Coccus minimus; Fernald, 1903b: 172. Change of combination.

Coccus minimus pinicola; Fernald, 1903b: 172. Change of combination.

Coccus nanus; Fernald, 1903b: 172. Change of combination.

Coccus terminaliae; Fernald, 1903b: 173. Change of combination.

Coccus ventralis; Fernald, 1903b: 174. Change of combination.

Eulecanium assimile amaryllidis; Fernald, 1903b: 181. Change of combination.

Lecanium signiferum Green, 1904d: 197. Type data: SRI LANKA: Pundaluoya, on Begonia sp. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Boratynski & Williams, 1964: 108.

Lecanium punctuliferum Green, 1904d: 205. Type data: SRI LANKA: Paradeniya, on Michelia champaca. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by De Lotto, 1959: 160.

Saissetia punctulifera; Sanders, 1906: 10. Change of combination.

Coccus signiferus; Sanders, 1906: 8. Change of combination.

Lecanium hesperidum; Borg, 1919: 33. Change of combination.

Lecanium (Coccus) hesperidum; Pettit & McDaniel, 1920: 16. Change of combination.

Coccus (Lecanium) hesperidum; Hall, 1922: 18. Change of combination.

Coccus hemisphaerides Lindinger, 1929: 109-110. Notes: hemisphaerides L., Coccus. Lindinger (1929: 109-110) discussed this name, stating that it was mentioned by Prof Dr. K. Braun-Stade in a note about a scale insect named Coccus hemisphaerides L. [sic] in Geiger, Ph.L. (1840), Pharmazeut. Botanik II p. 1948. The note stated that "the orange tree is affected by a disease of blackening of the leaves, in which occur eggs and excretions of an insect" (= Coccus hemisphaerides L.). Information taken from: Handbuch f?r Fremde in Nizza. Heidelberg, Frankfurt und Leipzig, 1839: 56. Current status: Lindinger suggested that this name might be identical to Lecanium hesperidum (= Coccus hesperidum hesperidum Linnaeus) (Williams & Ben-Dov, 2009: 25)..

Lecanium esperidum; Gomez-Menor Ortega, 1929: 4. Misspelling of species name.

Coccus signifier Lindinger, 1932f: 196. Unjustified emendation; discovered by Williams & Ben-Dov, 2009: 43.

Coccus jungi Chen, 1936: 218. Type data: CHINA: Huangyan County, Chekiang Province, on Citrus sp. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Synonymy by Tang, 1991: 75. Notes: Type material probably lost; Tang, F.T., 1989, personal communication to Yair Ben-Dov.

Lecanium mauritiense Mamet, 1936: 96. Type data: MAURITIUS: Rose Hill and Ebene, on Furcraea gigantea. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Synonymy by De Lotto, 1959: 160.

Lecanium (Coccus) hesperidum; Green, 1937: 298. Change of combination.

Lecanium (Coccus) signiferum; Green, 1937: 298. Change of combination.

Coccus hisperidum; Chou, 1947a: 30, 39. Misspelling of species name.

Coccus mauritiensis; Mamet, 1949: 25. Change of combination.

Coccus hesperidium; Lincango et al., 2010: 4. Misspelling of species name.

Coccus hesprridium; Basheer et al., 2014: 52. Misspelling of species name.

COMMON NAMES: brown soft scale [GillNaWi1977, Gill1988, BenDov1993]; Cochinilla blanda de los agrios [Lloren1990]; conchuela blanda [RipaLaRo2008a]; conchuela blanda cafe [RipaLaRo2008a]; conchuela blanda de los citrus [RipaLaRo2008a]; qenima huma; qenima huma raqa; The Coccus of the greenhouses [Linnae1758].



ASSOCIATES: HYMENOPTERA Formicidae: Pheidole megacephala (Fabricius) [ZettleZeRi2012], Pseudomyrmex simplex [ZettleZeRi2012], Technomyrmex vitiensis Mann [Malump2011a].

FOES: COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Chilocorus angolensis Crotch [Bartle1978], Chilocorus bipustulatus (L.), Chilocorus nigritulus (F.) [PonsonCo2007]. HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Coccophagus anthracinus Compere [Comper1925], Coccophagus cowperi Girault [Bartle1978], Coccophagus lunulatus Howard [SmailiAbBo2013], Coccophagus lycimnia Walker [Bolu2012, BasheeAsRa2014], Coccophagus matsuyamensis Ishihara [Viggia1980], Coccophagus pulvinariae Compere [MyartsRu2000], Coccophagus quaestor Girault [MyartsRu2011], Coccophagus rusti Compere [MyartsRu2011], Coccophagus scutellaris Dalman [Jarray1975, ArgyriStMo1976, Bartle1978], Coccophagus scutellaris (Dalman) [MyartsRu2011], Coccophagus semicircularis [BernalLuMo1998], Coccophagus sp. [SengonUyKa1998, BasheeAsRa2014], Coccophagus trifasciatus Compere [Comper1925], Eusemion clifornicum Compere [Comper1925], Marietta javensis (Howard) [KfirRo1980], Marietta mexicana (Howard) [MyartsRu2000]. Encyrtidae: Aneristus gondalae Castel-Branco [Castel1951], Anicetus annulatus Timberlake [MyartsRu2011], Diversinervus elegans Silvestri [Rivnay1944], Encyrtus aurantii {Geoffroy} [MyartsRu2011], Encyrtus infelix (Embleton) [BlumbeGo1992, Blumbe1997], Encyrtus lecaniorum (Mayr) [Rivnay1944, ArgyriStMo1976, Bartle1978, BlumbeGo1992], Encyrtus sp. Latreille [BasheeAsRa2014], Encyrtus swederi Dalman [Kobakh1956], Metaphycus angustifrons Compere [Bartle1978], Metaphycus claviger (Timberlake) [DavoodTaRa2004], Metaphycus flavus Howard [ArgyriStMo1976, Blumbe1997, SengonUyKa1998], Metaphycus helvolus (Compere) [BlumbeDe1981, Blumbe1997], Metaphycus luteolus Timberlake [Flande1953a, Blumbe1997], Metaphycus pulvinariae (Howard) [DavoodTaFa2004], Metaphycus stanleyi Compere [Bartle1978, BlumbeDe1981, Blumbe1997, BernalLuMo1998], Metaphycus sterolecanii [BasheeAsRa2014], Metaphycus swirskii Annecke & Mynhardt [Blumbe1997], Microterys flavus Howard [Rivnay1944, Bartle1978, KfirRo1980], Microterys frontatus Mercet [Schmut1955b], Microterys nuticaudatus Xu & Chen [DavoodTaFa2004], Microterys seyon Guerrieri [Guerri1996], Microterys tricoloricornis (De Santis) [Rivnay1944]. Eulophidae: Baryscapus sp. Forster [BasheeAsRa2014], Tetrastichus sp. Haliday [BasheeAsRa2014]. Pteromalidae: Scutellista caerulea [BadaryAb2011]. LEPIDOPTERA Noctuidae: Eublema scitula Rbr. [Rivnay1944].

HOSTS: Acanthaceae: Hemigraphis palmata [Nakaha1983], Pseuderanthemum [WilliaWa1990]. Agavaceae: Agave [Mamet1954, DeLott1965a, Ali1971, HodgsoHi1990], Agave americana [Bodenh1924, BenDov1971], Agave rigida variegata [Nakaha1983], Agave rigida [Ali1971], Agave sisalana [DeLott1959, Willia1987], Dracaena [Nakaha1981a], Furcraea gigantea [Mamet1936, Mamet1943a, DeLott1959], Polianthes tuberosa [Ballou1926], Tuberosa [ShafeeYoKh1989], Yucca [King1903b, NakahaMi1981], Yucca filamentosa [KozarTzVi1979], Yucca gloriosa [GomezM1954]. Amaranthaceae: Aerva lanata [Green1904d], Amaranthus [Green1904d, Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, Ali1971]. Amaryllidaceae: Clivia miniata [TangLi1988], Hippeastrum [Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995], Hippeastrum equestre [TaoWoCh1983]. Anacardiaceae: Anacardium [Ali1971], Anacardium occidentale [ShafeeYoKh1989], Mangifera [Green1937, Ali1971], Mangifera indica [Hodgso1967, BenDov1971, Ali1971, Almeid1973b, Nakaha1981a, Nakaha1983], Mangifera indica [Hall1935, ShafeeYoKh1989, DanzigKo1990, AvasthSh1991, KinjoNaHi1996], Pistacia palestina [BenDov1971], Rhus succedanea [TaoWoCh1983], Rhus vernicifera [Ali1971], Schinus [Hall1923], Schinus molle [Bodenh1924, BenDov1971]. Annonaceae: Annona [Hall1922], Annona muricata [WilliaWa1990, Kondo2008a], Annona squamosa [Ballou1926]. Apocynaceae: Melodinus baueri [WilliaWa1990], Nerium [TerGri1954, Balach1957c, DeLott1959, Nakaha1983, HodgsoHi1990, Jansen1995], Nerium indicum [TangLi1988], Nerium odoratum [Kuwana1902], Nerium oleander [Hempel1900a, EzzatHu1969, BenDov1971, Almeid1973b, KozarzRe1975, Aziz1977, KfirRo1980], Nerium oleander [Lindin1911a, Hall1922, Archan1930], Plumeria [Hall1935, Hodgso1967], Plumeria acuminata [Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995], Plumeria acutifolia [Mamet1943a, DeLott1959], Plumeria rubra [WilliaWa1990], Thevetia peruviana [BenDov1971], Vinca [Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995], Vinca major [BenDov1971], Vinca minor [Kozar1985]. Aquifoliaceae: Ilex aquifolium [LinKoGu2013], Ilex cassine [ZettleZeRi2012]. Araceae: Acorus sp. [BenDov2012], Anthurium [HodgsoHi1990], Anthurium acaule [Nakaha1983, MazzeoLoRu1994], Anthurium andreanum [Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995], Arum italicum [Bodenh1924], Colocasia inodora [KozarzRe1975], Cryptocoryne [WilliaKo1972], Dieffenbachia [HodgsoHi1990], Dieffenbachia picta Schott. [GoszczGo2011], Dieffenbachia seguine (Jacq.) [Malump2011a], Monstera [Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995], Monstera deliciosa [Potaev1993], Philodendron [HodgsoHi1990, Potaev1993], Philodendron pertusum [DeLott1959], Pothos sp. [BenDov2012], Scindapsus aureus [Nakaha1981a], Spathiphyllum sp. [Malump2011a], Syngonium [HodgsoHi1990], Zantedeschia [Nakaha1981a], Zantedeschia aethiopica [Granar1999]. Araliaceae: Aralia [GomezM1957], Aralia sieboldi [GomezM1946], Brassaia [Nakaha1981a], Brassaia actinophylla [GillNaWi1977, NakahaMi1981], Dizigotheca elegantissima [Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995], Fatshedera [Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995], Fatsia [GillNaWi1977, Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995], Hedera [Green1904d, Green1928, Green1937, Ali1971], Hedera canariensis [Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995], Hedera helix [Bodenh1924, Bodenh1944b, Anneck1966, Kozar1980, BenDov1993, KozarPaPa1991], Hedera helix [King1899b, Archan1930, UygunSeEr1998], Hedera hybernica [King1903b], Panax [EzzatHu1969], Pseudopanax crassifolius [HodgsoHe2000], Pseudopanax lessonii [HodgsoHe2000], Schefflera [WilliaWa1990, HodgsoHi1990, Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995], Schefflera arboricola [BenDov2012], Sciadophyllum [Hall1922]. Arecaceae [Ali1971], Areca catechu [NairMe1963, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989], Areca oleracea [Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983], Caryota mitis [KozarzRe1975], Caryota urens [Green1904d, Green1937, Ali1971], Chamaedorea [GillNaWi1977], Cocos [DeLott1959, Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995], Cocos nucifera [Ramakr1930, DeLott1959, Ali1971, Almeid1973b, ShafeeYoKh1989], Gaussia princips [Ballou1926], Martinezia caryotaefolia [Ballou1926], Phoenix dactylifera [King1899b, Newste1917, CarnerPe1986], Rhapis [Ballou1926], Rhapis [Potaev1993], Roystonea regia [LincanHoCa2010]. Asclepiadaceae: Araujia sp. [BenDov2012], Asclepias sp. [BenDov2012], Calotropis procera [Bodenh1924], Hoya carnosa [Malump2011a]. Asparagaceae: Yucca baccata [Moghad2013a]. Aspidiaceae: Cyrtomium falcatum [Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995]. Aspleniaceae: Asplenium bulbiferum [Dougla1886b], Asplenium nidum [KozarzRe1975, CarnerPe1986], Asplenium viviparum [BenDov2012]. Asteraceae: Aster [HodgsoHi1990], Brachyglottis bellidioides [HodgsoHe2000], Brachyglottis repanda [HodgsoHe2000], Conyza bonariensis [LincanHoCa2010], Dahlia pinnata [Granar1999], Erigeron crispus [BenDov2012], Gerbera sp. [BenDov2012], Olearia nummularifolia [HodgsoHe2000], Pluchea odorata [WilliaWa1990], Senecio [HodgsoHe2000], Solidago [WilliaWa1990], Tridax procumbens [WilliaWa1990], Vernonia [Hodgso1967], Wedelia paludesa [Kuwana1902a]. Balsaminaceae: Impatiens [GillNaWi1977]. Begoniaceae: Begonia [Bodenh1924, GomezM1958b, DeLott1959, Ali1971, Almeid1973b, Nakaha1981a], Begonia [Green1904d, Hall1923, Hall1935, Green1937, HodgsoHi1990], Begonia radicans [WilliaKo1972]. Berberidaceae: Berberis vulgaris [DeLott1959], Mahonia [KozarPaPa1991], Mahonia aquifolium [WilliaKo1972]. Bignoniaceae: Bignonia [Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930], Bignonia unguiscati [Mamet1943a, WilliaWi1988], Campsis [HodgsoHi1990], Catalpa bignoniides [Potaev1993], Jacaranda mimosaefoliae [MazzeoLoRu1994], Kigelia africana (Lam.) [Malump1991, Malump2011a], Tecoma [Hall1935], Tecoma capensis [BenDov2012], Tecoma smithii [Hall1923], Tecoma stans [LinKoGu2013], Tecomanthe speciosa [HodgsoHe2000], Tecomaria [HodgsoHi1990], Tecomaria capensis [Hodgso1969a]. Blechnaceae: Blechnum fraseri [HodgsoHe2000], Woodwardia [HodgsoHi1990]. Bombacaceae: Ceiba pentandra [DeLott1965a]. Boraginaceae: Cordia alliodora [WilliaWa1990], Cordia myxa [Mamet1943a, WilliaWi1988]. Brexiaceae: Brexia spinosa [KozarzRe1975]. Bromeliaceae: Aechmea [Potaev1993], Bilbergia [GillNaWi1977], Fosterelia [HodgsoHi1990], Puya [Potaev1993], Vriesea [Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995]. Burseraceae: Canarium indicum [WilliaWa1990]. Cactaceae: Echinocactus [Bodenh1924, MazzeoSuRu2008]. Campanulaceae: Trachelium [MazzeoLoRu1994]. Cannabaceae: Aphananthe aspera [LinKoGu2013], Celtis formosana [LinKoGu2013]. Cannaceae: Canna [Nakaha1981a], Canna gigantea [KozarzRe1975]. Caprifoliaceae: Lonicera [Bodenh1924, CarnerPe1986], Lonicera japonica [EzzatHu1969], Lonicera macrantha [LinKoGu2013]. Caricaceae: Carica [HodgsoHi1990], Carica papaya [Mamet1943a, DeLott1959, DeLott1965a, Hodgso1967, Almeid1969, Ali1971, Almeid1973b, Nakaha1981a]. Caryophyllaceae: Dianthus [Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995], Dianthus caryophyllus [Ballou1926, DeLott1959]. Casuarinaceae: Casuarina [Almeid1973b, Nakaha1981a]. Celastraceae: Catha cassioides [KozarzRe1975], Euonymus [HodgsoHi1990], Euonymus japonicus [WilliaKo1972]. Clusiaceae: Calophyllum inophyllum [Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983, WilliaWa1990]. Combretaceae: Conocarpus erecta [GillNaWi1977], Lumnitzera coccinea [WilliaWa1990], Terminalia bellerica [DeLott1959], Terminalia brassii [WilliaWa1990], Terminalia calamansanay [WilliaWa1990], Terminalia catappa [Newste1911a, Ali1971, Almeid1973b, TaoWoCh1983], Terminalia chebula [Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983]. Commelinaceae: Commelina nudiflora [Ballou1926], Commelina tuberosa [Potaev1993]. Convolvulaceae: Ipomoea [Nakaha1981a]. Costaceae: Costus speciosus [WilliaWa1990]. Cucurbitaceae: Cucurbita sp. [BenDov2012]. Cyatheaceae: Alsophila armata [Kuwana1902a], Cyathea [HodgsoHe2000]. Cycadaceae: Cycas revoluta [Kuwana1902]. Cyperaceae: Cyperus [Potaev1993]. Dioscoreaceae: Dioscorea [WilliaWa1990, HodgsoHi1990]. Dipterocarpaceae: Anisoptera thrifera [WilliaWa1990]. Ebenaceae: Diospyros kaki [Ballou1926, GillNaWi1977], Euclea crispa [Hodgso1967]. Ehretiaceae: Ehretia [Ali1971], Ehretia petiolaris [DeLott1959], Ehretia silvatica [DeLott1959]. Elaeagnaceae: Elaeagnus thunbergii [LinKoGu2013]. Elaeocarpaceae: Elaeocarpus [WilliaWa1990]. Ericaceae: Arbutus unedo [GomezM1958b], Rhododendron [GillNaWi1977]. Escalloniaceae: Corokia [HodgsoHe2000]. Euphorbiaceae: Acalypha [Green1920, WilliaWa1990, Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995], Bischofia javanica [WilliaWa1990], Codiaeum [Nakaha1981a], Codiaeum variegatum [KozarzRe1975], Glochidion [Ali1971], Glochidion eryocarpum [Ali1971], Glochidion puberum [TaoWoCh1983], Macaranga tanarius [WilliaWa1990], Mallotus philippinensis [Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983], Phyllanthus [Hall1935, WilliaWa1990], Poinsettia [HodgsoHi1990], Poinsettia pulcherrima [Hodgso1994a], Ricinus [HodgsoHi1990, KozarPaPa1991], Ricinus communis [WilliaWa1990]. Fabaceae: Acacia [Hall1922, Hall1924a, Almeid1973b], Acacia cyclops [CarnerPe1986], Acacia heterophylla [Mamet1957], Albizia [KozarPaPa1991], Alhagi camelorum [Moghad2013a], Bauhinia [Hall1922, Hall1924a, Mamet1943a, Mamet1952, DeLott1959], Bauhinia alba [Ali1971], Bauhinia purpurea [Ballou1926, DeLott1959], Bauhinia variegata [BenDov1971], Butea frondosa [Ali1971], Canavalia macrocarpa [Nakaha1981a], Caragana [KozarPaPa1991], Carmichaelia [HodgsoHe2000], Cassia nodosa [Nakaha1981a], Cassia siamea [Green1907, Mamet1943a], Ceratonia siliqua [BenDov1971], Cercis chinensis [Kuwana1902], Cercis siliquastrum [MazzeoLoRu1994], Chordospartium stevensonii [HodgsoHe2000], Cytisus [KozarPaPa1991], Dalbergia [Green1937, WilliaWa1990], Dalbergia latifolia [Green1908a, Ramakr1930, ShafeeYoKh1989], Erythrina crista-galli [Almeid1973b], Erythrina indica [WilliaWa1990], Erythrina zeyheri [BenDov2012], Gliricidia [BenDov1993], Lespedeza cuneata [WilliaKo1972], Medicago sativa [Granar1999], Milletia nitida [TaoWoCh1983], Piscidia carthagenensis [LincanHoCa2010], Platypodium [Nakaha1981a], Pongamia glabra [ShafeeYoKh1989], Robinia pseudacacia [Bodenh1924, BenDov1971], Sabinia [HodgsoHi1990], Sesbania sesban [Hodgso1969a], Sophora chrysophylla [Nakaha1981a], Sophora microphylla [KozarzRe1975], Spartocytisus filipes [CarnerPe1986], Trifolium repens [Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995], Wisteria [Hodgso1969a]. Fagaceae: Ilex [Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995]. Flacourtiaceae: Aberia caffra [DeLott1959], Dovyalis caffra [DeLott1959], Hydnocarpus wightiana [Mamet1943a, WilliaWi1988]. Frankeniaceae: Frankenia sp. [BenDov2012]. Gentianaceae: Orphium sp. [Malump2011a]. Geraniaceae: Pelargonium [GillNaWi1977]. Goodeniaceae: Scaevola taccada [WilliaWa1990]. Heliconiaceae: Heliconia sp. [Malump2011a]. Hippocrateaceae: Salacia [WilliaWa1990]. Hymenophyllaceae: Trichomanes prierii [Kuwana1902a]. Iridaceae: Gladiolus [Nakaha1981a], Iris [DeLott1959], Iris craetensis [KozarPaPa1991], Moraea bicolor [Nakaha1981a], Moraea iridioides [Nakaha1981a]. Lamiaceae: Coleus [Bodenh1924], Coleus blumei [TangLi1988], Micromeria teneriffae [CarnerPe1986], Rosmarinus officinalis [MazzeoLoRu1994], Teucrium [Kozar1983a], Thymus [Marott1987]. Lauraceae: Beilschmiedia tawa [HodgsoHe2000], Cinnamomum camphora [DeLott1959], Laurus [TerGri1954, DeLott1959, KozarzRe1975, Kozar1983a, Jansen1995], Laurus indica [BenDov2012], Laurus nobilis [Bodenh1924, Ballou1926, Green1928a, GomezM1946, BenDov1971, Hodgso1994a, Jansen1995], Laurus nobilis [Green1928, UygunSeEr1998, PellizPoSe2011], Laurus nobilis [LinKoGu2013], Persea [GonzalAt1984, Potaev1993], Persea americana [DeLott1959, BenDov1971, Nakaha1983, GonzalAt1984, MazzeoLoRu1994], Persea borbonia [WilliaKo1972], Persea gratissima [Hall1935]. Lecythidaceae: Barringtonia asiatica [WilliaWa1990]. Liliaceae: Aloe [DeLott1959, Hodgso1994a], Aloe ciliaris [CarnerPe1986], Aloe distans [Potaev1993], Aloe neglectus [DeLott1959, Nakaha1983], Cordyline terminalis [GillNaWi1977, Nakaha1981a], Haworthia [Potaev1993], Haworthia fasciata [WilliaKo1972], Ophiopogon [HodgsoHi1990], Rhodea japonica [Ali1971], Ruscus aculeatus [BenDov2012]. Lobeliaceae: Pratia physaloides [HodgsoHe2000]. Loranthaceae: Viscum cruciatum [BenDov1971]. Lycopodiaceae: Lycopodium clavatum [Moghad2013a]. Lythraceae: Lagerstroemia indica [Ballou1926], Lawsonia inermis [BenDov1971], Punica granatum [Moghad2013a]. Magnoliaceae: Elmerrillia papuana [WilliaWa1990], Magnolia grandiflora [TangLi1988], Michelia alba [Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983], Michelia champaca [Green1904d, Green1937, DeLott1959, Ali1971], Michelia longifolia [Ali1971], Michelia nitida [Ali1971]. Malvaceae: Abutilon [Cocker1899n, Kuwana1902], Abutilon grandiflorum [BenDov1971], Althaea rosae [GomezM1958b, BenDov1971], Gossypium [Hall1935, DeLott1959, Granar1999], Gossypium barbadense [Kuwana1902a], Hibiscus [Balach1957c, Hodgso1967, Almeid1973b, Nakaha1981a, HodgsoHi1990], Hibiscus manihot [WilliaWa1990], Hibiscus rosa-sinensis [LincanHoCa2010], Hibiscus sarabdiffa [WilliaWa1990, EtiennMa1993, Nakaha1981a], Hibiscus syriacus [Ballou1926], Hibiscus tiliaceus [Kuwana1902a, Nakaha1981a], Malvaviscus arboreus [WilliaWa1990], Matisia cordata [LincanHoCa2010], Sida rhombifolia [WilliaWa1990]. Melastomataceae: Conostegia lasiopeda [Kuwana1902a], Melastoma [GillNaWi1977]. Meliaceae: Amoora [WilliaWa1990], Cedrela toona [Hall1935], Melia azedarach [Hall1935], Toona ciliata [Hodgso1967]. Moraceae: Artocarpus altilis [WilliaWa1990], Artocarpus communis [Mamet1943a, WilliaWi1988], Artocarpus hetrophyllus [Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989], Artocarpus integra [Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989], Broussonetia papyrifera [Granar1999], Eugenia uniflora [BenDov2012], Ficus [EzzatHu1969, Ali1971, Aziz1977, Nakaha1983, GonzalAt1984, Jansen1995], Ficus [Hall1922, Potaev1993], Ficus benghalensis [Hall1922, BenDov1971], Ficus benjamina [Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995], Ficus carica [Bodenh1924, BenDov1971], Ficus diversifolia [Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995], Ficus elastica [Ballou1926, Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995], Ficus infectoria [AvasthSh1991], Ficus microcarpa [PellizPoSe2011], Ficus nitida [BenDov2012], Ficus obliqua [BenDov1971], Ficus retusa [BenDov1971], Ficus septica [WilliaWa1990], Ficus sycomorus [BenDov1971], Ficus theophrastoides [WilliaWa1990], Ficus verrucocarpa [DeLott1959], Moringa oleifera [WilliaWa1990], Morus alba [BenDov1971], Morus nigra [Granar1999], Morus sp. [LinKoGu2013], Streblus [Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995]. Musaceae: Musa [Newste1917b, Hall1922, Nakaha1981a, HodgsoHi1990, Jansen1995, Granar1999], Musa paradisiaca [Green1937, Ali1964, WilliaWa1990], Musa sapientum [Mamet1943a, GillNaWi1977], Strelitzia reginae [BenDov2012]. Myoporaceae: Myoporum [Green1923b, DeLott1959], Myoporum laetum [HodgsoHe2000]. Myrsinaceae: Cyclamen coum [Moghad2013a], Maesa lanceolata [Hodgso1967], Myrsine africana [Hodgso1967], Wallenia laurifolia [Ballou1926]. Myrtaceae: Decaspermum [WilliaWa1990], Eucalyptus deglupta [WilliaWa1990], Eugenia jambolana [WilliaWa1990], Eugenia paniculata [DeLott1959], Eugenia pendula [DeLott1959], Feijoa sellowiana [BenDov2012], Melaleuca sp. [LinKoGu2013], Metrosideros [Nakaha1981a], Myrtus communis [Green1928, BenDov1971], Pimenta [HodgsoHi1990], Psidium guajava [Hall1923, Ballou1926, Hall1935, EzzatHu1969, BenDov1971, Nakaha1983]. Nyctaginaceae: Bougainvillea [Bodenh1924], Bougainvillea spectabilis [BenDov1971], Mirabilis jalapa [BenDov1971], Pisonia grandis [WilliaWa1990]. Ochnaceae: Schuurmansia henningsii [WilliaWa1990]. Oleaceae: Fraxinus caroliniana [ZettleZeRi2012], Jasminum [Kuwana1902], Ligustrum [Hodgso1967, Nakaha1981a, HodgsoHi1990], Olea [Hall1922, Argyri1967], Olea europaea [BenDov1971]. Oleandraceae: Nephrolepis [Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995], Nephrolepis acula [Kuwana1902a], Nephrolepis cordifolia [DeLott1959, Granar1999], Nephrolepis exaltata [Mamet1943a, Nakaha1983], Nephrolepis exaltata bostoniensis [Nakaha1983]. Onagraceae: Fuchsia [WilliaKo1972], Ludwigia leptocarpa [LincanHoCa2010]. Orchidaceae [Jansen1995], Ansellia [HodgsoHi1990], Encyclia cochleata [ZettleZeRi2012], Encyclia tampensis [ZettleZeRi2012], Epidendrum rigidum [ZettleZeRi2012], Paphiopedilum callosum [Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995], Stanhopea [GillNaWi1977], Vanda [GillNaWi1977]. Peperomiaceae: Peperomia [CarnerPe1986], Peperomia rubella [Potaev1993]. Phytolaccaceae: Phytolacca dioica [CarnerPe1986]. Pinaceae: Abies [GomezM1957], Cedrus [GillNaWi1977], Cedrus deodora [MazzeoLoRu1994], Pinus caribaea [WilliaWa1990], Pinus elliotti [GillNaWi1977], Pinus halepensis [BenDov1993], Pinus nigra [Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995], Pinus pinaster [MazzeoLoRu1994], Pinus radiata [DeLott1959], Pinus sylvestris [Hall1935]. Piperaceae: Piper auritum [Ballou1926], Piper chaba [BenDov2012]. Pittosporaceae: Pittosporum [Balach1927, HodgsoHe2000]. Platanaceae: Platanus orientalis [BenDov1971]. Poaceae: Bambusa vulgaris [WilliaWa1990]. Podocarpaceae: Podocarpus [Ali1971, Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995]. Polemoniaceae: Phlox drummondii [Ballou1926]. Polygalaceae: Polygala virgata [Hodgso1967]. Polygonaceae: Antigonon leptopus [Ballou1926], Muehlenbeckia [Green1923b], Muehlenbeckia platyclada [DeLott1959]. Polypodiaceae: Platycerium [HodgsoHi1990, Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995], Platycerium alcicorne [BenDov1971], Polypodium aureum [Green1917a], Polypodium phyllitidus [Kuwana1902a]. Pontederiaceae: Eichornia crassipes [Mamet1943a]. Portulacaceae: Portulaca oleracea [Ballou1926]. Primulaceae: Cyclamen [Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995], Cyclamen persicum [TangLi1988]. Proteaceae: Finschia [WilliaWa1990], Grevillea [Hall1935]. Pteridaceae: Acrostichum aureum [WilliaWa1990], Acrostichum caudatum [Kuwana1902a], Adiantum [Hall1935], Adiantum capillus-veneris [BenDov1971], Adiantum intermedum [Kuwana1902a]. Punicaceae: Punica granatum [Bodenh1926]. Ranunculaceae: Clematis flammula [Balach1932e, Balach1933e]. Rhamnaceae: Sageretia [Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995]. Rhizophoraceae: Bruguiera cylindrica [Ali1971]. Rosaceae: Amygdalus communis [BenDov1971, BenDov2013], Cliffortia nitidula [Hodgso1967], Cotoneaster pannosa [BenDov1971], Crataegus azarolus [BenDov2012], Cydonia oblonga [BenDov1971], Eriobotrya [Green1923b, HodgsoHi1990], Eriobotrya japonica [Kuwana1902, Green1923b, BenDov1971, Ali1971], Laurocerasus [KozarGuBa1994], Malus sylvestris [BenDov1971], Persica vulgaris [BenDov1971], Photinia serrata [Balach1927], Prunus [Hodgso1967], Prunus armeniaca [BenDov1971, Matile1984c], Prunus domestica [Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995], Prunus persica [DeLott1959], Prunus salicina [BenDov1971], Pyracantha [WilliaKo1972, HodgsoHi1990], Pyrus communis [Hall1923], Raphiolepis umbellata [BenDov1971], Rosa [Bodenh1924, Hodgso1969a, ShafeeYoKh1989], Rubus [DeLott1959, Hodgso1967, KozarFr1995]. Rubiaceae: Canthium [WilliaWa1990], Cinchona [Green1930c, Ali1971], Coffea [Almeid1973b, Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995], Coffea arabica [GonzalAt1984], Coffea liberica [Newste1911a], Coprosma [HodgsoHe2000], Coprosma montana [Nakaha1981a], Gardenia [Nakaha1981a], Gardenia florida [Ballou1926, Ali1971], Gardenia jasminoides [GillNaWi1977], Ixora [Nakaha1981a], Ixora bandhuca [Ballou1926], Ixora lutea [Ballou1926], Oxyanthus speciosus [Hodgso1967], Pentas [HodgsoHi1990], Platanocephalus morindaefolius [WilliaWa1990], Psychotria rufipes [Kuwana1902a], Psychotria rufipes [LincanHoCa2010], Timonius [WilliaWa1990]. Ruscaceae: Ruscus hypophyllus [Hall1923]. Rutaceae [DanzigKo1990], Chaetospermum glutinosa [Ballou1926], Citrus [Balach1927, Balach1931a, DeLott1959, DeLott1965a, Hodgso1967, Hodgso1969a, Ali1971], Citrus [Aziz1977, KozarOrKo1977, KfirRo1980, Nakaha1981a, Argyri1983, Matile1984c, KozarHuFo1989], Citrus [Balach1939, Balach1957c, FrancoPa1991, HodgsoHi1990, KozarPaPa1991, SmithBeBr1997], Citrus [Ramakr1919a, Brain1920a, Bodenh1924, Ramakr1930, GonzalAt1984, Hodgso1994a], Citrus [Green1904d, Hall1935, Green1937, Almeid1973b, EtiennMa1993, ShafeeYoKh1989], Citrus [Kirkal1904, Borg1932, SengonUyKa1998, UygunSeEr1998, Granar1999], Citrus aurantifolia [Nakaha1983, WilliaBu1987], Citrus aurantium [Bodenh1924, Bodenh1926, Bodenh1928, Bodenh1935, Bodenh1944b, DeLott1959, Hodgso1967, Nakaha1983], Citrus aurantium [Hall1922, GonzalAt1984], Citrus grandis [DeLott1959], Citrus histrix [Ballou1926], Citrus limon [Bodenh1924, Newste1917b, Green1923b, TerGri1954, DeLott1959, EzzatHu1969, Nakaha1983, GonzalAt1984], Citrus limon [Potaev1993, Granar1999], Citrus medica [Hall1922], Citrus nobilis deliciosa [DeLott1959], Citrus paradisi [BenDov1971, GonzalAt1984], Citrus reticulata [TerGri1954, BenDov1971], Citrus sinensis [Newste1910c, Ballou1926, TerGri1954, DeLott1967a, EzzatHu1969, Almeid1973b], Citrus sinensis [Kirkal1902, King1903b, Kirkal1904, Green1917a], Fortunella margarita [TangLi1988], Murraya [HodgsoHi1990], Pelea [Nakaha1981a]. Salicaceae: Populus [Granar1999], Populus alba [BenDov1971], Salix babylonica [Ballou1926]. Santalaceae: Phoradendron californicum [LinKoGu2013], Santalum haleakale [Nakaha1981a]. Sapindaceae: Euphoria longana [Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983], Litchi chinensis [Waite1986], Nephelium lappaceum [HernanNiMa2011]. Sapotaceae: Achras sapota [Ballou1926], Calocarpum [GillNaWi1977], Chrysophyllum cainito [Ballou1926], Lucuma mammosa [Ballou1926], Lucuma nervosa [Ballou1926], Pometia pinnata [WilliaWa1990]. Saxifragaceae: Hydrangea integerrima [GillNaWi1977], Saxifraga sarmentosa [Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995]. Scrophulariaceae: Myoporum lactum [Willia2013]. Selanginellaceae: Selanginella [Nakaha1981a]. Simaroubaceae: Ailanthus glandulosa [MazzeoLoRu1994]. Solanaceae: Capsicum frutescens [WilliaWa1990], Cestrum parqui [Granar1999], Datura metel [BenDov1993], Lycium [CarnerPe1986], Physalis [HodgsoHi1990], Solanum aviculare [HodgsoHe2000], Solanum jasminoides [DeLott1959], Solanum villosum [BenDov1971]. Sterculiaceae: Dombeya [Hodgso1967], Theobroma cacao [WilliaWa1990]. Styracaceae: Styrax officinalis [BenDov1971]. Theaceae: Camellia [DeLott1959, Hodgso1969a, Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995], Camellia japonica [TaoWoCh1983], Camellia sinensis [Green1904d, Green1937, DeLott1959, Hodgso1967, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989, Granar1999]. Thymelaeaceae: Pimelea [HodgsoHe2000]. Tiliaceae: Grewia [DeLott1959]. Tropaeolaceae: Tropaeolum majus [Granar1999]. Ulmaceae: Celtis [HodgsoHi1990], Ulmus campestris [Moghad2013a]. Urticaceae: Pellionia [HodgsoHi1990], Pilea [Cocker1897k, Green1923b, Jansen1995, LongoMaPe1995]. Verbenaceae: Avicennia marina [BenDov2012], Callicarpa formosana [Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983], Clerodendrum inerme [WilliaWa1990], Duranta repens [BenDov1971], Premna corymbosa [WilliaWa1990], Raphithamnus spinosus [KozarzRe1975], Vitex agnus-castus [BenDov2012], Vitex lucens [HodgsoHe2000]. Viscaceae: Korthalsella lindsayi [HenderSuRo2010], Viscum sp. [BenDov2012]. Vitaceae: Cissus sicyoides [Ballou1926], Rhoicissus tridentata [Hodgso1967], Vitis vinifera [Hall1923, Hall1935, Mamet1943a, EzzatHu1969, BenDov1971, Granar1999]. Zingiberaceae: Alpinia mutica [Nakaha1981a], Alpinia nutans [Green1904d, Green1937, Ali1971], Alpinia purpurata [WilliaBu1987], Curcuma longa [WilliaWa1990], Hedychium coronarium [Ballou1926, CarnerPe1986], Nicolaia speciosa [WilliaWa1990].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Angola [DeLott1967a, Almeid1969, Almeid1973b]; Ascension Island [WilliaMe2007]; Cameroon [Vayssi1913]; Cape Verde [Fernan1975, SchmutPiKl1978, VanHarCoWi1990]; Eritrea [DeLott1959]; Ethiopia [DeLott1965a]; Kenya [Newste1917b, DeLott1959]; Madagascar [Mamet1954]; Malawi [DeLott1959, Hodgso1969a]; Mali [MuniapWaVa2012]; Mauritius [Mamet1936, Mamet1943a, DeLott1959]; Nigeria [DeLott1959]; Reunion [Mamet1952, Mamet1957, GermaiMiPa2014]; Saint Helena; Senegal [EtiennMa1993]; Seychelles [Green1914d] (Aldabra Island [Green1907, WilliaMa2009b]); Sierra Leone [DeLott1959]; Somalia [Schmut1964]; South Africa [Cocker1894t, Kirkal1902, Brain1920a, Mamet1943a, DeLott1959, Anneck1966]; Sudan [DeLott1959]; Tanzania [Newste1911a, Green1916a, Mamet1943a, DeLott1959]; Uganda [Newste1910c, DeLott1959]; Zaire; Zambia [Hodgso1969a]; Zimbabwe [Hall1935, DeLott1959, DeLott1965a, Hodgso1967, Hodgso1969a]. Australasian: American Samoa; Australia [Kirkal1902, Frogga1915, Mamet1943a, DeLott1959] (Australian Capital Territory [LinKoGu2013], New South Wales [LinKoGu2013], Northern Territory [SmithBeBr1997], Queensland [SmithBeBr1997], South Australia [SmithBeBr1997, RakimoBeWh2013], Victoria [SmithBeBr1997, RakimoBeWh2013], Western Australia [SmithBeBr1997, RakimoBeWh2013]); Bonin Islands (=Ogasawara-Gunto) [Mamet1943a]; Christmas Island [AbbottGr2007]; Cook Islands; Federated States of Micronesia (Caroline Islands); Fiji; French Polynesia; Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii [Kirkal1902, Kirkal1904, Mamet1943a]). Australasian: Indonesia (Irian Jaya). Australasian: Indonesia (Sulawesi (=Celebes) [WatsonMuSh2014]); Kiribati; Marshall Islands; New Caledonia; New Zealand [Cocker1893k, Kirkal1902, Mamet1943a, HenderSuRo2010]; Norfolk Island; Northern Mariana Islands; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Solomon Islands; Tonga; Tuvalu; Vanuatu (=New Hebrides) [WilliaBu1987]; Western Samoa. Nearctic: Canada [King1901f, Mamet1943a] (Alberta, British Columbia [KozarHuFo1989]); Mexico [Cocker1899n, Mamet1943a, GonzalAt1984, MyartsRu2000] (Colima [Cocker1903a], Veracruz [Cocker1899n]); United States of America (California [Ferris1920b], Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Maine [King1903b], Maryland, Massachusetts [King1899b], Missouri, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Wyoming). Neotropical: Antigua and Barbuda (Antigua); Argentina [Mamet1943a] (Buenos Aires [Granar1999], Chaco [Granar1999], Corrientes [Granar1999], Entre Rios [Granar1999], Jujuy [GranarCl2003], Mendoza [Granar1999], Misiones [Granar1999], Rio Negro [Granar1999], Salta [Granar1999], Santa Fe [Granar1999], Tucuman [Granar1999]); Bermuda [HodgsoHi1991, HodgsoHi1990]; Brazil (Espirito Santo [MartinCuWo2004, CulikMaVe2007], Rio Grande do Sul, Sao Paulo); Chile [Kirkal1902, Mamet1943a, RipaLaRo2008a, KondoGu2010]; Colombia [LongoMaPe1995, Kondo2001, Kondo2008a]; Cuba [Ballou1926, MestreHaEv2011]; Ecuador; El Salvador [QuezadCoDi1972]; French Guiana [Remill1988]; Galapagos Islands [Frogga1915, CaustoPeSi2006, LincanHoCa2010]; Guadeloupe [Balach1957c]; Guatemala [Willia2010]; Guyana [Kondo2013]; Haiti [PerezG2008]; Jamaica [Cocker1893k, Cocker1899n, Kirkal1902]; Martinique [Balach1957c]; Panama; Peru [Beders1969]; Puerto Rico & Vieques Island (Puerto Rico [Martor1976, NakahaMi1981]); Saint Croix [Beatty1944]; Saint Lucia [Malump2012b]; Suriname; Trinidad and Tobago (Trinidad [Cocker1896h, Cocker1896k]); U.S. Virgin Islands. Oriental: Bangladesh; Burma (=Myanmar) [Ali1971]; China (Hunan [HuHeWa1992]); Hong Kong [MartinLa2011]; India [Green1908a, Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, Mamet1943a, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989] (Andhra Pradesh [AvasthSh1991], Bihar [Ali1971, AvasthSh1991], Goa [Ali1971, Ali1973, AvasthSh1991], Gujarat [AvasthSh1991], Jammu & Kashmir [AvasthSh1991], Karnataka [AvasthSh1991], Kerala [NairMe1963, AvasthSh1991], Tamil Nadu [AvasthSh1991], Tripura [Ali1971, AvasthSh1991], Uttar Pradesh [AvasthSh1991], West Bengal [Green1908a, AvasthSh1991]); Indonesia (Sumatra [Ali1971]); Malaysia [Ali1971]; Maldives [WatsonOoGi1995]; Philippines; Ryukyu Islands (=Nansei Shoto) [KinjoNaHi1996]; Sri Lanka [Green1904d, Green1937, Mamet1943a, DeLott1959, Ali1971]; Taiwan [Mamet1943a, Ali1971, WongChCh1999]; Thailand [Ali1971, LongoMaPe1995]; Vietnam [DanzigKo1990]. Palaearctic: Afghanistan [Siddiq1966, KozarFoZa1996]; Algeria [Kirkal1902, Balach1927, Mamet1943a]; Armenia [TerGri1954, TerGri1966a]; Austria [Malump2011a] (All records are on plants grown indoors.); Azores [LopesFiMa2008]; Belgium [DeLott1959, Hodgso1994a, LongoMaPe1995] (Tabor); Bulgaria [KozarTzVi1979, TrenchTrTo2010]; Canary Islands [Lindin1911a, PerezGCa1987, BenDov2013]; China (Shanxi (=Shansi) [Xie1998], Xizang (=Tibet)); Corsica [Foldi2003]; Crete [PellizPoSe2011]; Croatia [Masten2007]; Cyprus [SismanUl2010]; Denmark [DeLott1959]; Egypt [Hall1922, Hall1923, Hall1924a, Mamet1943a, EzzatHu1969]; France [Balach1931a, Balach1933e, Balach1939, Hodgso1994a, Foldi2000]; Georgia; Greece [Bodenh1928, Argyri1967, Argyri1983, Kozar1985, KozarPaPa1991]; Hungary [KozarOrKo1977, Kozar1980, Kozar1991, KozarKoFe2013]; Iran [Bodenh1944b, KozarFoZa1996, TorabiVaHo2010, Moghad2013]; Iraq [Bodenh1943, Aziz1977]; Israel [Bodenh1924, Bodenh1935, Rosen1966, KfirRo1980, BenDov1993]; Italy [Hodgso1994a, LongoMaPe1995] (Isola D'Elba, Capoliveri.); Japan [Kirkal1904, Mamet1943a, DeLott1959]; Jordan [new]; Latvia [Rasina1955]; Lebanon; Libya [Martin1954]; Madeira Islands [Green1923b, FrancoRuMa2011]; Malta [Borg1932]; Morocco [Vayssi1920, Mamet1943a, Rungs1970]; Netherlands [Hodgso1994a]; Portugal [Fernan1992, Hodgso1994a, KozarFr1995, CarvalFrAg1996]; Romania [Kozar1985]; Russia (St. Petersburg (=Leningrad) Oblast); Sardinia [Melis1930, Pelliz2011]; Saudi Arabia [Beccar1971]; Sicily [Liotta1970]; Slovenia [Janezi1954, Seljak2010]; South Korea [ChoJeKa2013]; Spain [LinKoGu2013]; Sweden; Switzerland [KozarGuBa1994]; Syria [Bodenh1926, BasheeAsRa2014]; Tunisia [Mamet1943a, Jarray1970]; Turkey [Bodenh1953, Tuncyu1970, Hodgso1994a, SengonUyKa1998, UygunSeEr1998, KaydanUlEr2007]; Turkmenistan (Ashkahabad Oblast [Archan1930, Potaev1993]); Ukraine (Krym (=Crimea) Oblast, Odessa Oblast); United Kingdom (Channel Islands [Green1925b], England [Green1928a, MalumpBa2012], England [Newste1900a, Newste1917, Green1917a, Green1920, Green1928, DeLott1959]); Yugoslavia [Kozar1983a].

BIOLOGY: Females were reported to reproduce parthenogenetically in most areas. Males were not observed in California, Israel, South Africa. However, males, reported to belong to this species, were observed in England (Newstead, 1917a) and in greenhouse population in USSR (Saakyan-Baranova, 1964). Develops six annual generations in Israel (Bodenheimer, 1951a; Avidov & Harpaz, 1969); 3-5 generations in USA, southern California (Ebeling, 1959). Life history in Spain described by Llorens Climent (1984). Annecke (1966) reported that the female moults only twice before maturity. However, this might be an erroneous observation, because females in other species of Coccus as well as in most other genera develop through three larval instars. Hart & Ingle (1971) observed increased fecundity after exposure to Methyl Parathion. Encapsulation of parasitoid eggs was studied by Blumberg (1977) and Blumberg & DeBach (1981). The encapsulation of eggs of Encyrtus infelix (Embleton) and of E. lecaniorum (Mayr) was determined by Blumberg & Goldenberg (1992).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Zimmerman (1948), De Lotto (1959, 1965), Hodgson (1967, 1994a), Ezzat & Hussein (1969), Williams & Kosztarab (1972), Gill et al. (1977), Tao et al. (1983), Hamon & Williams (1984), Gill (1988), Williams & Watson (1990), Kosztarab (1996), Granara de Willink (1999), Hodgson & Henderson (2000) and by Lagowska (2001). Description of adult female and first-instar nymph by Borchsenius (1957).

STRUCTURE: The adult female is oval, flat or slightly convex. Young adult yellowish-green to yellowish-brown, flecked with brown spots, which occasionally coalesce into mottled areas. The crawlers are produced by the female into a chamber beneath the ventral derm. Colour photograph by Kawai (1980, Figs. 6.9, a,b), Hamon & Williams (1984), Gill (1988), Katsoyannos (1996), Wong et al. (1999), Hodgson & Henderson (2000) and by Germain et al., (2003). Intraspecific variation of taxonomic characters in adult female studied by Lagowska (2001).

SYSTEMATICS: The taxonomy of this species has been refined and, more or less, stabilized only since the studies of De Lotto (1959, 1965). Therefore, most earlier descriptions and illustrations are inadequate for a good definition of C. hesperidum. Ben-Dov (1993) erroneously indicated that type material of Coccus patellaeformis Curtis, 1843 was lost. However, Ken Walker (Department of Entomology, Museum of Victoria, Abbotsford, Victoria, Australia) in personal communication (May 2002) to Yair Ben-Dov, informed that the types are deposited in the Victoria Museum. Hodgson (1967) and Gill et al. (1977) found considerable morphological variation in some distinctive features, such as the ventral tubular ducts and the dorsal submarginal tubular ducts. Giliomee (1967) described and illustrated the adult male, based on material collected in St. Petersburg [=Leningrad], Russia from Laurus nobilis and from "citrus". The redescription and illustration of the female, named Calymnatus hesperidum by Valemberg (1980), appears to be a misidentification of a Coccus sp., which is different from C. hesperidum. Blair et al. (1964) analyzed the intraspecific variation of 18 characters of the adult female.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: The brown soft scale is one of the highly polyphagous and most widely distributed soft scale species. It is regarded a citrus pest in several countries over different regions (Talhouk, 1975; Bartlett, 1978). An important pest of various fruit trees, ornamentals and in green houses (Ebeling, 1959). Lagowska (1995) reviewed the prospects of biological control in greenhouses.

KEYS: Mohammad & Moharum 2013: 146-148 (female) [Key to species and subspecies of family coccidae in Egypt]; Wang & Feng 2012a: 61 (adult, female) [Key to adult female Coccus known from China]; Kondo & Gullan 2010: 13-14 (female) [Coccidae species of Chile]; Hodgson & Henderson 2000: 195 (female) [New Zealand]; Kosztarab 1996: 337 (female) [Northeastern North America]; Tang 1991: 77 (female) [China]; Williams & Watson 1990: 82 (female) [Tropical South Pacific]; Gill 1988: 26 (female) [USA, California]; Hamon & Williams 1984: 38 (female) [USA, Florida]; Tao et al. 1983: 63 (female) [Taiwan]; Kawai 1980: 141-142 (female) [Japan]; Ezzat & Hussein 1969: 372 (female) [Egypt]; Beardsley 1966: 483 (female) [Micronesia]; Borchsenius 1957: 294 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Zimmerman 1948: 294 (female) [Hawaii].

CITATIONS: AbbottGr2007 [host, distribution, biological control, ecology: 1238-1246]; AbdRabHaHu2001 [host, distribution, biological control: 179-184]; AbouEl2001 [host, distribution, biological control: 185-195]; Alfons1875 [taxonomy: 428]; Ali1971 [taxonomy, illustration, host, distribution: 21,24-25]; Ali1973 [host, distribution: 670-671]; Almeid1969 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 147-148]; Almeid1973b [host, distribution: 3]; Anneck1966 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history : 205-227]; Anneck1969 [biological control: 849-854]; AnneckMy1972 [biological control: 227-274]; AnneckMy1979 [biological control: 143-150]; Archan1929 [host, distribution: 194]; Archan1930 [host, distribution: 79]; Argyri1967 [host, distribution: 68]; Argyri1970 [host, distribution, biological control: 57-65]; Argyri1983 [host, distribution: 364]; ArgyriStMo1976 [host, distribution, biological control: 23]; AvasthSh1991 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 338-341]; Aziz1977 [host, distribution: 46-47]; BadaryAb2011 [biological control, distribution, host: 52-53]; Badr2014 [distribution, host: 51]; Balach1927 [host, distribution: 185]; Balach1931a [host, distribution: 100]; Balach1932d [taxonomy, host, distribution: xxix]; Balach1932e [host, distribution: 237]; Balach1933e [host, distribution: 5]; Balach1935b [host, distribution: 264]; Balach1939 [host, distribution: 257]; Balach1957c [host, distribution: 207]; Ballou1926 [host, distribution: 19-20]; Bartle1969 [economic importance, biological control, host, distribution: 875-878]; Bartle1978 [economic importance, biological control, host, distribution: 60-62]; BartleBa1964 [life history, biological control: 496-503]; BartleBa1966 [life history, physiology, biological control: 42-45]; BasheeAsRa2014 [biological control, distribution, host: 48-52]; Beards1966 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 483-485]; Beatty1944 [host, distribution: 114-172]; Beccar1971 [host, distribution: 194]; Beders1969 [host, distribution, chemical control: 933-940]; Bedfor1973 [biological control: 4-11]; Beingo1969d [biological control: 827-838]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 73-78]; BenDov2006a [host, distribution: 206]; BenDov2012 [catalogue, distribution, host: 25, 44]; BenDov2013 [distribution, illustration: 71]; BenDovCa2006 [host, distribution: 326]; BennetRoCo1976 [economic importance, biological control: 359-395]; BernalLuMo1998 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 510-518]; BernalLuMo1999 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 191-204]; BertelBa1966 [host, distribution: 17-46]; BlairBlBo1964 [taxonomy: 129-134]; Blumbe1976a [biological control, ecology: 1396-1397]; Blumbe1977 [life history, biological control, ecology: 185-192]; Blumbe1997 [biological control, ecology: 225-236]; BlumbeDe1981 [life history, economic importance, biological control: 73-79]; BlumbeGo1992 [life history, biological control: 57-65]; Bodenh1924 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 67-68]; Bodenh1926 [host, distribution: 44]; Bodenh1928 [host, distribution: 192]; Bodenh1935 [host, distribution: 249]; Bodenh1937 [host, distribution: 219]; Bodenh1943 [host, distribution: 12]; Bodenh1944b [host, distribution: 88]; Bodenh1951a [economic importance, life history, host, distribution, biological control: 354-381]; Bodenh1953a [host, distribution: 94]; Bogo2003 [chemistry, physiology: 593-599]; BogoMa2000 [chemistry: 589-595]; Bolu2012 [biological control: 110]; BoratyWi1964 [taxonomy: 108]; Borchs1937a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 8147]; Borchs1950 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 144-146]; Borchs1957 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 294-300]; Borg1919 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 33-35]; Borg1932 [host, distribution: 15]; BouhelDeDe1932 [host, distribution, control: 1-60]; Boulet1986 [biological control, life history, physiology: 169-200]; Brader1979 [biological control, chemical control: 225]; Brain1920a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 3-4]; BrainKe1917 [host, distribution: 183]; Brimbl1961 [host, distribution: 1-2]; Brimbl1962 [host, distribution, economic importance: 226]; Brock1925 [economic importance, host, distribution: 349,366]; BrooksHaSm1989 [host, distribution, economic importance: 513]; Buchne1953 [taxonomy, structure: 210-213]; Buchne1965 [taxonomy, structure: 232-233]; BuitenMcBo2004 [life history, host, distribution, biological control: 273-285]; CarmanElEw1954 [host, distributuion, chemical control: 1-11]; CarmanEwJe1951 [host, distributuion, chemical control: 1-16]; CarmanEwJe1956 [chemical control]; CarmanEwJe1957 [chemical control]; CarmanEwJe1958 [chemical control]; CarmanEwJe1959 [chemical control]; CarmanEwJe1960 [chemical control]; CarmanEwJe1961 [chemical control]; CarmanEwJe1962 [chemical control]; CarmanEwRi1980 [host, distribution, control: 14-77]; CarvalFrAg1996 [economic importance, biological control, host, distribution: 614]; Castel1951 [biological control: 89-92]; Castel1951a [biological control: 95-98]; CaustoPeSi2006 [distribution: 137]; CebeciSe2004 [host, distribution: 209]; Cendan1937 [biological control: 337-339]; ChapotDe1964 [economic importance, host, distribution]; CharleCoMu2005 [host, distribution: 1-4]; ChatteGhSe2000 [host, distribution, life history: 229-233]; ChoJeKa2013 [distribution, host: 405]; Chou1947a [chemical control, taxonomy: 38]; Cocker1893g [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 49,53]; Cocker1893j [distribution: 254]; Cocker1893k [taxonomy, host, distribution: 548]; Cocker1893m [taxonomy: 161]; Cocker1894d [taxonomy: 311]; Cocker1894i [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, biological control: 18-19]; Cocker1894o [taxonomy: 29-31]; Cocker1894t [distribution: 178]; Cocker1895u [taxonomy, distribution: 728]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 331]; Cocker1896h [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 19]; Cocker1896k [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: iv]; Cocker1897p [taxonomy, description: 590-591]; Cocker1898r [distribution: 240]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 393]; Cocker1899n [host, distribution: 10]; Cocker1902p [distribution: 255]; Cocker1903a [host, distribution: 162]; Cocker1929b [taxonomy: 150]; Cocker1933 [taxonomy: 35]; Comper1924 [biological control: 13-23]; Comper1925 [biological control: 295-326]; Comper1938 [biological control: 315-337]; Comper1947a [biological control: 281-283]; Comper1961 [biological control: 177]; Comper1961a [biological control: 17-71]; Comper1969 [economic importance, biological control: 755-764]; ComperAn1961 [host, distribution, biological control: 17]; Comsto1881a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 335]; CorseuBa1971 [host, distribution: 238]; CulikMaVe2007 [host, distribution: 1-5]; Curtis1843a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 517-518]; DahlstHa1999 [economic importance: 919-933]; DaneelMeJa1994 [host, distribution: 72]; Danzig1972 [host, distribution: 200]; Danzig1995 [taxonomy: 21]; DanzigKe1981a [taxonomy: 147-152]; DanzigKo1990 [host, distribution: 44]; DarvasVi1983 [chemical control: 455-463]; Das1959 [host, distribution: 437-448]; DavidsDiFl1991 [chemical control: 1-47]; DavoodTaFa2004 [distribution, biological control: 51-66]; DavoodTaRa2002a [host, distribution, biological control: 79-80]; DavoodTaRa2004 [distribution, biological control: 129-130]; DavoodTaRa2004a [biological control: 887-899]; DeBach1958 [host, distribution, biological control, ecology: 187-194]; DeBach1958a [biological control: 759-768]; DeBachDiFl1951 [biological control: 1,14,347-348]; DeBachHuMa1976 [biological control: 255-285]; DeitzTo1980 [taxonomy: 31]; deLeonFoHa2006 [molecular biology, molecular data: 109-119]; DelGue1906 [host, distribution: 257-263]; DeLott1959 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 160-164]; DeLott1965a [host, distribution: 192]; DeLott1967a [host, distribution: 111]; Delucc1975 [host, distribution, biological control, economic importance]; DietzMo1916a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 245-246]; Dougla1886b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 77-78]; Dzhash1970 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 179-180]; Ebelin1959 [economic importance, host, distribution, chemical control, biological control]; EhlerEn1984 [distribution, biological control, chemical control: 1-47]; Ehrhor1898 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 245]; ElekciSe2007 [host, distribution, biological control: 29-34]; ElmerEwCa1951 [economic importance, biological control, host, distribution: 593-597]; ElzenKi1999 [biological control: 253-270]; EtiennMa1993 [host, distribution: 255]; EtzelLe1999 [biological control: 125-197]; Ewart1969 [chemical control: 879-880]; EwartCa1951 [chemical control, host, distribution: 1-10]; EwartCaJe1954 [chemical control: 1-11]; EwartEl1953a [economic importance, host, distribution: 352]; EwartMe1956 [chemistry: 441-447]; EzzatHu1969 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 393-395]; EzzatNa1987 [distribution: 86]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 168-170,172-174]; Fernan1972 [host, distribution: 14-15]; Fernan1973a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 258-261]; Fernan1975 [host, distribution: 43]; Fernan1987a [host, distribution: 34]; Fernan1992 [host, distribution: 60]; Ferris1920b [host, distribution: 36]; Fiedle2003 [host, distribution, control: 12-13]; Flande1936b [biological control: 251-255]; Flande1937 [biological control: 401-422]; Flande1938 [biological control: 167-180]; Flande1945a [host, distribution, biological control: 711-712]; Flande1949a [biological control: 257-274]; Flande1951b [biological control: 93-98]; Flande1953a [biological control: 266-269]; Flande1959b [biological control: 125-142]; FlandeBa1964 [biological control: 320-322]; Fletch1951 [economic importance, host, distribution: 1-24]; FlintVa1981 [biological control: 1]; Foldi1978 [taxonomy, structure: 155-163]; Foldi1997 [taxonomy, ecology: 205]; Foldi2000 [host, distribution: 82]; Foldi2003 [host, distribution: 150]; Fonsec1953 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 5-53,97-114]; FrancoPa1991 [host, distribution: 283]; FrancoRuMa2011 [distribution: 5,22]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 608]; FrohliRo1970 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-10]; FytizaKa1983 [biological control, life history: 273-279]; GelovaKh1983 [taxonomy]; Georgh1977 [distribution: 148]; Germai2011 [distribution, economic importance: 31-34]; Germai2011a [distribution, economic importance: 8]; GermaiMaPi2002 [host, distribution: 254]; GermaiMaPi2003 [host, distribution, structure: 22]; GermaiMiPa2014 [distribution: 22]; Gertss2008 [taxonomy: 55-58]; Giliom1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 92-96]; Gill1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history, ecology: 26-27,31]; GillKo1997 [economic importance, host, distribution: 161-163]; GillNaWi1977 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 8,11,18-24]; Goeze1778 [taxonomy: 332-333]; Golan2008 [life history, physiology, honeudew]; Golan2008a [morphology, life history, physiology, honeydew: 111-121]; GomesC1949 [host, distribution]; GomezC1950 [biological control, host, distribution: 1-18]; GomezM1929 [taxonomy: 4]; GomezM1937 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history, biological control: 295-301]; GomezM1946 [host, distribution: 90]; GomezM1954 [host, distribution: 136]; GomezM1957 [host, distribution: 62]; GomezM1958b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 63-70]; GomezM1958c [host, distribution: 407]; GomezM1960O [host, distribution: 182]; Gonzal1969 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 839-847]; Gonzal1989 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 81-86]; GonzalAt1984 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 215-216]; GoszczGo2011 [biological control, distribution, host, life history: 114-115]; Gourla1930a [biological control: 339-343]; GradyRe1940 [host, distribution, taxonomy, economic importance: 1-32]; Granar1999 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 81-83]; GranarCl2003 [host, distribution: 625-637]; Greath1971 [host, distribution, biological control ]; Green1904d [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 188-189,197,205]; Green1907 [host, distribution: 200]; Green1908a [host, distribution: 30]; Green1914d [host, distribution: 47]; Green1916a [host, distribution: 375]; Green1917a [host, distribution: 202-203]; Green1920 [host, distribution: 124-125]; Green1923b [host, distribution: 88]; Green1925b [host, distribution: 518]; Green1928 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 5]; Green1928a [host, distribution: 30]; Green1930c [host, distribution: 281]; Green1937 [host, distribution: 298-300]; GriffiTh1947 [host, distribution, chemical control: 386-388]; GroveDeDa2013 [distribution, host: 378]; GruwelVoPa2005 [taxonomy, endosymbionts: 79-114]; Guerri1996 [host, distribution, biological control: 107-111]; Hadzib1983 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 126-128]; Hall1922 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 18-19]; Hall1923 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 39]; Hall1924a [host, distribution: 9-10]; Hall1935 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 74-75]; HallFo1933 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-55]; HamonWi1984 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 41-44]; HarpazRo1971 [biological control, economic importance: 458-468]; Hart1896 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history: 156]; HartIn1971 [chemical control, physiology: 204-208]; HartInGa1969 [host, distribution, economic importance: 855-858]; HartMy1968 [life history, ecology, control: 617-624]; Hayat1971 [biological control: 421-432]; Hempel1900a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 436]; HenderSuRo2010 [2010: 2]; HernanNiMa2011 [host: 379-380]; HickelDu1995 [host, distribution: 665-668]; Hoddle2004 [biological control]; Hodgso1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 3-4]; Hodgso1969a [host, distribution: 6]; Hodgso1969c [host, distribution, life history, economic importance, biological control: 19-21]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 182-185]; HodgsoHe2000 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 195-196,198]; HodgsoHi1990 [host, distribution: 2-6,8-10,12-22]; HodgsoHi1991 [host, distribution: 163]; HodgsoLa2011 [host, distribution: 20]; HodgsoMi2002IM [taxonomy: 511]; HuHeWa1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 185]; Hui1988 [biological control: 395-398]; Hunter1899a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 75]; Iperti1961 [biological control: 14-30]; Ishii1926 [biological control: 31-36]; Jahan1999 [life history, host, distribution: 87-92]; JamesStOM1997 [host, distribution, biological control: 257-259]; Janezi1954 [host, distribution: 125]; Jansen1995 [host, distribution: 134,141]; Jarray1970 [host, distribution, economic importance: 85-89]; Jarray1975 [taxonomy, host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 415-456]; Jarray1981 [biological control: 51-63]; JaszaiDa1983 [chemical control: 198-202]; KansuUy1979 [host, distribution, biological control: 565-567]; KapranMiLu2004 [life history, biological control, chemistry: 113-117]; KapranWaLu2009 [life history, biological control: 652-662]; Katsoy1996 [life history, economic importance, host, distribution, chemical control, biological control: 15,20,81-82]; Kaussa1957 [host, distribution: 2]; Kawai1972 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history: 11]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 143]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 91]; KfirPoRo1975 [life history, biological control: 707-709]; KfirPoRo1976 [biological control, life history: 287-295]; KfirRo1980 [host, distribution, biological control: 223-237]; KfirRo1980a [host, distribution, biological control: 114-115]; KfirRo1981 [biological control: 141-150]; KfirRoPo1983 [life history, biological control: 320-328]; King1899b [host, distribution: 140]; King1901f [taxonomy, host, distribution: 194]; King1903b [host, distribution: 191]; KinjoNaHi1996 [host, distribution: 126]; Kiritc1928 [host, distribution: 114]; Kiritc1932a [taxonomy: 252]; Kiritc1935 [host, distribution: 2]; Kiritc1936 [distribution: 73]; Kirkal1902 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 105]; Kirkal1904 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 228]; Kondo2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 41]; Kondo2008a [host, distribution: 25-29]; Kondo2013 [distribution, host: 45]; KondoGu2010 [host, distribution: 13]; KondoLoQu2010 [biological control: 7-13]; Koszta1996 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history, biological control: 337-338,342]; Koteja1974a [taxonomy: 249]; Koteja1974b [distribution: 82]; Kozar1980 [host, distribution: 67]; Kozar1983a [distribution: 146]; Kozar1985 [host, distribution: 201-202]; Kozar1991 [host, distribution: 81]; KozarFoZa1996 [host, distribution: 65]; KozarFr1995 [host, distribution: 71]; KozarGuBa1994 [host, distribution: 154]; KozarHuFo1989 [host, distribution: 73]; KozarKoFe2013 [distribution, taxonomy: 52]; KozarOrKo1977 [host, distribution: 72]; KozarPaPa1991 [host, distribution: 65]; KozarTzVi1979 [host, distribution: 130]; KozarWa1985 [catalogue: 76]; Kozarz1992 [taxonomy, life history, host, distribution: 264-266]; KozarzRe1975 [taxonomy, description, economic importance, host, distribution: 23]; KreiteAuGe2006 [distribution, economic importance, host: 143]; Kuwana1902 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 64]; Kuwana1907 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 192]; Kuwana1909a [host, distribution: 159]; Kuwana1931b [host, distribution: 165]; Lagows1995 [economic importance, biological control, host, distribution: 5-10]; Lagows1995a [economic importance, biological control, host, distribution: 375-378]; Lagows2001 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 105-112]; Laing1927 [host, distribution: 38]; LambdiWa1980 [host, distribution: 79]; Lawson1917 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 196-197]; Leonar1920 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 319-323]; LeonEvCa2001 [host, distribution, biological control: 143-146]; LincanHoCa2010 [host, distribution: 4]; Lindin1911a [host, distribution: 33]; Lindin1912b [taxonomy, host, distribution: 71,93,98,160]; LinKoGu2013 [distribution, host, molecular data, phylogeny, taxonomy: 251-252, 258]; Linnae1758 [distribution, description, host, distribution: 455]; Liotta1970 [host, distribution, economic importance: 33]; LiottaMiRa1977 [host, economic importance: 29-67]; LiuXiXu2011 [biological control, anatomy, entomopathogenic fungi: 71-79]; Lloren1984 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution]; LoBueFoMi2004 [ecology, physiology, chemistry: 151-156]; LoBueFoMi2004a [biological control, life history, chemistry: 127-132]; LongoMaPe1995 [host, distribution: 134, 141]; LopesFiMa2008 [host, distribution: 153-154]; Lozzia1985 [host, distribution: 122-124]; Mahbub1999 [life history, host, distribution: 87-92]; MalipaDuSm2000 [biological control: 85,86]; Malump2011a [distribution, economic importance, host, illustration: 50-53]; Malump2012a [economic importance: 245]; Malump2012b [distribution: 210]; MalumpBa2012 [distribution, economic importance, host: 19-20,38,41]; MalumpKa2011a [distribution, host, illustration: 50,53]; MalumpRe2011 [distribution, host: 69]; Mamet1936 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 95-96]; Mamet1943a [host, distribution: 152]; Mamet1949 [host, distribution: 24-25]; Mamet1952 [host, distribution: 171]; Mamet1954 [host, distribution: 13]; Mamet1957 [host, distribution: 374]; Martin1954 [host, distribution: 113-116]; Martin1984MP [host, distribution: 68-69]; MartinCuWo2004 [host, distribution: 655-657]; MartinLa2011 [catalogue, distribution: 35]; Martor1976 [host, distribution: 6,25,43,134,165,177]; Maskel1897 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 310-311]; Masten2007 [host, distribution, taxonomy: 1-242]; Matile1976 [host, distribution: 295]; Matile1984c [host, distribution: 220]; MatileEt2006 [host, distribution: 165]; MatileNo1984 [host, distribution: 63]; MatilePe2002 [host, distribution: 354]; MazzeoLoRu1994 [host, distribution: 205]; MazzeoSuRu2008 [host, distribution: 149-152]; Melis1930 [host, distribution: 17]; MessenVa1971 [biological control: 68-92]; MessenWiWh1976 [biological control: 209]; MestreHaEv2011 [catalogue, distribution: 6]; MetcalMe1993 [economic importance, host, distribution, control]; Miller1996 [distribution: 70]; Moghad2009 [host, distribution: 6-7]; Moghad2013a [distribution, illustration: 8]; MohammGh2008 [distribution: 149]; MohammMo2013 [illustration, structure: 147, 153]; Mohara1990 [taxonomy: 48]; MohyudMa1993 [host, distribution, biological control: 467-483]; Monast1958 [economic importance, control: 131-165]; Monast1962 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 101-108]; Morris1929 [host, distribution: 39]; MumaSeDe1961 [biological control: 1-39]; MuniapWaVa2012 [distribution: 4-6]; MyartsRu2000 [distribution, biological control: 7-33]; MyartsRu2011 [biological control: 65-72]; Nair1964 [host, distribution, economic importance: 72]; NairMe1963 [host, distribution: 139]; Nakaha1981a [host, distribution: 390]; Nakaha1983 [host, distribution: 4]; NakahaMi1981 [host, distribution: 30]; NakaoTaTa1977 [biological control, host, distribution: 61-68]; NAS1975 [control]; Neves1936 [host, distribution: 205-206]; Newste1892 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 141]; Newste1900a [life history, host, distribution: 24]; Newste1910c [host, distribution: 187]; Newste1911a [host, distribution: 164]; Newste1917 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 360-361]; Newste1917b [host, distribution: 130]; Nur1979 [taxonomy, structure: 89-104]; OmerCoJoWh1946 [biological control: 154]; Oncuer1974 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, biological control: 18-59]; OrdoghRe1988 [host, distribution, economic importance, control: 418-420]; Ossian1959 [host, distribution: 199]; Panis1974a [biological control: 131-134]; Panis1982 [distribution, biological control: 12-22]; Peleka1962 [host, distribution: 60]; Pelliz2011 [distribution: 311]; PellizPoSe2011 [distribution, host: 294,297]; PerezG2008 [distribution: 212]; PerezGCa1987 [host, distribution: 127]; Petch1921 [biological control: 18-40]; PettitMc1920 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 16-17]; Picard1919 [host: 3]; PicartMa2000 [host, distribution: 14-20]; PietriBiCo1969 [chemical control: 909-915]; Podsia1983a [host, distribution, biological control, economic importance: 272]; PonsonCo2007 [biological control, life history: 629-640]; Potaev1993 [host, distribution: 34, 37]; Powell1986 [biological control, host, distribution: 319-340]; Pratt1958 [host, distribution]; Quayle1911e [host, distribution, biological control: 510-515]; QuezadCoDi1972 [host, distribution: 20-22]; RabbStVa1976 [biological control: 233]; RakimoBeWh2013 [distribution, host: 372-375]; Ramakr1919a [host, distribution: 33-35]; Ramakr1921a [host, distribution: 348,350]; Ramakr1930 [host, distribution: 46-47]; Rasina1955 [host, distribution: 70]; RayMcSt2012 [host: 312]; ReedHaIn1970 [host, distribution, ecology, economic importance: 792-794]; Reh1903 [host, distribution: 459]; Rehace1960 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 44-45]; Reider1988 [host, distribution, economic importance, chemical control: 217-218]; Reinki1964 [host, distribution, economic importance, chemical control: 70-71]; Remill1988 [host, distribution: 55]; RiehlBrMc1980 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control, chemical control: 319]; RipaLaRo2008a [description, host, distribution, life history, economic importance, biological control: 145-147]; Rivnay1944 [economic importance, biological control, host, distribution: 73-81]; Rosen1966 [host, distribution, biological control: 46-48]; Rosen1969 [host, distribution, biological control: 45-53]; Rosen1979 [host, distribution, biological control: 289-292]; RugmanFoGu2010 [biological control: 266]; Rungs1970 [host, distribution, economic importance: 91-94]; RzaevaYa1985 [biological control: 55-58]; Saakya1964 [host, distribution, life history: 268-296]; Saakya1965 [biological control, life history: 112-173]; SalazaSo1990 [host, distribution: 137]; Sander1906 [catalogue: 8,10]; Sander1909 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 436-438]; Savesc1982 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 275-276]; Schimi1944 [host, distribution: 268-269]; Schmut1952 [host, distribution, life history: 552]; Schmut1952b [host, distribution: 18]; Schmut1955b [host, distribution, biological control: 518]; Schmut1957a [host, distribution: 133-140]; Schmut1964 [host, distribution: 105-106]; Schmut1969 [taxonomy, host, distribution, economic importance: 106-108]; Schmut1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 192]; Schmut1990a [host, distribution, economic importance: 397]; Schmut2001 [host, distribution: 339-345]; SchmutPiKl1978 [host, distribution, economic importance: 329]; Seabra1941 [host, distribution: 8]; Seljak2010 [host, distribution: 104]; SengonUyKa1998 [host, distribution, biological control: 128-131]; ShafeeYoKh1989 [host, distribution: 51]; ShutovAnMu1985 [distribution, biological control: 37]; Siddiq1966 [host, distribution, economic importance: 4-5]; Siddiq1981 [economic importance, host, distribution: 172-180]; Signor1869 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 856,859,860,863]; Signor1873a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 398-401]; SilvadGoGa1968 [host, distribution, biological control: 143]; Silves1921 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-11]; Simant1962a [biological control, host, distribution: 105-112]; Simmon1957 [host, distribution: 8]; Simmon1969a [biological control: 765-767]; SismanUl2010 [host, distribution: 219-224]; SmailiAbBo2013 [biological control: 157]; Smith1958 [host, distribution, chemical control: 335-338]; SmithBeBr1997 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance, biological control: 43-45]; SmithFl1950 [biological control: 362,376,378]; Soroki1973 [biological control: 599-609]; Steinw1930 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 562-563]; SternAdBe1976 [biological control: 593]; Steyn1958 [host, distribution, biological control: 589-594]; Stimme1976a [taxonomy, host, distribution, economic importance, control: 13-14]; Stimme1987 [host, distribution, economic importance: 10-11]; Stinne1977 [biological control : 515]; Su1982 [distribution: 61]; Suomal1962 [life history, physiology: 352]; Sweetm1958 [biological control, economic importance: 449-458]; SwirskWyIz2002 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history, economic importance, biological control: 78-80]; Szulcz1926 [host, distribution: 137-143]; TabataLo2002 [chemical control: 30]; Takaha1928 [host, distribution: 341]; Takaha1929 [host, distribution: 50-51]; Takaha1929a [host, distribution: 430]; Takaha1932a [host, distribution: 103]; Takaha1934 [host, distribution: 36]; Takaha1942b [host, distribution: 16-17]; Takaha1942d [host, distribution: 353-354]; Takaha1950 [host, distribution: 71]; Takaha1952 [host, distribution: 14]; Talhou1975a [host, distribution: 409]; Tang1977 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 72-73]; Tang1984b [host, distribution: 126]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 86-88]; TangLi1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 82-84,85]; Tao1978 [host, distribution: 80-81]; Tao1989 [host, distribution: 59]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 54]; TaoWoCh1983 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 65-66]; Targio1884 [host, distribution: 398]; Terezn1981 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 148-151]; TerGri1954 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 63]; TerGri1966a [host, distribution: 373]; Thro1903 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 206-209,211-212]; TorabiVaHo2010 [host, distribution: 153-162]; TrabouBe1965 [host, distribution, biological control: 1-13]; Trembl1988a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history: 231-232]; TrenchTrTo2010 [host, distribution: 114-123]; Tuncyu1970a [host, distribution, economic importance: 67-80]; Tyrell1896 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 267]; UedaQuIt2008 [taxonomy, phylogeny, molecular data, distribution: 2319-2326]; Ulgent2001 [host, distribution, biological control: 369-375]; Ulgent2001a [host, distribution, biological control: 145-149]; Ulgent2003 [structure: 393-398]; UlgentCa2004 [host, distribution: 79-84]; UlgentCaKa2004 [host, distribution, economic importance: 101-102]; UlgentTo2001 [host, distribution: 213-217]; UsmanPu1955 [host, distribution: 49]; UygunSeEr1998 [host, distribution: 183-191]; Valemb1980 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 5-8]; Valent1963 [biological control: 6-13]; Valent1967 [biological control: 1100]; vanden2001a [host, distribution, economic importance, life history, chemical control, biological control: 165-167]; VanHarCoWi1990 [host, distribution: 134]; Varshn1984a [distribution, host: 140-141]; Varshn1985a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 26]; Varshn1994 [host, distribution: 343]; VarshnMo1987 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 174]; Vayssi1913 [host, distribution: 430]; Vayssi1920 [host, distribution: 258]; Vea2011 [phylogeny, structure, taxonomy: 5-7,12]; Vernal1953 [host, distribution: 131-132]; Vicido2007 [host, distribution: 1-7]; VieiraCaPi1983 [host, distribution: 95-97]; Viggia1970a [host, distribution, economic importance: 47-55]; Viggia1980 [biological control: 45-49]; Vinson1977 [life history, biological control, chemistry: 237-279]; WaageGr1986 [biological control: 169-200]; Waite1986 [host, distribution: 42]; WakuFo1984 [taxonomy, structure: 303-322]; WaltonKrSa2009 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-6]; Wang1980 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 27-29]; Wang1981TC [host, distribution: 288]; WangFe2012a [taxonomy: 61]; WatsonMuSh2014 [distribution, host: 1595]; WatsonOoGi1995 [host, distribution: 55]; Webber1897 [chemical control, biological control: 53-58]; WeseloBa1971 [biological control, host, distribution, chemistry: 1259-1264]; Westwo1840 [taxonomy: 444]; Willia1985a [taxonomy: 225]; Willia1985c [host, distribution: 136]; Willia2001 [distribution: 225-227]; Willia2007b [taxonomy: 444, 427-490]; Willia2010 [host, distribution: 146]; Willia2013 [distribution, host: 188]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 8,22,26,27,30,31,32]; WilliaBu1987 [host, distribution: 93]; WilliaKo1972 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 55-62]; WilliaMa2009b [host, distribution: WilliaMa2009b]; WilliaMe2007 [host, distribution: 132]; WilliaPa2012 [taxonomy: 227-229]; WilliaWa1990 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 89-93]; Wise1977 [host, distribution: 104]; WoglumBo1921 [biological control, host, distribution: 1-43]; WoglumLaLa1947 [chemical control, biological control, host, distribution: 818-820]; WolfEw1955 [chemistry, honeydew: 365-372]; WongChCh1999 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 12,50]; Wood1962 [biological distribution, distribution: 8-11]; Xie1998 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 65-67]; XieLiXu2010 [biological control, anatomy: 66-75]; XieXuZh2006a [morphology, wax secretion: 21-112]; Yang1982 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 166,168,169,191]; YasnosTaCh2005 [host, distribution, biological control: 229-302]; Zahrad1977 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 118]; ZettleZeRi2012 [host: 127-134]; Zimmer1948 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, distribution: 301-306].



Coccus hesperidum javanensis (Newstead)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium hesperidum javanensis Newstead, 1908b: 38. Type data: JAVA: East Java, Molio-ardjo, on Liberian coffee. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Coccus hesperidum javanensis; Sanders, 1909b: 45. Change of combination.



HOST: Rubiaceae: Coffea liberica [Newste1908b].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Indonesia (Java [Newste1908b]).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 78]; Newste1908b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 38-39]; Sander1909a [catalogue: 45].



Coccus hordeolum Dalman

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus hordeolum Dalman, 1826: 365. Type data: SWEDEN: on Salix cinerea. Syntypes, female. Described: female.



HOST: Salicaceae: Salix cinerea [Dalman1826].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Sweden [Dalman1826].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Dalman (1826).

SYSTEMATICS: This species was originally described in Coccus Linnaeus. Walker (1852) transferred it to Aspidiotus Bouche, in the Diaspididae. Targioni Tozzetti (1868) and Signoret (1869) assigned it to Lecanium. Fernald (1903b) placed it among the unrecognizable species of Coccus. Lindinger (1912b) suggested that it was a synonym of Chionaspis salicis in the Diaspididae. Borchsenius (1966) interpreted it an armoured scale, Aspidiotus hordeolum while listing it among the species incertae sedis. In ScaleNet we regard Coccus hordeolum Dalman, 1826 as a species in the family Coccidae, for two reasons. 1. The original description (Dalman, 1826) included brief textual description that reads "The female oval or almost elliptical, yellow, smooth, shining, with a little raised back ... looks like a boat upside down", as well five Figures (Figs 1-5, Tab. IV). In Figs. 3&4, Dalman clearly illustrated an anal cleft. 2. J.W. Dalman (1787-1828), who was also a taxonomist of hymenopterous parasites, described in this 1826 paper, Entedon scutellaris and E. insidiator, which he found to parasitize Coccus hordeolum. These parasitoids are currently known as Coccophagus scutellaris and C. insidiator in the Aphelinidae. The recorded host range of both species is almost exclusively species of the Coccidae.

CITATIONS: BenDovGe2003 [taxonomy: 853]; Borchs1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 369]; Dalman1826 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 365-366]; Fernal1903b [taxonomy, distribution: 326]; Ferris1941e [taxonomy: 44]; Lindin1912 [taxonomy: 364]; Signor1869 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 856]; Targio1868 [taxonomy: 731]; Walker1852 [taxonomy: 1068]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 26].



Coccus illuppalamae (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium illuppalamae Green, 1922a: 1021. Type data: SRI LANKA: Maha Illuppalama, on undetermined tree. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Coccus illuppalamae; Ali, 1971: 25. Change of combination.

Coccus illupalamae; Tang, 1991: 77. Misspelling of species name.

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Sri Lanka [Green1922a, Green1937, Ali1971].

KEYS: Tang 1991: 77 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [host, distribution: 25]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 78]; Green1922a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 1021-1022]; Green1937 [host, distribution: 303]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 88]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 27].



Coccus incisus (King in Cockerell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Calymnatus incisus King in Cockerell, 1902p: 255. Type data: SOUTH AMERICA (Country not indicated): on nutmeg [=Torreya nucifera]. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Notes: Depository of type material unknown.

Coccus incisus; Sanders, 1906: 8. Change of combination.



HOST: Taxaceae: Torreya nucifera [Cocker1902p].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 79]; Cocker1902p [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 255]; Sander1906 [catalogue: 8]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 27].



Coccus inquilinus (Newstead)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium inquilinum Newstead, 1920: 189. Type data: GUYANA: 'Cattle Trail Survey', host plant of type material not indicated. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Myzolecanium inquilinum; Lindinger, 1957: 544. Change of combination.

Coccus inquilinum; Ben-Dov, 1993: 79. Change of combination.

Coccus inquilinus; Williams & Ben-Dov, 2009: 27. Justified emendation.



ASSOCIATE: HYMENOPTERA : Acromyrmex [Newste1920].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Guyana [Newste1920].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 79]; Newste1920 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 189-190]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 27].



Coccus insolens (King in Cockerell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium insolens King in Cockerell, 1902i: 255. Type data: BRAZIL: Locality not indicated, on Philodendron sp. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Notes: Depository of type material unknown.

Coccus insolens; Silva et al., 1968: 143. Change of combination.



HOST: Araceae: Philodendron [SilvadGoGa1968, Cocker1902p].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil.

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 79]; Cocker1902p [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 255]; Sander1906 [host, distribution: 10]; SilvadGoGa1968 [host, distribution]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 27].



Coccus inyangombae Hodgson

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus inyangombae Hodgson, 1967: 5. Type data: ZIMBABWE: Inyangombe Falls, Inyanga, on Strychnos lugens. Holotype female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female.



HOST: Loganiaceae: Strychnos lucens [Hodgso1967].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Zimbabwe [Hodgso1967].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 79]; Hodgso1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 5-6]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 27].



Coccus jaculator (Green & Laing)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium jaculator Green & Laing, 1924: 418. Type data: GUYANA: East Coast of Demerara, Belfield, on Montrichardia aculeata. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Coccus jaculator; Ben-Dov, 1993: 79. Change of combination.



HOST: Araceae: Montrichardia aculeata [GreenLa1924].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Guyana [GreenLa1924].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 79]; GreenLa1924 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 418]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 27].

Coccus koleos

No valid record found for this species



Coccus kosztarabi Avasthi & Shafee

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus kosztarabi Avasthi & Shafee, 1984: 389. Type data: INDIA: Mysore, Tumkur, on Mangifera indica. Holotype female. Type depository: Aligarh: Aligarh Muslim University, Department of Zoology, India. Described: female.



HOST: Anacardiaceae: Mangifera indica [AvasthSh1984, ShafeeYoKh1989, AvasthSh1991].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: India [ShafeeYoKh1989] (Karnataka [AvasthSh1984, AvasthSh1991]).

CITATIONS: AvasthSh1984 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 389-392]; AvasthSh1991 [host, distribution: 341]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 79]; ShafeeYoKh1989 [host, distribution: 51]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 28].



Coccus latioperculatum (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium latioperculatum Green, 1922a: 1022. Type data: SRI LANKA: Paradeniya, on undetermined shrub. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Lecanium latioperculum; Ramakrishna Ayyar, 1930: 30. Misspelling of species name.

Coccus latioperculatum; Ali, 1971: 26. Change of combination.

Coccus lateroperculatus; Tang, 1991: 77. Misspelling of species name.



HOSTS: Anacardiaceae: Anacardium [ShafeeYoKh1989], Anacardium occidentale [Green1937, Ali1971], Mangifera indica [Ramakr1930, Green1937, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989], Spondias mangifera [AvasthSh1991].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: India [Ramakr1930, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989] (Tamil Nadu [Ali1971, AvasthSh1991]); Sri Lanka [Green1922a, Green1937, Ali1971, AvasthSh1991].

BIOLOGY: Attended by the ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) (Green, 1922).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Green (1922a) and by Avasthi & Shafee (1991).

KEYS: Tang 1991: 77 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [host, distribution: 26]; AvasthSh1991 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 341-343]; BasheeJa1964 [host, distribution, economic importance: 261-266]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 79-80]; Green1922a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 1022]; Green1937 [host, distribution: 303]; Ramakr1930 [host, distribution: 50]; ShafeeYoKh1989 [host, distribution: 51]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 88-89]; Varshn1985a [taxonomy, host, distribution, biological control, chemical control, economic importance: 26]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 29].



Coccus leurus De Lotto

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus leurus De Lotto, 1966: 43. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Natal, Umkomaas, on Putterlickia verrucosa. Holotype female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female.



HOSTS: Apocynaceae: Carissa bispinosa [DeLott1966]. Celastraceae: Putterlickia verrucosa [DeLott1966].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [DeLott1966].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 80]; DeLott1966 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 43-46]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 29].



Coccus lidgetti (Fernald)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium australis Lidgett, 1901b: 59. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Victoria, Myrniong, on Acacia implexa. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Homonym of Lecanium australe Walker.

Lecanium lidgetti Fernald, 1903b: 212. Replacement name for Lecanium australis Lidgett, 1901.

Coccus lidgetti; Ben-Dov, 1993: 80. Change of combination.



HOST: Fabaceae: Acacia implexa [Lidget1901].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Victoria).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 80]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 212]; Lidget1901b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 59]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 29].



Coccus litzeae Rutherford

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus litzeae Rutherford, 1915: 111. Type data: SRI LANKA: Paradeniya, on Litsea longifolia. Syntypes, both sexes. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Lecanium litseae; Green, 1937: 305. Misspelling of species name.

Coccus litseae; Ali, 1971: 26. Misspelling of species name.



HOST: Lauraceae: Litsea longifolia [Ruther1915a, Green1922, Green1937, Ali1971].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Sri Lanka [Green1922, Green1937, Ali1971].

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [host, distribution: 26]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 80]; Green1922 [host, distribution: 465]; Green1937 [host, distribution: 305]; Ramakr1921a [host, distribution: 350]; Ruther1915 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 111-112]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 30].



Coccus lizeri (Fonseca)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium lizeri Fonseca, 1957: 133. Type data: BRAZIL: Sao Paulo, Campinas, on coffee. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil. Described: female.

Coccus lizeri; Ben-Dov, 1993: 80. Change of combination.



HOST: Rubiaceae: Coffea [Fonsec1957].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Sao Paulo [Fonsec1957]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Fonseca (1957) and by Granara de Willink et al. (2010).

KEYS: Granara de Willink et al. 2010: 397 (female) [Coccus species on coffe in Brazil].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 80]; Fonsec1957 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 133-135]; GranarPiFe2010 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 394-397]; Kondo2013 [distribution, host: 45]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 30].



Coccus longulus (Douglas)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium angustatum; Douglas, 1887a: 25. Misidentification.

Lecanium longulum Douglas, 1887b: 97. Type data: ENGLAND: Harrow, on Acacia catechu. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Ben-Dov, 1977: 93. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Lecanium chirimoliae Maskell, 1890: 137. Type data: FIJI: on Annona tripetala. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Synonymy by Cockerell, 1893g: 50. Notes: Type material probably lost (Deitz & Tocker, 1980).

Lecanium ficus Maskell, 1897b: 243. Type data: CHINA: Swatow, on Ficus sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Synonymy by Sanders, 1909a: 438.

Coccus longulum; Kirkaldy, 1902: 106. Change of combination.

Coccus ficus; Fernald, 1903b: 168. Change of combination.

Lecanium frontale Green, 1904d: 192. Type data: SRI LANKA [=CEYLON]: Pundaluoya, on Calophyllum sp. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Ben-Dov, 1977: 93. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Synonymy by Sanders, 1909a: 438.

Coccus frontalis; Sanders, 1906: 8. Change of combination.

Coccus elongatus; Sanders, 1909a: 438. Incorrect synonymy; discovered by Ben-Dov, 1977: 89.

Lecanium (Coccus) celtium Kuwana, 1909b: 162. Type data: JAPAN: Ogasawara Islands (=Bonin Islands), on Celtis sinensis. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Ibaraki-ken: Insect Taxonomy Laboratory, National Institute of Agricultural Environmental Sciences, Kannon-dai, Yatabe, Tsukuba-shi, (Kuwana), Japan. Described: female. Synonymy by Takahashi, 1955b: 69.

Coccus celtium; Sasscer, 1911: 66. Change of combination.

Lecanium (Coccus) longulus; Pettit & McDaniel, 1920: 17. Change of combination.

Mesolecanium uvicola Hempel, 1920a: 349. Type data: BRAZIL: Minas Gerais, Taboas, on grapevine imported from Chile. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil. Described: female. Synonymy by Granara de Willink, 2012: 2-3.

Coccus elongatum; Brain, 1920a: 5. Misidentification.

Lecanium wistariae Brain, 1920a: 8. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Cape Province, Uitenhage, on Wistaria [=Wisteria] sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female. Synonymy by De Lotto, 1957c: 301.

Coccus (Lecanium) longulus; Hall, 1922: 19. Change of combination and rank.

Leucanium frontal; Seabra, 1925: 37. Misspelling of genus and species names.

Lecanium kraunhianum Lindinger, 1928: 107. Replacement name for Lecanium wistariae Brain; synonymy by De Lotto, 1959: 160.

Lecanium (Coccus) frontale; Green, 1937: 299. Change of combination.

Coccus frontalis; Mamet, 1943a: 151. Change of combination.

Coccus celticum; Takahashi, 1955b: 69. Misspelling of species name.

Parthenolecanium wistaricola Borchsenius, 1957: 349. Replacement name for Lecanium wistariae Brain; synonymy by De Lotto, 1965a: 192.

Coccus longulus; Ben-Dov, 1977: 89. Revived status.

Coccus logulus; Moharana, 1990: 48. Misspelling of species name.

COMMON NAME: long brown scale [GillNaWi1977, HamonWi1984, Gill1988, BenDov1993].



HOSTS: Agavaceae: Agave sisalana [Nakaha1981a], Dracaena [Nakaha1981a]. Anacardiaceae: Mangifera indica [Nakaha1981a], Rhus [Ali1971]. Annonaceae: Annona [Green1904d, EzzatHu1969, Ali1971, Nakaha1983, HodgsoHi1990, Jansen1995], Annona cherimolia [Green1937, Ali1971], Annona glabra [Ali1971], Annona montana [Ali1971], Annona muricata [Green1904d, Ali1971, NakahaMi1981, Nakaha1981a, Kondo2008a], Annona reticulata [Mamet1943a, WilliaWi1988], Annona squamosa [Green1907, CockerRo1915a, Mamet1943a, DeLott1957c, Ali1971, BenDov1977], Cananga odorata [WilliaWa1990]. Apocynaceae: Ervatamia orientalis [WilliaWa1990], Plumeria [Nakaha1981a]. Araceae: Anthurium [BenDov1977, Nakaha1981a], Caladium [Nakaha1981a], Colocasia esculenta [WilliaWa1990], Cyrtosperma chamissonis [WilliaWa1990], Dieffenbachia picta [WilliaWa1990], Epipremnum pinnatum [WilliaWa1990], Spathiphyllum [Nakaha1981a], Spathiphyllum lanceifolium [NakahaMi1981], Spathipyllum blandum [Green1904d]. Araliaceae: Schefflera [WilliaWa1990]. Arecaceae: Archontophoenix cunninghami [Nakaha1981a], Areca catechu [Ali1971, Nakaha1981a], Chamaerops humilis [CarnerPe1986], Cocos nucifera [Nakaha1981a], Ptychosperma sanderianum [Nakaha1981a]. Asteraceae: Cosmos [Nakaha1981a], Senecio [WilliaWa1990], Wedelia biflora [WilliaWa1990]. Begoniaceae: Begonia [GillNaWi1977, Nakaha1981a]. Bignoniaceae: Tabebuia heterophylla [GillNaWi1977], Tecoma smithii [Hall1923, EzzatHu1969]. Boraginaceae: Cordia [WilliaWa1990]. Cannaceae: Canna [Nakaha1981a]. Caricaceae: Carica papaya [Kirkal1902, Nakaha1981a]. Casuarinaceae: Casuarina [Green1907, Mamet1943a, Nakaha1981a, HodgsoHi1990], Casuarina equisetifolia [Mamet1943a, Ali1971, WilliaWi1988]. Clusiaceae: Calophyllum [Green1904d, Green1937, Ali1971], Calophyllum inophyllum [Ali1971], Hypericum [HodgsoHe2000]. Cobaeaceae: Cobaea scandens [Nakaha1981a]. Combretaceae: Terminalia catappa [LincanHoCa2010]. Commelinaceae: Zebrina pendula [Nakaha1981a]. Cucurbitaceae: Cucurbita pepo [Mamet1943a, WilliaWi1988]. Cupressaceae: Thuja compacta [AvasthSh1991]. Erythroxylaceae: Erythroxylum [WilliaWa1990], Erythroxylum coca [KawaiMaUm1971], Erythroxylum coca spruceanum [Ali1971]. Euphorbiaceae: Acalypha [Nakaha1981a], Acalypha tricolor [WilliaWa1990], Aleurites fordii [WilliaWa1990], Aleurites moluccana [Nakaha1981a], Aleurites triloba [WilliaWa1990], Codiaeum [Laing1933, Nakaha1981a, HodgsoHi1990], Codiaeum variegatum [Ferris1921a, Ali1971, GillNaWi1977], Croton [Ali1971, GillNaWi1977], Euphorbia [Nakaha1981a, HodgsoHi1990], Euphorbia pulcherrima [Dougla1887b, Nakaha1981a], Excoecaria agallocha [Ramakr1930, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989, WilliaWa1990], Jatropha curcas [WilliaWa1990], Jatropha hastata [Nakaha1981a], Pedilanthus [WilliaWa1990]. Fabaceae: Acacia [Hall1922, Ramakr1930, Hall1935, DeLott1957c, KfirRo1980, Nakaha1981a], Acacia angustissima [Willia2010], Acacia arabica [Hall1922, Hall1923], Acacia catechu [Dougla1887b, Green1904d], Acacia confusa [Ferris1921a, Ali1971], Acacia culturiformis [Hodgso1967], Acacia dealba [Green1904d, Ali1971], Acacia decurrens [Hall1935], Acacia farnesiana [Ballou1926], Acacia longifolia [GillNaWi1977], Acacia melanoxylon [Brain1920a, Hall1935, DeLott1957c], Acacia mellifera [WilliaWa1990], Acacia seyal [DeLott1957c], Acacia simplex [WilliaWa1990], Albizia [Green1896, Green1904d, Newste1911, Ramakr1930, Hall1935, Ali1971], Albizia falcata [WilliaWa1990], Albizia lebbek [Hall1923, Mamet1943a, Mamet1951, Mamet1978, Matile1988], Arachis hypogaea [Mamet1954], Bauhinia [Mamet1943a, BenDov1977], Caesalpinia decapetala [DeLott1957c], Caesalpinia pulcherrima [WilliaWa1990], Cajanus cajan [Hall1922, DeLott1957c, NakahaMi1981, Nakaha1983, EtiennMa1993], Cajanus flavus [Nakaha1981a, EtiennMa1993], Cajanus indicus [Hall1922, Hall1935], Calliandra haematocephala [Ali1971], Carmichaelia australis [HodgsoHe2000], Cassia [Almeid1973b], Cassia grandis [Nakaha1981a], Cassia siamea [EtiennMa1993], Ceratonia siliqua [BenDov1977], Chordospartium stevensonii [HodgsoHe2000], Dalbergia assamica [DeLott1957c], Delonix regia [Nakaha1981a], Dentrosema plumieri [MestreHaEv2011], Derris [WilliaWa1990], Derris laxiflora [Ali1971], Desmodium umbellatum [WilliaWa1990], Dichrostachys nutans [Hall1923], Dolichos [DeLott1957c], Gliricidia maculata [WilliaWa1990], Gliricidia sepium [GillNaWi1977], Glycine hispida [WilliaWi1988], Inocarpus fagifer [WilliaWa1990], Leucaena glauca [WilliaWa1990], Leucaena leucocephala [WilliaWa1990], Millettia nitida [Ali1971], Mimosa pudica [WilliaWa1990], Mucuna [Nakaha1981a], Phaseolus limensis [Nakaha1981a], Phaseolus puearia [NakahaMi1981], Pithecellobium dulce [Ali1971, GillNaWi1977], Pithecellobium saman [Ballou1926, WilliaWa1990], Pongamia glabra [ShafeeYoKh1989], Pongamia pinnata [MangalSuNa2012], Prosopis farcta [BenDov2012], Pterocarpus indicus [WilliaWa1990], Pueraria thunbergiana [DeLott1957c], Samanea saman [Ali1971], Tamarindus indica [ShafeeYoKh1989], Tephrosia candida [WilliaWa1990], Vigna unquiculata [WilliaWa1990, EtiennMa1993], Wisteria [Brain1920a]. Felicidae: 'Ferns' [HodgsoHi1990]. Geraniaceae: Pelargonium [Nakaha1981a]. Lamiaceae: Coleus [Nakaha1981a]. Lauraceae: Laurus [HodgsoHi1990], Laurus mobilis [BenDov2012], Persea americana [WilliaWa1990], Persea borbonia [GillNaWi1977]. Liliaceae: Cordyline terminalis [Nakaha1981a]. Loranthaceae: Loranthus [Green1904d, Ramakr1930], Loranthus longiflorus [Green1937, Ali1971]. Magnoliaceae: Magnolia stellata [HodgsoHe2000]. Malpighiaceae: Malpighia glabra [Mamet1943a]. Malvaceae: Gossypium herbaceum [Ferris1921a], Hibiscus [Hodgso1967, Nakaha1981a, HodgsoHi1990], Hibiscus rosa-sinensis [Ferris1921a, Ali1971], Hibiscus tiliaceus [WilliaWa1990], Malvastrum tricuspidatum [KawaiMaUm1971], Malvaviscus arboreus [WilliaWa1990]. Marantaceae: Maranta sp. [BenDov2012]. Moraceae: Artocarpus heterophyllus [WilliaWa1990], Artocarpus integra [WilliaWa1990], Ficus [Green1904d, DeLott1957c, EzzatHu1969], Ficus benghalensis [KfirRo1980], Ficus benjamina [WilliaWa1990], Ficus boninsimae [KawaiMaUm1971], Ficus carica [WilliaWa1990], Ficus lyrata [BenDov1977], Ficus megapoda [Mamet1959a], Ficus nitida [Hall1923], Ficus retusa [Green1930c, Ali1971, BenDov1977], Ficus rubiginosa [BenDov1977], Ficus tinctoria [WilliaWa1990], Morus [Ali1971], Morus alba [Ferris1921a, Ali1971, BenDov1977]. Musaceae: Musa [WilliaWa1990, Nakaha1981a]. Myricaceae: Myrica fragifera [Green1904d], Myrica rubra [Ferris1921a, Ali1971]. Myrtaceae: Metrosideros [Nakaha1981a], Myrtus communis [Brain1920a], Psidium [Kirkal1902, Green1904d], Psidium guajava [Nakaha1981a], Syzygium [HodgsoHi1990]. Nyctaginaceae: Bougainvillea [Nakaha1981a]. Oleaceae: Ligustrum [Nakaha1981a], Osmanthus fragrans [Ali1971]. Oxalidaceae: Averrhoa carambola [Green1904d, WilliaWa1990]. Pinaceae: Pinus caribaea [WilliaWa1990]. Plumbaginaceae: Plumbago capensis [Nakaha1981a]. Poaceae: Bambusa [Kirkal1902, Green1904d, Nakaha1981a], Brachiaria brizantha [Hall1935], Saccharum officinarum [GomezM1957]. Polygonaceae: Hamalocladium platycladum [BenDov2012]. Proteaceae: Finschia [WilliaWa1990], Grevillea [Green1896, Green1904d], Grevillea robusta [Green1937, Ali1971]. Rhizophoraceae: Bruguiera sexangula [Nakaha1981a]. Rosaceae: Rosa [Brain1920a, Mamet1943a, GillNaWi1977, Nakaha1981a, HodgsoHi1990], Rubus [Hodgso1967, Nakaha1981a]. Rubiaceae: Coffea arabica [WilliaWa1990], Coffea canephora [WilliaWa1990], Gardenia [Nakaha1981a], Gardenia florida [Ali1971], Ixora [Nakaha1981a]. Rutaceae: Boninia glabra [KawaiMaUm1971], Citrus [Kirkal1902, Green1904d, Ali1971, Nakaha1981a, SmithBeBr1997], Citrus limon [WilliaWa1990], Citrus reticulata [BenDov1977, ShafeeYoKh1989], Citrus sinensis [Ali1971], Melicope ternata [HodgsoHe2000]. Sapindaceae: Litchi chinensis [Ali1971, GillNaWi1977], Pometia pinnata [Ali1971]. Solanaceae: Cestrum [Nakaha1981a]. Sterculiaceae: Theobroma cacao [Strick1947a, WilliaWa1990]. Strelitziaceae: Strelitzia [Nakaha1981a]. Theaceae: Camellia [Nakaha1981a]. Ulmaceae: Celtis boninensis [KawaiMaUm1971], Celtis sinensis [Kuwana1909a, Sassce1911]. Urticaceae: Boehmeria boninensis [KawaiMaUm1971]. Vitaceae: Ciccus verticillata [MestreHaEv2011], Cissus sicyoides [Ballou1926], Vitis [Hempel1920a, Green1908a, Ramakr1930, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989], Vitis vinifera [Green1908a, Hall1923, Hall1935, Hodgso1967, EzzatHu1969, Ali1971], Vitis vinifera [ShafeeYoKh1989, HodgsoHe2000].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Agalega Islands [Mamet1978]; Angola [Almeid1973b]; Cape Verde [VanHarCoWi1990, BenDov1993]; Kenya [DeLott1957c]; Madagascar [Mamet1951, Mamet1954, Mamet1962]; Mauritius [Mamet1943a]; Saint Helena [BenDov1993]; Sao Tome and Principe (Sao Tome [Seabra1925]); Senegal [EtiennMa1993]; Seychelles [Green1907, Mamet1943a] (Aldabra Island [WilliaMa2009b]); South Africa [Brain1920a, Mamet1943a, DeLott1957c]; Uganda [Newste1911]; Zimbabwe [Hodgso1967]. Australasian: American Samoa [DoaneFe1916]; Australia (New South Wales [SmithBeBr1997, RakimoBeWh2013], Northern Territory [Frogga1915], Queensland [SmithBeBr1997], South Australia, Western Australia [RakimoBeWh2013]); Bonin Islands (=Ogasawara-Gunto) [Kawai1987]. Australasian: Bonin Islands (=Ogasawara-Gunto) [Mamet1943a]. Australasian: Cook Islands; Federated States of Micronesia (Caroline Islands); Fiji [Mamet1943a]; French Polynesia (Society Islands [DoaneHa1909]); Guam; Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii [Kirkal1902, Kirkal1904, Mamet1943a]); Kiribati (Gilbert Islands); Marshall Islands; New Caledonia [Laing1933]; New Zealand [Mamet1943a, HodgsoHe2000]; Northern Mariana Islands [Mamet1943a]; Palau [Mamet1943a]; Papua New Guinea; Solomon Islands; Tonga; Vanuatu (=New Hebrides) [WilliaBu1987]; Western Samoa [BenDov1993]. Nearctic: Mexico [Cocker1899n, Mamet1943a]. Nearctic: Mexico (Chihuahua). Nearctic: Mexico (Distrito Federal [BenDov1993], Guerrero [BenDov1993], Nuevo Leon [BenDov1993], San Luis Potosi [BenDov1993], Veracruz [BenDov1993]); United States of America (Alabama [BenDov1993], California [BenDov1993], Delaware [BenDov1993], Florida [BenDov1993], Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Missouri, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas). Neotropical: Bermuda [HodgsoHi1991, HodgsoHi1990]; Brazil (Espirito Santo [CulikMaVe2007], Minas Gerais); Colombia [Kondo2008a]; Cuba [Ballou1926, MestreHaEv2011]; Ecuador; Galapagos Islands [LincanHoCa2010]; Guadeloupe [MatileEt2006]; Guatemala [Willia2010]; Honduras; Panama [Cocker1899n]; Puerto Rico & Vieques Island (Puerto Rico [NakahaMi1981]); U.S. Virgin Islands. Oriental: Hong Kong [MartinLa2011]; India [Green1908a, Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, Mamet1943a, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989] (Andhra Pradesh [AvasthSh1991], Assam [Green1908a, Ali1971, AvasthSh1991], Karnataka [AvasthSh1991], Tamil Nadu [AvasthSh1991]); Indonesia (Sumatra [Ali1971]); Philippines [Cocker1905f, Mamet1943a, Ali1971]; Sri Lanka [Green1896, Green1904d, Green1937, Mamet1943a, Ali1971]; Taiwan [Ferris1921a, Mamet1943a, Ali1971, WongChCh1999]; Thailand [Ali1971]. Palaearctic: Canary Islands; China [Mamet1943a]; Cyprus; Egypt [Hall1922, Hall1923, Mamet1943a, EzzatHu1969, EzzatNa1987]; France [Mamet1943a, Ali1971]; Germany; Israel [BenDov1977, KfirRo1980, BenDov1993]; Japan [Sassce1911, Kuwana1917, Mamet1943a]; Lebanon; Netherlands [Jansen1995]; Saudi Arabia; United Kingdom (England [Mamet1943a]).

BIOLOGY: El-Minshawy & Moursi (1976) studied the duration of development and fecundity on guava, in Egypt. Buckley & Gullan (1991) showed, in Papua New Guinea, that attendance by the aggressive ant, Iridomyrmex nitidus (Mayr), reduces the rate of parasitization.

GENERAL REMARKS: Most records of Coccus elongatus (Signoret) - of authors - until 1977, were misidentifications of Coccus longulus. Description and illustration of the adult female given by Ben-Dov (1977), Gill et al. (1977), Tao et al. (1980), Hamon & Williams (1984), Gill (1988), Williams & Watson (1990), Tang (1991) and by Hodgson & Henderson (2000).

STRUCTURE: Adult female elongate oval; up to 7 mm long; dorsum of young female yellow with dark brown mottling, while in fully grown female it is uniformly brown. Colour photograph in Kawai (1980, Fig. 6.10), Hamon & Williams (1984), Gill (1988), Wong et al. (1999), Hodgson & Henderson (2000) and by Germain et al., (2003).

SYSTEMATICS: Ben-Dov (1977) showed that the earliest available binomen for this species was Lecanium longulum Douglas and not Lecanium elongatum Signoret. The erroneous synonymy of L. elongatum over L. longulum and the erroneous usage of the former were introduced by Sanders (1909). Lecanium elongatum Signoret is a junior synonym of Parthenolecanium persicae (Fabricius).

KEYS: Mohammad & Moharum 2013: 146-148 (female) [Key to species and subspecies of family coccidae in Egypt]; Wang & Feng 2012a: 61 (adult, female) [Key to adult female Coccus known from China]; Hodgson & Henderson 2000: 195 (female) [New Zealand]; Tang 1991: 76 (female) [China]; Williams & Watson 1990: 82 (female) [Tropical South Pacific]; Hamon & Williams 1984: 38 (female) [USA, Florida]; Tao et al. 1983: 63 (female) [Taiwan]; Ezzat & Hussein 1969: 372 (female) [Egypt]; Beardsley 1966: 483 (female) [Micronesia]; Zimmerman 1948: 293 (female) [Hawaii].

CITATIONS: AbouEl2001 [host, distribution, biological control: 185-195]; Ali1971 [host, distribution: 23-24]; Almeid1973b [host, distribution: 3]; AvasthSh1991 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 343]; Ballou1926 [host, distribution: 19]; Beards1966 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 483-484]; BenDov1977 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 89-95]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 80-83, 183]; BenDov2012 [catalogue, distribution, host: 26, 44]; Brain1920a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 5-6,8]; BrainKe1917 [host, distribution: 183]; Brimbl1962 [host, distribution, economic importance: 225-226]; BuckleGu1991 [biological control: 282-286]; CharleCoMu2005 [host, distribution: 1-4]; Cocker1893g [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 50-51]; Cocker1893j [distribution: 254]; Cocker1894d [taxonomy: 311]; Cocker1894i [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, biological control: 18-19]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 331]; Cocker1898r [host, distribution: 240]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 394]; Cocker1899n [host, distribution: 11]; Cocker1905f [host, distribution: 130]; CockerRo1915a [host, distribution: 428]; CulikMaVe2007 [host, distribution: 1-5]; DeitzTo1980 [taxonomy: 28]; DeLott1957c [host, distribution: 301-303]; DeLott1959 [taxonomy: 160]; DeLott1965a [taxonomy: 192]; DietzMo1916a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 246-247]; DoaneFe1916 [host, distribution: 399]; DoaneHa1909 [host, distribution: 297]; Dougla1887b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 97-98]; ElMinsMo1976 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 363-371]; Essig1909 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 31-33]; EtiennMa1993 [host, distribution: 255]; EzzatHu1969 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 391-393]; EzzatNa1987 [distribution: 86]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 168,171-172]; Ferris1921a [host, distribution: 212]; Flande1932 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 1240-1241]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 609]; Georgh1977 [host, distribution: 148]; GermaiMaPi2002 [host, distribution: 255]; GermaiMaPi2003 [host, distribution, structure: 22,23]; Gill1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, economic importance, life history: 28,32]; GillKo1997 [economic importance, host, distribution: 161-163]; GillNaWi1977 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, economic importance, life history: 24-28]; GomezM1957 [host, distribution: 62]; Green1896 [host, distribution: 8]; Green1904d [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 192,221-222]; Green1907 [host, distribution: 201]; Green1908a [host, distribution: 30]; Green1930c [host, distribution: 280]; Green1937 [host, distribution: 299]; Hall1922 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 19]; Hall1923 [host, distribution: 39]; Hall1935 [host, distribution: 148]; HamonWi1984 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 43-47]; Hempel1920a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 349-350,372-373]; Hodgso1967 [host, distribution: 2]; HodgsoHe2000 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 195,197-199]; HodgsoHi1990 [host, distribution: 3,5,7,10,12-13,19-20]; HodgsoHi1991 [host, distribution: 136]; HodgsoLa2011 [host, distribution: 20]; Jansen1995 [host, distribution: 141]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 143-144]; Kawai1987 [host, distribution: 77]; KawaiMaUm1971 [host, distribution: 16]; KfirRo1980 [biological control, host, distribution: 115]; Kirkal1902 [host, distribution: 106]; Kirkal1904 [taxonomy, biological control, host, distribution: 228]; Kondo2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 41]; Kondo2008a [host, distribution: 25-29]; Kondo2013 [distribution, host: 45]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 76]; Kuwana1907 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 193]; Kuwana1909a [host, distribution: 159]; Kuwana1917 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 16-18]; Laing1933 [host, distribution: 676]; Lawson1917 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 197-200]; LincanHoCa2010 [host, distribution: 4]; LinKoGu2013 [distribution, host, molecular data, phylogeny, taxonomy: 251-252, 258]; MalumpTr2012 [distribution: 220]; Mamet1943a [host, distribution: 151]; Mamet1951 [host, distribution: 224]; Mamet1954 [host, distribution: 12]; Mamet1959a [host, distribution: 376]; Mamet1962 [host, distribution: 160]; Mamet1978 [host, distribution: 105]; MangalSuNa2012 [description, distribution, host, ecology: 110-116]; MartinLa2011 [catalogue, distribution: 35]; Maskel1890 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 137-138]; Maskel1891 [taxonomy: 16]; Maskel1895a [distribution: 15]; Maskel1898 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 237]; Matile1976 [host, distribution: 294-295]; Matile1988 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 24]; MatileEt2006 [host, distribution: 165]; MestreHaEv2011 [catalogue, distribution, host: 6]; MetcalMe1993 [economic importance, host, distribution, control]; Miller1996 [distribution: 70]; MohammGh2008 [distribution: 149]; MohammMo2013 [distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 147, 154]; Mohara1990 [taxonomy: 48]; Morris1920 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 192]; Morris1929 [host, distribution: 39]; MumaSeDe1961 [biological control: 1-39]; Nakaha1981a [host, distribution: 390]; Nakaha1983 [host, distribution: 4]; NakahaMi1981 [host, distribution: 30]; Newste1911 [host, distribution: 92]; ParidaMo1982 [taxonomy: 19]; PettitMc1920 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 17]; RakimoBeWh2013 [distribution, host, molecular data: 372-378]; Ramakr1919a [host, distribution: 34]; Ramakr1921a [host, distribution: 348,349]; Ramakr1930 [host, distribution: 46]; Reboul1976 [host, distribution, economic importance, control]; Reh1903 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 458]; Robins1917 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 15]; Sander1906 [host, distribution: 8]; Sander1909 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 438-439]; Sassce1911 [host, distribution: 66]; Schmut1952 [host, distribution: 18]; Schmut1957a [host, distribution: 136]; Seabra1925 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 37-38]; ShafeeYoKh1989 [host, distribution: 51]; Simmon1957 [host, distribution: 8]; SmithBeBr1997 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance, biological control: 46-47]; Srivas1964 [host, distribution: 83-91]; Strick1947a [host, distribution: 499]; SwirskWyIz2002 [taxonomy, host, distribution, life history, economic importance, biological control: 80]; Takaha1955a [host, distribution: 69]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 89-90]; Tao1989 [host, distribution: 59]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 54]; TaoWoCh1983 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 65-67]; Thro1903 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 214-215]; UsmanPu1955 [host, distribution: 49]; VanHarCoWi1990 [host, distribution: 134]; VarshnMo1987 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 174]; WaltonKrSa2009 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-6]; WangFe2012a [taxonomy: 61]; Willia2001 [distribution: 225-227]; Willia2010 [host, distribution: 146]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 22,23,30]; WilliaBu1987 [host, distribution: 93]; WilliaMa2009b [host, distribution: 118]; WilliaWa1990 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 92-94]; WilliaWi1988 [host, distribution: 56]; Wise1977 [host, distribution: 104]; WongChCh1999 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 12-13,50]; Yang1982 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 169,170,191]; Zimmer1948 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 300-301].



Coccus lumpurensis Takahashi

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus lumpurensis Takahashi, 1952: 12. Type data: MALAYSIA: Kuala Lumpur, on Ficus sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Kuala Lumpur: Selangor Museum, Malaysia. Described: female.



HOST: Moraceae: Ficus [Takaha1952, Ali1971].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Malaysia [Ali1971].

KEYS: Tang 1991: 77 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [host, distribution: 26]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 83]; Takaha1952 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 12-13]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 90]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 30].



Coccus macarangae Morrison

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus macarangae Morrison, 1921: 663. Type data: SINGAPORE: Selangor Forest, collected in hollow stems of Macaranga sp. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.



HOST: Euphorbiaceae: Macaranga [Morris1921, Ali1971, HeckroFiGu1998].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Singapore [Ali1971].

BIOLOGY: Occupies the hollow stems of myrmecophytic species of Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae) in association with ants of the genus Crematogaster (Heckroth et al., 1998)

GENERAL REMARKS: Description of the adult female given by Morrison (1921).

KEYS: Tang 1991: 76 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 26]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 83]; HeckroFiGu1998 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 427-443]; Morris1921 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 663-665]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 90-91]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 30].



Coccus macarangicolus Takahashi

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus macarangicolus Takahashi, 1952: 14. Type data: MALAYSIA: Kuala Lumpur, on Macaranga triloba. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Kuala Lumpur: Selangor Museum, Malaysia. Described: female.



HOSTS: Euphorbiaceae: Macaranga [HeckroFiGu1998], Macaranga triloba [Takaha1952, Ali1971].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Malaysia [Ali1971].

BIOLOGY: Occupies the hollow stems of myrmecophytic species of Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae) in association with ants of the genus Crematogaster (Takahashi, 1952; Heckroth et al., 1998)

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Takahashi (1952).

KEYS: Tang 1991: 76 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [host, distribution: 26]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 83]; HeckroFiGu1998 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 427-443]; Takaha1952 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 14-15]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 91]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 30].



Coccus malloti (Takahashi)

NOMENCLATURE:

Pulvinaria malloti Takahashi, 1956: 25. Type data: JAPAN: Kyoto, Tokyo and Yokohama, on Euonymus oxyphilla, Aphananthe aspera, Mallotus japonicus, Pittosporum tobira, Illicium religiosum and Cornus controversa. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Sapporo: Entomological Institute, Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Japan. Described: female.

Coccus malloti; Kawai, 1980: 144. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Celastraceae: Euonymus oxyphilla [Takaha1956]. Cornaceae: Cornus controversa [Takaha1956]. Euphorbiaceae: Mallotus japonicus [Takaha1956]. Illiciaceae: Illicium religiosum [Takaha1956]. Pittosporaceae: Pittosporum tobira [Takaha1956]. Ulmaceae: Aphananthe aspera [Takaha1956].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Japan.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Takahashi (1956).

STRUCTURE: Colour photograph in Kawai (1980, Figs. 11,a,b).

KEYS: Tang 1992: 77 (female) [China]; Kawai 1980: 141-142 (female) [Japan].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 83-84]; Kawai1972 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 16]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 144]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 76]; Takaha1956 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 25-26]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 91-92]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 31].



Coccus melaleucae (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium melaleucae Maskell, 1898: 239. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Palmer Island, Clarence River, on Melaleuca sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female.

Coccus melaleucae; Fernald, 1903b: 172. Change of combination.



HOST: Myrtaceae: Melaleuca [Maskel1898].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Frogga1915]).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 84]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 394]; DeitzTo1980 [taxonomy: 30]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 172]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 609]; King1902b [host, distribution]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 77]; Maskel1898 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 239-240]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 31]; Yang1982 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 170,191].



Coccus milanjianus Hodgson

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus milanjianus Hodgson, 1968a: 114. Type data: MALAWI: Mount Mlanje (7000 feet), on Tarenna pavettoides. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.



HOST: Rubiaceae: Tarenna pavettoides [Hodgso1968a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Malawi [Hodgso1968a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson (1968a).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 84]; Hodgso1968a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 114-116]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 32].



Coccus moestus De Lotto

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus moestus De Lotto, 1959: 164. Type data: ZANZIBAR: on clove tree. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

COMMON NAME: moestus soft scale [GillNaWi1977].



HOSTS: Anacardiaceae: Anacardium occidentale [DeLott1959], Mangifera indica [DeLott1959]. Aspleniaceae: Neottopteris nidus [KawaiMaUm1971]. Euphorbiaceae: Drypetes integerrima [KawaiMaUm1971]. Goodeniaceae: Scaevola [Beards1966]. Lauraceae: Persea americana [WilliaWa1990]. Malvaceae: Hibiscus glabra [KawaiMaUm1971]. Moraceae: Artocarpus altilis [GillNaWi1977]. Myrtaceae: Eugenia aromatica [DeLott1959].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Kenya [DeLott1959]; Tanzania; Zanzibar [DeLott1959]. Australasian: Bonin Islands (=Ogasawara-Gunto) [Kawai1987]. Australasian: Federated States of Micronesia (Caroline Islands, Truk Islands); Guam; Palau; Vanuatu (=New Hebrides). Neotropical: Costa Rica; Guadeloupe [MatileEt2006]; Guyana; Haiti [PerezG2008]; Jamaica; Puerto Rico & Vieques Island (Puerto Rico [NakahaMi1981]); Trinidad and Tobago (Trinidad). Palaearctic: China; Japan.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by De Lotto (1959), Beardsley (1966), Gill et al. (1977), Williams & Watson (1990) and by Tang (1991).

KEYS: Wang & Feng 2012a: 61 (adult, female) [Key to adult female Coccus known from China]; Tang 1991: 77 (female) [China]; Williams & Watson 1990: 83 (female) [Tropical South Pacific]; Kawai 1980: 141-142 (female) [Japan]; Beardsley 1966: 483 (female) [Micronesia].

CITATIONS: Beards1966 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 483,485-487]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 84]; DeLott1959 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 164-166]; GillNaWi1977 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 28-30]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 142]; Kawai1987 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 77]; KawaiMaUm1971 [host, distribution: 16]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 77]; MatileEt2006 [host, distribution: 165]; NakahaMi1981 [host, distribution: 30]; PerezG2008 [distribution: 212]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 92-93]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 54-55]; WangFe2012a [taxonomy: 61]; WheeleHe2005 [host, distribution, life history: 209-213]; Willia2001 [distribution: 225-227]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 32]; WilliaWa1990 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 94-96].



Coccus muiri Kotinsky

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus tuberculatus Kotinsky, 1908: 168. Type data: SINGAPORE: on leaves of undetermined tree. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Honolulu: Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Department of Entomology Collection, Hawaii, USA. Described: female. Homonym of Coccus tuberculatus Bouche.

Coccus muiri Kotinsky, 1908a: 37. Replacement name for Coccus tuberculatus Kotinsky, 1908.



HOSTS: Brassicaceae: Brassica actinophylla [Takaha1952, Ali1971]. Rubiaceae: Gardenia [Takaha1952, Ali1971].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Malaysia [Ali1971]; Singapore [Sassce1911, Ali1971].

KEYS: Tang 1991: 77 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [host, distribution: 28]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 84-85]; Kotins1908 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 168-169]; Kotins1908a [taxonomy: 37]; Sassce1911 [host, distribution: 67]; Takaha1952 [host, distribution: 11-12]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 93-94]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 32,46].



Coccus multisetus Wang & Feng

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus multisetus Wang & Feng, 2012a: 62-64. Type data: CHINA: Yunnan Prov., Natural Reserve of Mengyang, 5/17/2012, on Mangifera indica, by Fang Wang. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Shaanxi: Entomological Museum of the Northwest Sci-Tech University of Agriculture and Forestry, Baishui, Shaanxi, China. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Anacardiaceae: Mangifera indica [WangFe2012a].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: China (Yunnan [WangFe2012a]).

BIOLOGY: Found in ant nests.

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Wang & Feng, 2012a.

STRUCTURE: Adult female convex, sometimes nearly hemispherical; dark brown with a pale brown marginal band. Dried materials hard, bearing many ridges from median longitudinal ridge. (Wang & Feng, 2012a)

SYSTEMATICS: urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:F00857A0-3484-4537-96EC-A D2C10B67F15 Adult females of C. multisetus are superficially similar to those of C. formicarii (Green), which also had been collected in the nests of ants on Mangifera indica. This species and C. formicarii share some distinct characteristics: 1) presence of setose dorsal setae; 2) lack of a tibio-tarsal articulatory sclerosis; 3) pregenital disc-pores restricted to around anal opening, and 4) lack of dorsal tubular ducts and submarginal tubercles. These distinct characteristics of the two species differ from those of typical Coccus, and might be due to their myrmecophilous habit and adaptation to living inside ant nests, However, C. multisetus can be distinguished by the possession of the following features (character states of C. formicarii in brackets): 1) 2 pairs of pregenital setae present (3 pairs); 2) 6 or 7 apical or subapical setae on each plate (3 or 4); 3) a submarginal band of ventral tubular ducts (absent); 4) dorsal setae nearly absent on median area (present), and 5) absence of a denticle on the claw (present). (Wang & Feng, 2012a)

KEYS: Wang & Feng 2012a: 61 (adult, female) [Key to adult female Coccus known from China].

CITATIONS: WangFe2012a [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 62-63].



Coccus murex Hodgson

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus murex Hodgson, 1969a: 6. Type data: ZIMBABWE: Chimanimani Mountains, near Outward Bound School, on Brachystegia tamarinoides. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.



HOST: Fabaceae: Brachystegia tamarinoides [Hodgso1969a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Zimbabwe [Hodgso1969a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson (1969a).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 85]; Hodgso1969a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 6-8]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 32].



Coccus nyika Hodgson

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus nyika Hodgson, 1970a: 35. Type data: MALAWI: Chilinda Bridge on the Nyika Plateau, on Myrica salicifolia. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.



HOST: Myricaceae: Myrica salicifolia [Hodgso1970a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Malawi [Hodgso1970a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson (1970a).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 85]; Hodgso1970a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 35-37]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 34].



Coccus ophiorrhizae (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium ophiorrhizae Green, 1896: 10. Type data: SRI LANKA: Punduloya, on Ophiorrhiza pectinata. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Coccus ophiorrhizae; Fernald, 1903b: 173. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Ebenaceae: Diospyros chloroxylon [Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989]. Rubiaceae: Ophiorrhiza pectinata [Green1896, Green1904d, Green1937, Ali1971, AvasthSh1991].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: India [Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989] (Andhra Pradesh [AvasthSh1991], Tamil Nadu [Ali1971]); Sri Lanka [Green1896, Green1904d, Green1937, Ali1971, AvasthSh1991].

KEYS: Tang 1991: 77 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [host, distribution: 27]; AvasthSh1991 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 343-345]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 85]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 332]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 173]; Green1896 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 10]; Green1904d [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 193-194]; Green1937 [host, distribution: 300]; Ramakr1919a [host, distribution: 38]; Ramakr1921a [host, distribution: 349]; Ramakr1930 [host, distribution: 49]; ShafeeYoKh1989 [host, distribution: 51]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 94]; Varshn1985a [host, distribution: 26]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 35].



Coccus opimus (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium opimum Green, 1913: 313. Type data: JAVA: Samarang, on Cassia fistula. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Coccus opimum; Ben-Dov, 1993: 85. Change of combination.

Coccus opimus; Williams & Ben-Dov, 2009: 35. Justified emendation.



HOST: Fabaceae: Cassia fistulata [Green1913, Sassce1915].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Indonesia (Java [Sassce1915]).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 85]; Green1913 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution : 313-314]; Sassce1915 [host, distribution: 31]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 35].



Coccus ovatus



Coccus padi



Coccus paradeformosus (Fonseca)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium paradeformosum Fonseca, 1975: 79. Type data: BRAZIL: Rio Grande do Sul State, Porto Alegre, on Glycine hispida. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil. Described: female.

Coccus paradeformosum; Ben-Dov, 1993: 85. Change of combination.

Coccus paradeformosus; Pellizzari & Williams, 2013: 407. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.



HOST: Fabaceae: Glycine hispida [Fonsec1975].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul [Fonsec1975]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Fonseca (1975).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 85]; Fonsec1975 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 79-81]; PellizWi2013 [taxonomy: 407]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 36].



Coccus penangensis Morrison

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus penangensis Morrison, 1921: 657. Type data: MALAYSIA: Penang Island, in hollow stems of Macaranga triloba. Syntypes, female and first instar. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female and first instar.



HOSTS: Euphorbiaceae: Macaranga [HeckroFiGu1998], Macaranga bancana [LinKoGu2013], Macaranga triloba [Morris1921, Ali1971].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Malaysia [Ali1971]; Singapore [LinKoGu2013].

BIOLOGY: Occupies the hollow stems of myrmecophytic species of Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae) in association with ants of the genus Crematogaster (Heckroth et al., 1998)

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Morrison (1921).

KEYS: Tang 1991: 76 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [host, distribution: 27]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 85-86]; Buckle1987 [life history, ecology, host, distribution: 53-85]; HeckroFiGu1998 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 427-443]; LinKoGu2013 [distribution, host, molecular data, phylogeny, taxonomy: 251-252, 258]; Morris1921 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 657-659]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 36].



Coccus planchonii (Targioni Tozzetti)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium planchonii Targioni Tozzetti, 1868: 732. Type data: FRANCE: on "Chene vert" and "Chene garouille". Syntypes, female. Described: female.

Coccus planchonii; ScaleNet, 2005: xx. Change of combination.



HOST: Fagaceae: Quercus [Targio1868].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: France [Targio1868].

GENERAL REMARKS: The oOriginal description reads "Cochenille en forme de Bateau qui vit sur la Chene vert et sur la Chene garouille Planch." (Targioni Tozzetti, 1868).

CITATIONS: Fernal1903b [catalogue: 328]; Signor1869 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 866]; Targio1868 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 732]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 37].



Coccus poterii Walker nomen nudum

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus poterii Walker, 1852: 1082. Nomen nudum; discovered by Ben-Dov, 1993: xxiii.



Coccus praenanthes



Coccus pruni Burmeister

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus pruni Burmeister, 1849: 177. Type data: GERMANY: on Prunus domestica. Syntypes, female and first instar. Described: both sexes.



HOST: Rosaceae: Prunus domestica [Burmei1849].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description of the adult female given by Burmeister (1849).

SYSTEMATICS: This species was not listed in Fernald (1903b).

CITATIONS: Burmei1849 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 177-178]; Signor1869 [taxonomy: 867]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 38].



Coccus pseudelongatus (Brain)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium pseudelongatum Brain, 1920a: 6. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Transvaal, Pretoria, on Acacia caffra. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female.

Coccus pseudelongatus; De Lotto, 1957c: 305. Change of combination.



HOST: Fabaceae: Acacia caffra [Brain1920a, DeLott1957c].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [Brain1920a, DeLott1957c].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 86]; Brain1920a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 6]; DeLott1957c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 305-308]; DeLott1959 [taxonomy: 170]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 39].



Coccus pseudohesperidum (Cockerell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium pseud-hesperidum Cockerell, 1895h: 381. Type data: CANADA: Ottawa, in greenhouse on Cattleya sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Coccus pseudohesperidum; Fernald, 1903b: 173. Change of combination.

Coccus pseudohesperidum; Fernald, 1903b: 173. Justified emendation.

Coccus pseadohesperidum; Tang, 1991: 95. Misspelling of species name.

COMMON NAME: orchid soft scale [GillNaWi1977, HamonWi1984, Gill1988].



HOSTS: Iridaceae: Iris [GillNaWi1977]. Orchidaceae: Cattleya [Cocker1895h, King1901f], Cattleya elegans [Green1921], Cattleya mossiae [GillNaWi1977], Cattleya skinneri [Cocker1895h], Cattleya trianca [HamonWi1984], Cymbidium [GillNaWi1977], Epidendrum [GillNaWi1977], Laelia anceps [Nakaha1981a], Laelia purpurata [GillNaWi1977], Octomeria [GillNaWi1977], Oncidium [GillNaWi1977], Phalaenopsis [GillNaWi1977], Vanda teres [GillNaWi1977], Vanilla [Nakaha1981a].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii). Nearctic: Canada (Ontario [Cocker1895h, King1901f]); United States of America (California [LinKoGu2013], District of Columbia, Florida, Indiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania). Neotropical: Brazil; Guatemala [Willia2010]. Palaearctic: Latvia [Rasina1955]; United Kingdom (England [Green1921]).

BIOLOGY: The species appears to feed and develop on various host plants of the Orchidaceae. However, Gill et al. (1977) indicated an exceptional record from German Iris in USA, North Carolina.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by Zimmerman (1948), Steinweden (1945), Gill et al. (1977), Hamon & Williams (1984), Gill (1988) and by Kosztarab (1996). Good description of the adult female given by Borchsenius (1957).

STRUCTURE: Adult female elongate oval; up to 7 mm long; dorsum of young female yellow with dark brown mottling, while uniformly brown in older females; polygonal, transparent wax plates present on dorsum. See colour photograph in Gill (1988).

KEYS: Kosztarab 1996: 337 (female) [Northeastern North America]; Tang 1991: 76 (female) [China]; Gill 1988: 26 (female) [USA, California]; Hamon & Williams 1984: 38 (female) [USA, Florida]; Borchsenius 1957: 294 (female) [Palaearctic region]; Zimmerman 1948: 293 (female) [Hawaii].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 86-87]; Borchs1957 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 304-305]; Cocker1895h [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 381]; Cocker1896b [host, distribution: 331]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 173]; Gill1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 28-29,33]; GillKo1997 [economic importance, host, distribution: 161-163]; GillNaWi1977 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, economic importance: 30-33]; Green1921 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 198]; HamonWi1984 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 46-49]; King1901f [host, distribution: 195]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 77]; MalumpTr2012 [distribution: 220]; Nakaha1981a [host, distribution: 390]; Rasina1955 [host, distribution: 70]; Su1982 [distribution: 61]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 95]; Willia2001 [distribution: 225-227]; Willia2010 [host, distribution: 144-152]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 38,39]; Zimmer1948 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 310,312-313].



Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Kuwana)

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus citricola Campbell, 1914: 222. Type data: U.S.A.: California, Claremont, on Citrus sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Clausen, 1923: 225.

Lecanium (Eulecanium) pseudomagnoliarum Kuwana, 1914: 7. Type data: JAPAN: Tokyo and Shizuoka, on Citrus. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Ibaraki-ken: Insect Taxonomy Laboratory, National Institute of Agricultural Environmental Sciences, Kannon-dai, Yatabe, Tsukuba-shi, (Kuwana), Japan. Described: female.

Lecanium pseudomagnoliarum; Sasscer, 1915: 32. Change of combination.

Coccus pseudomagnoliarum; Clausen, 1923: 225. Change of combination.

Coccus aegaeus De Lotto, 1973a: 291. Type data: TURKEY: Izmir, on Citrus sp. Holotype female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Synonymy by Tranfaglia, 1976: 129.

Coccus psuedomagnoliarum; Bartlet, 1978: 61. Misspelling of species name.

COMMON NAMES: citricola scale [GillNaWi1977, Gill1988]; grey citrus scale [BenDov1993].



FOES: COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Scymnus subvillosus (Goeze) [UlgentSzUy2013]. HEMIPTERA Anthocoridae: Cardiastethus nazarenus [UlgentSzUy2013]. HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Aneristus ceroplastae Howard [Bartle1978], Coccophagus hawaiiensis Timberlake [Bartle1978], Coccophagus japonicus Compere [Bartle1978], Coccophagus lycimnia (Walker) [BernalLuMo2001, BasheeAsRa2014], Coccophagus pulvinariae Compere [MyartsRu2011], Coccophagus scutellaris (Dalman) [MyartsRu2011], Coccophagus sp. [BasheeAsRa2014], Coccophagus yoshidai Nakayama [Bartle1978], Encarsia citrinus citrinus (Craw) [BernalLuMo2001], Marietta mexicanum (Howard) [BernalLuMo2001]. Encyrtidae: Anicetus annulatus Timberlake [Bartle1978], Diversinervus elegans Silvestri [MyartsRu2011], Encyrtus aurantii (Geoffroy) [MyartsRu2011], Encyrtus lecaniorum (Mayr) [BernalLuMo2001], Encyrtus sp. [BasheeAsRa2014], Metaphycus flavus (Howard) [SengonUyKa1998], Metaphycus helvolus (Compere) [BernalLuMo2001, BasheeAsRa2014], Metaphycus luteolus (Timberlake) [Blumbe1997, BernalLuMo2001], Metaphycus orientalis Compere [Bartle1978], Metaphycus stanleyi Compere [MyartsRu2011], Metaphycus sterolecanii [BasheeAsRa2014], Microterys nietneri (Motschulsky) [MyartsRu2011, BasheeAsRa2014], Microterys okitsuensis Compere [Bartle1978]. Eulophidae: Baryscapus sp. Forster [BasheeAsRa2014], Tetrastichus sp. [BasheeAsRa2014].

HOSTS: Apocynaceae: Nerium oleander [UygunSeEr1998]. Lauraceae: Laurus nobilis [MarottTr1990]. Rutaceae: Citrus [DeLott1973a, Barbag1974, ArgyriIo1975, Argyri1983, SmithBeBr1997], Citrus [Sassce1915, UygunSeEr1998], Citrus aurantium [BenDov1980, Marott1987], Citrus deliciosa [ArgyriIo1975, Marott1987], Citrus limon [ArgyriIo1975, BenDov1980, Marott1987], Citrus paradisi [GillNaWi1977], Citrus sinensis [Barbag1974, ArgyriIo1975, BarbagPa1997], Evodia rutaecarpa [Takaha1955b], Poncirus trifoliata [GillNaWi1977]. Ulmaceae: Celtis [Barbag1974], Celtis australis [Marott1987], Celtis sinensis [Dreist1996], Ulmus [Barbag1974], Zelkova serrata [Takaha1955b].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Victoria [SmithBeBr1997]). Nearctic: United States of America (Arizona [BenDov1993], California [Sassce1915, Ferris1920b, BenDov1993], Maryland [BenDov1993]). Palaearctic: Azerbaijan (Azerbaijan [BenDov1993]); Croatia [Masten2007]; Cyprus [SismanUl2010]; France [BenDov1980]; Georgia [BenDov1993]; Greece [DeLott1973a, ArgyriIo1975, Argyri1983, BenDov1993]; Iran [Kaussa1957, BenDov1993, KozarFoZa1996, Moghad2013a]; Israel [BenDov1980, BenDov1993]; Italy [Barbag1974, Marott1987]; Japan [Sassce1915, Kuwana1917, BenDov1993]; Russia (Krasnodar Kray [BenDov1993]); Sicily [Barbag1974, Patti1976, BarbagPa1997, Marott1987]; Slovenia [Seljak2008, Seljak2010]; South Korea [BenDov1993]; Spain [new]; Syria [BasheeAsRa2014]; Turkey [DeLott1973a, UygunSeEr1998, KaydanUlEr2007]; Turkmenistan [Bustsh1960, Potaev1993].

BIOLOGY: Develops one annual generation in California (Quayle, 1915), Israel (Ben-Dov, 1980), Greece (Argyriou & Ioanides, 1975), Australia (Smith et al., 1997). Females reproduce parthenogenetically.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of the adult female given by De Lotto (1973a) (as C. aegaeus), Tranfaglia (1974) (as C. aegaeus), Gill et al. (1977), Gill (1988) and by Kosztarab (1996). Description of the adult female, first-instar nymph and female second-instar nymph given by Borchsenius (1957).

STRUCTURE: Adult female elongate oval, slightly convex, up to 7 mm long; dorsum of young female grey with dark brown mottling, while dark grey in older ones. See colour photograph in Kawai (1980, Figs. 6.13, a,b,c), Gill (1988), Tranfaglia & Viggiani (1988) Katsoyannos (1996).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: Natural enemies listed by Borchsenius (1957). Has been a serious pest, in the early 1900's, of citrus in USA, Arizona and California (Quayle, 1938; Ebeling, 1959; Kennett, 1988). But became less injurious in the 1940's following the application of DDT and other synthetic insecticides. It economic importance increased during the 1980's - 1990's, because these insecticides lost effectiveness (Trumble et al. 1995). Kennett (1988) reported on exploration for parasitoids in Japan. Dreistadt (1996) studied the scale during 1991-1994 in USA, California and found that its populations increased in comparison to previous years; the citricola scale was 5-25 times more abundant than Parthenolecanium corni, P. pruinosum and P. cerasorum; three control measures of the citricola scale were evaluated. Trumble et al. (1995) has developed in USA, California a binomial (presence-absence) sampling plan, which was validated for infestations of the citricola scale on orange trees. A minor pest of citrus in Israel (Ben-Dov, 1980), Italy (Longo & Russo, 1986) and Australia (Smith et al., 1997). Rugman, et al. (2010) presents a simple, quick and accurate method to identify any life stage of the ten major parasitoids of soft scales in California citrus, based on amplification of ribosomal DNA, using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

KEYS: Wang & Feng 2012a: 61 (adult, female) [Key to adult female Coccus known from China]; Kosztarab 1996: 337 (female) [Northeastern North America]; Gill 1988: 26 (female) [USA, California]; Kawai 1980: 141-142 (female) [Japan]; Borchsenius 1957: 294 (female) [Palaearctic region].

CITATIONS: Argyri1983 [host, distribution: 365]; ArgyriIo1975 [taxonomy, life history, description, illustration, host, distribution: 161-162]; Barbag1974 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 137]; BarbagPa1997 [chemical control, host, distribution: 57-62]; Bartle1959 [biological control: 1-2]; Bartle1969 [biological control: 875-878]; Bartle1978 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 61-62]; BartleBa1966 [life history, physiology, biological control: 42-45]; BasheeAsRa2014 [biological control, distribution, host: 48-52]; BenDov1980 [host, distribution: 262-263]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 87]; BenDov2012 [catalogue, distribution, host: 26, 44]; BennetRoCo1976 [biological control, economic importance: 359-395]; BernalLuMo1999 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 191-204]; BernalLuMo1999a [host, distribution, life history, biological control, economic importance: 1099-1107]; BernalLuMo2001 [life history, host, distribution, biological control, economic importance: 210-221]; Blumbe1997 [biological control, ecology: 225-236]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 144-146]; Borchs1957 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 301-304]; Boyce1948 [host, distribution, economic importance, control]; Brann1919 [chemical control, host, distribution: 104-107]; Bustsh1960 [host, distribution: 170]; CarmanElEw1954 [host, distributuion, chemical control: 1-11]; CarmanEw1950 [biological control, host, distribution: 15A-16A]; CarmanEwJe1951 [host, distributuion, chemical control: 1-16]; CarmanEwJe1956 [chemical control]; CarmanEwJe1957 [chemical control]; CarmanEwJe1958 [chemical control]; CarmanEwJe1959 [chemical control]; CarmanEwJe1960 [chemical control]; CarmanEwJe1961 [chemical control]; CarmanEwJe1962 [chemical control]; CarmanEwJe1976 [host, distribution, control: 14-68]; CebeciSe2004 [host, distribution: 209-210]; Cendan1937 [biological control: 337-339]; ChuecaGrMo2009 [chemical control, host, distribution: 296-303]; Clause1923 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 225-226]; Comper1924 [biological control: 13-23]; Comper1961a [biological control: 17-71]; ComperAn1961 [host, distribution, biological control: 17]; Danzig1972 [host, distribution: 200-201]; DeBach1949a [life history, biological control: 7]; DeLott1973a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 291-293]; Delucc1975 [host, distribution, life history, ecology]; Dreist1996 [host, distribution, chemical control: 481-487]; DreistClFl1994 [taxonomy, life history, description, economic importance, control]; Dzhash1970 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 180-181]; EhlerEn1984 [distribution, biological control, chemical control: 1-47]; ElmerEwCa1951 [economic importance, biological control, host, distribution: 593-597]; Ewart1969 [chemical control: 879-880]; EwartCa1951 [chemical control, host, distribution: 1-10]; EwartCaJe1952 [host, distributuion, chemical control: 1-6]; EwartCaJe1953 [host, distributuion, chemical control : 1-7]; EwartCaJe1954 [chemical control: 1-11]; EwartEl1953a [economic importance, host, distribution: 352]; EwartElGu1951 [chemical control: 598-603]; EwartMe1956 [chemistry: 441-447]; Ferris1920b [host, distribution: 36]; Flande1951b [biological control: 93-98]; Flande1959b [biological control: 125-142]; FlandeBa1964 [host, distribution, biological control, economic importance: 320-322]; FlandeBa1964a [host, distribution, biological control: 39-42]; FlintVa1981 [biological control: 1]; Gill1988 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 29-30,34]; GillKo1997 [economic importance, host, distribution: 161-163]; GillNaWi1977 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 33-37]; GraftoLeSt2006 [chemical control, biological control: 733-744]; Hadzib1983 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history, biological control: 129-130]; HoffmaRiSh1998 [biological control: 268-293]; Jeppso1969 [economic importance, chemical control, physiology: 917-921]; KansuUy1979 [host, distribution, biological control: 565-567]; Katsoy1996 [life history, host, distribution, economic importance, chemical control, biological control: 15,20-21,81-83]; Kaussa1957 [host, distribution: 2]; Kawai1972 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 11]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 144-145]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 91]; Kennet1988 [host, distribution, biological control: 445-447]; Kiritc1932a [catalogue: 252]; Kobakh1965 [biological control: 323-330]; KozarFoZa1996 [host, distribution: 65]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 77]; Kuwana1914 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 7]; Kuwana1917 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 22-24]; LinKoGu2013 [distribution, host, molecular data, phylogeny, taxonomy: 251-252, 258]; LongoMaPe1995 [host, distribution: 122]; LongoRu1986 [host, distribution, economic importance: 41]; Marott1987 [host, distribution, life history: 101]; MarottTr1990 [host, distribution, economic importance: 110]; Masten2007 [host, distribution, taxonomy: 1-242]; MetcalMe1993 [economic importance, host, distribution, control]; Miller1996 [distribution: 70]; Moghad2013a [ecology, host: 9]; MyartsRu2011 [biological control: 65-72]; NRC1969 [taxonomy, economic importance, ecology, biological control, chemical control]; Oncuer1974 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, biological control: 6-18]; OuyangChSc2010 [chemical control, host, distribution: 1400-1404]; Paik1978 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution]; Patti1976 [host, distribution: 301-306]; Perkin1982 [economic importance, chemical control, biological control: 5]; Potaev1993 [host, distribution: 35, 37]; Quayle1915 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history, chemical control: 405-421]; Quayle1917 [taxonomy: 373-376]; RiehlBrMc1980 [host, distribution, economic importance, biological control, chemical control: 319]; RugmanFoGu2010 [biological control, distribution: 265-275]; RzaevaYa1985 [biological control: 55-58]; Sailer1983 [distribution, economic importance: 15-38]; Sassce1915 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 31,32]; SchweiLuMo2003 [host, distribution, biological control: 1375-1387]; Scott1933 [biological control, host, distribution: 298-299]; Seljak2008 [host, distribution: 121-127]; Seljak2010 [host, distribution: 104]; SengonUyKa1998 [host, distribution, biological control: 128-131]; SismanUl2010 [host, distribution: 219-224]; SmithBeBr1997 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance, biological control: 39-41]; Steinw1930 [taxonomy, description, illustration: 563-564]; Takaha1955a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 70]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 95-96]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 55]; TenaGa2008 [host, distribution, biological control, life history: 341-347]; Tranfa1974a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 141-144]; Tranfa1976 [host, distribution: 129]; TranfaVi1988 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, control: 18]; Trembl1988a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history: 232-233]; TrumblGrBr1995 [chemical control, economic importance, host, distribution: 897-902]; UedaQuIt2008 [taxonomy, molecular data, distribution: 2319-2326]; Ulgent2003 [structure: 393-398]; UlgentCa2004 [host, distribution: 79-84]; UygunSeEr1998 [host, distribution: 183-191]; WangFe2012a [taxonomy: 61]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 7,16,39]; Woglum1922 [host, distribution, economic importance: 400,417]; Woglum1923 [chemical control, host, distribution: 1-59]; Woglum1925a [chemical control: 2]; Woglum1942a [host, distribution, biological control: 155]; Woglum1946 [chemical control, biological control, economic importance, host, distribution: 1-2]; WoglumLaLa1947 [chemical control, biological control, host, distribution: 818-820]; Yang1982 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 170,191].



Coccus ramakrishnai (Ramakrishna Ayyar)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium ramakrishnae Ramakrishna Ayyar, 1919a: 35. Type data: INDIA: Kothapetta, Godavari District, on Ficus benghalensis. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Coccus ramakrishnai; Varshney, 1985: 26. Change of combination.

Coccus ramakrishnai; Varshney, 1985: 26. Justified emendation.

Coccus ramakrishnai; Avasthi & Shafee, 1991: 345. Notes: Author erroneously given as "Green".



HOST: Moraceae: Ficus benghalensis [Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: India [Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, ShafeeYoKh1989, AvasthSh1991].

CITATIONS: AvasthSh1991 [taxonomy, distribution: 345]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 88]; Ramakr1919a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 35]; Ramakr1921a [host, distribution: 348]; Ramakr1930 [taxonomy, illustration, host, distribution: 47]; ShafeeYoKh1989 [host, distribution: 51]; Varshn1985a [host, distribution: 27]; Varshn2005 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 152]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 41].



Coccus rhodesiensis (Hall)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium rhodesiensis Hall, 1935: 76. Type data: ZIMBABWE [=RHODESIA]: El Dorado and Victoria Falls, on undetermined plant. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Coccus rhodesiensis; De Lotto, 1959: 170. Change of combination.



HOST: Olacaceae: Ximenia americana [Hodgso1969a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Mozambique [Hodgso1969a]; Zimbabwe [Hall1935, DeLott1959, Hodgso1967].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 88]; DeLott1959 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 170-172]; Hall1935 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 76-77]; Hodgso1967 [host, distribution: 6]; Hodgso1969a [host, distribution: 8]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 41].



Coccus rubellus (Cockerell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium rubellum Cockerell, 1893aa: 378. Type data: JAMAICA: Westmoreland, on undetermined plant. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Notes: Type material probably lost (Gill et al., 1979).

Lecanium rubellum Cockerell, 1894d: 311. Nomen nudum.

Coccus rubellus; Fernald, 1903b: 173. Change of combination.

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Jamaica.

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 89]; Cocker1893aa [taxonomy, description, host, distribution]; Cocker1894d [taxonomy: 311]; Cocker1894i [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, biological control: 19]; Cocker1896b [host, distribution: 331]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 173]; GillNaWi1977 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 33]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 41].



Coccus rufus



Coccus saltuarius Hodgson

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus saltuarius Hodgson, 1968a: 116. Type data: MALAWI: Mount Mlanje (7000 feet), on Pterocelastrus echinatus. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.



HOST: Celastraceae: Pterocelastrus echinatus [Hodgso1968a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Malawi [Hodgso1968a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson (1968a).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 89]; Hodgso1968a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 116-118]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 42].



Coccus schini (Cockerell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium schini; Cockerell, 1893j: 167.

Lecanium schini Cockerell, 1893mm: 304. Type data: MEXICO: Guanajuato, on Schinus molle. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Coccus schini; Fernald, 1903b: 173. Change of combination.



HOST: Anacardiaceae: Schinus molle [Cocker1893m].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico (Guanajuato [Cocker1899n]).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 89]; Cocker1893mm [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 304]; Cocker1894d [taxonomy: 311]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 331]; Cocker1899n [host, distribution: 10]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 173]; GillNaWi1977 [taxonomy: 9]; Willia1985a [taxonomy: 229]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 42].



Coccus secretus Morrison

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus secretus Morrison, 1921: 662. Type data: MALAYSIA: Penang Island, collected in hollow stem of Macaranga triloba. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.



HOSTS: Euphorbiaceae: Macaranga [Ali1971, HeckroFiGu1998], Macaranga triloba [Morris1921, Ali1971].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Malaysia [Ali1971]; Singapore [Ali1971].

BIOLOGY: Occupies the hollow stems of myrmecophytic species of Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae) in association with ants of the genus Crematogaster (Heckroth et al., 1998)

KEYS: Tang 1991: 76 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [host, distribution: 28]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 89]; HeckroFiGu1998 [life history, ecology, distribution, host: 427-443]; Morris1921 [host, distribution, taxonomy: 662-663]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 43].



Coccus sectilis De Lotto

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus sectilis De Lotto, 1966: 46. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Cape Province, Cape of Good Hope, on Maytenus oleoides. Holotype female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female.



FOE: HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Encyrtus barbiger Prinsloo [Prinsl1991].

HOST: Celastraceae: Maytenus oleoides [DeLott1966].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [DeLott1966].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 89]; DeLott1966 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 45-46]; Prinsl1991 [host, distribution, biological control: 1-30]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 43].



Coccus smaragdinus De Lotto

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus smaragdinus De Lotto, 1965a: 193. Type data: KENYA: Nairobi, on Srychnos sp. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.



HOST: Loganiaceae: Strychnos [DeLott1965a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Kenya [DeLott1965a].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 89]; DeLott1965a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 193-194]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 44].



Coccus sociabilis Hodgson

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus sociabilis Hodgson, 1969a: 8. Type data: ZIMBABWE: Juliasdale, Rodel Farm, on Acacia sp. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.



HOST: Fabaceae: Acacia [Hodgso1969a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Zimbabwe [Hodgso1969a].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson (1969a).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 90]; Hodgso1969a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 8-10]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 44].



Coccus sordidus De Lotto

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus sordidus De Lotto, 1957c: 308. Type data: KENYA: Nairobi, on Afrormosia angolensis. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.



HOST: Fabaceae: Afrormosia angolensis [DeLott1957c].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Kenya [DeLott1957c].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 90]; DeLott1957c [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history: 308-309]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 44].



Coccus subacutus (Newstead)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium subacutum Newstead, 1920: 187. Type data: UGANDA: Lake Victoria, on Coffea robusta at Jana and Sesse Islands, and Bufumira; on undetermined plant at Sesse Islands and Bufumira. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Coccus subacutus; De Lotto, 1957c: 308. Change of combination.



HOST: Rubiaceae: Coffea robusta [Newste1920, DeLott1957c].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Uganda [Newste1920, DeLott1957c].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 90]; DeLott1957c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 308-310]; Kondo2013 [distribution, host: 45]; Newste1920 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 187-188]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 44].



Coccus subhemisphaericus (Newstead)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium (Saissetia) subhemisphaericum Newstead, 1917: 363. Type data: UGANDA: Naguriga, Chagwe and GHANA: Aburi, on coffee. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Coccus subhemisphaericus; De Lotto, 1957c: 310. Change of combination.



FOE: HYMENOPTERA Encyrtidae: Metaphycus lepelleyi Compere [Comper1940a].

HOSTS: Myrtaceae: Eugenia aromatica [DeLott1957c]. Rubiaceae: Bertiera racemosa [CouturMaRi1985], Coffea [Newste1917], Coffea arabica [DeLott1957c], Coffea canephora [DeLott1967a, Almeid1973b], Coffea robusta [CouturMaRi1985].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Angola [DeLott1967a, Almeid1973b]; Cte d'Ivoire (=Ivory Coast); Ghana [Newste1917]; Kenya [DeLott1957c]; Tanzania [Kondo2013]; Uganda [Newste1917]; Zanzibar [DeLott1957c].

CITATIONS: Almeid1973b [host, distribution: 3]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 90]; Comper1940a [host, distribution, biological control: 7-33]; CouturMaRi1985 [host, distribution: 275]; DeLott1957c [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 310-312]; DeLott1967a [host, distribution: 111]; Kondo2013 [distribution, host: 45]; Newste1917 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 363]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 44].



Coccus sulawesicus Gavrilov

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus sulawesicus Gavrilov, 2013: 78-80. Type data: INDONESIA: Sulawesi nr. Haluoleo airport, on dicotyledonous shrub, in gallery of ants, 11/10/2011, by I.A. Gavrilov. Holotype female (examined). Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia; type no. K 924. Described: female. Illust.

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Indonesia (Sulawesi (=Celebes) [Gavril2013]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Gavrilov, 2013.

STRUCTURE: Adult female. Body broadly oval, about 2 -3 mm long. Eyes present. Antennae each 7- or 8-segmented, about 300 m long. Strong spinose setae scattered on dorsum. Flagellate setae of different sizes scattered on venter. (Gavrilov, 2013)

SYSTEMATICS: These insects are similar to the widely distributed Coccus hesperidum Linnaeus, 1758, but differ from it in the total absence of submarginal tubercles and the presence of strong, spinose dorsal setae. (Gavrilov, 2013)

CITATIONS: Gavril2013 [description, illustration, taxonomy: 79-80].



Coccus synapheae (Froggatt)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium synapheae Froggatt, 1915: 613. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Western Australia, Boyanup, on Synaphea petiolaris. Syntypes, both sexes. Type depository: NSWA. Described: both sexes.

Coccus synapheae; Ben-Dov, 1993: 90. Change of combination.



HOST: Proteaceae: Synaphea petiolaris [Frogga1915].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Western Australia [Frogga1915]).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 90-91]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 613]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 45].



Coccus takanoi Takahashi

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus takanoi Takahashi, 1932: 45. Type data: TAIWAN: Shinka, on Saccharum officinarum. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Taichung: Entomology Collection, Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, Wu-feng, Taichung, Taiwan. Described: female.



HOST: Poaceae: Saccharum officinarum [Takaha1932a, Ali1971].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Taiwan [Ali1971].

KEYS: Wang & Feng 2012a: 61 (adult, female) [Key to adult female Coccus known from China].

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [host, distribution: 28]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 91]; Takaha1932 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 45-46]; Takaha1932a [host, distribution: 105]; WangFe2012a [taxonomy: 61]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 45]; Yang1982 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 170].



Coccus tangandae Hodgson

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus tangandae Hodgson, 1967: 6. Type data: ZIMBABWE: Tanganda Halt, on Markhamia acuminata. Holotype female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female.



HOSTS: Bignoniaceae: Markhamia acuminata [Hodgso1967]. Oleaceae: Schrebera alata [Hodgso1967].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Zimbabwe [Hodgso1967].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson (1967).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 91]; Hodgso1967 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 6-8]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 45].



Coccus tenebricophilus (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium tenebricophilum Green, 1904a: 204. Type data: INDONESIA: Java, Bogor (Botanic Gardens), on Erythrina lithosperma. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Coccus tenebricophilum; Ben-Dov, 1993: 91. Change of combination.

Coccus tenebricophilus; Pellizzari & Williams, 2013: 407. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.



HOST: Fabaceae: Erythrina lithosperma [Green1904a].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Indonesia (Java [Green1904a]).

BIOLOGY: Found within tunnels formed in branches of the tree by some boring insect. The coccids are entirely concealed, attached to the tunnel walls and always attended by ants (Green, 1904a).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 91]; Green1904a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 204-205]; PellizWi2013 [taxonomy: 407]; Sander1906 [catalogue: 11]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 45].

Coccus trichodes

No valid record found for this species



Coccus tumuliferus Morrison

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus tumuliferus Morrison, 1921: 655. Type data: SINGAPORE: in hollow stems of Macaranga hypolema. Syntypes, female and first instar. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female and first instar.

Coccus tumulifer Lindinger, 1932f: 197. Unjustified emendation; discovered by Williams & Ben-Dov, 2009: 46.



HOSTS: Euphorbiaceae: Macaranga [HeckroFiGu1998], Macaranga hypolema [Morris1921, Ali1971].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Singapore [Ali1971].

BIOLOGY: Occupies the hollow stems of myrmecophytic species of Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae) in association with ants of the genus Crematogaster (Heckroth et al., 1998)

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Morrison (1921).

SYSTEMATICS: Gullan & Stewart (1996), while comparing several features of this species with Torarchus endocanthium Gullan & Stewart, stated that Coccus tumuliferum did not belong to Coccus (subfamily Coccinae) but was undoubtedly a member of the Myzolecaniinae.

KEYS: Tang 1991: 76 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [host, distribution: 28]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 91]; GullanSt1996 [taxonomy: 310]; HeckroFiGu1998 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 427-443]; Morris1921 [catalogue: 655-657]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 46].



Coccus viridis (Green)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium viride Green, 1889: 248. Type data: SRI LANKA: Pundaluoya, on coffee. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Williams & Watson, 1990: 96. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Coccus viridis; Fernald, 1903b: 174. Change of combination.

Lecanium (Trechocorys) hesperidum africanum Newstead, 1906a: 74. Nomen nudum.

Lecanium (Coccus) viride; Green, 1937: 299. Change of combination.

Coccus viridis bisexualis Khler, 1978: 564. Nomen nudum.

Coccus viridis viridis Khler, 1978: 564. Nomen nudum.

COMMON NAMES: escama verde [QuezadCoDi1972]; green coffee scale [BenDov1993]; green scale [GillNaWi1977, HamonWi1984, BenDov1993]; lapa-verde [CarvalAg1997].



ASSOCIATES: ENTEROBACTERIA [RosenbSaSa2012]. FLAVOBACTERIA [RosenbSaSa2012]. HYMENOPTERA Formicidae: Anoplolepis sp. [Kalsho1981], Crematogaster sp. [Kalsho1981], Myrmicaria brunnea [Kalsho1981], Oecophylla sp. [Kalsho1981], Solenopsis sp. [Kalsho1981], Technomyrmex albipes Smith [MalumpTr2012].

FOES: COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Chilocoris melanophthalmus Muls. [Kalsho1981], Chilocorus nigrita (F.) [ManiGaKr2008], Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Mulsant) [ManiGaKr2008], Orcus sp. [Kalsho1981]. FUNGI : Entomorphthora sp. [Kalsho1981], Hypocrella javanica [Kalsho1981], Hypocrella reieckiana [Kalsho1981], Lecanocillium [FernanPiSe2008], Verticilium lecanii [Naraya1985]. HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Coccophagus lycimnia (Walker) [MyartsRu2011], Coccophagus pulvinariae Compere [MyartsRu2011], Coccophagus rusti Compere [MyartsRu2011], Coccophagus scutellaris (Dalman) [MyartsRu2000], Marietta mexicana (Howard) [new]. Encyrtidae: Anicetus annulatus Timberlake [Sriniv1987, MyartsRu2011], Anicetus ceylonensis Howard [Sriniv1987], Encyrtus aurantii (Geoffroy) [MyartsRu2011], Metaphycus baruensis Noyes [Noyes1988b], Metaphycus helvolus (Compere) [MyartsRu2011], Metaphycus luteolus (Timberlake) [Blumbe1997], Metaphycus pulvinariae (Howard) [MyartsRu2011], Microterys nietneri (Motschulsky) [MyartsRu2011]. LEPIDOPTERA Noctuidae: Eublemma sp. [Kalsho1981].

HOSTS: Acanthaceae: Jacobinia mohintli [Ballou1926], Odontonema [WilliaWa1990], Sanchezia nobilis [Ballou1926, Nakaha1981a]. Agavaceae: Dracaena [Nakaha1981a]. Amaranthaceae: Gomphrena globata [VanHarCoWi1990], Gomphrena globosa [Nakaha1981a]. Anacardiaceae: Campnosperma brevipetiolata [WilliaWa1990], Mangifera indica [Balach1957c, WilliaWa1990], Schinus [Nakaha1981a, HodgsoHi1990], Schinus molle [VieiraCaPi1983], Schinus terebinthifolius [GillNaWi1977, Nakaha1981a]. Annonaceae: Annona [HodgsoHi1990]. Apocynaceae: Alstonia macrophylla [Nakaha1981a], Alstonia scholaris L. R. Br. [MalumpTr2012], Alyxia olivaeformis [Nakaha1981a], Carissa grandiflora [Ballou1926, Nakaha1981a], Nerium [HodgsoHi1990], Nerium oleander [Mamet1943a, WilliaWa1990], Ochrosia nakaiana [KawaiMaUm1971], Plumeria [Green1904d, Ali1971, Nakaha1981a, Nakaha1983, HodgsoHi1990], Plumeria acutifolia [Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, Mamet1943a, DeLott1960, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989], Plumeria obtusa [Nakaha1981a], Plumeria rubra [Ballou1926, Nakaha1981a], Plumeria rubra L. [MalumpTr2012], Plumeria tricolor [VieiraCaPi1983], Rauwolfia vomitoria [DeLott1960], Thevetia nereifolia [Ballou1926]. Aquifoliaceae: Ilex chinensis [TaoWoCh1983], Ilex macrothyrsa [WilliaWa1990]. Araceae: Caladium [Nakaha1981a]. Araliaceae: Aralia [Mamet1943a], Aralia guilfoylei [Ballou1926], Meryta macrophylla [WilliaWa1990], Polyscias [Nakaha1981a], Polyscias guilfoylei [Nakaha1981a], Schefflera [HodgsoHi1990]. Arecaceae: Areca catechu [Nakaha1981a], Cocos [DeLott1960], Cocos nucifera [DeLott1960], Manicaria saccifera Gaerin [MalumpTr2012]. Asclepiadaceae: Cryptostegia grandiflora [Nakaha1981a]. Asparagaceae: Dracaena sp. [MalumpTr2012]. Asteraceae: Arctotis [Nakaha1981a], Fitchia [Nakaha1981a], Gerbera [Nakaha1981a], Gerbera jamesonii [Ballou1926, VieiraCaPi1983], Pluchea indica [Nakaha1981a], Senecio [WilliaWa1990]. Bignoniaceae: Tecomaria capensis [Ballou1926, Nakaha1981a]. Boraginaceae: Cordia [VieiraCaPi1983], Cordia alba [Ballou1926], Cordia alliodora [WilliaWa1990], Cordia myxa [Mamet1943a], Cordia nitida [Ballou1926]. Bromeliaceae: Ananas comosus [WilliaWa1990]. Celastraceae: Maytenus [VieiraCaPi1983]. Clusiaceae: Garcinia mangostana L. [MalumpTr2012], Mammea americana [Nakaha1983]. Combretaceae: Laguncularia racemosa [LincanHoCa2010], Terminalia catappa [Mamet1959a]. Commelinaceae: Commelina [WilliaWa1990]. Crassulaceae: Bryophyllum [Nakaha1981a], Bryophyllum pinnatum [Nakaha1981a]. Cucurbitaceae: Cucurbita pepo [WilliaWa1990]. Dioscoreaceae: Dioscorea [WilliaWa1990]. Ehretiaceae: Ehretia tinifolia [Ballou1926]. Euphorbiaceae: Carissa [Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989], Carissa carandas [Mamet1943a, Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983], Codiaeum [Nakaha1981a], Croton [DeLott1960], Manihot ceara [Green1904d, Ali1971], Manihot para [Green1904d, Ali1971], Manihot utilissima [Green1904d, Ali1971]. Fabaceae: Cassia [GillNaWi1977], Gliricidia [WilliaWa1990], Inocarpus fagifer [WilliaWa1990], Tipuana [Nakaha1981a]. Flacourtiaceae: Dovyalis [HodgsoHi1990]. Goodeniaceae: Scaevola taccada [WilliaWa1990]. Hydrangeaceae: Hydrangea [WilliaWa1990]. Lauraceae: Persea americana [WilliaWa1990]. Lecythidaceae: Barringtonia speciosa [Mamet1959a]. Liliaceae: Cordyline terminalis [Nakaha1981a]. Loganiaceae: Strychnos nuxvomica [Ali1971]. Loranthaceae: Loranthus [Green1904d, Ali1971]. Lythraceae: Lagerstroemia indica [Ballou1926]. Malpighiaceae: Hiptage madablota [Green1904d, Ali1971]. Malvaceae: Hibiscus [Balach1957c], Theobroma cacao L. [MalumpTr2012]. Melastomataceae [WilliaWa1990], Miconia robinsoniana [LincanHoCa2010]. Meliaceae: Melia azedarach [CorseuBa1971]. Moraceae: Ficus elastica [WilliaWa1990]. Musaceae: Musa sp. [LincanHoCa2010]. Myristicaceae: Myristica [WilliaWa1990]. Myrsinaceae: Ardisia crispa [Nakaha1981a], Moesa indica [Green1904d, Ali1971]. Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus [GillNaWi1977], Eugenia [Nakaha1981a, CouturQuGo1997], Eugenia caryophyllata [Mamet1943a], Eugenia malaccensis [Ballou1926], Eugenia uniflora [Nakaha1981a], Melaleuca [WilliaWa1990], Myricaria [CouturQuGo1997], Myrtella [WilliaWa1990], Psidium friedrichsthalianum [Ballou1926], Psidium guafava L. [MalumpTr2012], Psidium guajava [Ramakr1919a, Ballou1926, Ramakr1930, Mamet1943a, Ali1971, DeLott1978, Nakaha1981a, Nakaha1983], Psidium guajava [Green1904d, ShafeeYoKh1989], Psidium littorale [Willia1985b], Psidium pyriferum [VieiraCaPi1983]. Nyctaginaceae: Ceodes umbellifera [KawaiMaUm1971]. Oleaceae: Jasminum sp. [MalumpTr2012]. Orchidaceae: Broughtonia [GillNaWi1977], Lissochilus [Mamet1951], Mormolyca polyphylla Garay & Wirth [MalumpTr2012], Prosthechea cochleata [MestreHaEv2011]. Pandanaceae: Pandanus [WilliaWa1990]. Phyllanthaceae: Antidesma bunius [Green1904d, Ali1971]. Pittosporaceae: Pittosporum [Nakaha1981a, HodgsoHi1990], Pittosporum tobira [Ballou1926, Nakaha1981a]. Podocarpaceae: Podocarpus [HodgsoHi1990]. Polygonaceae: Coccoloba uvifera [Ballou1926, Nakaha1981a], Homalocladium [HodgsoHi1990], Muehlenbeckia platyclada [Mamet1943a], Polygonum convolvulus [Ballou1926]. Rubiaceae: Bobea mauaii [Nakaha1981a], Borreria laevis [WilliaWa1990], Canthium odoratum [Nakaha1981a], Chioccoca racemosa [Ballou1926], Cinchona [Green1889, Green1896], Cinchona calisaya [Green1889], Cinchona succirubra [Green1904d, Ali1971], Coffea [Cocker1897s, Mamet1943a, Mamet1954, DeLott1957c, AbrahaMa1958, DeLott1960, Ali1971], Coffea [Iherin1897, Green1916a, DeLott1978, Nakaha1981a, Nakaha1983, AvasthSh1991], Coffea [Green1889, Green1896, Hall1924a, Green1930c, Green1937, ShafeeYoKh1989], Coffea arabica [Ballou1926, Balach1957c, Mamet1959a, DeLott1960, Ali1971, Nakaha1981a], Coffea arabica [DanzigKo1990], Coffea canephora [WilliaWa1990], Coffea liberica [Newste1917b, Ali1971, WilliaWa1990], Coffea robusta [Ballou1926, DeLott1957c, DeLott1960], Faramea odoratissima [Ballou1926], Gardenia [Green1889, Green1904d, Ali1971, Nakaha1981a], Gardenia augusta [MestreHaEv2011], Gardenia florida [CockerRo1915a, Ballou1926, Ali1971], Gardenia jasminoides [Green1889, Nakaha1981a], Gardenia taitensis [Nakaha1981a], Genipa americana [Ali1971], Ixora [Green1904d, Mamet1943a, Ali1971, Nakaha1983, HodgsoHi1990, Jansen1995], Ixora bandhuca [Ballou1926], Ixora chinensis [Ali1971], Ixora coccinea [Jansen1995], Ixora macrothyrsa [GillNaWi1977, Nakaha1981a], Morinda citrifolia [Mamet1978, Nakaha1981a], Platanocephalus chinensis [WilliaWa1990], Platanocephalus morindaefolius [WilliaWa1990], Psychotria boninensis [KawaiMaUm1971], Psychotria grandis [MestreHaEv2011], Psychotria laurifolia [Ballou1926], Randia nigrescens [Ballou1926], Randia tahitensis [WilliaWa1990], Rothnannia annae (E. Wright) Keay [MalumpTr2012], Timonius [WilliaWa1990]. Rutaceae [DanzigKo1990], Aegle [Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989], Aegle chevalieri [Ballou1926], Aegle marmelos [Ballou1926, Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983], Atalantia citrioides [Ballou1926], Balsamocitrus dawei [Ballou1926], Balsamocitrus paniculata [Ballou1926], Boninia grisea [KawaiMaUm1971], Chaetospermum glutinosa [Ballou1926], Citropsis schweinfurthii [Ballou1926], Citrus [Mamet1943a, DeLott1957c, DeLott1960, Ali1971, DeLott1978, Mamet1978, Nakaha1981a], Citrus [Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, QuezadCoDi1972, HodgsoHi1990, SmithBeBr1997], Citrus [Green1904d, Hall1924a, ShafeeYoKh1989, CarvalAg1997], Citrus aurantifolia [Mamet1978, Nakaha1981a, Nakaha1983, Malump2012b], Citrus aurantium [CorseuBa1971], Citrus aurantium bigaradia [Mamet1978], Citrus decumanus [CockerRo1915a, Ali1971], Citrus grandis [Ballou1926, WilliaWa1990], Citrus histrix [Matile1978], Citrus limon [Nakaha1981a, Nakaha1983], Citrus nobilis [CockerRo1915a, Ali1971], Citrus paradisi [Nakaha1983], Citrus reticulata [Nakaha1981a], Citrus sinensis [Green1889, Ballou1926, Nakaha1983, WilliaWa1990], Clausena excavata [TaoWoCh1983], Clausena lansium [Ballou1926], Clausena lunulata [Ali1971], Feroniella oblata [Ballou1926], Hesperethusa crenulata [Ballou1926], Lavanga scandens [Ballou1926], Microcitrus australis [Ballou1926], Murraya [HodgsoHi1990], Murraya exotica [Ballou1926], Poncirus trifoliata [Ballou1926, Nakaha1981a], Triphasia trifolia [Nakaha1981a]. Sapindaceae: Dodonaea [HodgsoHi1990], Dodonaea eriocarpa [Nakaha1981a], Euphoria longana [Ballou1926], Litchi chinensis [Nakaha1981a], Melicoccus bijuga [Ballou1926], Nephelium lappaceum L. [HernanNiMa2011]. Sapotaceae: Achras sapota [Ballou1926, Ali1971, ManiGaKr2008], Chrysophyllum cainito [Ballou1926], Chrysophyllum sp. [MalumpTr2012], Lucuma [Mamet1943a], Lucuma mammosa [Ballou1926], Lucuma nervosa [Ballou1926], Manilkara zapota [Nakaha1983], Mimusops [Mamet1943a], Palaquium formosanum [TaoWoCh1983], Planchonella [WilliaWa1990], Pouteria obovata [KawaiMaUm1971]. Solanaceae: Brunfelsia nitida [Ballou1926], Cestrum [WilliaWa1990], Cestrum auriculaturm [LincanHoCa2010]. Sterculiaceae: Heritiera littoralis [Ali1971, TaoWoCh1983], Theobroma cacao [Nakaha1981a]. Theaceae: Camellia sinensis [Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989, WilliaWa1990, DanzigKo1990]. Umbelliferae: Apium graveolans [Nakaha1981a]. Verbenaceae: Callicarpa lanata [Green1904d, Ali1971], Clerodendron fallax [Ballou1926], Clerodendrum [WilliaWa1990, HodgsoHi1990], Lantana camara [Almeid1973b], Verbena [HodgsoHi1990]. Zingiberaceae: Alpinia [Nakaha1981a], Alpinia purpurata [Nakaha1981a], Zingiber officinale [Nakaha1981a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Agalega Islands [Mamet1978]; Angola [Almeid1973b]; Cameroon [Vayssi1913]; Cape Verde [SchmutPiKl1978, VanHarCoWi1990]; Comoros; Congo [Kondo2013]; Cte d'Ivoire (=Ivory Coast); Eritrea; Ethiopia [Kondo2013]; Ghana [DeLott1960]; Guinea [Fernan1987a]; Kenya [DeLott1957c, DeLott1960]; Madagascar [Mamet1951, Mamet1954, Mamet1959a]; Mauritius [Mamet1943a]; Nigeria [DeLott1960]; Reunion [Mamet1957, GermaiMiPa2014]; Sao Tome and Principe (Principe [DeLott1960], Sao Tome [Seabra1925]); Seychelles [Kondo2013]; Sierra Leone [DeLott1960]; South Africa [Newste1917b, Mamet1943a, DeLott1978]; Tanzania [DeLott1957c, DeLott1960]; Uganda [DeLott1960]; Yemen; Zaire; Zambia; Zanzibar [Green1916a, Mamet1943a, DeLott1957c, DeLott1960]. Australasian: Australia (Queensland [SmithBeBr1997], Western Australia [new]). Australasian: Bonin Islands (=Ogasawara-Gunto) [Kawai1987]. Australasian: Cook Islands; Fiji [Dumble1954]; French Polynesia (Tahiti); Guam; Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii [Mamet1943a]); Indonesia (Irian Jaya [Kondo2013]). Australasian: Indonesia (Irian Jaya). Australasian: Indonesia (Java [Kondo2013]). Australasian: Indonesia (Java [Ali1971], Sulawesi (=Celebes) [Gavril2013]). Australasian: Kiribati; Nauru; New Caledonia [Murphy1997]; Northern Mariana Islands [Mamet1943a]; Palau [Mamet1943a]; Papua New Guinea [Kondo2013]; Solomon Islands; Tonga [Kondo2013]; Tuvalu; Vanuatu (=New Hebrides) [Kondo2013]; Wallis and Futuna Islands (Futuna Island); Western Samoa [Kondo2013]. Nearctic: Mexico [MyartsRu2000] (Colima); United States of America (Florida). Neotropical: Bermuda [HodgsoHi1991, HodgsoHi1990]; Bolivia [Murphy1997]; Brazil [Iherin1897, Bondar1939, Mamet1943a, AbrahaMa1958] (Espirito Santo [CulikMaVe2007], Rio Grande do Sul, Sao Paulo); Colombia [Kondo2001]; Costa Rica [Kondo2013]; Cuba [Ballou1926, MestreHaEv2011]; Dominican Republic [Kondo2013]; Ecuador [Kondo2013]; El Salvador [QuezadCoDi1972]; French Guiana [Remill1988]; Galapagos Islands [CaustoPeSi2006, LincanHoCa2010]; Guadeloupe [Balach1957c, MatileEt2006]; Guatemala [Willia2010]; Guyana [Newste1917b, Mamet1943a]; Haiti [PerezG2008]; Honduras [Kondo2013]; Jamaica; Martinique [Balach1957c]; Mexico (Chiapas); Panama [Kondo2013]; Peru [CouturQuGo1997]; Puerto Rico & Vieques Island (Puerto Rico [Martor1976, NakahaMi1981]); Saint Croix [Beatty1944]; Saint Lucia [Malump2012b]; Suriname [Kondo2013]; Trinidad and Tobago; U.S. Virgin Islands; Venezuela [Kondo2013]. Oriental: Burma (=Myanmar) [Murphy1997]; China (Hunan [HuHeWa1992]); Hong Kong [MartinLa2011]; India [Ramakr1919a, Ramakr1930, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989] (Andhra Pradesh [AvasthSh1991], Assam [Ali1971, AvasthSh1991], Karnataka [Ali1971, AvasthSh1991, ManiGaKr2008], Tamil Nadu [Ali1971]); Indonesia [Kalsho1981] (Sumatra [Ali1971]); Kampuchea (=Cambodia) [Ali1971]; Malaysia [Kondo2013]; Philippines [Mamet1943a, Ali1971] (Luzon [Ali1971]); Sri Lanka [Green1889, Green1896, Green1904d, Green1937, Mamet1943a, Ali1971, AvasthSh1991]; Taiwan [Mamet1943a, Ali1971, WongChCh1999]; Thailand [Ali1971]; Vietnam [DanzigKo1990]. Palaearctic: Azores [FrancoRuMa2011]; Egypt [Hall1924a]; Madeira Islands [CarvalFrAg1996, CarvalAg1997]; Netherlands [Jansen1995]; United Kingdom [MalumpTr2012] (found breeding in glasshouses.).

BIOLOGY: The female are parthenogenetic and ovoviviparous. Develops multiple generations per year; in Florida females mature in 50-70 days (Fredrick, 1943); in Queensland, Australia it develops 3-4 generations per year (Smith et al., 1997). De Lotto (1960) observed in East Africa that this species occurs in coastal areas and up to an altitude of 1 - 1.3 km. Kohler (1976, 1978) studied the life history in Cuba, observing males at low frequency that was correlated with population density.

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Zimmerman (1948), De Lotto (1960, 1978), Gill et al. (1977), Wang (1980), Tao et al. (1983), Hamon & Williams (1984), Williams & Watson (1990), Tang (1991), Kosztarab (1996) and by Granara de Willink et al. (2010).

STRUCTURE: See colour photograph in Kawai (1980, Fig. 6.8), Hamon & Williams (1984) and by Wong et al. (1999). Colour photograph of the general appearance of the adult female given by Carvalho & Aguiar (1997).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: A serious pest of coffee, citrus and other crops in several regions in the tropics. A major citrus pest in Bolivia, less significant in other South American and South East Asian countries (Talhouk, 1975). Biology and pest status on coffee presented by Le Pelley (1968). Natural enemies on coffee in Cuba were studied by Kohler (1980). Coccus viridis has proved to be a damaging pest of ornamental plants at The Eden Project i Great Britain and this is undoubtedly linked with the high population levels of the ant T. albipes. (Malumphy & Treseder, 2012)

KEYS: Mohammad & Moharum 2013: 146-148 (female) [Key to species and subspecies of family coccidae in Egypt]; Wang & Feng 2012a: 61 (adult, female) [Key to adult female Coccus known from China]; Granara de Willink et al. 2010: 397 (female) [Coccus species on coffe in Brazil]; Kosztarab 1996: 337 (female) [Northeastern North America]; Tang 1991: 77 (female) [China]; Williams & Watson 1990: 83 (female) [Tropical South Pacific]; Hamon & Williams 1984: 38 (female) [USA, Florida]; Tao et al. 1983: 63 (female) [Taiwan]; Kawai 1980: 141-142 (female) [Japan]; Beardsley 1966: 483, 487 (female) [Micronesia]; Zimmerman 1948: 294 (female) [Hawaii].

CITATIONS: AbrahaMa1958 [host, distribution: 268]; Aitken1985 [economic importance, chemical control, host, distribution: 1-5]; Ali1971 [host, distribution: 28-29]; Almeid1973b [host, distribution: 3]; AvasthSh1991 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 345-346]; Balach1957c [host, distribution: 206]; Ballou1915 [host, distribution: 121]; Ballou1926 [host, distribution: 20-22]; Bannon1997 [host, distribution, economic importance: 38]; Bartle1978 [taxonomy, host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 73-74]; Beards1966 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 483,487]; Beatty1944 [host, distribution: 114-172]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 91-93]; BertelBa1966 [host, distribution: 17-46]; Blumbe1997 [life history, ecology: 225-236]; Bodkin1922 [host, distribution]; CampWi1932 [chemical control: 483-486]; CarvalAg1997 [life history, economic importance, description, host, distribution: 168-170]; CarvalFrAg1996 [host, distribution: 614]; Castel1963 [host, distribution: 143-144,161]; CaustoPeSi2006 [distribution: 137]; Chacko1978 [chemical control, biological control, economic importance, host, distribution: 265-268]; ChackoKrAn1978 [biological control: 14-19]; Chiu1979 [host, distribution, biological control: 297-303]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 332]; Cocker1897s [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 384]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 394]; CockerRo1915a [host, distribution: 428]; ColemaKa1918 [taxonomy, life history, economic importance, host, distribution: 4-12]; CorseuBa1971 [host, distribution]; CouturMaRi1985 [host, distribution: 275]; CouturQuGo1997 [economic importance, host, distribution: 126]; CulikMaVe2007 [host, distribution: 1-5]; DanzigKo1990 [host, distribution: 44]; DekleFa2001 [host, distribution, taxonomy, life history, economic importance: 253]; DeLott1957c [host, distribution: 313]; DeLott1959 [taxonomy: 172]; DeLott1960 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 397-399]; DeLott1978 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 140-141]; DoaneFe1916 [host, distribution: 399]; Dulong1971 [host, distribution: 791]; Dumble1954 [host, distribution]; EaswarJa1985 [biological control: 136-140]; EaswarJa1985a [biolofogical control: 154-162]; EaswarJa1985b [chemical control, biological control: 189-194]; Esaki1940a [host, distribution: 274-280]; Fennah1960 [distribution, life history, ecology: 84-86]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 174]; Fernan1987a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 34-35]; FernanPiFe2012 [behaviour, description, ecology, host: 333-341]; FernanPiSe2008 [host, distribution, biological control: 11-16]; Flande1951b [biological control: 93-98]; Follet1999 [distribution, economic importance, control: 213-217]; FrancoCaMo2003 [host, distribution, economic importance: 95-105]; FrancoRuMa2011 [distribution: 5,22]; FrohliRo1970 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-10]; Gavril2013 [distribution: 79]; GermaiMiPa2014 [distribution: 22]; GillKo1997 [economic importance, host, distribution: 161-163]; GillNaWi1977 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 37-41]; GomesC1949 [host, distribution]; Goot1928 [host, distribution: 1]; GranarPiFe2010 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 397-399]; Greath1971 [host, distribution, biological control ]; Green1889 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 248]; Green1896 [host, distribution: 8]; Green1904d [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 199-203]; Green1907 [distribution: 201]; Green1916a [host, distribution: 375]; Green1930c [host, distribution: 281]; Green1937 [host, distribution: 299]; Gross1993 [life history, behaviour: 251-273]; Guille1985 [economic importance, host, distribution: 20]; Hall1924a [host, distribution: 26]; Hall1969 [economic importance: 823-826]; HamonWi1984 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, economic importance: 48-51]; HansenHaCh1991 [economic importance, chemical control: 532-536]; HaraYaJa2002 [chemical control, economic importance: 349-358]; Hempel1900a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 434-435]; HernanNiMa2011 [host: 379-380]; HodgsoHi1990 [host, distribution: 3,6,9,12-15,17,19,21]; HodgsoHi1991 [host, distribution: 136]; HodgsoLa2011 [host, distribution: 20]; Hollin2000 [economic importance: 15-17]; HuHeWa1992 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 185-186]; Iherin1897 [host, distribution: 407]; Jansen1995 [host, distribution: 134,141]; Jayara1985 [biological control: 1-5]; JhaVaIv2009 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 183-189]; Kalsho1981 [description, economic importance, host, illustration, life history: 162]; Kawai1980 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 143]; Kawai1987 [host, distribution: 77]; KawaiMaUm1971 [host, distribution, economic importance: 16]; Kohler1976 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history: 471-477]; Kohler1978 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history, ecology, physiology: 561-572]; Kohler1980 [host, distribution, biological control: 75-103]; Kondo2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 41]; Kondo2010 [host, distribution: 41-44]; Kondo2013 [distribution, host: 46]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 77]; KumarRe2004 [chemical control: 5-7]; KumarRe2006 [chemical control, host, distribution: 73-75]; KumarRe2007 [chemical control: 131-134]; Laing1927 [host, distribution: 38]; Laing1928 [taxonomy, host, distribution]; Leefma1929 [host, distribution: 1]; LePell1968 [host, distribution, economic importance]; LincanHoCa2010 [host, distribution: 4]; Lindin1913 [host, distribution: 83]; LinKoGu2013 [distribution, host, molecular data, phylogeny, taxonomy: 251-252, 258]; Malump2012b [distribution, host: 210,212]; MalumpTr2012 [description, distribution, economic importance, host, illustration, life history, taxonomy: 217-226]; Mamet1943a [host, distribution: 152]; Mamet1949 [catalogue: 25]; Mamet1950 [host, distribution: 21]; Mamet1951 [host, distribution: 224]; Mamet1954 [host, distribution: 13]; Mamet1957 [host, distribution: 374]; Mamet1959a [host, distribution: 376]; Mamet1978 [host, distribution: 105]; ManiGaKr2008 [host, distribution, economic importance, life history, biological control: 721-725]; ManiKr1998 [host, distribution, biological control: 210-212]; MaricoMuId1974 [chemical control: 6-11]; MartinLa2011 [catalogue, distribution: 35]; Martor1976 [host, distribution: 53-241]; Matile1978 [host, distribution: 43]; MatileEt2006 [host, distribution: 165]; MatileNo1984 [host, distribution: 63]; MestreHaEv2011 [catalogue, distribution, host: 6-7]; Miller1996 [distribution: 70]; MohammGh2008 [distribution: 149]; MohammMo2013 [distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 147, 154]; Morris1920 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 190, 192]; MumaSeDe1961 [biological control: 1-39]; Murphy1997 [host, distribution, biological control: 367-380]; MyartsRu2000 [distribution, biological control: 7-33]; MyartsRu2011 [biological control: 65-72]; Nakaha1981a [host, distribution: 391]; Nakaha1983 [host, distribution: 4]; NakahaMi1981 [distribution: 30]; Naraya1985 [host, distribution, biological control: 90-101]; NeumanFoHo2010 [biological control: 107-113]; Newste1906a [taxonomy: 74]; Newste1917b [host, distribution: 130]; Noyes1988b [biological control: 131-134]; PerezG2008 [distribution: 212]; Petch1921 [biological control: 18-40]; Poole2005 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-2]; PuttarCh1953a [biological control: 87-95]; QuezadCoDi1972 [host, distribution: 19-20]; Ramakr1919 [host, distribution: 625]; Ramakr1919a [host, distribution: 37]; Ramakr1921a [host, distribution: 349]; Ramakr1930 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 49]; Reboul1976 [host, distribution, economic importance, control]; ReddyKu1998 [economic importance, biological control]; Remill1988 [host, distribution: 55-56]; Reyne1961 [host, distribution: 124]; Robins1917 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 16]; RodrigCa2012 [ecology: 35]; RosadoBaMa2014 [biological control, ecology, economic importance, host, life history: 190-202]; RosenbSaSa2012 [ecology, molecular data, physiology: 2357-2368]; SamuelVeCh1981 [chemical control: 126-128]; Sankar1988 [biological control: 151-158]; Schmut1990 [economic importance, host, distribution: 147-148,189-192]; Schmut1990 [economic importance, host, distribution: 236-237]; SchmutPiKl1978 [host, distribution, economic importance: 329]; Seabra1921 [host, distribution: 97]; Seabra1925 [host, distribution: 36-37]; Sekhar1964 [host, distribution, economic importance: 72]; SenthiRe2005 [economic importance: 82-87]; ShafeeYoKh1989 [host, distribution: 51]; Simant1962a [biological control, host, distribution: 105-112]; Simmon1957 [host, distribution: 8]; SmithBeBr1997 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance, biological control: 41-43]; Sriniv1987 [host, distribution, biological control: 122-123]; Takaha1928 [host, distribution: 341]; Takaha1929 [host, distribution: 51]; Takaha1936c [host, distribution: 116]; Takaha1939b [host, distribution: 262]; Takaha1941b [host, distribution: 218]; Takaha1942b [host, distribution: 17]; Takaha1942d [host, distribution: 353]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 96-98]; Tao1978 [host, distribution: 81]; Tao1989 [host, distribution: 59]; Tao1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 55]; TaoWoCh1983 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 67-68]; ThistlVa1997 [host, distribution, economic importance: 3-15]; VanderPe2006 [ecology, life history, host, distribution: 1000-1002]; VanHarCoWi1990 [host, distribution: 134]; VarshnMo1987 [host, distribution: 174]; Vayssi1913 [host, distribution: 430]; Vernal1953 [host, distribution: 132]; VeseyF1941 [host, distribution, biological control: 161]; VieiraCaPi1983 [host, distribution: 97-98]; Wang1980 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 29-30]; WangFe2012a [taxonomy: 61]; Waterh1997 [host, distribution, economic importance: 156-171]; WatsonOoGi1995 [host, distribution, life history, biological control: 55]; Willia1985b [host, distribution: 53]; Willia2001 [distribution: 225-227]; Willia2010 [host, distribution: 144-152]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 11,47,48]; WilliaWa1990 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 96-99]; WilliaWi1988 [host, distribution: 56]; WongChCh1999 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 13,51]; Yang1982 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 170,191]; Zimmer1948 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 311,314-315,318].



Coccus viridulus De Lotto

NOMENCLATURE:

Coccus viridulus De Lotto, 1960: 399. Type data: KENYA: Nandi Hills (6100 feet), on Coffea arabica. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.



HOST: Rubiaceae: Coffea arabica [DeLott1960, DeLott1969a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Kenya [DeLott1960]; Uganda [DeLott1969a].

BIOLOGY: Biology and pest status on coffee presented by Le Pelley (1968).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by De Lotto (1960).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 93-94]; DeLott1960 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 399-401]; DeLott1969a [host, distribution: 417]; Kondo2013 [distribution, host: 46]; LePell1968 [host, distribution, economic importance]; WilliaBe2009 [taxonomy: 48].



Conofilippia Brain

NOMENCLATURE:

Conofilippia Brain, 1920a: 25. Type species: Conofilippia subterranea Brain, by monotypy and original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters given by Brain (1920a) and by Hodgson (1994a).

SYSTEMATICS: Subfamily: Filippiinae.

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 94]; Brain1920a [taxonomy, description: 25]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description: 189-191]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy: 45].



Conofilippia subterranea Brain

NOMENCLATURE:

Conofilippia subterranea Brain, 1920a: 25. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Transvaal, Pretoria District, De Wildt, on roots of a native shrub. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female.

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [Brain1920a, Hodgso1994a] (Transvaal, Pretoria.).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson (1994a).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 94]; Brain1920a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 25-26]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 189-191].



Couturierina Matile-Ferrero & Le Ruyet

NOMENCLATURE:

Couturierina Matile-Ferrero & Le Ruyet, 1985: 260. Type species: Couturierina piptadeniastrae Matile-Ferrero & Le Ruyet, by monotypy and original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters given by Matile-Ferrero & Le Ruyet (1985) and by Hodgson (1994a).

SYSTEMATICS: Subfamily: Coccinae. Tribe: Saissetiini.

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 94]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description: 191-194]; MatileLe1985 [taxonomy, description: 260-261].



Couturierina piptadeniastrae Matile-Ferrero & Le Ruyet

NOMENCLATURE:

Couturierina piptadeniastrae Matile-Ferrero & Le Ruyet, 1985: 261. Type data: IVORY COAST: Tai, on Piptadeniastrum africanum. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female.



HOST: Fabaceae: Piptadeniastrum africanum [MatileLe1985, Hodgso1994a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: Cte d'Ivoire (=Ivory Coast) [Hodgso1994a] (Tai).

BIOLOGY: Attended by ants (Matile-Ferrero & Le Ruyet, 1985).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Matile-Ferrero & Le Ruyet (1985) and by Hodgson (1994a).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 94]; CouturMaRi1985 [host, distribution: 275]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 192-194]; MatileLe1985 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 261-262].



Cribrolecanium Green

NOMENCLATURE:

Cribrolecanium Green, 1921b: 639. Type species: Cribrolecanium formicarum Green, by original designation.

Cribrolebanium; Tang, 1991: 99. Misspelling of genus name.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters given by Tang (1991) and by Hodgson (1994a).

SYSTEMATICS: Subfamily: Myzolecaniinae. Tribe: Myzolecaniini.

KEYS: Tang 1991: 98female (female) [China].

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [taxonomy: 29]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 94]; Green1921b [taxonomy, description: 639]; Hodgso1969a [taxonomy, description: 3,10]; Hodgso1990 [taxonomy: 220]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description: 194-197]; Kondo2010b [taxonomy: 4]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy: 47]; Tang1991 [taxonomy: 98].



Cribrolecanium formicarum Green

NOMENCLATURE:

Cribrolecanium formicarum Green, 1921b: 639. Type data: SRI LANKA: Paradeniya, on Stereospermum chelonioides. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Hodgson, 1994a: 197. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.



HOST: Bignoniaceae: Stereospermum chelonioides [Green1921b, Green1922, Ali1971, Hodgso1994a].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Sri Lanka [Green1921b, Green1922, Ali1971, Hodgso1994a] (Paradeniya).

BIOLOGY: Lives in hollow branches of its host plant and attended by Crematogaster sp. (Green, 1921b).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Tang (1991) and by Hodgson (1994a).

KEYS: Tang 1991: 98 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [host, distribution: 29]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 95]; Cocker1896b [host, distribution: 332]; Green1921b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 639-642]; Green1922 [host, distribution: 465]; Hodgso1990 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 220]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 194-197]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 98-99].



Cribrolecanium radicicola Green

NOMENCLATURE:

Cribrolecanium radicicola Green, 1921b: 642. Type data: INDIA: Coimbatore, on Cassia sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Cribrolebanium radicicola; Tang, 1991: 99. Misspelling of genus name.



HOSTS: Fabaceae: Acacia auriculiformis [Ramakr1930, Ali1971, ShafeeYoKh1989], Cassia [Green1921b, Ali1971].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: India [Green1921b, Ramakr1930, ShafeeYoKh1989] (Tamil Nadu [Ali1971]).

BIOLOGY: Living on roots of its host plant (Green, 1921b).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Tang (1991).

KEYS: Tang 1991: 98 (female) [China].

CITATIONS: Ali1971 [host, distribution: 29]; BenDov1993 [catalogue: 95]; Green1921b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 642-644]; Ramakr1930 [host, distribution: 32]; ShafeeYoKh1989 [host, distribution: 52]; Tang1991 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 99-100].



Cribropulvinaria Hodgon & Martin

NOMENCLATURE:

Cribropulvinaria Hodgon & Martin, 2001: 229. Type species: Cribropulvinaria tailungensis Hodgson & Martin, by monotypy and original designation.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by Hodgson & Martin (2001).

SYSTEMATICS: Subfamily: Coccinae; Tribe: Pulvinariini.

KEYS: Hodgson & Martin 2001: 229 (female) [world].

CITATIONS: HodgsoMa2001 [taxonomy, description: 229-243].



Cribropulvinaria tailungensis Hodgson & Martin

NOMENCLATURE:

Cribropulvinaria tailungensis Hodgson & Martin, 2001: 229. Type data: HONG KONG: New Territories, Tai Lung Farm, Sheung Shui, on Aporusa dioica; collected 22 November 1999 by J.H. Martin. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK; type no. 7253. Described: female, male and first instar. Illust.



HOST: Euphorbiaceae: Aporusa dioica [HodgsoMa2001].

DISTRIBUTION: Oriental: Hong Kong [HodgsoMa2001].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female, adult male, third-instar female, second-instar female, first-instar nymph, second-instar male by Hodgson & Martin (2001).

CITATIONS: HodgsoMa2001 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 229-241]; MartinLa2011 [catalogue, distribution, host: 35,118].



Cryptes Maskell

NOMENCLATURE:

Cryptes Maskell, 1892: 21. Type species: Lecanium baccatum Maskell. Subsequently designated by Cockerell & Parrott, 1899.

Cryptes; Fernald, 1903: 209. Notes: Incorrect citation of author.

Cryptes; Froggatt, 1915: 614. Notes: Incorrect citation of author.

Cryptes; Morrison & Morrison, 1922: 80. Notes: Incorrect citation of author.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters given by Morrison & Morrison (1922), Steinweden (1929) and by Hodgson (1994a).

SYSTEMATICS: Subfamily: Eulecaniinae. Until 1922 this genus has been credited by several authors to Crawford. Morrison & Morrison (1922) discussed the issue, showed that the genus cannot be referred to Crawford and credited it to Cockerell. Morrison & Morrison (1966), while discussing again the authorship, were less decisive, and proposed several alternatives. It is here concluded that the author is Maskell, because this case is similar to that of Aspidoproctus (ICZN, 1954a) and to several other generic names in the Coccoidea which are credited to the first author who published it.

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 95-96]; CockerPa1899 [taxonomy: 161]; Farrel1990 [taxonomy, description: 65]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 209]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, description: 614]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description: 197-201]; ICZN1954a [taxonomy: 397]; Koteja1974 [taxonomy: 305]; Maskel1892 [taxonomy, description: 21]; MorrisMo1922 [taxonomy, description: 80-83]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy: 48-49]; Steinw1929 [taxonomy, description: 233].



Cryptes baccatus baccatus (Maskell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium baccatum Maskell, 1892: 20. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Melbourne and Adelaide, on Acacia armata, A.calamifolia and A. longifolia. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female.

Kermes maskelli Maskell, 1892a: 21. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Melbourne and Adelaide, on Acacia armata, A. calamifolia and A. longifolia. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Synonymy by Ben-Dov, 1993: 96. Notes: Synonymy by community of type-series.

Kermes acaciae Maskell, 1894c: 81. Type data: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Sydney, on Acacia sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Auckland: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, New Zealand. Described: female. Synonymy by Lindinger, 1943b: 148.

Cryptes baccatus; Cockerell & Parrott, 1899: 161. Change of combination.



HOSTS: Fabaceae: Acacia [Fuller1897b, Hodgso1994a], Acacia armata [Frogga1915], Acacia calamifolia [Frogga1915], Acacia decurrens [Frogga1915], Acacia discolor [Hodgso1994a], Acacia linearis [Frogga1915], Acacia linifolia [Hodgso1994a], Acacia longifolia [Frogga1915, Hodgso1994a], Acacia melanoxylon [Frogga1915], Acacia pendula [Frogga1915].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia [Cocker1896b, Hodgso1994a] (New South Wales [Frogga1915, Hodgso1994a], South Australia [Frogga1915], Western Australia [Fuller1897b, Fuller1899, Frogga1915]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson (1994a).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 96]; Cocker1896b [distribution: 332]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy]; CockerPa1899 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 161-162]; DeitzTo1980 [taxonomy: 27,30]; Farrel1990 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 66-81]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 209]; Frogga1915 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 614]; Fuller1897b [host, distribution: 1345]; Fuller1899 [distribution: 458]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 197-201]; Koteja1974a [taxonomy: 249]; Koteja1974b [taxonomy: 79]; Maskel1892 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 20-22]; Maskel1895a [distribution: 15]; Maskel1897 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 311-312]; MorrisMo1922 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 80-83].



Cryptes baccatus marmoreus (Fuller)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium baccatum marmoreum Fuller, 1897b: 1345. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Western Australia, Geraldton, on Acacia sp. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Notes: Type material Probably lost; P. Gullan, 1990, personal communication to Yair Ben-Dov.

Cryptes baccatus marmoreus; Fernald, 1903b: 209. Change of combination.



HOST: Fabaceae: Acacia [Fuller1897b, Fuller1899].

DISTRIBUTION: Australasian: Australia (Western Australia [Fuller1897b, Fuller1899]).

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 96]; Cocker1899a [taxonomy: 394]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 209]; Fuller1897b [host, distribution: 1345]; Fuller1899 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 458-459].



Cryptinglisia Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Cryptinglisia Cockerell, 1900a: 173. Type species: Cryptinglisia lounsburyi Cockerell, by monotypy.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters given by Hodgson (1994a) and by Granara de Willink (1999).

SYSTEMATICS: Subfamily: Cardiococcinae. Tribe: Cardiococcini.

KEYS: Kondo & Gullan 2010: 3 (female) [Species of Cryptinglisia]; Granara de Willink 1999: 24 (female) [Argentina]; De Lotto 1978: 140 (female) [South Africa].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 96]; Brain1920a [taxonomy, description: 38]; Cocker1900e [taxonomy, description: 173-174]; DeLott1978 [taxonomy, description: 140-142]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 165]; Granar1999 [taxonomy, description: 83-84]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description: 201-204]; KondoGu2010 [taxonomy: 3]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy: 49].



Cryptinglisia chilensis Kondo & Gullan

NOMENCLATURE:

Cryptinglisia chilensis Kondo & Gullan, 2010: 3-6. Type data: CHILE: Xth region, Volcan Osorno, on twig of Nothofagus dombeyi; collected T. Kondo, 16.ii.2006. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Nothofagaceae: Nothofagus dombeyi [KondoGu2010].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Chile (Los Lagos [KondoGu2010]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Kondo & Gullan (2010).

KEYS: Kondo & Gullan 2010: 3 (female) [Species of Cryptinglisia, and Coccidae species of Chile.].

CITATIONS: KondoGu2010 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 3-6].



Cryptinglisia elytropappi (Brain)

NOMENCLATURE:

Inglisia elytropappi Brain, 1920a: 36. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Cape Province: Groot Drakenstein, Somerset West, on Elytropappus rhinocerotis. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female.

Cryptinglisia elytropappi; De Lotto, 1978: 140. Change of combination.

Inglisia elytropappi; Ben-Dov, 1993: 147. Revived combination.

Cryptinglisia elytropappi; Hodgson, 1994a: 204. Revived combination.



HOST: Asteraceae: Elytropappus rhinocerotis [Brain1920a, DeLott1967b].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [Brain1920a, DeLott1967b].

KEYS: Kondo & Gullan 2010: 3 (female) [Species of Cryptinglisia.].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 147]; Brain1920a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 36-37]; DeLott1967b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 785,802]; DeLott1978 [taxonomy, distribution: 140]; KondoGu2010 [taxonomy: 3].



Cryptinglisia lounsburyi Cockerell

NOMENCLATURE:

Cryptinglisia lounsburyi Cockerell, 1900a: 173. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Cape Province, Constantia, on roots of Vitis vinifera. Syntypes, female. Type depositories: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK, and Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Inglisia geranii Brain, 1920a: 37. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Cape Province, King Williamstown, on Geranium sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female. Synonymy by De Lotto, 1978: 142.

Inglisia lounsburyi; Tranfaglia & Marotta, 1982: 55. Change of combination.

Cryptinglisia lonsburyi; Vea, 2011: 2. Misspelling of species name.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Baccharis [Granar1999]. Geraniaceae: Geranium [Cocker1900e, Brain1920a, Hall1935, DeLott1970b, Hodgso1967d, Hodgso1994a], Pelargonium [DeLott1970b, Hodgso1967d], Pelargonium peltatum [Marott1987]. Vitaceae: Vitis vinifera [Cocker1900e, Brain1920a].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [Brain1920a, DeLott1970b, Hodgso1994a] (Pretoria; Cape Colony, Constantia.); Zimbabwe [Hall1935, Hodgso1967a]. Neotropical: Argentina (Tucuman [Granar1999]). Palaearctic: Italy [Marott1987].

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by De Lotto (1970b) (as Inglisia geranii), Hodgson (1994a) and by Granara de Willink (1999).

KEYS: Kondo & Gullan 2010: 3 (female) [Species of Cryptinglisia.]; Granara de Willink 1999: 84 (female) [Argenitna].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 96-97]; Brain1920a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 37-39]; Cocker1900e [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 173-174]; DeLott1970b [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 145-148]; DeLott1978 [taxonomy, distribution: 142]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 165]; Granar1999 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 84-86]; Hall1935 [host, distribution: 83]; Hodgso1967d [host, distribution: 4-5]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 201-204]; Hodgso1995 [taxonomy, structure: 52]; KondoGu2010 [taxonomy: 3]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 123]; Marott1987 [host, distribution, life history: 103]; Tranfa1983 [host, distribution: 454]; TranfaMa1983 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 55-57]; Trembl1988b [host, distribution: 116]; Vea2011 [distribution, phylogeny, structure, taxonomy: 2,5-7,12]; WaltonKrSa2009 [host, distribution, economic importance: 1-6]; Willia1985a [taxonomy: 226].



Cryptinglisia patagonica Granara de Willink

NOMENCLATURE:

Cryptinglisia patagonica Granara de Willink, 1999: 86. Type data: ARGENTINA: Chubut, north point of the Valdez peninsula, on Chuquiraga sp. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: Tucuman: Fundacion e Instituto Miguel Lillo, Universidade Nactional de Tucuman, Argentina. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Asteraceae: Chuquiraga [Granar1999].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Argentina (Chubut [Granar1999]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Granara de Willink (1999).

KEYS: Kondo & Gullan 2010: 3 (female) [Species of Cryptinglisia.]; Granara de Willink 1999: 84 (female) [Argentina].

CITATIONS: Granar1999 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 86-89]; KondoGu2010 [taxonomy: 3].



Cryptinglisia zizyphi (Brain)

NOMENCLATURE:

Inglisia zizyphi Brain, 1920a: 37. Type data: SOUTH AFRICA: Transvaal, Pretoria, on Zizyphus sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Pretoria: South African National Collection of Insects, South Africa. Described: female.

Cryptinglisia zizyphi; De Lotto, 1978: 140. Change of combination.

Inglisia zizyphy; Ben-Dov, 1993: 150. Misspelling of species name.



HOSTS: Asteraceae: Vernonia umbricata [Hodgso1967d]. Ebenaceae: Royena glabra [Hodgso1967d]. Lamiaceae: Rosmarinus [Hodgso1967d]. Rhamnaceae: Ziziphus [Brain1920a, Hodgso1967d].

DISTRIBUTION: Afrotropical: South Africa [Brain1920a, Hodgso1967d]; Zimbabwe [Hodgso1967d].

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Hodgson (1967d).

KEYS: Kondo & Gullan 2010: 3 (female) [Species of Cryptinglisia.].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 150]; Brain1920a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 37-38]; DeLott1978 [taxonomy: 140]; Hodgso1967d [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 9-11]; KondoGu2010 [taxonomy: 3].



Cryptostigma Ferris

NOMENCLATURE:

Cryptostigma Ferris, 1922: 160. Type species: Cryptostigma ingae Ferris (= Cryptostigma inquilina (Newstead)), by monotypy and original designation.

BIOLOGY: Most members of the genus Cryptostigma are found internally on their host plants in hollow branches, or trunks in association with ants. (Kondo, 2010b)

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters given by Williams & Watson (1994) and by Hodgson (1994a).

STRUCTURE: The genus Cryptostigma is currently included in the subfamily Myzolecaniinae, a group erected by Hodgson (1994a) to include species with the following combination of features: lack of (i) dorsal tubular ducts and (ii) eyespots; and the presence of: (iii) anal plates with numerous setae on dorsal surface, (iv) particularly large spiracles, with broad bands of spiracular disc-pores between margin and spiracles, (v) ventral tubular ducts of only one type, frequently restricted to a group on each side of genital opening, (vi) bands of (often rather spinose) setae replacing the normal pairs of long pregenital setae, (vii) reduced legs with claw digitules, (viii) reduced antennae, and (ix) a short anal tube. (Kondo, 2010b)

SYSTEMATICS: Subfamily: Myzolecaniinae. Tribe: Myzolecaniini. Gullan et al. (1993) suggested that Cryptostigma could become a junior synonym of the much older name Myzolecanium, but that a systematic revision of the group would be necessary before making such a decision. Hodgson (1994) also considered Cryptostigma to be close to Myzolecanium, based on comparison of the type species of each genus. (Kondo, 2010b)

KEYS: Kondo 2011: 3 (female) [Key to genera of New World Myzolecaniinae based on adult females]; Kondo 2010b: 7 (female, first instar) [Key to separate Cryptostigma Ferris from morphologically similar Houardia Marchal and Myzolecanium Beccari based on adult female and first-instar nymphs]; Kondo 2010b: 7 (other) [Key to separate the male and female instars of Cryptostigma Ferris]; Kondo & Williams 2009: 13-14 (female) [Genera of New World Myzolecaniinae]; Qin & Gullan 1989: 225-226 (female) [world].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 97-99]; Ferris1922 [taxonomy, description: 160]; Hodgso1990 [taxonomy, description: 220]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description: 204-207]; Kondo2010b [distribution, taxonomy: 4-5]; Kondo2010b [taxonomy: 4]; KondoWi2009 [taxonomy: 13-14]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy: 52]; QinGu1989 [taxonomy: 221-232]; Steinw1929 [taxonomy, description: 234]; WilliaWa1990 [taxonomy, description: 60-61,99-101].



Cryptostigma biorbiculus Morrison

NOMENCLATURE:

Cryptostigma biorbiculus Morrison, 1929: 48. Type data: PANAMA: Canal Zone, Ancon, on Cordia alliodora. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.



ASSOCIATES: HYMENOPTERA Dolichoderinae: Axteca sp. [Kondo2010b], Azteca longiceps [Kondo2010b], Azteca nigricans [Kondo2010b]. Pseudomyrmecinae: Pseudomyrmex sericea [Kondo2010b].

HOSTS: Boraginaceae: Cordia alliodora [Morris1929, QinGu1989], Cordia sp. [Kondo2010b]. Euphorbiaceae: Croton gossypiifolius [Kondo2010b]. Flacourtiaceae: Tetrathylacium macrophyllum [Kondo2010b].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Colombia [Kondo2001]; Costa Rica [Kondo2010b]; Panama [QinGu1989].

BIOLOGY: Attended by the ants Pseudomyrma sericea and Azteca longiceps (Morrison, 1929).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Morrison (1929). Detailed illustrations and redescription in Kondo, 2010b.

STRUCTURE: The adult female of C. biorbiculus can be diagnosed by the following features: (i) dorsum with numerous sclerotic pores, (ii) a pair of orbicular pores present in midline, (iii) 3 or more pairs of small groups of cribriform platelets present submedially between anal plates and posterior orbicular pore, (iv) preopercular pores absent, (v) 915 setae present on dorsal surface of each anal plate, (vi) ventral tubular ducts absent, and (vii) multilocular disc-pores present near mouthparts. (Kondo, 2010b) The first-instar nymph of C. biorbiculus can be diagnosed by the following features: (i) dorsal setae absent, (ii) each anterior stigmatic cleft with 1 or 2 stigmatic setae; each posterior cleft with 1-3 setae, (iii) 6-8 marginal setae present between anterior and posterior stigmatic setae, (iv) antennae 6 segmented, (v) with 3 pairs of ventral submedian setae on abdomen, and (vi) each anterior spiracular furrow with 8-11 pores and each posterior furrow with 11-14 pores. First-instar nymphs from material collected in Colombia on Croton gossypiifolius have many fewer setae on the legs, a greater number of ventral and dorsal microducts and a small apical claw denticle (denticle absent in type material).

SYSTEMATICS: Specimens collected in Cali, Colombia, on Croton gossypiifolius have sclerotic pores with smooth round edges, in contrast to more irregular to quadrate sclerotic pores as seen in the type specimens and species collected elsewhere. (Kondo, 2010b)

KEYS: Kondo 2010b: 9-10 (female) [Key to the adult females of Cryptostigma Ferris]; Kondo 2010b: 10 (first instar) [Key to the known first-instar nymphs of Cryptostigma Ferris].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 97]; Kondo2001 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 41]; Kondo2010b [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 11-15]; Morris1929 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 48-50]; QinGu1989 [host, distribution: 225]; Willia2001 [distribution: 225-227].



Cryptostigma chacoense Kondo

NOMENCLATURE:

Cryptostigma chacoensis Kondo, 2010b: 15-19. Type data: BOLIVIA: Santa Cruz, Dharagua, 50 km N.E. La Brecha, on Caesalpinia paraguariensis, 11/?/2002, by D.W. Roubik. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.

Cryptostigma chacoense; Pellizzari & Williams, 2013: 407. Change of combination requiring emendation of specific epithet for agreement in gender.



ASSOCIATES: Apidae: Plebeia sp. [Kondo2010b]. HYMENOPTERA Apidae: Plebeia sp. [Kondo2010b], Swarzula timida Camargo & Pedro [Kondo2010b].

HOST: Fabaceae: Caesalpinia paraguariensi [Kondo2010b].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Bolivia [Kondo2010b].

BIOLOGY: Cryptostigma chacoensis found inside nests of Plebeia sp. and Schwarzula timida Camargo and Pedro (D.W. Roubik, pers. comm. in Kondo, 2010b).Cryptostigma chacoensis together with C. melissophilum are the only species of Coccidae known to be tended by stingless bees and harboured within their nests. (Kondo, 2010b).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Kondo, 2010b.

STRUCTURE: Young adult females reddish orange, becoming purplish brown at maturity; anal plates and surrounding area distinctly darker than rest of dorsum. Mounted material: body outline oval to elongate oval, constricted at stigmatic areas. (Kondo, 2010b) Immature insects yellowish. (Kondo, 2010b)

SYSTEMATICS: The adult female of C. chacoensis can be diagnosed by the following combination of characters: (i) dorsum with 25-33 complex orbicular pores, (ii) unilocular and bilocular dorsal microducts present, (iii) with about 18 setae on surface of each anal plate, (iv) preopercular pores absent, (v) marginal setae sharply spinose, often with swollen bases, and (vi) presence of ventral tubular ducts. C. chacoensis appears most similar to C. saundersi Laing, but the following features separate the two species (characters on C. saundersi in brackets): (1) only 22-23 complex orbicular pores present (60 or more); (2) multilocular pores absent near antennae (a multilocular pore present next to each antenna); and (3) ventral microducts arranged randomly (arranged in transverse rows). (Kondo, 2010b) The first-instar nymph of C. chacoensis can be diagnosed by the following features: (i) dorsal derm rugose, (ii) dorsal setae present in 2 longitudinal submedian rows of about 11 pairs of setae, (iii) stigmatic setae totalling 1 or 2 per stigmatic cleft, (iv) 8-10 marginal setae present between anterior and posterior stigmatic setae, (v) antennae 6 segmented, (vi) with 5 pairs of ventral submedian setae on abdomen, (vii) spiracular disc-pores with 3-8 loculi, and (vii) each anterior and posterior spiracular furrow with 6-9 pores. (Kondo, 2010b)

KEYS: Kondo 2010b: 9-10 (female) [Key to the adult females of Cryptostigma Ferris]; Kondo 2010b: 10 (first instar) [Key to the known first-instar nymphs of Cryptostigma Ferris].

CITATIONS: Kondo2010b [description, distribution, host, illustration, life history, structure, taxonomy: 15-19]; PellizWi2013 [taxonomy: 407].



Cryptostigma guadua Kondo & Gullan

NOMENCLATURE:

Cryptostigma guadua Kondo & Gullan, 2004: 718. Type data: PERU: Madre de Dios, Estacion Biologica de Cocha Cashu, Parque Nacional Manu, altitude 350 m; collected vi.2003, by D.W. Davidson. Holotype female. Type depository: MHLP. Described: female and first instar. Illust.



ASSOCIATES: HYMENOPTERA Formicinae: Camponotus longipilis [Kondo2010b], Camponotus mirabilis [Kondo2010b], Camponotus sp. [Kondo2010b].

HOST: Poaceae: Guadua sp. [KondoGu2004]

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Peru [KondoGu2004].

BIOLOGY: This soft scale was collected from inside nest of the ant, Camponotus mirabilis (Kondo & Gullan, 2004).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female and first instar nymph by Kondo & Gullan (2004).

STRUCTURE: Color variable, live specimens often reddish with a yellow tinge. Dorsum of specimens preserved in alcohol pale orange to yellowish-brown, ventral surface pinkish. Dorsal surface covered by a thin clear waxy layer, easily detached in alcohol, wax of a flaky texture. Stigmatic cleft and anal cleft very deep; stigmatic sclerotizations and anal plates clearly marked and light brown to dark brown in color. (Kondo, 2010b)

SYSTEMATICS: The adult female of C. guadua can be diagnosed by the following features: (i) dorsum with numerous small sclerotic pores, (ii) presence of a deep, cone-shaped stigmatic sclerotization, (iii) presence of tubercle-like preopercular pores, (iv) with 10-16 setae on dorsal surface of each anal plate, (v) multilocular disc-pores present on all abdominal segments, surrounding the spiracles and including a group which forms a line from each mesothoracic leg to the posterior spiracle, and (vi) absence of ventral tubular ducts. (Kondo, 2010b) The first-instar nymph of C. guadua can be diagnosed by the combination of the following features: (i) dorsal setae arranged in 2 parallel longitudinal lines, (ii) numerous mid-ventral setae present on all abdominal and thoracic segments, (iii) antennae 5 segmented, (iv) 2 types of marginal setae present, those on dorsal surface sharply spinose, those on ventral surface flagellate, and (v) presence of numerous ventral microducts arranged in a transverse row just posterior to the mouthparts and anterior coxae. (Kondo, 2010b)

KEYS: Kondo 2010b: 9-10 (female) [Key to the adult females of Cryptostigma Ferris]; Kondo 2010b: 10 (first instar) [Key to the known first-instar nymphs of Cryptostigma Ferris].

CITATIONS: Kondo2010b [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 19-23]; KondoGu2004 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 717-723].



Cryptostigma gullanae Kondo

NOMENCLATURE:

Cryptostigma gullanae Kondo, 2010b: 23-25. Type data: ECUADOR: Provincia Napo, Jatun Sacha, 400 m asl, 104S, 3737W, on Sapium utile, tended by Pseudomyrmex viduus, 8/3/1991, by P.S. Ward. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.



ASSOCIATE: HYMENOPTERA Formicidae: Pseudomyrmex viduus [Kondo2010b].

HOST: Euphorbiaceae: Sapium utile [Kondo2010b].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Ecuador [Kondo2010b].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Kondo, 2010b.

SYSTEMATICS: The adult female of C. gullanae can be diagnosed by the following combination of characters: (i) dorsal setae absent, (ii) dorsum with 3 orbicular pores, (iii) cribriform platelets present, (iv) apodemes conspicuous on dorsal derm, (v) dorsal surface of anal plates with 10 or 11 setae, (vi) preopercular pores absent, (vii) margin papillate, (viii) with 3 stigmatic setae in each cleft, but often broken off, (ix) multilocular disc-pores present around vulva and medially on last abdominal segments, but becoming progressively fewer on anterior abdominal segments, and sparsely scattered submarginally on abdomen, and (x) anal ring with 6 setae. (Kondo, 2010b)

KEYS: Kondo 2010b: 9-10 (female) [Key to the adult females of Cryptostigma Ferris].

CITATIONS: Kondo2010b [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 23-25].



Cryptostigma inquilinum (Newstead)

NOMENCLATURE:

Pseudophilippia inquilina Newstead, 1920: 181. Type data: JAMAICA: at banks of Great River, near Montpelier, on undetermined tree. Lectotype female, by subsequent designation Qin & Gullan, 1989: 225. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female.

Akermes secretus Morrison, 1922: 145. Type data: PUERTO RICO, on Inga laurina. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Synonymy by Qin & Gullan, 1989: 225.

Cryptostigma ingae Ferris, 1922: 160. Type data: PUERTO RICO: on Inga laurina. Holotype female. Type depository: Davis: The Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, California, USA. Described: female. Synonymy by Qin & Gullan, 1989: 225.

Cryptostigma inquilina; Steinweden, 1929: 234. Change of combination.

Cryptostigma secretus; Morrison, 1929: 53. Change of combination.

Cryptostigma inquilinum; Kondo, 2010b: 25. Justified emendation.



ASSOCIATES: HYMENOPTERA Dolichoderinae: Azteca longiceps [Kondo2010b]. Formicidae: Myrmelachista ambigua ramularum Wheeler [Kondo2010b]. Myrmicinae: Crematogaster brevispinosa Mayr [Kondo2010b]. Pseudomyrmecinae: Pseudomyrmex sp. [Kondo2010b].

HOSTS: Boraginaceae: Cordia alliodora [Morris1929]. Fabaceae: "Algarrobo" [Kondo2010b], Haematoxylon campechianum [Kondo2010b], Inga laurina [Morris1922, QinGu1989, Hodgso1994a], Inga sp. [Kondo2010b]. Moraceae: Ficus laevigata [Kondo2010b]. Myrtaceae: Psidium [Hodgso1994a]. Polygonaceae: Triplaris surinamensis [Kondo2010b]. Rubiaceae: Coffea [Wolcot1941].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico [Kondo2010b]. Neotropical: Costa Rica [Kondo2010b]; Cuba [Kondo2010b]; El Salvador [Wolcot1941]; Grenada [Kondo2010b]; Guyana [Kondo2010b]; Jamaica [QinGu1989, Hodgso1994a] (Great River, in ants' nest.); Panama; Puerto Rico & Vieques Island (Puerto Rico [Martor1976, NakahaMi1981, QinGu1989, Hodgso1994a] (Mayaquez; San Juan.)); Trinidad and Tobago (Tobago [Kondo2010b]); U.S. Virgin Islands.

BIOLOGY: Living on bark of the host plant beneath a blackish shelter constructed by the ant Crematogaster brevispinosa Mayr (Newstead, 1920). Attended by the ant Azteca longiceps in Panama (Morrison, 1929). Attended by the ant, Pseudomyrmex viduus (F. Smith), on the internodes of Triplaris weigeltiana branches, and cohabiting with the pseudococcid Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison (Ward, 1999).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Hodgson (1994a). Redescription and illustration in Kondo, 2010b.

STRUCTURE: "Color in life of different shades of light reddish or yellowish brown, often varying to hint of lavender purple brown; color of alcoholic specimens dorsally pale grayish brown, with somewhat distinct linear transverse mottling of dark brown, tiny blackish flecks along margin, brown area around anal plates, small white spots at stigmatic area, ventrally with marginal band of dull brown, anterior 2 thirds of surface yellow cream, shading off to brown at edges, ventral abdominal segments about same color as dorsum; whole venter variously mottled, flecked with dark color" (Morrison, 1922). Specimens collected in Mexico with a rugose dorsum with clearly visible dorsal segmentation; color ranging from yellow to pink, with anal plates darker, orange brown to red brown, with a conspicuous white wax on each stigmatic area. (Kondo, 2010b) The first-instar nymph of C. inquilinum can be diagnosed by the following combination of features: (i) dorsal setae present in 2 longitudinal rows of about 5 pairs, (ii) anterior and posterior stigmatic clefts each with 1 stigmatic seta, (iii) with 7-9 marginal setae between anterior and posterior stigmatic setae, (iv) antennae 6 segmented, (v) with 1 pair of ventral submedian setae on posterior 3 abdominal segments, (vi) each anterior stigmatic furrow with 7-8 pores, each posterior furrow with 7-9 pores, and (vi) ventral submarginal setae flagellate. (Kondo, 2010b)

SYSTEMATICS: Ben-Dov (1993: 97,98) erroneously regarded Cryptostigma jamaicensis Qin & Gullan, 1989: 225, and Lecanopsis jamaicensis Qin & Gullan, 1989: 225 as nomina nuda that are placed with Cryptostigma inquilinum (Newstead). However, in accordance with Article 12.3 of ICZN (Fourth Edition, 2000), the mention by Qin & Gullan, 1989 of the above-mentioned names, as printed on a label, should not be regarded nomina nuda. The orbicular pores on the adult female C. inquilinum are often overlooked because they are inconspicuous, and the borders of the membranous areas do not show signs of sclerotization as in other species with orbicular pores. Hodgson (1994) and Qin and Gullan (1989) redescribed C. inquilinum, but neither study mentions the presence of orbicular pores in this species. In the study by Qin and Gullan (1989), the species is described as having no orbicular pores (as compound pores). Kondo (2010b) believed that he examined the same material, or material from the same collections as Hodgson (1994) and Qin and Gullan (1989), and that the orbicular pores were overlooked in these studies. The orbicular pores of C. inquilinum were noticed after collecting fresh material in Mexico on Acacia paniculata, and later carefully reexamining the type material listed above. (Kondo, 2010b) The ending of the specific epithet "inquilina" was changed to "inquilinum" in order to match the neuter gender of the generic ending -stigma, in accordance to the ICZN code (article 30.1.2.) in ondo, 2010b.

KEYS: Kondo 2010b: 9-10 (female) [Key to the adult females of Cryptostigma Ferris]; Kondo 2010b: 10 (first instar) [Key to the known first-instar nymphs of Cryptostigma Ferris].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 97-98]; Ferris1922 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 225]; Hodgso1990 [taxonomy, distribution: 220]; Hodgso1994a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 204-207]; Hodgso1995 [taxonomy, structure: 55]; Kondo2013 [distribution, host: 46]; Martor1976 [host, distribution: 77,117,141,144]; Morris1922 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 145-148]; Morris1929 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 53-54]; Nakaha1983 [host, distribution: 4]; NakahaMi1981 [distribution: 30]; Newste1920 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 181-182]; QinGu1989 [host, distribution: 225]; Ward1999 [host, distribution, life history, ecology: 512]; Willia2001 [distribution: 225-227]; Willia2011 [taxonomy: 67]; Wolcot1941 [host, distribution].



Cryptostigma jonmartini Kondo

NOMENCLATURE:

Cryptostigma jonmartini Kondo, 2010b: 30-34. Type data: GUATEMALA: Escuintla, Parque Auto Safari Chapn, (1406, 9038W), on Enterolobium cyclocarpum, 11/14/2003, by P.S. Ward. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.



ASSOCIATE: HYMENOPTERA Pseudomyrmecinae: Pseydomyrmex sp. [Kondo2010b].

HOSTS: Fabaceae: Enterolobium cyclocarpum [Kondo2010b]. Liliaceae: Astelia pterocarpa [Kondo2010b].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico (Oaxaca [Kondo2010b]). Neotropical: Guatemala [Kondo2010b].

BIOLOGY: Insects collected inside live hollow branches of host and tended by ants. (Kondo, 2010b) Third-instar nymphs yellow-cream; younger adult females probably of a similar color. Mature adult females sclerotized, ferruginous, with black mottling on dorsum; dorsum covered by a thin layer of wax. Mature adult females collected in Guatemala on Enterolobium cyclocarpum become cylindrical in shape allowing them to fit perfectly into the hollow stems of its host. The third-instar nymphs are flat in shape, and the insects only become cylindrical in the adult stage. (Kondo, 2010b)

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustrations in Kondo, 2010b.

SYSTEMATICS: The adult female of C. jonmartini can be diagnosed by the following combination of characters: (i) body shape elongate oval, (ii) dorsal setae absent, (iii) dorsum with 3 orbicular pores, (iv) cribriform platelets present, (v) dorsal surface of anal plates with 17-21 setae, (vi) with 1 stigmatic seta per cleft but often broken off, (vii) apodemes conspicuous on dorsal derm, (viii) many fleshy setae on antennae branched, and (ix) presence of a marginal band of multilocular disc-pores around abdominal margin. C. jonmartini appears morphologically closest to C. melissophilum. However, they can be separated by their body shape and number of stigmatic setae (C. jonmartini being elongate oval with 1 stigmatic seta per cleft, and C. melissophilum being oval with 3 stigmatic setae per cleft). In addition, C. jonmartini is associated with tending ants whereas C. melissophilum is associated with bees. (Kondo, 2010b) The first-instar nymph of C. jonmartini can be diagnosed by the following features: (i) dorsal setae present in 2 longitudinal rows of about 5 pairs, (ii) with 1 stigmatic seta in each anterior and posterior stigmatic cleft, (iii) with 7 marginal setae between anterior and posterior stigmatic setae, (iv) antennae 6 segmented, (v) with 4 or 5 pairs of ventral submedian setae, including 1 pair present on thorax between meso and metathoracic region, (vi) femur with 2 closely-paired setae, and (vii) spiracular furrows each with 7-8 pores. (Kondo, 2010b)

KEYS: Kondo 2010b: 9-10 (female) [Key to the adult females of Cryptostigma Ferris]; Kondo 2010b: 10 (first instar) [Key to the known first-instar nymphs of Cryptostigma Ferris].

CITATIONS: Kondo2010b [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 30-34].



Cryptostigma longinoi Kondo

NOMENCLATURE:

Cryptostigma longinoi Kondo, 2010b: 34-37. Type data: COSTA RICA: 1 (1), Provincia Puntarenas, Ojo de Agua, 800m asl, 1016N, 8450W, in nest of Azteca longiceps in Triplaris melaenodendron, 7/5/1991, by J. Longino. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.



ASSOCIATES: HYMENOPTERA Formicidae: Azteca longiceps [Kondo2010b], Azteca sp. [Kondo2010b], Azteca xanthodhroa [Kondo2010b].

HOSTS: Polygonaceae: Triplaris melaenodundron [Kondo2010b]. Urticaceae: Cecropia insignis [Kondo2010b], Cecropia peltata [Kondo2010b].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Costa Rica [Kondo2010b]; Suriname [Kondo2010b].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustrations in Kondo, 2010b.

STRUCTURE: Alcohol-preserved specimens subcircular; young adult female yellow cream, dorsum speckled with tiny dark spots corresponding to sclerotized pores on slide-mounted specimens; anal plates and surrounding area dark; stigmatic clefts also dark, with a white soft wax. Color of matured adult female yellow cream mixed with reddish brown, interrupted by transverse dark rows. Body becoming sclerotized around margins. (Kondo, 2010b)

SYSTEMATICS: The adult female of C. longinoi can be diagnosed by the following features: (i) dorsum with numerous sclerotic pores, (ii) dorsal setae present, knobbed or bluntly spinose, some sharply spinose, (iii) preopercular pores absent, (iv) each anal plate with 3-6 setae on dorsal surface, (v) ventral tubular ducts absent, and (viii) simple pores present on venter. This is the only known species with simple pores on the venter. (Kondo, 2010b) The first-instar nymph of C. longinoi can be diagnosed by the following combination of features (i) dorsal setae present in 2 longitudinal rows, (ii) with 3 stigmatic setae in each stigmatic cleft, (iii) with 8 marginal setae between anterior and posterior stigmatic setae, (iv) antennae 5 segmented, (v) 1 pair of ventral submedian setae on last 3 abdominal segments, (vi) anterior stigmatic furrows each with 6-8 pores, posterior stigmatic furrows each with 9-10 pores, and (vi) femur with 68 setae. The preceding description of the first-instar nymph is based on a fully matured first-instar nymph from Costa Rica, close to molting and in poor condition.(Kondo, 2010b)

KEYS: Kondo 2010b: 9-10 (female) [Key to the adult females of Cryptostigma Ferris]; Kondo 2010b: 10 (first instar) [Key to the known first-instar nymphs of Cryptostigma Ferris].

CITATIONS: Kondo2010b [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 34-37].



Cryptostigma melissophilum Kondo

NOMENCLATURE:

Cryptostigma melissophilum Kondo, 2010b: 37-41. Type data: BRAZIL: Amazonas, Rio Negro, Tapurucuara Mirim, 02517S, 662422W, on Campsiandra angustifolia, inside nest of Schwarzula coccidophila, 7/3/1999, by J.M.F. Camargo & S.R.M. Pedro. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil. Described: female. Illust.



ASSOCIATE: HYMENOPTERA Apidae: Schwarzula coccidophila [Kondo2010b].

HOST: Fabaceae: Campsiandra angustifolia [Kondo2010b].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Amazonas [Kondo2010b]).

BIOLOGY: Cryptostigma melissophilum is closely associated with stingless bees. The stingless bees obtain honeydew for food and also collect wax from the waxy test to build their nest. C. melissophilum has a rather thick waxy layer which is constantly harvested by the stingless bees which rub the wax between their basitarsi to form pellets, which they then transport in their mandibles to their nest where it is stored as wax deposits or used in the construction or repair of their nest. (Kondo, 2010b)

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustrations in Kondo, 2010b.

STRUCTURE: Young adult female subcircular, flattish, constricted at stigmatic clefts; entire body covered with small grayish white waxy flakes; color of body peach pink after removal of wax, with orbicular pores visible as tiny red-brown spots, and with a somewhat powdery wax present just around each orbicular pore; anal plates and circular area around plates reddish to purplish brown; anal cleft only just visible; area around spiracular peritremes conspicuously marked by white spots made of a wax secreted by spiracular discpores. Mature adult female highly convex, oval to elongate oval, becoming irregular in shape when crowded, dorsum with a somewhat granulose texture, body constricted at the stigmatic clefts; color of insect peach pink; dorsum with 6-7 yellowish-white transverse intersegmental lines separated from each other at regular intervals; transverse lines interrupted by a median longitudinal groove and 1 or 2 additional grooves running from thoracic region near head posteriorly towards area just anterior or laterad to anal plates. Orbicular pores present close to body margin, represented by 3 tiny circular reddish-brown spots: 1 on head region, and 1 between stigmatic areas on each side of body. Area around spiracular peritreme marked by snow-white wax. Different growth stages usually found within each colony, with first- and second-instar nymphs appearing yellowish. (Kondo, 2010b)

SYSTEMATICS: The adult female of C. melissophilum can be diagnosed by the following features: (i) body shape oval, (ii) dorsal setae absent, (iii) dorsum with 3 orbicular pores, (iv) cribriform platelets present, (v) anal plates with about 16 setae on dorsal surface, (vi) stigmatic setae totalling 3 per cleft, but often broken off, (vii) apodemes conspicuous on dorsal derm marginally and submarginally, (viii) some fleshy setae on antennae always branched, and (ix) presence of a marginal band of multilocular disc-pores around body margin on abdomen. C. melissophilum appears most similar in morphology to C. jonmartini. C. melissophilum and C. jonmartini can be separated by the following character states: (i) the thickness of the waxy layer covering the dorsum of live specimens (rather thick, about 1.5 mm or more in C. melissophilum; thin, less than 1 mm in C. jonmartini); and (ii) the width of posterior spiracular peritremes (each 243-297 m wide in C. melissophilum; 145-200 m wide in C. jonmartini). In addition, C. jonmartini is associated with tending ants whereas C. melissophilum is associated with bees. (Kondo, 2010b) The first-instar nymph of C. melissophilum can be diagnosed by the following combination of features: (i) dorsal setae present in 2 longitudinal rows of about 5 pairs, (ii) with 1 stigmatic seta in each anterior and posterior stigmatic cleft, (iii) presence of 7 marginal setae between anterior and posterior stigmatic setae, (iv) antennae 6 segmented, (v) ventral submedian setae 4 pairs: 1 pair on last 3 abdominal segments, plus 1 isolated pair between meso- and metathoracic legs (vi) anterior stigmatic furrows each with 8-11 pores, posterior stigmatic furrows each with 9-12 pores, (vii) presence of 3 or 4 microducts between each pair of submarginal setae on abdomen and (viii) femur with 4 setae. (Kondo, 2010b)

KEYS: Kondo 2010b: 9-10 (female) [Key to the adult females of Cryptostigma Ferris]; Kondo 2010b: 10 (first instar) [Key to the known first-instar nymphs of Cryptostigma Ferris].

CITATIONS: Kondo2010b [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 37-41].



Cryptostigma mexicanum Kondo

NOMENCLATURE:

Cryptostigma mexicanum Kondo, 2010b: 41-43. Type data: MEXICO: Intercepted at Dallas, Fort Worth, in wood stick of crate from Mexico, 7/31/1978, by G.M. Stamey. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Paratypes: MEXICO: Jalisco, San Antonio, 9/4/1976, ex hollow pit of twig of wood crate, 2 (4: 2 adult females + 1 third-instar female + 1 immature [2nd instar] male), 9/4/1976, by D. Johnston (USNM)



HOST: Caprifoliaceae: Sambucus sp. [Kondo2010b]

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico [Kondo2010b].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Kondo, 2010b.

SYSTEMATICS: The adult female of C. mexicanum can be diagnosed by the following features: (i) dorsum without sclerotic pores, (ii) dorsal setae present, slender, scattered throughout dorsum, (iii) dorsum with 10-30 preopercular pores, (iv) multilocular disc-pores present around pro- and mesothoracic legs, (v) leg segments usually characteristically square or rectangular in shape (vi) presence of about 10 setae on surface of each anal plate, and (vii) ventral tubular ducts absent. (Kondo, 2010b)

KEYS: Kondo 2010b: 9-10 (female) [Key to the adult females of Cryptostigma Ferris].

CITATIONS: Kondo2010b [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 41-43].



Cryptostigma philwardi Kondo

NOMENCLATURE:

Cryptostigma philwardi Kondo, 2010b: 43-45. Type data: COLOMBIA: Magdalena, Cinaga, 1100N, 7415W, in colony of Pseudomyrmex sp. cf. fortis, on live tree of Avicennia ferminans, 8/15/1985, by P.S. Ward. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.



ASSOCIATE: HYMENOPTERA Formicidae: Pseudomyrmex sp. cf. fortis [Kondo2010b].

HOST: Verbenaceae: Avicennia germainans [Kondo2010b].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Colombia [Kondo2010b].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Kondo, 2010b.

SYSTEMATICS: The adult female of C. philwardi can be diagnosed by the following features: (i) derm with elevated ridges arranged in a cellular or tessellated pattern, (ii) sclerotic pores absent, (iii) dorsum with numerous clusters of 2-15 small simple pores, (iv) dorsal setae absent, except for a group of 25-40 flagellate setae present next to each stigmatic sclerotization on a thin membranous area, (v) orbicular pores present, with 1 or 3 on head region and 2 or 5 on thoracic region, (vi) preopercular pores absent, (vii) stigmatic sclerotization forming a sclerotized crescent, each with 2 or 3 stigmatic setae, (viii) each anal plate with 12-27 setae on dorsal surface, and (ix) ventral tubular ducts absent. C. philwardi is the only known species in the genus with a cellular or tessellated pattern on the dorsum. (Kondo, 2010b)

KEYS: Kondo 2010b: 9-10 (female) [Key to the adult females of Cryptostigma Ferris].

CITATIONS: Kondo2010b [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 43-45]; TanakaKo2015 [distribution: 112].



Cryptostigma reticulolaminae Morrison

NOMENCLATURE:

Cryptostigma reticulolaminae Morrison, 1929: 51. Type data: PANAMA: Canal Zone, Frijoles, on Cordia alliodora, 3/28/1923, by W.M. Wheeler. Holotype female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.



ASSOCIATE: HYMENOPTERA Formicidae: Pseudomyrmex triplaris [Kondo2010b].

HOSTS: Boraginaceae: Cordia alliodora [Morris1929, QinGu1989]. Polygonaceae: Triplaris americana [Kondo2010b].

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: Mexico [Kondo2010b]. Neotropical: Costa Rica [Kondo2010b]; Panama [QinGu1989].

BIOLOGY: Attended by the ant Azteca longiceps in Panama (Morrison, 1929).

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Morrison (1929).

STRUCTURE: "Specimens varying in size and shape, average length 5 mm., width 4.5 mm., height 2.5 mm., deeply invaginated beneath in the abdominal region; color of alcoholic specimens dark reddish brown with blackish infusion along margin and anterior to anal plates; body surface smooth, rather shining, bearing numerous tiny pits corresponding in position to sclerotic plates of derm" (Morrison, 1929). Colour photo of adult female by Gullan & Martin (2009).

SYSTEMATICS: The adult female of C. reticulolaminae can be diagnosed by the following features: (i) presence of numerous subcircular sclerotic pores arranged in a reticulate pattern, (ii) dorsal setae sharply to bluntly spinose, with a swollen or spatulate apex, (iii) dorsal microducts heavily sclerotized, with a deep outer ductule broadened near duct opening, (iv) preopercular pores absent, (v) presence of about 4 setae on surface of each anal plate, (vi) marginal setae not differentiated from dorsal setae, (vii) stigmatic sclerotization each with 3 stigmatic setae, (viii) antennae 1 segmented, reduced to a small round sclerotized plate (ix) ventral microducts with a swollen inner ductule, (x) multilocular disc-pores restricted to a small group on each side of vulva, (xi) legs vestigial, setose, and (xii) ventral tubular ducts absent. (Kondo, 2010b) The first-instar nymph of C. reticulolaminae can be diagnosed by the following combination of features: (i) dorsal setae present in 2 longitudinal rows of 5 pairs, (ii) each anterior stigmatic cleft with 3 stigmatic setae; each posterior cleft with 4 or 5, (iii) with 9 or 10 marginal setae between anterior and posterior stigmatic setae, (iv) antennae 5 segmented, (v) with pairs of submedian abdominal setae on last 3 abdominal segments, (vi) anterior stigmatic furrows each with 4 or 5 pores, posterior furrows each with 5-7 pores, (vii) ventral microducts with a long inner ductule, and (viii) dorsal surface of anal plates of a shingled texture. C. reticulolaminae is the only species in the genus with first-instar nymphs that have ventral microducts with a very long inner ductule. (Kondo, 2010) Despite the resemblances of adult female C. reticulolaminae to those of Myzolecanium, the first-instar nymphs of C. reticulolaminae are typical of Cryptostigma, with 5-segmented antennae (5- or 6-segmented antennae in Cryptostigma, and always 6-segmented antennae in Myzolecanium); absence of setae near each coxa (a seta always present next to each coxa in Myzolecanium); presence of 1 or 2 membranous folds just anterior to anal plates and with folds showing some sign of sclerotization (no membranous folds just anterior to anal plates in Myzolecanium); and with 3 pairs of ventral submedian setae posteriorly on abdomen (usually 3 pairs in Cryptostigma but always 6 pairs in Myzolecanium). (Kondo, 2010b)

KEYS: Kondo 2010b: 9-10 (female) [Key to the adult females of Cryptostigma Ferris]; Kondo 2010b: 10 (first instar) [Key to the known first-instar nymphs of Cryptostigma Ferris].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 98]; GullanMa2009 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 965]; Kondo2010b [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 45-48]; Morris1929 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 51-53]; QinGu1989 [host, distribution: 225]; Willia2001 [distribution: 225-227].



Cryptostigma rhizophilum Kondo

NOMENCLATURE:

Cryptostigma rhizophilum Kondo, 2010b: 49-54. Type data: PANAMA (AS CANAL ZONE): Hawaii, on Persisteria elata, 1/8/1957, by M. Bolosan. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust.



HOSTS: Araceae: Anthurium sp. [Kondo2010b]. Arecaceae: Elaeis guineensis [Kondo2010b], Elaeis oleifera x guineensis [KondoPeTo2013]. Bromeliaceae: Ananas sp. [Kondo2010b]. Musaceae: Musa sapientum [Kondo2010b], Musa textilis [Kondo2010b]. Orchidaceae: Peristeria elata [Kondo2010b]. Sterculiaceae: Theobroma sp. [Kondo2010b]. Zingiberaceae: Zingiber officinale [Kondo2010b].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Colombia [Kondo2010b]; Costa Rica [Kondo2010b]; Ecuador [Kondo2010b]; Panama [Kondo2010b].

BIOLOGY: C. rhizophilum is known from the root system of various hosts. (Kondo, 2013)

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustrations in Kondo, 2010b. Color photograph in Kondo, et al., 2013.

STRUCTURE: Living adult female is yellow, orange to reddish color turning to maroon when it is older. It has a subcircular, convex body. (Kondo, et al., 2013) The slide mounted adult female of C. rhizophilum can be diagnosed by the following features: (i) sclerotic pores present, (ii) dorsal setae sharply or bluntly spinose, occasionally with a swollen apex, (iii) preopercular pores absent, (iv) each anal plate with about 5 setae on dorsal surface, (v) with about 14-29 marginal setae between anterior and posterior stigmatic areas, (vi) antennae 1 segmented, reduced to a small round plate bearing numerous setae, (vii) multilocular disc-pores restricted to perivulvar region, (viii) legs greatly reduced, with segments fused and forming a sclerotized disc bearing a claw and numerous setae, and (ix) ventral tubular ducts absent. C. rhizophilum is the only known species in the genus with subcircular clusters of simple pores present laterad to each stigmatic cleft. (Kondo, 2010b) The first-instar nymph of C. rhizophilum can be diagnosed by the following combination of features: (i) dorsal setae present in 2 longitudinal rows of 5 pairs, (ii) each anterior stigmatic cleft with 3 stigmatic setae; posterior stigmatic cleft with 3 or 4 setae, (iii) 8-13 marginal setae present between anterior and posterior stigmatic setae, (iv) antennae 5 segmented, (v) with pairs of submedian abdominal setae on last 3 abdominal segments, (vi) each anterior and posterior stigmatic furrow with 5-8 pores, and (vii) 1 microduct present mesad to each inner submarginal setae on abdomen. C. rhizophilum is the only species in the genus with first-instar nymphs that have sharply spinose outer submarginal setae. (Kondo, 2010b)

SYSTEMATICS: C. rhizophilum is unusual among species of Cryptostigma in its preference for the roots of its host. Two other species of Cryptostigma have been recorded from roots: C. urichi, a commonly ant-tended scale insect, normally found inside hollow branches and stems, has been collected on the large roots of Erythrina sp. in Surinam, although these were probably the exposed larger roots of the tree and not the underground roots; and C. silveirai appears to be restricted to the underground roots of grape vines and is known to be an important pest of vines in Brazil.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: C. rhizophilum has the potential to become an agricultural pest since its hosts includes oil palm, banana, Manila hemp, orchids and pineapple.

KEYS: Kondo 2010b: 9-10 (female) [Key to the adult females of Cryptostigma Ferris]; Kondo 2010b: 10 (first instar) [Key to the known first-instar nymphs of Cryptostigma Ferris]; Kondo 2010b: 10 (first instar) [Key to the known first-instar nymphs of Cryptostigma Ferris].

CITATIONS: Kondo2010b [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 49-54]; Kondo2013 [behaviour, host: 48]; KondoPeTo2013 [description, ecology, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 22-26].



Cryptostigma saundersi Laing

NOMENCLATURE:

Cryptostigma saundersi Laing, 1925a: 59. Type data: BRAZIL: Rio de Janeiro, on trunk of undetermined tree. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Notes: Lectotype, designated in Kondo, 2010b. Cryptostigma saundersi Laing, adult female. BRAZIL: Rio de Janeiro, ex trunk of a tree protected by ants, 9.viii.1923, coll. L.G. Saunders (# 4), 1 (1) (BMNH).



ASSOCIATE: Dolichoderinae: Azteca sp. [Kondo2010b]

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Rio de Janeiro [Laing1925a, QinGu1989]).

BIOLOGY: According to its collector, L.G. Sanders, the insects were found in the trunk of an undetermined tree, and tended by ants of an undescribed species of the genus Azteca (Laing, 1925a).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustrations in Kondo, 2010b.

STRUCTURE: Alcohol preserved specimens with a pale yellowish brown longitudinal stripe and several intertwining stripes on dorsum; also with semicircular stripes on declivity anterior to anal lobes; remainder of dorsum of a darker brown; a small darker brown to almost black area around anal plates. Ventral surface dark brown with a paler marginal area. Length (unmounted) approximately 7 mm, breadth from 5-6 mm (Laing, 1925a from Kondo, 2010b).

SYSTEMATICS: The adult female of C. saundersi can be diagnosed by the following features: (i) sclerotic pores absent, (ii) complex orbicular pores present, totalling 34, (iii) dorsal setae absent, except for those present on orbicular pores, (iv) preopercular pores absent, (v) each anal plate with about 21 setae on dorsal surface, (vi) with about 100 or more marginal setae between anterior and posterior stigmatic areas, (vii) 1 multilocular disc-pore present near each antenna, (viii) ventral microducts present in transverse linear intersegmental rows and around margin, and (ix) ventral tubular ducts present. C. saundersi appears closest to C. chacoensis, but the following features separate C. saundersi from C. chacoensis (character states on C. chacoensis in brackets): (i) 60 or more complex orbicular pores (22-33); a multilocular disc-pore present next to each antenna (absent); and ventral microducts present in rows (scattered). (Kondo, 2010b)

KEYS: Kondo 2010b: 9-10 (female) [Key to the adult females of Cryptostigma Ferris].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 99]; Kondo2010b [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 54-56]; Laing1925a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 59-60]; QinGu1989 [host, distribution: 225].



Cryptostigma serratum Kondo

NOMENCLATURE:

Cryptostigma serratum Kondo, 2010b: 56-58. Type data: ECUADOR: Santo Domingo, on cedrus tree, 7/5/1953, by H.R. Yutscolv. Holotype female (examined), by original designation. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female. Illust. Notes: Paratypes. COSTA RICA: Puntarenas, Parque Nacional Manuel Antonio (923S, 8409W), <40 m. asl, 27 & 28.vii.1985, coll. J. Longino (#627) 2 (2) (USNM); PANAMA: Armuelles Prov., Chiriqui, 1938, collector not given, Ferris No. 196, ex undetermined tree, 1 (1) Paratype (BME).



ASSOCIATE: HYMENOPTERA Myrmicinae: Crematogaster stolli [Kondo2010b].

HOST: "cedrus tree [Kondo2010b].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Costa Rica [Kondo2010b]; Ecuador [Kondo2010b]; Panama [Kondo2010b].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustration in Kondo, 2010b.

STRUCTURE: The adult female of C. serratum can be diagnosed by the following features: (i) sclerotic pores absent, (ii) dorsal setae sharply or bluntly spinose, (iii) preopercular pores present, tubercle-like, (iv) each anal plate with 4-8 setae on dorsal surface, (v) marginal setae numerous, with 30-60 between each anterior and posterior stigmatic areas, (vi) stigmatic sclerotization with a dentate margin, (vii) legs vestigial but with a well-developed claw, (viii) anal ring with 14 or 20 setae, and (xii) ventral tubular ducts absent. C. serratum is the only known species in the genus with an anal ring with 14 to 20 setae; dentate stigmatic sclerotizations, and it is also the only species with orbicular pores incorporated into the stigmatic sclerotizations. (Kondo, 2010b)

SYSTEMATICS: Adult female Cryptostigma serratum is unique in having an anal ring with 14 to 20 setae.

KEYS: Kondo 2010b: 9-10 (female) [Key to the adult females of Cryptostigma Ferris].

CITATIONS: Kondo2010b [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 56-58].



Cryptostigma silveirai (Hempel)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium silveirai Hempel, 1900: 5. Type data: BRAZIL: Minas Gerais, Sete Lagoas and Diamantina, on roots of grapevine. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil. Described: female.

Neolecanium silveirai; Cockerell, 1902k: 451. Change of combination.

Cryptostigma silveirai; Kondo, 2010b: 58-62. Change of combination. Notes: Lectotype, designated in Kondo, 2010b. Lecanium silveirai Hempel, adult .. BRAZIL: 359 Type 45, No. 95.069, 1 slide with 1 specimen (original slide with 4 specimens, remounted onto 4 slides with 1 specimen on each, lectotype # 1/4)(MZSP).



HOST: Vitaceae: Vitis [Hempel1900].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo [Kondo2010b]).

BIOLOGY: Cryptostigma silveirai (Hempel) appears to be restricted to the underground roots of grape vines. (Kondo, 2013)

GENERAL REMARKS: Good description and illustration of the adult female given by Hempel (1900a) and by Lepage & Piza (1941). Good description and illustration of the first-instar nymph given by Lepage & Piza (1941).

STRUCTURE: Female subcircular or slightly elliptical, light red. Dorsum convex, 5.0-6.0 mm long, 4.0-5.0 mm wide, and 2.5-3.0 mm tall; lustrous, with a hard derm, covered by a thin layer of waxy secretion; with a median, longitudinal sulcus; derm around anal plates sunken. Anal cleft 0.6 mm. in length; anal lobes contiguous. With 2 lines of white powdery secretion on both sides (probably referring to the wax on the spiracular furrows secreted by the spiracular disc-pores). When the insect is removed from its resting site, it leaves a circular stain of white wax (Translated from Lepage & Piza, 1941) (Kondo, 2010b). The first-instar nymph of C. silveirai can be diagnosed by the combination of the following features: (i) dorsal setae present in 2 longitudinal rows of about 13 setae, (ii) each anterior stigmatic cleft with 3 stigmatic setae; each posterior cleft with 4 setae, (iii) with about 10 marginal setae between anterior and posterior stigmatic setae, (iv) antennae 5 segmented, (v) with pairs of submedian abdominal setae on last 3 abdominal segments, (vi) each anterior stigmatic furrow with about 12 pores; each posterior furrow with about 15 pores, (vii) with a group of microducts between pro- and mesothoracic coxae on each side of body, and (viii) legs with many setae. C. silveirai is the only species in the genus with first-instar nymphs that have 2 pairs of ventral submarginal setae on the head region. (Kondo, 2010b) Lepage and Piza (1941) described the male test of C. silveirai (as Neolecanium silveirai) as glazed satin-like, 2 mm long, 1 mm wide, 1 mm tall, of elliptical form, divided by clear lines into 3 symmetric areas.Lepage and Piza (1941) described the adult male as typical of males in the genus (Neolecanium Parrott) (Kondo, 2010b).

SYSTEMATICS: The adult female of C. silveirai can be diagnosed by the following features: (i) sclerotic pores present, (ii) dorsal setae sharply or bluntly spinose, each mostly on a sclerotized plate, but a few with normal or well-developed setal sockets, (iii) preopercular pores absent, (iv) each anal plate with about 5 setae on dorsal surface, (v) marginal setae not differentiated from dorsal setae, (vi) antennae 1 segmented, reduced to a small round plate bearing numerous setae, (vii) legs greatly reduced, represented by a small sclerotic plate with several setae, (viii) with a group of spiracular disc-pores extending from each posterior spiracle inwards to near each mesothoracic leg, and (ix) ventral tubular ducts absent. C. silveirai appears closest to C. longinoi and C. rhizohilum, but it can be easily differentiated from the former by the absence of ventral simple pores, and from the latter by the absence of a subcircular group of simple pores next to each stigmatic sclerotization. (Kondo, 2010)

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: A serious grapevine pest in Sete Lagoas and Diamantina, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil and in Araraquara, in the State of San Paulo, Brazil. Lepage and Piza (1941) conducted chemical trial experiments on the insects, which occur underground in the roots of grape and are found up to a depth of 90 cm, thus making them difficult to control. (Kondo, 2010b)

KEYS: Kondo 2010b: 9-10 (female) [Key to the adult females of Cryptostigma Ferris]; Kondo 2010b: 10 (first instar) [Key to the known first-instar nymphs of Cryptostigma Ferris].

CITATIONS: BenDov1993 [catalogue: 193]; Cocker1902e [taxonomy: 143]; Cocker1902k [taxonomy: 451]; Cocker1902p [distribution: 254]; CostaL1924 [host, distribution: 135]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 177]; Hempel1900 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host. distribution: 5]; Hempel1900a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 424-425]; Kondo2010b [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 58-62]; Kondo2013 [behaviour, host: 48]; LepagePi1941 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host. distribution: 21-26]; Vernal1953 [host, distribution: 139-140].



Cryptostigma tuberculosum Kondo

NOMENCLATURE:

Cryptostigma tuberculosum Kondo, 2010b: 82-66. Type data: VENEZUELA: Petare, Edo. Miranda, on Orange, 8/28/1939, by C.H. Ballou. Holotype (examined). Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA; type no. 2027. Described: female. Illust.



HOST: Rutaceae: Citrus sp. [Kondo2010b]

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Venezuela [Kondo2010b].

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description and illustrations in Kondo, 2010b.

STRUCTURE: The adult female of C. tuberculosum can be diagnosed by the following features: (i) sclerotic pores present, (ii) dorsal setae sharply or bluntly spinose, (iii) preopercular pores present, tubercle-like, (iv) each anal plate with about 5 setae on dorsal surface, (v) marginal setae sharply spinose, with about 10-15 between each anterior and posterior stigmatic areas, (vi) antennae 1 segmented, reduced to a small round plate bearing numerous setae, and (vii) legs greatly reduced, with segments fused and forming a sclerotic disc bearing a rudimentary claw and few setae. C. tuberculosum is the only known species in the genus with tubercle-like preopercular pores. Preopercular pores are also present in C. serratum and may also be present on C. mexicanum, but they are not tubercle-like in the latter. (Kondo, 2010b) The embryonic nymphs of C. tuberculosum can be diagnosed by the following combination of features: (i) dorsal setae present in 4 longitudinal rows of about 6 pairs, (ii) anterior and posterior stigmatic cleft each with 3 stigmatic setae, (iii) with about 9-11 marginal setae between anterior and posterior stigmatic setae, (iv) antennae 5 segmented, (v) a pair of submedian abdominal setae present on last 3 abdominal segments, and (vi) each anterior stigmatic furrow with 5-7 pores and each posterior furrows with 6-8 pores. The nymphs of C. tuberculosum can be separated from other known first-instar nymphs in the genus by the presence of 4 longitudinal rows of setae on the dorsum. (Konod, 2010b)

SYSTEMATICS: Adult females are somewhat similar to those of C. rhizophilum or C. silveirai with which they share the presence of circular sclerotic pores. However, those of C. tuberculosum can be easily separated from the latter two species by the presence of tubercle-like preopercular pores, an uncommon feature of the genus Cryptostigma and only shared with C. serratum. Cryptostigma tuberculosum can be separated from C. serratum by the presence of circular sclerotic pores which are absent in latter. (Kondo, 2010b)

KEYS: Kondo 2010b: 9-10 (female) [Key to the adult females of Cryptostigma Ferris]; Kondo 2010b: 10 (first instar) [Key to the known first-instar nymphs of Cryptostigma Ferris].

CITATIONS: Kondo2010b [description, distribution, host, illustration, structure, taxonomy: 62-66].



Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell)

NOMENCLATURE:

Lecanium urichi Cockerell, 1894k: 203. Type data: TRINIDAD: in nest of Crematogaster brevispinosa Mayr. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Neolecanium urichi; Cockerell, 1902k: 451. Change of combination.

Akermes quinquepori Newstead, 1917: 349. Type data: GUYANA: Georgetown, on Microlobium acaciaefolium. Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK.

Cryptostigma quinquepori; Morrison, 1929: 50. Change of combination.

Cryptostigma bunzlii Green, 1933: 57. Type data: SURINAM: on Erythrina sp. Holotype female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Described: female. Synonymy by Qin & Gullan, 1989.

Cryptostigma urichi; Kondo, 2010b: 66-70. Change of combination. Notes: Lectotype, designated in Kondo, 2010b. Lecanium urichi Cockerell, adult .. TRINIDAD & TOBAGO: Trinidad, West Indies, (Type description: 9/1893, coll. Urich, ex in the nest of an ant Crematogaster brevispinosa), slide mounted from USNM



ASSOCIATES: HEMIPTERA Coccinelliade: Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison [NascimPeKo2013]. HYMENOPTERA Formicidae: Azteca alfari cecropiae [Kondo2010b], Azteca oeococordia Longino [NascimPeKo2013], Azteca sp. [Morris1922, Kondo2010b]. Formicinae: Camponotus novogrenadensis [Kondo2010b], Hamitermes excellens [Kondo2010b]. Myrmicinae: Crematogaster brevispinosa Mayr [Kondo2010b].

HOSTS: Fabaceae: Erythrina [Green1933, QinGu1989], Microlobium acaciaefolium [Newste1917, QinGu1